Version 6.4

ABAQUS

THEORY MANUAL

Version 6.4

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by ABAQUS, Inc. ABAQUS, Inc., assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with ABAQUS, Inc. ©ABAQUS, Inc., 2003. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. ABAQUS is a registered trademark of ABAQUS, Inc. The following are trademarks of ABAQUS, Inc.: ABAQUS/Aqua; ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit; ABAQUS/Foundation; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/Viewer; ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW; ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS; and the ABAQUS, Inc., logo. This release of ABAQUS may contain capabilities licensed under U.S. Patents 5,920,491 and 6,044,210. ABAQUS, Inc., may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from ABAQUS, Inc. ADAMS/Flex, ADAMS/View, MSC.ADAMS, and MSC.Patran are trademarks or registered trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Autodesk Inventor is a trademark and Autodesk Mechanical Desktop is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. CADKEY is a registered trademark of CADKEY Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes. Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Ofﬁce. DIGITAL Visual FORTRAN is a trademark of Compaq. Elysium is a pending trademark of Elysium Co., Ltd. and Elysium Inc. FEMAP, I-DEAS, Parasolid, Solid Edge, and Unigraphics are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. FE-SAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. Hewlett-Packard, HP-GL, HP-GL/2, and HP-UX are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. IBM RS6000 is a trademark of IBM. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. MOLDFLOW, MOLDFLOW PLASTICS INSIGHT, and MPI are trademarks or registered trademarks of Moldﬂow Corporation and its worldwide subsidiaries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and in other countries. Silicon Graphics and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. SolidDesigner is a trademark of CoCreate Software Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries. Windows and Microsoft Visual C++ are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. This release of ABAQUS includes the gzip program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. This release of ABAQUS on Windows includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. You may freely distribute the gzip and diff programs and/or modify them under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA. This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplex-based code for linear and integer programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Python, copyright 1991–1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without speciﬁc, written prior permission. This software is provided with Restricted Rights for procurements governed by DFARS Part 227.4. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause, DFARS 252.227–7013 (October 1988). All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.

ABAQUS, Inc.

ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847 Tel: +1 401 727 4200 Fax: +1 401 727 4208 E-mail: support@Abaqus.com http://www.abaqus.com ABAQUS Europe BV Gaetano Martinolaan 95 P. O. Box 1637 6201 BP Maastricht The Netherlands Tel: +31 43 356 6906 Fax: +31 43 356 6908 E-mail: info.europe@abaqus.com Sales, Support, and Services UNITED STATES ABAQUS Central, Inc. 1440 Innovation Place West Lafayette, IN 47906-1000 Tel: +1 765 497 1373 Fax: +1 765 497 4444 E-mail: support@AbaqusCentral.com ABAQUS Erie, Inc. 3601 Green Road, Suite 316 Beachwood, OH 44122 Tel: +1 216 378 1070 Fax: +1 216 378 1072 E-mail: support@AbaqusErie.com ABAQUS South, Inc. 3700 Forums Drive, Suite 101 Flower Mound, TX 75028 Tel: +1 214 513 1600 Fax: +1 214 513 1700 E-mail: support@AbaqusSouth.com ARGENTINA KB Engineering S. R. L. Florida 274 - Oﬁcina 35 1005 Buenos Aires Argentina Tel: +54 11 4326 9176/7542 Fax: +54 11 4326 2424 E-mail: sanchezsarmiento@arnet.com.ar ABAQUS East, LLC 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 02886-0201 Tel: +1 401 739 3637 Fax: +1 401 739 3302 E-mail: support@AbaqusEast.com ABAQUS Great Lakes, Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 48170-2408 Tel: +1 734 451 0217 Fax: +1 734 451 0458 E-mail: support@AbaqusGreatLakes.com ABAQUS West, Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 94538-1611 Tel: +1 510 794 5891 Fax: +1 510 794 1194 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com AUSTRALIA Worley Advanced Analysis Level 17, 300 Flinders Street Melbourne, Vic 3000 Tel: +61 3 9280 2834 Fax: +61 3 9205 0573 E-mail: abaqus@worley.com.au

AUSTRIA ABAQUS Austria GmbH Zinckgasse 20-22/2/13 A-1150 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 929 16 25-0 Fax: +43 1 929 16 25-20 E-mail: support@abaqus.at CHINA ABAQUS China Beijing Representative Ofﬁce Room 716, Tower B, COFCO Plaza No. 8, Jiangguomennei Dajie Dong Cheng District Beijing, 100005 P. R. China Tel: +86 01 85110566/85110567 Fax: +86 01 85110568 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.com.cn FRANCE ABAQUS France SAS 7 rue Jean Mermoz 78000 Versailles Tel: +33 01 39 24 15 40 Fax: +33 01 39 24 15 45 E-mail: support@abaqus.fr INDIA (Chennai) ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. 3M, Prince Arcade 22-A Cathedral Road Chennai, 600 086 Tel: +91 44 28114624 Fax: +91 44 28115087 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.co.in

BENELUX ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 52 58 424 Fax: +31 35 52 44 257 E-mail: support@abaqus.nl CZECH REPUBLIC Synerma s. r. o. Huntirov 58 468 22 Skuhrov Czech Republic Tel: +420 2 603 145 769 Fax: +420 2 603 181 944 E-mail: abaqus@synerma.cz

GERMANY (Aachen) ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Theaterstraße 30-32 D-52062 Aachen Tel: +49 241 474010 Fax: +49 241 4090963 E-mail: info@abaqus.de ITALY ABAQUS Italia s. r. l. Via Domodossola, 17 20145 Milano (MI) Tel: +39 02 39211211 Fax: +39 02 39211210 E-mail: info@abaqus.it

JAPAN (Tokyo) ABAQUS, Inc. 3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 5-24, Akasaka 9-chome, Minato-ku Tokyo, 107-0052 Tel: +81 3 5474 5817 Fax: +81 3 5474 5818 E-mail: tokyo@abaqus.jp KOREA ABAQUS Korea, Inc. Suite 306, Sambo Building 13-2 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku Seoul, 150-010 Tel: +82 2 785 6707 Fax: +82 2 785 6709 E-mail: info@abaqus.co.kr NEW ZEALAND Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. P. O. Box 56-316, Auckland Courier: Unit 2-5, 72 Dominion Road, Mt Eden, Auckland Tel: +64 9 623 1223 Fax: +64 9 623 1134 E-mail: hks-support@matrix.co.nz RUSSIA, BELARUS & UKRAINE TESIS Ltd. Ofﬁce 701-703, 18, Unnatov Str. 127083 Moscow, Russia Tel: +7 095 212-44-22 Fax: +7 095 212-42-62 E-mail: info@tesis.com.ru

JAPAN (Osaka) ABAQUS, Inc. 9th Floor, Higobashi Watanabe Building 6-10, Edobori 1-chome, Nishi-ku Osaka, 550-0002 Tel: +81 6 4803 5020 Fax: +81 6 4803 5021 E-mail: osaka@abaqus.jp MALAYSIA Worley Advanced Analysis 13th Floor, Empire Tower City Square Centre 182 Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Tel: +60 3 2163 4275 Fax: +60 3 2163 0524 E-mail: abaqus@ranhill-worley.com.my POLAND BudSoft Sp. z o.o. 61-807 Poznan ´ Sw. Marcin 58/64 Tel: +48 61 8508 466 Fax: +48 61 8508 467 E-mail: budsoft@budsoft.com.pl SINGAPORE Worley Advanced Analysis 491B River Valley Road #09-01 Valley Point Singapore, 248373 Tel: +65 6735 8444 Fax: +65 6735 7444 E-mail: abaqus@worley.com.sg

SOUTH AFRICA Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. Unit 4, The Waverley Wyecroft Road Mowbray 7700 Tel: +27 21 448 7608 Fax: +27 21 448 7679 E-mail: feas@feas.co.za SWEDEN ABAQUS Scandinavia AB Pilgatan 8c SE-721 30 Västerås Tel: +46 21 12 64 10 Fax: +46 21 18 12 44 E-mail: femtech@femtech.se TURKEY A-Ztech Ltd. PERDEMSAC Business Center, Technology House 17 Gulbahar Str., Bayar Road Kozyatagi 34742 Istanbul Tel: +90 216 361 8850 Fax: +90 216 361 8851 E-mail: zeki.erman@a-ztech.com.tr

SPAIN Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. Velázquez, 94 E-28006 Madrid Tel: +34 91 209 1482 Fax: +34 91 575 1026 E-mail: abaqus@principia.es TAIWAN APIC 7F-2, No. 131 SungChiang Road Taipei, 10428 Tel: +886 02 25083066 Fax: +886 02 25077185 E-mail: apic@apic.com.tw UNITED KINGDOM (Cheshire) ABAQUS UK Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH Tel: +44 1 925 810166 Fax: +44 1 925 810178 E-mail: hotline@abaqus.co.uk

Sales Only UNITED STATES ABAQUS East, LLC, Mid-Atlantic Ofﬁce 114 Zachary Court Forest Hill, MD 21050 Tel: +1 410 420 8587 Fax: +1 410 420 8908 E-mail: support@AbaqusEast.com ABAQUS West, Inc., Southern CA and AZ Ofﬁce 1100 Irvine Boulevard #248 Tustin, CA 92780 Tel: +1 714 731 5895 Fax: +1 714 731 5895 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com FINLAND ABAQUS Finland Oy Tekniikantie 12 FIN-02150 Espoo Tel: +358 9 2517 2973 Fax: +358 9 2517 2200 E-mail: ﬁnland@femtech.se INDIA (Pune) ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. C-9, 3rd Floor Bramha Estate, Kondwa Road Pune-411040 Tel: +91 20 31037511 E-mail: abaqus@abaqus.co.in ABAQUS South, Inc., Southeast Ofﬁce 484 Broadstone Way Acworth, GA 30101 Tel: +1 770 795 0960 Fax: +1 770 795 7614 E-mail: support@AbaqusSouth.com ABAQUS West, Inc., Rocky Mountains Ofﬁce 2894 Hughs Drive Erie, CO 80516 Tel: +1 303 664 5444 Fax: +1 303 664 5445 E-mail: support@AbaqusWest.com GERMANY (Munich) ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Sendlinger-Tor-Platz 8 D-80336 München Tel: +49 89 5999 1768 Fax: +49 89 5999 1767 E-mail: info@abaqus.de UNITED KINGDOM (Kent) ABAQUS UK Ltd. Great Hollanden Business Centre, Unit A Mill Lane, Underriver Nr. Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 OSQ Tel: +44 1 732 834930 Fax: +44 1 732 834720 E-mail: hotline@abaqus.co.uk

Preface

This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including technical engineering and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.

Support

ABAQUS, Inc., offers both technical engineering support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical engineering and systems support are provided through the nearest local support ofﬁce. You can contact our ofﬁces by telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each ofﬁce is listed in the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support is also available on the World Wide Web for your convenience. The ABAQUS Online Support System (AOSS) is accessible through the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page (www.abaqus.com). When contacting your local support ofﬁce, please specify whether you would like technical engineering support (you have encountered problems performing an ABAQUS analysis or creating a model in ABAQUS) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing does not work correctly, or other hardware-related issues have arisen). The ABAQUS Online Support System has a knowledge database of ABAQUS Answers. The ABAQUS Answers are solutions to questions that we have had to answer or guidelines on how to use ABAQUS. We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to ﬁle a complaint about the service or products provided by ABAQUS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.

Technical engineering support

ABAQUS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to speciﬁc analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an analysis at the end. Please have the following information ready before calling the technical engineering support hotline, and include it in any written contacts: • Your site identiﬁer, which can be obtained by typing abaqus whereami at your system prompt (or by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar in ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer). • The version of ABAQUS that are you using.

!

– The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the data (.dat) ﬁle. – The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar. – The version numbers for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW and the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS are output to the screen.

!

• The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS. • The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any. • Workarounds or tests that you have already tried.

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When calling for support about a speciﬁc problem, any available ABAQUS output ﬁles may be helpful in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you. The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description of the difﬁculties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which can be faxed or sent in the mail. Plots of the ﬁnal results or the results near the point that the analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem. If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to supply the input data. The data can be attached to a support incident in the ABAQUS Online Support System. It may also be sent by means of e-mail, tape, disk, or ftp. Please check the ABAQUS Home Page (http://www.abaqus.com) for the media formats that are currently accepted. All support incidents are tracked in the ABAQUS Online Support System. This enables you (as well as the support engineer) to monitor the progress of a particular problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efﬁciently. To use the ABAQUS Online Support System, you need to register with the system. Visit the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page for instructions on how to register. If you are contacting us by means outside the AOSS to discuss an existing support problem and you know the incident number, please mention it so that we can consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer’s name or include it at the top of any e-mail correspondence.

Systems support

ABAQUS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of ABAQUS, including licensing difﬁculties, that are not covered by technical engineering support. You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. If you are able to complete the installation, please make sure that the product veriﬁcation procedure was run successfully at the end of the installation procedure. Successful veriﬁcation for licensed products would indicate that you can run these products on your computer; unsuccessful veriﬁcation for licensed products indicates problems with the installation or licensing (or both). If you encounter problems with the installation, licensing, or veriﬁcation, ﬁrst review the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, consult the ABAQUS Answers database in the ABAQUS Online Support System for information about known installation problems. If this does not address your situation, please create an incident in the AOSS and describe your problem, including the output from abaqus info=support. If you call, mail, e-mail, or fax us about a problem (instead of using the AOSS), please provide the output from abaqus info=support. It is important that you provide as much information as possible about your problem: error messages from an aborted analysis, output from the abaqus info=support command, etc.

ABAQUS Web server

For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web at http://www.abaqus.com The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes:

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• Frequently asked questions • ABAQUS systems information and computer requirements • ABAQUS performance data • Error status reports • ABAQUS documentation price list • Training seminar schedule • Newsletters

Anonymous ftp site

For users connected to the Internet, ABAQUS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on the computer ftp.abaqus.com. Simply ftp to ftp.abaqus.com. Login as user anonymous, and type your e-mail address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.

Writing to technical support

Address of ABAQUS Headquarters: ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847, USA Attention: Technical Support Addresses for other ofﬁces and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.

Support for academic institutions

Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic institutions. Academic users can purchase technical support on an hourly basis. For more information, please see the ABAQUS Home Page or contact your local ABAQUS support ofﬁce.

Training

All ABAQUS ofﬁces offer regularly scheduled public training classes. The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible. The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing results with ABAQUS/CAE. “Hands-on” workshops are complemented by lectures. Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer. We also provide training seminars at customer sites. On-site training seminars can be one or more days in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of

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material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise ABAQUS on their own computers. For a schedule of seminars, see the ABAQUS Home Page or call ABAQUS, Inc., or your local ABAQUS representative.

Documentation

The following documentation and publications are available from ABAQUS, unless otherwise speciﬁed, in printed form and through the ABAQUS online documentation. For more information on accessing the online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

Modeling and Visualization • ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three

comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model generation, analysis, and results evaluation and visualization. ABAQUS/Viewer users should refer to the information on the Visualization module in this manual.

Analysis • ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements,

**material models, procedures, input speciﬁcations, etc. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
**

Examples

It is the basic reference document for

• ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples

designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elastic-plastic pipe hitting a rigid wall; inelastic buckling collapse of a thin-walled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review them when embarking on a new class of problem.

• ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This online-only volume contains over 200 benchmark problems

and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simpliﬁed versions of real problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual.

Training • Getting Started with ABAQUS:

This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/CAE to create solid, shell, and framework models and ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to perform static, quasi-static, and dynamic stress analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS.

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• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard: Keywords Version: This online-only document is

designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Standard input ﬁle syntax for static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Standard keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.

• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit: Keywords Version: This online-only document is designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Explicit input ﬁle syntax for quasistatic and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Explicit keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.

• Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are

used in the technical seminars that ABAQUS, Inc., presents to help users improve their understanding and usage of ABAQUS (see the “Training” section above for more information about these seminars). While not intended as stand-alone tutorial material, they are sufﬁciently comprehensive that they can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the Documentation Price List.

Documentation Information • Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This online-only manual contains instructions for

**viewing and searching the ABAQUS online documentation.
**

Reference • ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual: This volume contains a complete description of all the

**input options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
**

• ABAQUS Theory Manual: This online-only volume contains detailed, precise discussions of all

theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood by users with an engineering background. • ABAQUS Veriﬁcation Manual: This online-only volume contains more than 5000 basic test cases, providing veriﬁcation of each individual program feature (procedures, output options, MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data ﬁles provide good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc. • Quality Assurance Plan: This document describes the QA procedures followed by ABAQUS. It is a controlled document, provided to customers who subscribe to either the Nuclear QA Program or the Quality Monitoring Service.

Update Information • ABAQUS Release Notes: This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available

**in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line.
**

Programming • ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the

ABAQUS Scripting Interface. The manual describes how commands can be used to create and analyze

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ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the ABAQUS Scripting Interface or C++ as an application programming interface (API) to the output database.

• ABAQUS Scripting Reference Manual: This online-only manual provides a command reference

**that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface.
**

• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the

ABAQUS GUI Toolkit. The manual describes the components and organization of the ABAQUS GUI. It also describes how you can customize the ABAQUS GUI to build a particular application.

• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit Reference Manual: This online-only manual provides a command reference

**that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit.
**

Interfaces • ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS User’s Manual:

This document describes how to use the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS, which creates ABAQUS models of MSC.ADAMS components and converts the ABAQUS results into an MSC.ADAMS modal neutral ﬁle that can be used by the ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS. ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW, which creates a partial ABAQUS input ﬁle by translating results from a MOLDFLOW polymer processing simulation. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW.

• ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW User’s Manual: This document describes how to use the

Installation and Licensing • ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS

and how to conﬁgure the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users, is also provided in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

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CONTENTS

CONTENTS

1. Introduction and Basic Equations Introduction

Introduction: general

Notation

1.1.1 1.2.1 1.3.1 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5

Notation

Finite rotations

Rotation variables

Deformation, strain, and strain rates

**Deformation Strain measures Rate of deformation and strain increment The additive strain rate decomposition
**

Equilibrium, stress, and state storage

**Equilibrium and virtual work Stress measures Stress rates State storage Energy balance
**

2. Procedures Overview

**Procedures: overview and basic equations
**

Nonlinear solution methods

2.1.1 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3

**Nonlinear solution methods in ABAQUS/Standard Quasi-Newton solution technique Direct cyclic algorithm
**

Buckling and postbuckling

**Eigenvalue buckling prediction Modiﬁed Riks algorithm
**

Nonlinear dynamics

Implicit dynamic analysis Intermittent contact/impact Subspace dynamics

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CONTENTS

**Equivalent rigid body dynamic motion Explicit dynamic analysis
**

Modal dynamics

2.4.4 2.4.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.7.1 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.9.1 2.10.1 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.11.3 2.11.4 2.11.5 2.12.1 2.13.1

Eigenvalue extraction Variables associated with the natural modes of a model Linear dynamic analysis using modal superposition Damping options for modal dynamics Modal dynamic analysis Response spectrum analysis Steady-state linear dynamic analysis Random response analysis Base motions in modal-based procedures

Complex harmonic oscillations

**Direct steady-state dynamic analysis Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis
**

Steady-state transport analysis

**Steady-state transport analysis
**

Analysis of porous media

Effective stress principle for porous media Discretized equilibrium statement for a porous medium Constitutive behavior in a porous medium Continuity statement for the wetting liquid phase in a porous medium Solution strategy for coupled diffusion/deformation

Coupled ﬂuid-solid analysis

**Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis
**

Piezoelectric analysis

Piezoelectric analysis

Heat transfer

**Uncoupled heat transfer analysis Shell heat conduction Convection/diffusion Cavity radiation Viewfactor calculation
**

Coupled thermal-electrical analysis

**Coupled thermal-electrical analysis
**

Mass diffusion

Mass diffusion analysis

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CONTENTS

Substructuring

**Substructuring and substructure analysis
**

Submodeling

2.14.1 2.15.1 2.16.1 2.16.2 2.16.3 2.16.4 2.17.1 2.18.1

Submodeling analysis

Fracture mechanics

J -integral evaluation

Stress intensity factor extraction T -stress extraction Prediction of the direction of crack propagation

Stress linearization

Stress linearization

Design sensitivity analysis

**Design sensitivity analysis
**

3. Elements Overview

**Element library: overview
**

Continuum elements

3.1.1 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5.1

Solid element overview Solid element formulation Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra Continuum elements with incompatible modes Triangular, tetrahedral, and wedge elements Generalized plane strain elements Axisymmetric elements Axisymmetric elements allowing nonlinear bending

Inﬁnite elements

**Solid inﬁnite elements Acoustic inﬁnite elements
**

Membrane and truss elements

**Membrane elements Truss elements Axisymmetric membranes
**

Beam elements

Beam element overview

ix

CONTENTS

Beam element formulation Euler-Bernoulli beam elements Hybrid beam elements Mass and inertia for Timoshenko beams Meshed beam cross-sections

Shell elements

3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 3.6.6 3.6.7 3.6.8 3.6.9 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.8.1 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3 3.9.4 3.9.5 3.9.6 3.9.7 3.9.8

Shell element overview Axisymmetric shell elements Shear ﬂexible small-strain shell elements Triangular facet shell elements Finite-strain shell element formulation Small-strain shell elements in ABAQUS/Explicit Axisymmetric shell element allowing asymmetric loading Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface Rotary inertia for 5 degree of freedom shell elements

Rebar

Rebar modeling in two dimensions Rebar modeling in three dimensions Rebar modeling in shell, membrane, and surface elements

Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements

**Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements
**

Special-purpose elements

Elbow elements Frame elements with lumped plasticity Buckling strut response for frame elements Tube support elements Line spring elements Flexible joint element Rotary inertia element Distributing coupling elements

4. Mechanical Constitutive Theories Overview

**Mechanical constitutive models
**

Plasticity overview

4.1.1 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3.1

**Plasticity models: general discussion Integration of plasticity models
**

Metal plasticity

Metal plasticity models

x

4.9.3.4.CONTENTS Isotropic elasto-plasticity Stress potentials for anisotropic metal plasticity Rate-dependent metal plasticity (creep) Models for metals subjected to cyclic loading Porous metal plasticity Cast iron plasticity ORNL constitutive theory Deformation plasticity Heat generation caused by plastic straining Plasticity for non-metals 4.1 4.4.3.2 4.3.3 4.1 Porous elasticity Models for granular or polymer behavior Critical state models Drucker-Prager/Cap model for geological materials Mohr-Coulomb model Models for crushable foams Other inelastic models An inelastic constitutive model for concrete Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials A cracking model for concrete and other brittle materials Constitutive model for jointed materials Large-strain elasticity Hyperelastic material behavior Fitting of hyperelastic and hyperfoam constants Mullins effect Mullins effect Viscoelasticity Viscoelasticity Finite-strain viscoelasticity Frequency domain viscoelasticity Hysteresis Hysteresis 5.4.9 4.3 4.5.2 4.3.6.4.5 4.3 xi .2 4.8.1.3 4.4 4.10 4.3.1 4. Interface Modeling Contact modeling Small-sliding interaction between bodies Finite-sliding interaction between deformable bodies Finite-sliding interaction between a deformable and a rigid body 5.3.8.1.1.1 4.4.8 4.4 4.5.3.2 4.1 5.8.1 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.3.5.5.3.6 4.7.2 5.3 4.7 4.6.

2. Coriolis.1 6.5 5.2.1 6.7 Centrifugal.6.5 6.CONTENTS Surface interactions Contact pressure deﬁnition Pressure and ﬂuid ﬂow in pore pressure contact Coulomb friction Thermal interface deﬁnition Heat generation caused by frictional sliding Heat generation caused by electrical current Surface-based acoustic-structural medium interaction 6.2.3 6.4 5.6.2 6.1 5.2. and buoyancy loading Airy wave theory Stokes wave theory Incident wave loading Loading due to an incident dilatational wave ﬁeld Pressure penetration loading Pressure penetration loading with surface-based contact Load stiffness Pressure load stiffness Load stiffness for beam elements Pressure loadings on elbow elements Multi-point constraints Sliding constraint Shell to solid constraint Revolute joint Universal joint Local velocity constraint Kinematic coupling 7.3 6.5.6.2 6.2. and rotary acceleration forces Baseline correction of accelerograms ABAQUS/Aqua loading 6.1.6.6.2 6.2.2 5.1 6.1 xii .2.2 6. References References 7.4.1.1 6.1.1 6. Loading and Constraints Dynamic loading 5.2.3 6.1 6.6 Drag.2.6.6 5. inertia.4 6.3 5.3.5.2.5.

2 1. and strain rates Equilibrium.5 . stress. and state storage 1.4 1. strain.Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Equations Introduction Notation Finite rotations Deformation.1 1.3 1.

.

an explicit dynamics ﬁnite element program.” describes the various analysis procedures (nonlinear static stress analysis. etc.” discusses the most important aspects of the contact/interaction formulation in ABAQUS/Standard. it is clearly indicated. few engineering curricula provide extensive background in plasticity. “Mechanical Constitutive Theories. The material is presented in a way that should make it accessible to any user with an engineering background. Chapter 4. Many sections in this manual apply to both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.) Chapter 1. “Introduction and Basic Equations. Yet ABAQUS contains capabilities for all of these models and many others. This manual describes the theories used in ABAQUS. structures. Certain aspects of the theory behind these options are described in this manual.1. Certain sections obviously apply only to either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. The manual is far from comprehensive in its coverage of such topics: in this sense it is only a reference volume. except the section discussing the explicit dynamic integration procedure. for example. ABAQUS/Standard includes three added-cost options. ﬁnite deformations of solids.) that are available in ABAQUS. Some of the theories may be relatively unfamiliar to such a user. Box 50490.1.1–1 . dynamics. “Elements. The options are available only if the user’s license includes them. The ABAQUS/Foundation option offers more efﬁcient access to the linear static and dynamic analysis functionality in ABAQUS/Standard. “References. The objective of this manual is to deﬁne the theories used in ABAQUS that are generally not available in the standard textbooks on mechanics. The user is strongly encouraged to pursue topics of interest through texts and papers. The ABAQUS/Aqua option includes features speciﬁcally designed for the analysis of beam-like structures installed underwater and subject to loading by water currents and wave action. The ABAQUS/Design option enables the user to parametrize input ﬁle quantities and write Python scripts to perform parametric studies. eigenvalue extraction. The manual is intended as a reference document that deﬁnes what is available in the code.” describes the mechanical constitutive theories.” discusses the notation used in the manual. and the Visualization module. Palo Alto. “Loading and Constraints. and ﬁnite elements but are well known to the engineer who uses ABAQUS. Chapter 6.INTRODUCTION Introduction & Basic Equations 1.” describes the formulation of some of the more complicated load types and multi-point constraints. some basic concepts of kinematics and mechanics—such as rotations. an interactive postprocessing program that provides displays and output lists from output database ﬁles written by ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. stress. a general-purpose ﬁnite element program. (ABAQUS does not supply copies of papers that have appeared in publications other than those of ABAQUS. shell theory. for example. “Procedures. which applies to ABAQUS/Explicit. 1. all sections in the chapter on procedures apply to ABAQUS/Standard. Chapter 7. ABAQUS/Explicit. and equilibrium—as well as the basic equations of nonlinear ﬁnite element analysis. Chapter 3.” at the end of this manual lists references that should provide a starting point for obtaining such information. CA 94303. EPRI reports can be obtained from Research Reports Center (RRC). Chapter 2. or the analysis of porous media. “Interface Modeling.” describes the element formulations. Chapter 5.1 INTRODUCTION: GENERAL The ABAQUS system includes ABAQUS/Standard. it is written in such a way that it can also be used as a tutorial document by a reader who needs to obtain some background in an unfamiliar area. If it is not obvious to which program a section applies. Nevertheless.

.

second-order tensors (matrices). Thus. and the physical ideas can be perceived without the distraction of the complexities that arise from the choice of the particular basis system that will eventually be used to express the same concepts in component form. but it is not difﬁcult or time consuming to gain enough familiarity with the notation for it to be useful. The notation is appealing—once it is understood—because it allows the equations to be developed concisely. Both direct matrix notation and component form notation are used in the manual. Because the notation has become so standard in the literature. and the higher-order tensors used in the theories must eventually be written in component form to store them as a set of numbers on the computer.1–1 . Direct matrix notation is used whenever possible. vectors. the user who wishes or needs to read textbooks and papers that are related to the use of ABAQUS will ﬁnd that familiarity with this notation is desirable.2. for example. and—occasionally—fourth-order tensors (for example. This notation is commonly used in the modern engineering literature—it is a shorthand version of the familiar matrix notation used in many older engineering textbooks. the stress-strain transformation for linear elasticity). and it is deﬁnitely worthwhile.NOTATION Introduction & Basic Equations 1. general curvilinear tensor analysis and functional analysis are both necessary in some of the theories used in ABAQUS. matrices. The context determines whether a vector is to be used as a “column” vector or as a “row” vector T . Basic quantities The quantities needed to formulate the theory are scalars. The notation used in most of this manual (direct matrix notation) may be unfamiliar to some readers. However. Both notations are described in this section. both ways of writing these quantities will be needed in the manual. but the unfamiliar notations commonly used in these areas often discourage the user from pursuing their study.1 NOTATION Notation is often a serious obstacle that prevents an engineer from using advanced textbooks. In direct matrix notation there is generally no need to indicate that a vector must be transposed. In this case the transpose superscript is only used to improve the readability of an a 1.2. In direct matrix notation these are written as: a scalar value a vector with the transpose a second-order tensor or matrix with the transpose and a fourth-order tensor a a or bac aT or fag a or a aT or a T [ ] [ ] A a Vectors and second-order tensors (matrices) are written in the same way: they are distinguished by the context. vectors.

On the other hand.” Section 1. etc. we adopt the usual summation convention that a repeated index is summed—in this case over the range 1 to 3—so that the above equation is written a = a 1 e 1 + a2 e 2 + a 3 e 3 . and e3. we need more generality than this because we will be dealing with shells and beams. for a description of how base vectors are chosen for surface elements in ABAQUS). we introduce a general set of base vectors. the component form of a matrix will be a = ea. where the numbers a1.2 a = a e : Likewise. A vector can then be written e a of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. which are not necessarily orthogonal or of unit length but are sufﬁcient to deﬁne the components of a vector (for this purpose they must not be parallel or have zero length). e2 . are most conveniently described in terms of directions on the surface of the shell (or associated with the axis of the beam). The simplest axis system is rectangular Cartesian. and these usually change as we move around on the surface.2. 2. and then the a are obtained. Unfortunately.NOTATION expression. 3. To save writing. in actual computations we have to work with individual numbers. where stress. strain. . for second-order nonsymmetric tensors the addition of a transpose superscript will change the meaning of an expression. and a3 are the components of a associated with e1 . see “Conventions. These components are associated with an axis system that deﬁnes a set of base vectors at each point in space. = 1. so vectors and tensors must be expressed in terms of their components. To retain this necessary generality and express vectors and matrices in component form. This representation of vectors and tensors is very general and convenient for developing the theory so that the equations can be understood easily in terms of their physical meaning. In actual cases the e are chosen for convenience (for example. a2 . However. because the base vectors are orthogonal unit vectors in the same direction at all points.

e.

= a.

ee.

written out. . or. a =e1a11e1 + e1a12e2 + e1a13e3 e2a21e1 + e2a22e2 + e2a23e3 e3a31e1 + e3a32e2 + e3a33e3: A = A.

ee.

2. To distinguish this particular case. are a set of general base vectors. a fourth-order tensor can be written in component form as While we will need such completely general base vectors for describing the stresses and strains on shells and beams. we will use Latin indices instead of Greek indices. while i are rectangular Cartesian base e e e 1. in many cases it is convenient to use rectangular Cartesian components so that the are orthogonal unit vectors.1–2 . Thus. e e : Similarly.

and a is the component of the vector a along a general base vector. it will be stated explicitly when the equation appears. A matrix of derivatives. is the component of a along the ith Cartesian direction. . for instance. the change in a variable with respect to time whilst looking at a particular material particle. d".2. In component notation this notation is equivalent to aij = bicj . @b db : Throughout this manual it will be assumed implicitly that.. It is also necessary to deﬁne the dyadic product of two vectors: a = bc or a = bcT This operation creates a second-order tensor (or dyad) out of two vectors. dW I . 1.1–3 . bT 1 c 6= b 1 c:) Scalar product of two matrices: a=b:c This operation means that corresponding conjugate components of the two matrices are multiplied as pairs and the products summed. b 1 c = bT 1 c:) Cross product of two vectors: a = b2c Matrix multiplication: a =b1c (It is implicitly assumed that b and c are dimensioned correctly. 3. as needed for the operation to make sense. we mean the material time derivative. regardless of whether b or c is transposed— i. Thus. means da = @a @b 1 @a . Vector and tensor concepts and their representation are discussed in many textbooks—see Flugge (1972). then : d" would give the rate of internal work per volume. When this is not the case for a particular equation. while ai . for example.NOTATION Introduction & Basic Equations vectors. 2.e. if b is the stress matrix. that is. and c the conjugate " " rate of strain matrix. if b is a nonsymmetric tensor. Basic operations The usual matrix and vector operators are indicated in this manual as follows: Dot product of two vectors: a = b1c (The dot symbol deﬁnes this operation completely. i = 1. when a derivative is taken with respect to time. in addition.

if a(b.NOTATION Provided that we are careful about interpreting (@ a=@ b) in the manner illustrated above. then da = or. if a is a vector-valued function of the vectorvalued function b. which in turn is a vector-valued function of c. Components of a vector or a matrix in a coordinate system In the previous section we introduced the idea that a vector a or a matrix a can be written in terms of components associated with some conveniently chosen set of base vectors. form. easily understood. that is a = a(b(c)). for example. We now show how the components a (or a. c): @a @b 1 1 dc. @b @c da = @a @a 1 db + 1 dc: @b @c Due to these properties many useful results can be obtained quickly and expressed in a compact. standard concepts of elementary calculus clearly hold. e .

choose e2 normal to e3 and e1 . such that e2 1 e2 = 1. as follows. we deﬁne a conjugate base vector e. . Thus. We can do so using the dot product. e1 1 e3 = 0 e2 1 e3 = 0 e3 1 e3 = 1 We can write this compactly as where . e1 1 e1 = 1 e2 1 e1 = 0 e3 1 e1 = 0 . Similarly. For each of the three base vectors. such that the dot product e1 1 e1 = 1. . e1 1 e2 = 0 e2 1 e2 = 1 e3 1 e2 = 0 . and e3 normal to e1 and e2. such that e3 1 e3 = 1. ) are obtained. e. . . Choose e1 as normal to e2 and e3 .

= 1 if = .

. and .

is called the “Kronecker delta. and e3 in notation .”) In matrix is the unit matrix I: we can also write the above equation deﬁning e1 . = 0. e2 .

matrix form as .

(. otherwise. .

e 1e .

we can immediately obtain the components of a vector or a matrix as follows. so that. = 8 < : be c 1 2 be c 3 be c 9 = .: bfe1 g fe2 g fe3 gc =I . With this additional set of base vectors. Consider a vector a. the others are easily obtained. say—is known. if one set of base vectors—ei . Then a 1 e = a.

e.

using the basis vectors e. 1 e (writing a in component form.

and since e. ).

1 e = .

= 1. only if = .

. a 1 e = a.

e.

1 e .

= a .

1–4 .2. = a : 1.

a = ae . a. Similarly. for a matrix.NOTATION Introduction & Basic Equations In exactly the same way we could have written a = a 1 e by expressing a as components associated with the e base vectors.

and = (e ) T 1 a 1 e.

= e 1 a 1 e.

e 1 a 1 e. .

: a.

= (e )T 1 a 1 e.

= These component deﬁnitions are particularly convenient for calculating the dot product of two vectors. for we can write a 1 b = ( a e ) 1 (b .

e .

) = a b .

e 1 e .

. .

= a b .

. = a b . which is a 1 b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3: a : b = a.

b.

the scalar product of two matrices is that is. . we simply multiply corresponding entries in the a. Similarly.

and b.

and then sum the products. on the computer we need to store only one form of component: a . arranged as matrices. arrays. Finally. a.

or a . a.

” g. We can always go from one to the other using the “metric tensor. .

. g. and its inverse.

. which are deﬁned as g.

= e 1 e.

. e 1 e.

: and For a = g.

. = a 1 e (from above).

= a. (expressing a in component form).

e 1 e .

(by the deﬁnition of g.

): = a.

g Thus. a = g.

a.

similarly a = g. .

a.

by extension. . for matrices. and. a.

= g g.

1–5 .2. a 1.

NOTATION and a.

g.

= = g g.

a : The metric tensor and its inverse are symmetric: e e.

= e.

e = g.

: 1 1 The two sets of base vectors and components of vectors or matrices associated with them are named as follows: e e a (or a.

) a (or a.

and vice versa. are contravariant base vectors. are contravariant components of a vector (or matrix). the contravariant components are those associated with the covariant base vectors. are covariant components of a vector (or matrix). ) are covariant base vectors. The simplest case is when the basis is a set of orthogonal unit vectors (a rectangular Cartesian system) because then—from the deﬁnition e 1 e. a = a e . Thus.

= .

so the type of component need not be distinguished. say—so that we store a as the components da = da E : 1 @b a db : 1. which is expressed in component form on a basis system. Whenever possible a rectangular a = a Cartesian system is chosen. Components of a derivative Consider a vector-valued function.1–6 .2. —we see that e = e. as @a e . @b @a . for convenience. 1 @b @ meaning d = a Now suppose a is written on a different basis—E . This system is discussed in more detail in the sections on beam elements and shell elements. and so and we need not distinguish the type of component. Then @a edb da = @b 1 so that the component of da associated with a change db is which we write. e . Let the vector-valued function a depend on b: a(b). b.

NOTATION Introduction & Basic Equations Then da = E 1 @b.

@ a db.

: Typically we would then write da = H.

db.

. where H.

= E 1 @b.

@ a = Readers who are familiar with general curvilinear tensor analysis will recognize H.

as the covariant derivative of a with respect to b.

often written as aj. .

Typically e and E will both be the simple rectangular Cartesian bases H. Then provides the necessary components once we have chosen convenient basis systems: e for for a. we have a physical understanding of what we mean by @ a=@ b. The advantage of the direct matrix notation is clear: because we can imagine a and b as vectors in space. it is the change in the vector-valued function a as a function of another vector-valued function b. For computations we must express a and b in component form. .

= aj.

= @a E @ b e.

1 1 @a E @ b e.

The careful projection of the general results written in direct matrix notation onto the chosen basis system allows us to implement the theory for computation. 1. of the deformation makes it convenient to work in an axisymmetric system. 0. sin . But sometimes we must use more complicated basis systems—examples are when we need quantities associated with the surface of a general shell and when the symmetry of the geometry and. 1) everywhere. cos . _ "= 1 2 @_ @_ + @ @ u x u x T ! . : 1 1 b and E e1 = (1. 0) e2 = (0. axial. 0. possibly. so that e = e: 1. As an example. These basis vectors are orthogonal and of unit length.2. with the basis vectors e1 (radial) = (cos .1–7 . circumferential). 0) (in ABAQUS for axisymmetric cases we always take the components in this order—radial. 1) e3 (circumferential) = (0 sin . Let us now derive the components of " when the basis system _ for both u and x is the cylindrical system that we usually choose for axisymmetric problems. which requires the matrix @ u=@ x to be evaluated. 0. 0) e2 (axial) = (0. consider the usual expression for strain rate. 0) e3 = (0. where u is the velocity of the material currently _ _ _ ﬂowing through the point x in space.

. and @@3 = (0 cos . _ @u @x dx2 = dz. dx1 = dr. ). _ _ _ _ @u _ @r @u _ @z _ 1 @u r @ @ e1 @ =( = = = @ ur _ @ uz _ @ u _ e1 + e2 + e3 @r @r @r @ ur _ @u _ @u _ e1 + z e2 + e3 @z @z @z 1 @ ur _ _ _ 1 @ uz 1 @ u 1 @ e1 e1 + e2 + e3 + u r _ r @ r @ r @ r @ + 1 r u _ @ e3 : @ We know that so that e 0 sin . _ _ _ 1 @ ur _ 1 @ uz 1 @ u 1 @u = 0 u e1 + r @ e2 + r @ + ur e3 . @ ur =@z _ @ uz =@z _ @x. with dx = dr e1 + dz e2 + r d e3 . _ _ r @ r @ and thus. 0) = e3 . and dx3 = r d: = _ _ _ @u @u 1 @u .NOTATION We consider position to be deﬁned by the coordinates (r. 0) = 0e1 . 0 sin . so that Thus. @r @z r @ . where so that u = u r e 1 + uz e 2 + u e 3 . z. cos .

= 2"rz = 2"zr = _ _ @ uz _ . @r "zz _ = @ uz _ . u = 0 and @ ur =@ _ _ simplify to the familiar expressions = 2"z = 2"z = _ _ = @ uz =@ _ = 0. @r = 2"r = 2"r = _ _ 1 @u _ r r @ 0 u _ + @ u _ . @z r _ " _ = 1 @u _ r @ + ur _ 1 .1–8 . @r @ uz _ @ u _ + : r @ @z For the case of purely axisymmetric deformation. @r @ ur _ @z z _ + (1=r )(@ ur =@ _ (1=r )(@ u =@ + ur ) _ _ (1=r )@ uz =@ _ 0 u ) _ 3 5: "zz _ = @ uz _ .2. @ u =@r @ u =@z _ _ The components of the strain rate are thus "rr _ rz _ and = 2 @ u =@r _ @ u 4 r _ _ = @ uz =@r @ ur _ . so these results "rr _ = @ ur _ . @z " _ = ur _ r 1.

in the case of geotechnical problems.1–9 . of a vector or matrix by . We extend this notation to such expressions as a a " " = sym @ v @ x . Virtual quantities The concepts of virtual displacements and virtual work are fundamental to the development. the interpolation can be written quite generally as a = N N aN . v v Initial and current positions Most structural problems concern the description of the way a structure behaves as it is loaded and moves from its reference conﬁguration. Careful application of the concept of the covariant derivative then allows these general results to be projected into component form for computation. The ﬁnite element approximation is based on assuming interpolations. Hence. Thus. where radial (r) and axial (z ) components of components are stored. X x X x Nodal variables So far we have discussed quantities that are considered to be associated with all points in a model. To distinguish these conﬁgurations. when the model is subject only to geostatic stresses. r = z = 0: _ In summary. Virtual quantities are inﬁnitesimally small variations of physical measures. 1. This notation corresponds to the virtual rate of deformation (a measure of strain rate) if is a virtual velocity ﬁeld. The virtual variation of a scalar quantity a is indicated by a.NOTATION Introduction & Basic Equations rz _ u _ _ u _ = @@zr + @@rz . direct matrix notation allows us to obtain all our fundamental results without reference to any particular choice of coordinate system. we often compare positions of a point in the current (deformed) conﬁguration and a reference conﬁguration that is usually chosen as the conﬁguration when the structure is unloaded or. such as displacement. we use lowercase type ( ) to indicate the current position and uppercase type ( ) to indicate the initial position of the same material point in the same spatial coordinate frame. strain. which is the symmetric part of the spatial gradient of a virtual vector ﬁeld . by which displacement.2. The exception is in axisymmetric structures. and so on. and—often—other variables at any material point are deﬁned by a ﬁnite number of nodal variables. In this manual we use uppercase superscripts to refer to individual nodal variables or nodal vectors and adopt the summation convention for these indices. velocity. In ABAQUS we almost always store the rectangular Cartesian and . position.

g ). up to the total number of variables in the problem. is a set of N vector interpolation functions (these are functions of the material coordinates. . 1. N = 1. N (g ). . bac represents a row vector. 2 . 2 .NOTATION where is some vector-valued function at any point in the structure.1–10 . c a N = ba c f bg (which is equivalent to c = a N bN in index notation) and the matrix-vector product f cg = [ A ] f bg (which is equivalent to cM = A MN bN in index notation). . In this notation fag represents a column vector containing nodal variables. and aN . In some sections in this manual we need to describe operations on nodal variables for the complete system of ﬁnite element equations. and a matrix is written as [A]. Common operations are the scalar product between two vectors. is a set of nodal variables.2. In these sections we use the classical matrix-vector notation. N = 1. .

3. Physically. a will be used to denote the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector a. Then by deﬁnition. 132 = 213 = 321 = 0 1.1–1) In components. 1. all other ijk = 0: It is this closed-form expression that allows the exact and numerically efﬁcient geometric representation of ﬁnite rotations. Cij = cos ij + (1 where p = f p1 p2 123 p3 T and ijk is the alternator tensor. In matrix components relative to the standard 1 2 3 T . a convenient method for storing the rotation at a node is required. 5. ^ ^ C = exp[] = I + + 1 2! ^ 2 + 111 : 0 kk kk2 cos ) However. ﬁrst deﬁne the skew-symmetric matrix associated with by the relationships ^ ^ 1 = 0 and 1 v = 2 v for all vectors v : ^ is called the axial vector of the skew-symmetric matrix . the rotation is interpreted as a rotation by radians around the axis p. The components of a rotation vector are stored as the degrees of freedom 4.ROTATION VARIABLES Introduction & Basic Equations 1. the rotation vector is used to deﬁne an orthogonal ^ transformation or rotation matrix. ^ A well-known result from linear algebra is that the exponential of a skew-symmetric matrix is an orthogonal (rotation) matrix that produces the ﬁnite rotation . Let the rotation matrix be C. if = f 2 ^ [] = 4 g 0 3 2 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 1 5 : 0 3 ^ In what follows.1 ROTATION VARIABLES Since ABAQUS contains such capabilities as structural elements (beams and shells) for which it is necessary to deﬁne arbitrarily large magnitudes of rotation. then Euclidean basis. and 6 at any node where a rotation is required. p = =kk.1–1 . To do so. To characterize this ﬁnite rotation mathematically.3. such that C01 = CT . The ﬁnite rotation vector consists of a rotation magnitude = kk and a rotation axis or direction in space. deﬁned by = g 0 cos )p i pj + sin ikj pk .3. the above inﬁnite series has the following closed-form expression ^ C = exp[] = cos kkI + sin kk kk ^ + (1 : (1. 231 = 312 = 1.

i i i 1. (For the case of speciﬁed of a set of individual or incremental rotations p .3.. is the converged rotation ﬁeld solution at each increment. Let 1 (linearized) rotation vectors. and let 2 R3 be a vector ﬁeld. the compound rotation is the product C C 1C = 1 2 . This special case is investigated further below.1–2) By trigonometric identities it follows that the orthogonal matrix given in terms of as ^ ^ exp[] = (2q2 0 1)I + 2q0q + 2qq : 0 ^ By the convention introduced above. Compound rotations q ^ exp[] in Equation 1. that is. This fact follows directly from the series expansion for 1. In geometrically linear problems compound rotations are obtained simply as the linear superposition of the individual . C 1C 1C C = 1 C 1 1 C 01 1 1 1 1 C 1 ..ROTATION VARIABLES Quaternion parametrization Even though ABAQUS stores and outputs the rotation vector. the order of application is important. q ) : To associate q with the ﬁnite rotation vector . where p . i.1–1 is (1. for p .) By deﬁnition. A compound rotation is the successive application of two or more rotation ﬁelds. = 1 ..3.1–3) For a more detailed discussion of quaternion algebra and its relation to other representations of ﬁnite rotations. quaternion parameters prove to be an efﬁcient and convenient way to treat ﬁnite rotations computationally.” Section 1. . 2 and 2 be inﬁnitesimal rotations. Furthermore. deﬁne the following: sin k=2k : q = cos k=2k and q = 0 kk (1. 1 2 .1–2 . Thus.3.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.. Let i be the orthogonal transformation representing the compound rotation deﬁned as the product . and exp[^ ] I + ^ exp[^ ] I + ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ exp[1] 1 exp[2] exp[2] 1 exp[1] I + 1 + 2 : exp[^] In geometrically nonlinear analysis compound rotations are no longer additive. Let q0 2 R be a scalar.2. see the discussion by Spring (1986). for the iterative numerical solution procedure i is the total rotation after i increments. q is the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector q. A detailed example of a ﬁnite compound rotation is given in “Conventions. i. The quaternion q is simply the pairing q q = ( q0 . . A signiﬁcant exception occurs when the multiple rotations share the same rotation axis. they are not commutative. for p boundary conditions i is the ﬁnal product after i steps of all the speciﬁed rotations p .3. .

sin k( + 1)=2kp) : p which reduces to Rotation vector extraction For output purposes it is necessary to extract the rotation vector corresponding to a given quaternion. on the ﬁnite rotation Although compound rotations are deﬁned in terms of orthogonal matrices.1–2. . Then q k= k.3. C = 1 C C 01 : i i 1 i It is important to note that 1 . q k = k. which is calculated as rotation is given by the quaternion r C 1C C 1C C 1C 1C C = ( q) = ( r) r = 1q q : 1 1 = (1 1q) 1 Here denotes the quaternion product and is deﬁned as 1q q def (1q0q0 0 1q 1 q . = ( r) and kk = 2 tan01 krk r0 = kk r : krk (1.1–4 allows for the update of rotation ﬁelds without ever calculating the orthogonal matrix from the quaternion and without performing a matrix multiplication. be the quaternion. k= k . k = k . 1q0q + q01q + 1q 2 q) : = 1 (1. the compound rotation reduces to an additive form.3. The ﬁnal (total) rotation vector can be calculated from the quaternion by inverting Equation 1. and an incremental (ﬁnite) rotation q q0 . 1q q = (cos k( + 1)=2k. Let q and q have the same rotation axis . and let be the rotation The extraction procedure is as follows: Let r vector. Thus. is different from 1 . in a numerical context the rotation vectors (or equivalently the quaternion parameters) associated with the rotation matrices are the degrees of freedom. r0 .ROTATION VARIABLES Introduction & Basic Equations or equivalently by the recursion relation. Furthermore.1–4) Equation 1. which is interpreted as the ﬁnite rotation superposed ﬁnite rotation . .1–5) 1. and r = (cos 1 2 sin 2 p) 1 = (cos 1 2 sin 1 2 p) 1q q = (cos k1=2k cos k=2k 0 sin k1=2k sin k=2k . where q is parametrization q deﬁned in terms of an incremental rotation vector by Equation 1. Compound rotations are performed as follows: Given a quaternion q0 . all operations are singularity free regardless of the magnitude of the incremental rotation ﬁeld .3.3.1–2.1–3 . which is interpreted as the ﬁnite rotation superposed on the . For the special case when compound rotations share the same rotation axis.3.3. cos k1=2k sin k=2kp + cos k=2k sin k1=2kp) . the total or compound r0 .

.3. Thus.. A where is the linearized rotation matrix. which is obtained by rotation of the reference vector ﬁeld : a Variations in this ﬁeld are obtained as a a = C1A: a = C 1 A .3. known at increment i. the variation of the orthogonal tensor other hand.1–4 . To update the director ﬁeld by the incremental rotation to increment i proceed as follows: First calculate the quaternion parametrization of the incremental rotation: t 1 +1 1q0 = cos k1 =2k i i and 1q = sin k1 =2k 1 : k1 k i i i i i c 1 i . Consider the vector ﬁeld . the quaternion parametrization of the rotation ﬁeld qi . the variation can be deﬁned in terms of the linearized rotation ﬁeld : C C.0 . consider the incremental update of a director ﬁeld for either a beam or shell analysis. qi+1 ) = (1qi qi 0 1qi 1 qi . . At some stage of the solution the director ﬁeld i i . where c is calculated with The director ﬁeld at i is then deﬁned as i+1 Equation 1. . ABAQUS The magnitude kk is determined only up to the addition of n. and the incremental rotation ﬁeld are . . On the b b a = 2 a = 1 a = 1 C 1 A : Consequently. 1 0 1 . n will always choose that rotation vector such that kk < . it is necessary to calculate the variation of the rotation ﬁeld. 1qi qi + qi 1qi + 1qi 2 qi ) : 0 0 0 0 0 Variations of the rotation ﬁeld In the development of the balance equations. that is. it follows that b C = 1 C : 1.ROTATION VARIABLES It is important to note that the extraction of the rotation vector from the quaternion is not unique. . . the update of the rotation ﬁeld is obtained by quaternion multiplication q i+1 and is deﬁned by q i = 1q q i i +1 = (qi+1 . Director and rotation ﬁeld updates As an example of the utility of the quaternion parameters. the director is calculated directly from the quaternion as i +1 t = exp[1 ] t i i i exp[1 ] i t +1 = (2(1q0)2 0 1)t + 21q01q 2 t + 2(1q 1 t )1q : i i i i i Furthermore. 2 2 = .1–3.

the ﬁrst and second time derivative of written as a are a = ! 2a. By a straightforward (but involved) calculation. However. b where ! is the angular velocity matrix. without loss of generality. we can write d( 1 b c c b C) = 2 ( 1 d 1 C + d 1 1 C) : Similarly.ROTATION VARIABLES Introduction & Basic Equations It is important to note that the linearized rotation . the second variation of the vector ﬁeld rotated by d( ) = = C can be written as 3 3 a 12 2 2 (d 2 a) + d 2 ( 2 a) 2 0( 1 d )a + 1 2 ( 1 a)d + (d 1 a) : Velocity and acceleration Taking the time derivative of the rotation matrix. Equivalently. leads to an expression of d that is not symmetric in the variations and the changes d. is not the variation of the rotation vector . which is analogous to the angular velocity in dynamics. Thus. _ _ a = ! 2 a + ! 2 (! 2 a) : 1. it can be shown that the variation of the rotation vector () is related to the linearized rotation by = H ( ) 1 .3.3. b _ b b C = ! 1C +! 1! 1C. + 1 (1.1–5 . which is equivalent to calculation of the second variation of either or . A direct calculation of the variation . we ﬁnd with the same arguments as used in the calculation of the variations that _ b C = ! 1C.1–6) where k H() = k1k2 + sink k I 0 k1k2 k The inverse of H() is 0 cos kk : ^ kk2 H()01 = kk sin kk I 0 1 0 1 : ^ 2 kk2 + 2(1 0 cos kk) kk2 1 Let d represent an inﬁnitesimal change in the rotation ﬁeld. it is shown in Simo (1992) C a that the correct deﬁnition of the Hessian operator—that is. the “covariant” derivative of the weak form of the balance equations—requires only the symmetric part (with respect to the variations) of the second variation.

ROTATION VARIABLES The instantaneous angular velocity vector ! is related to the time rate of change of the rotation vector by the relation _ ! = H() 1 . The joint is operated by prescribing an axial rotation c = c ex at c and an out-of-plane rotation b = bez at b.3. This derivation exempliﬁes some of the issues associated with the treatment of ﬁnite rotations. a φc c y b φb x Figure 1. The compounding of these two prescribed rotation ﬁelds will determine the total rotation at a. Coupling of rotations: constant velocity joint Next. is presented.” Section 25. with a the dependent node. c (see Figure 1. however. Let a. b.1–6. a more rigorous treatment of the two-dimensional constant velocity joint described in “MPC.1–1 Nonlinear MPC example—constant velocity joint.3.3. deals with a different ﬁnite rotation constraint and tackles additional complications. b .1–1) be the nodes making up the joint.2. can be calculated only by linearizing the speciﬁc algorithm used for the time integration of the dynamic equations. where H( ) is given by Equation 1. d! .3.1. “Uniform collapse of straight and curved pipe segments. c ) = a 0 b c = 0: The constraint can be written in terms of the rotation matrices as C( a ) 0 C(b ) 1 C(c ) = 0: 1. In the linearization of the dynamic balance equations. This quantity.13 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. it is necessary to calculate the variation of the angular velocity.” Section 1.3.1–7) . We can formally write this constraint as follows: f (a .1–6 (1.5 of the ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual.

To do so. The implementation of the exact nonlinear constraint is shown below: 1. shows the implementation of the linearized form of the constraint in user subroutine MPC. The linearized constraint is used for the calculation of equilibrium. the linearized constraint is indeed identical to the one derived based on simple linear considerations in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. sin(b =2)e ) and q c = (cos(c =2).3. a according to the quaternion compound formula Equation 1.1–7. a qa kqa k with a = 2 tan01 kq a k . as is done in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. user subroutine MPC must deﬁne the components of the total rotation vector a exactly. It can also be used for the recovery of the dependent rotation. where qa = cos(b =2) sin(c =2)ex + sin(b =2) sin(c =2)ey + cos(b =2) sin(c =2)ez . a must be updated based on the current values of b c and .ROTATION VARIABLES Introduction & Basic Equations With the previously deﬁned variational expressions.3.1–7 . Let q b = b=2). For an exact enforcement of the constraint. qa ). a . The resulting rotation will satisfy the constraint approximately (unless one of the angles b or c is constant. “MPC. a q0 where kqa k is the norm of the vector qa .1–4. which yields c a d 0 b 0 C( b) 1 c 1 CT (b) = 0. sin(c =2)e ) be the quaternion parameterizations (cos( z x associated with the ﬁnite rotation vectors b and c . c which can be written in vector form as a 0 b 0 C(b ) 1 c = 0: Since 0 C( b) = @ sin b 0 cos b 0 sin b 0 cos b 0 1 1 0A.3. The rotation vector is extracted a as follows: from the quaternion q = a a q0 = cos(b =2) cos(c =2) .13 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. This is most easily accomplished with the aid of the quaternion parameters.2. respectively. The total compound rotation a is a given by the quaternion q a = (q0 . the constraint can be linearized as c a d 1 C(a ) 0 b 1 C(b ) 1 C( c ) 0 C( b) 1 c 1 C(c ) = 0: c This expression can be simpliﬁed by right-multiplying the expression by CT (a ) and by making use of the constraint Equation 1. in which case the constraint is linear and the recovery is exact).” Section 25.

1) = 6 JDOF(1.2) = 6 JDOF(1.1.TEMP.3) = -SIN(U(6.2)) SPHIB = SIN(0.N).MAXDOF.N). TEMP(NT.2)) C JDOF(1.2)) CPHIC = COS(0.3) = -COS(U(6. A(1.2.N) PARAMETER( SMALL = 1.U.1) = 1. A(3. UE(2) = 0. 1 ) THEN A(1.N). * KSTEP.GT. SMALL ) THEN PHIA = 2.MDOF.UINIT.1) = 5 JDOF(3.TIME.3.JDOF.3.NF.1.N).1.5*U(4. A(3. * U(MAXDOF.2)) A(2.INC’ C DIMENSION UE(MDOF).3)) C QA0 = CPHIB*CPHIC QAX = CPHIB*SPHIC QAY = SPHIB*SPHIC QAZ = CPHIB*SPHIC C QAMAG = SQRT( QAX*QAX + QAY*QAY + QAZ*QAZ ) IF ( QAMAG .N).NT.5*U(6. TIME(2).1) = 1.1) = 1.LMPC.X.5*U(4.EQ.5*U(6. 1.NT.N). X(6. A(2.A.*ATAN2( QAMAG .2) = -1. JDOF(MDOF. UINIT(MAXDOF.JTYPE. A(MDOF.KINC.ROTATION VARIABLES SUBROUTINE MPC(UE.1–8 .3)) SPHIC = SIN(0.MDOF.3) = 4 C CPHIB = COS(0. QA0 ) UE(1) = PHIA*QAX/QAMAG UE(2) = PHIA*QAY/QAMAG UE(3) = PHIA*QAZ/QAMAG ELSE UE(1) = 0.N.1) = 4 JDOF(2.1.FIELD) C INCLUDE ’ABA_PARAM.E-14 ) C IF ( JTYPE . * FIELD(NF.

2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1.2.3.” Section 1. END IF END IF C RETURN END Reference • “Conventions.ROTATION VARIABLES Introduction & Basic Equations UE(3) = 0.1–9 .

.

4.1–5. so we can always write the history of the location of a particle as x = x(X.1–1 .4.4.4.4. so the “stretch ratio” of this gauge length is = dl dL = r dx T : dX T 1 dX 1 dx (1. located at X and at X + dX in the initial conﬁguration. Now using Equation 1.DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations 1. dx T 1 dx = dX T so that. The material particle initially located at some position X in space will move to a new position x: since we assume material cannot appear or disappear.1–4) As the material behavior depends on the straining of the material and not on its rigid body motion. Looking at an inﬁnitesimal gauge length dX emanating from the particle initially at X.1–4. there is no strain of this inﬁnitesimal gauge length—it has undergone rigid body motion only. 1 F T F dX .4.4.1–1.1–1) and this relationship can be inverted—we know X when we know x and t. those parts of the motion in the vicinity of a material point must be distinguished. there will be a one-to-one correspondence between x and X.1–5) If = 1. The matrix @x 1 dX @X (1.4.1–2 is written (1. 1 1 1. we can measure its initial and current lengths as dL2 = dXT 1 dX and dl2 = dxT 1 dx. In the current conﬁguration we must have dx = using the “mapping” Equation 1. and Equation 1. t) (1.4. from Equation 1.1–3) dx = F 1 dX : (1.4.4.1 DEFORMATION In any structural problem the analyst describes the initial conﬁguration of the structure and is interested in its deformation throughout the history of loading.1–2) @x F = @X is called the deformation gradient matrix. Now consider two neighboring particles.

nIII be unit vectors corresponding to NI . so Equation 1. positive eigenvalues.1–6) where N is a unit vector in the direction of the gauge length dX.1–8) This problem is an eigenvalue one that can be solved for the three extreme values of 2. Since N must always be a unit vector. N.4. (1.4. if the corresponding eigenvalues are different. Equation 1.1–7 is ( F T 1 F 0 2 I) 1 N = 0 : (1. NIII . .4. III .1–4.” with three corresponding eigenvectors. and can be orthogonalized otherwise.1–7) and comparing with Taking the dot product of the left-hand side of this equation with Equation 1. Useful results are obtained when we vary the direction deﬁned by N at a particular material point and look for stationary values of the stretch ratio.4. Now let nI . Equation 1. NII . etc: I Then nI T 1 nII = 1 NI T 1 FT 1 F 1 NII I II = 1 I II 2 II NI T 1 NII =0 1. NIII .1–6 shows how to measure the stretch ratio associated with any direction.DEFORMATION 2 = T X p dX 1 FT 1 F 1 p dT T 1 dX dX dX 1 dX T T = N 1 F 1 F 1 N. by Equation 1.4. introduced to retain the constraint Taking the variation gives back the constraint (conjugate to p) and. which will be orthogonal.4. II . at any material point deﬁned by X (or by x).1–6 identiﬁes p = 2 . Since is always real and positive (and nonzero). so that.4.1–8. stationary values of 2 are obtained by solving the constrained variational equation 8 T N 1 FT 1 F 1 N 0 p (NT 1 N 0 1) NT 1 N = 1 : 9 = 0.1–2 .4. gives ( F T 1 F 0 p I) 1 N = 0 : N (1. conjugate to N. NII . NI . The NI are the principal directions of strain.4. but in the current conﬁguration. and hence FT 1 F must be positive deﬁnite. 2 > 0.4. 1 nI = F 1 NI . the “principal stretches. nII . I . using Equation 1.1–8 thus gives three real. where p is a Lagrange multiplier.

Since nI = R N I . isolates the rigid body rotation and the stretch. therefore.4. each is a unit vector. which we write as dx = V 1 R 1 dX . = I R dX I : 1 dxII and = II R dXII 1 Since ( I . Now consider a gauge length in the reference conﬁguration. d I . nIII = R NIII . The same inﬁnitesimal material line in the current conﬁguration will be along I and will be stretched by I . any inﬁnitesimal can be written in terms of its components in this basis: material line (gauge length) d at N N N dxIII = III R dXIII : 1 X X dX = dXI + dXII + dXIII . nII .4. Finding the principal stretch ratios and their directions thus provides one solution to the problem of isolating straining motion and rigid body motion in the vicinity of a material point. nII = R NII . Comparing the principal stretch matrix has the property that its inverse is its transpose: directions in the current and original conﬁgurations. where is the same pure rigid body rotation matrix in each of these equations. and nIII will also be an orthogonal set. is XI moves and stretches to the corresponding dxI . Thus. III ) is an orthonormal set of base vectors in the reference conﬁguration.DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations by the orthogonality results just mentioned. II . as deﬁned above.1–3 (1. Thus. along the other principal directions. 1 1 1 R R n X N dx I Similarly. d . 1 etc. where Each of the vectors d gauge length. directed along I .1–9) . the current x dx = dxI + dxII + dxIII = I R dXI + II R dXII + III R dXIII = I R NI NI T + II R NII NII T + III R NIII NIII T dX = I nI NI T + II nII NII T + III nIII NIII T dX 0 1 = I nI nI T + II nII nII T + III nIII nIII T R dX 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 dX I = N I N I T dX . so that R nI . A pure rigid body motion T = 01. 1.

are I 2.1–12) We see that the eigenvalues of F 1 FT . later in the development. II 2 . Speciﬁcally. R represents only the rigid body rotation of the material at the point under consideration in some average sense: in a general motion.4. we will be able to link the kinematics to the stressing of the material—we will need to be able to isolate V from F. thus. and III 2 . V 0 I must be nonzero for there to be any deformation of the material at the point in question: in this sense V 0 I (and. since RT = R01 and V is symmetric. nI in the current conﬁguration).1–4. It is easy to obtain V 1 V. The rotation matrix R deﬁnes the rigid body rotation of the principal directions of strain (NI in the reference conﬁguration. followed by a pure stretch of three orthogonal directions. we know there is no deformation of the material in the immediate neighborhood of the point originally at X and currently at x.1–10) F = V R.1–4 .1–11) which is the polar decomposition theorem—that any motion can be represented as a pure rigid body rotation. Nevertheless. V. The deformation at the point is.4. Comparison with the deﬁnition of the deformation gradient.4. This distinction between the rotation of the principal directions of strain. nII . R. We can then construct V. F completely deﬁnes the relative motions of material particles in the inﬁnitesimal neighborhood of the material particle that was at X in the reference conﬁguration. Since we originally deﬁned V from the principal stretches and their principal directions in the current conﬁguration as V = I nI nI T + II nII nII T + III nIII nIII T . and the left stretch matrix.4. Equation 1. V itself) is sufﬁcient to deﬁne the deforming part of the motion (it contains complete information about all except pure rigid body rotation of the point). for F 1 FT = V 1 R 1 R T 1 V T = V 1 V. since in this case V = I and so I = II = III = 1. and the corresponding eigenvectors are nI . and nIII . and the rotations of individual directions in the material becomes signiﬁcant when we must discuss large deformations of nonisotropic materials. readily obtained by = F 1 FT 1.DEFORMATION where V = (I nI nI T + II nII nII T + III nIII nIII T ) is the “left stretch” matrix. which is the sum of three dyadic products. For this reason—so that.4. completely deﬁnes the deformation of the material particles at X. shows that (1. 1 (1. each inﬁnitesimal gauge length emanating from a material particle has a different amount of rotation. hence. The polar decomposition theorem is important because it allows us to distinguish the straining part of the motion from the rigid body rotation. we have established an important result: if F = R only. then V 1 V = I 2 nI nI T + II 2nII nII T + III 2 nIII nIII T : (1.

we cannot assume that they will be orthogonal or of unit length: we will. (Since we assume that both of these basis systems are adequate to express any vector-valued function by its components in the basis system—that is. when the point in question is at x. To perform computations we must choose a basis system to express these results as arrays of individual numbers. therefore. the basis vectors are not linearly dependent—either would. and because we do need some—but. = 1. = 1. because the orientation of the shell’s reference surface—which determines our choice of basis vectors—will be quite different in these two conﬁgurations. This preference causes us to need two basis systems: one associated with the body in its current conﬁguration. need to use the corresponding contravariant vectors deﬁned by e e. We can then obtain the rotation R as R = V 01 F : 1 Since V has been constructed from its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. in principal. not all—of the generality when we have to deal with shell elements. because each is chosen as particularly suitable for a particular conﬁguration. as the basis at the same material point but in the reference conﬁguration. We introduce two distinct systems by preference. its inverse is immediately available: V 01 = 1 n n T + 1 n n T + 1 n n T : I I I II II II III III III So far we have written the results quite generally. 2. when the same point was at X. serve for both conﬁgurations. to provide a little more familiarity in the notation system we have chosen to use in this manual.) Since we do not yet impose any particular restrictions on the e or the E (except for the requirement that the vectors must not be linearly dependent). where it is undesirable to use the rectangular Cartesian base vectors of the global. 3. The justiﬁcation for retaining generality at this stage is twofold: as an exercise. spatial system because the natural orientation of the shell reference surface causes us to prefer to choose two of the base vectors to be tangent to the shell’s reference surface and the other to be normal to this surface.DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations multiplying a 3 2 3 matrix with its transpose (F 1 FT ) and solving the real eigenproblem for the resulting (symmetric) matrix. and one associated with the body in its reference conﬁguration. without reference to any particular coordinate system. as the basis vectors chosen to write components associated with the current conﬁguration (so that any vector a associated with the current conﬁguration is written as a = a e) and E . We will write e . 2. as it turns out. 3. We now do so with some generality with respect to the choice of basis system.

= .

and E E.

= .

. 1 1 and the contravariant metric tensors g.

= e 1 e.

and G.

= E 1 E.

4. F.1–13) Recall the deﬁnition of F: F = eF. : We can express the deformation gradient. numerically by projecting it onto the bases: (1.

E.

1–5 . : @x dX : dx = F dX = @X 1 1 1.4.

DEFORMATION Since the components of dx along e are dx = dx 1 e and we can write dX = dX .

E.

. dx = e 1 F 1 E.

dX .

@x = e 1 dX .

: @X .

Thus. writing dx = F.

dX .

deﬁnes F.

= e 1 F 1 E.

= e 1 @x : @X .

We must continue to bear in mind that the ﬁrst index of F.

while its second index is associated with a component of F along a base vector in the reference conﬁguration (E. is associated with a component of F along a base vector in the current conﬁguration (e in this case).

4. From Equation 1. ).1–13 we can write F FT = e F.

E.

E F e .

= e F.

1 1 where G. G F e .

The eigenproblem for the squared principal stretch ratios and their directions is solved by ﬁnding the eigenvalues of the matrix of numbers F. is the contravariant metric of the basis system that we have chosen in the reference conﬁguration.

G.

Since we have deﬁned the left stretch on the current conﬁguration as V = I nI nI T + II nII nII T + III nIII nIII T . F . The eigenvectors will appear as the components (nI ) along the e base vectors in the current conﬁguration. = we will write its components on the basis in the current conﬁguration as V.

and. since = I nI nI.

+ II nII nII.

+ III nIII nIII.

e V e.

I II III (V 01 ). . 1 1 V01 = 1 nI nI T + 1 nII nII T + 1 nIII nIII T .

= n n + n n + n n : I I I.

II II II.

III III III.

1 1 1 The polar decomposition gives R = V 01 F 01 ) e e F E .

= e (V .

01 ) g F E.

. = e (V .

1 1 so R.

= (V 01) g F.

4. 1. .1–6 .

DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations where g is the contravariant metric tensor of the basis system we have chosen to use in the current conﬁguration and—as with F.

—we see that the ﬁrst index of R.

while the second index is associated with the contravariant base vector E. is associated with the contravariant base vector e in the current conﬁguration.

We should take care to understand the distinction between the direct matrix expression of the rigid body rotation of the principal directions of strain of the material. for example. Suppose. R. nevertheless. and the components of R expressed on a particular basis. In this case R. that the rigid body rotation at a point is zero (that is. have chosen different basis systems e and E . R = I) but we. in the reference conﬁguration.

= e 1 R 1 E.

= e 1 I 1 E.

= e 1 E.

. This implies that. even though R is a unit matrix (in the sense that operating on any vector with this matrix makes no change in that vector). the numerical values we have chosen to store the matrix—the R.

the E . For shells (and membranes) we take E1 and E2 tangent to the shell’s reference surface and E3 normal to that surface at the point under consideration. —do not form a unit matrix of numbers unless the e and the E are coincident and orthonormal. and we distinguish the default choice of directions from the particular choice of directions (orientation) speciﬁed by the user. we take the e (and. the e are deﬁned by e = R E : 1 These schemes all have the same property: at any point in time the e are orthonormal vectors: . For continuum elements the same schemes are applied by default to deﬁne the basis system in the current conﬁguration. If the orientation is deﬁned by the user. our choice of quite general basis systems that are not the same in the current and reference conﬁgurations (introduced as being “natural” for writing results for shells) somewhat complicates the interpretation of the numbers we store. with E2 and E3 deﬁned from the beam section deﬁnition option and beam normals given as part of the nodal coordinate deﬁnition. and we can do so by choosing particular sets of basis vectors that offer the most convenience for our purposes. For beams E1 is along the beam axis. since these are just the e at the beginning of the motion) to be a local. E1 is the projection of the global z -axis onto the surface. e and E . The choice of which system is used as this local orthonormal basis is made in ABAQUS at two levels: we distinguish continuum (“solid”) elements from structural (shell and beam) elements. if the global x-axis is almost normal to that surface at the point. In ABAQUS we wish to express results as simply and directly as possible. For continuum elements with the orientation speciﬁed by the user and in all cases for shells. and membranes. orthonormal system at each point. the speciﬁed E are used. by extension. we can always project the general results onto such a system when that system is chosen speciﬁcally at each point where we need to make the projection—typically at the integration points of the elements. In all cases E3 is normal to the shell’s reference surface. beams. By default. At points where the orientation is deﬁned by the user. First. E1 and E2 are the projections of the two speciﬁed axes onto the reference surface at the point. In the previous few paragraphs we have chosen to explore the expression of the basic results we have derived so far for the kinematics of the total motion in terms of quite general basis systems. Thus. E1 is the projection of the global x-axis onto the reference surface or. For continuum elements the default E are unit vectors along the axes of the global Cartesian system chosen for the problem. Although it is not possible to construct a Cartesian system with orthonormal base vectors over a general shell surface.

e e.

= .

thus. g. . so e = e and.

= g.

= g = .

and—in particular—E E. .

= .

. and.

= .

G 1 1 1. since the components of thus. This simpliﬁes the understanding of all the quantities we write.1–7 . .4.

DEFORMATION any tensor T.

from our perspective of studying ﬁnite element formulations. we shall assume that the basis on which they are written has the orthonormal property e 1 e. are always the physical projections of that tensor-valued quantity on the local orthogonal basis system e and we need not distinguish covariant and contravariant components as we did in the general development above. whenever we need to write down particular components of a tensor. but this is a minor point. (In an axisymmetric system we also have to use dx3 = r d to ensure that the e3 base vector is a unit vector. they are bought at modest cost. since we generally only consider a single integration point at a time.. Throughout the rest of this manual. .. since we cannot construct a single system with the orthonormal property on a general curved surface.) The simpliﬁcations are valuable and. In practical terms the only price we must pay for this simplicity is in shells when we have to use a separate basis system at each point under study.

= .

Reference • “Conventions. The material also undergoes rigid body translation.1–8 . which is important in choosing interpolation functions for the ﬁnite elements. since then the strain and rotation depend on the difference between two very large motions. . Numerically.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1.” Section 1.4.2. but this is not important in the development since we need consider only relative motion of neighboring points because we are interested in the deformation of the material to link the kinematics of the motion to the material’s constitutive behavior. One is that the spatial discretization must allow rigid body translation without giving strain. The other is that care must be exercised to ensure that the strain and rotation are calculated accurately when the rigid body motion is large. rigid body translation is signiﬁcant only for two reasons.

The choice is a matter of convenience. To see where it is useful and where not.2–1 . so " = 0 at = 1 (this was the main reason for introducing this idea of “strain” instead of just using the stretch ratio). This alternative choice is often made in geomechanics textbooks because geotechnical problems usually involve compressive stress and strain. implying that the strain is positive in compression when < 1. so the stretch ratio would often have values of 2 or more. along some “gauge length” d . when the material is “unstrained. Strain in one dimension We already have a measure of deformation—the stretch ratio . Such a material has an elastic modulus of about 200 2 103 MPa (30 2 106 lb/in2 ) at room temperature and a yield stress of about 200 MPa (30 2 103 lb/in2 ). of that gauge length: X " = f ( ): The objective of introducing the concept of strain is that the function f is chosen for convenience. we deﬁne strain as a function of the stretch ratio. In ABAQUS we always use the convention that positive direct strains represent tension when > 1.001 in tension.STRAIN MEASURES Introduction & Basic Equations 1. to each value of stretch there corresponds a unique value of strain. This choice is retained consistently in ABAQUS. hence. 0. is itself an adequate measure of “strain” for a number of problems. is for all > 0) so that strain increases monotonically with stretch. In addition. we choose df=d = 1 at = 1 so that " = f (1) + ( 0 1) for small strains we have the usual deﬁnition of strain as the “change in length per unit length. the concept of strain is introduced. . suppose " is expanded in a Taylor series about the unstrained state: 2 1 df 2d f + ( 0 1) + 111 (1.2 STRAIN MEASURES Strain measures used in general motions are most simply understood by ﬁrst considering the concept of strain in one dimension and then generalizing this to arbitrary motions by using the polar decomposition theorem just derived. the basic idea being that the strain is zero at = 1. To avoid this inconvenience.” This ensures that. in one dimension.4. (The choice of df=d > 0 is arbitrary: we could equally well choose df=d < 0. including in the geotechnical options. In fact. In contrast. so the stretch at yield will be about 1. a typical structural steel component will be designed to respond elastically to its working loads. The stretch ratio is an unsatisfactory way of measuring deformation for this case because the numbers of interest begin in the fourth signiﬁcant digit.2–1) d 2! d2 We must have f (1) = 0.” In one dimension. ﬁrst notice that the unstrained value of is 1.0. we require that df=d > 0 for all physically reasonable values of (that. all strain measures deﬁned in this way will give the same numerical value to the order of the approximation when strains are small (because then the higher-order terms in the Taylor series are all negligible)—regardless of the magnitude of any rigid body rotation. To see what this implies.4.999 in compression.) 1.4. Finally. A typical soft rubber component (such as a rubber band) can change length by a large factor when it is loaded.

the elastic part of the strain can be assumed to be small.1. its generalization to a strain tensor in any three-dimensional motion can be computed directly from the deformation gradient without requiring solution for the principal stretch ratios and their directions. We ﬁrst choose the function f that will be used as the strain measure. many strain measures are possible. Later we will see that this strain measure is mathematically appropriate for such materials because.” Section 1. for these materials. Some examples are Nominal strain (Biot’s strain): f () = 0 1: In a uniformly strained uniaxial specimen. The matrix 1. This deﬁnition is the most familiar one to engineers who perform uniaxial testing of stiff specimens. In “Deformation. when “true” stress (force per current area) is plotted against log strain. "I = f (I ) will be the strain along the ﬁrst principal direction. we now generalize the idea to three dimensions.STRAIN MEASURES With these reasonable restrictions (f = 0 and df =d = 1 at = 1. it appears that log strain is particularly appropriate to plasticity. because. tension. Since strain is usually the link between the kinematic and the constitutive theories.4.4. compression and torsion test results coincide closely. nI . Strain in general three-dimensional motions Having deﬁned the basic concept of “strain” in one dimension.2–2 . 1 10 2 01 : Green’s strain: f () = 2 This strain measure is convenient computationally for problems involving large motions but only small strains. we established that the deforming part of the motion in the immediate neighborhood of a material point is completely characterized by six variables: the three principal stretch ratios (I . All of these strains satisfy the basic restrictions. where l is the current and L the original gauge length. as mentioned above. and the appropriateness of the strain measure with respect to the particular constitutive model. This immediately gives the generalization of the one-dimensional strain function introduced above. this strain is measured as (l=L) 0 1. Logarithmic strain: f () = ln : This strain measure is commonly used in metal plasticity. and several are commonly used. the convenience of this choice in the context of ﬁnite elements is based on two considerations: the ease with which the strain can be computed from the displacements. For example. One motivation for this choice in this case is that. and III ) and the orientation of the three principal stretch directions in the current (or in the reference) conﬁguration. II . while large-strain elasticity analysis (for rubbers and similar materials) can be done quite satisfactorily without ever using any “strain” measure except the stretch ratio . Obviously many strain functions are possible: the choice is strictly a matter of convenience. "II = f (II ) will be the strain along nII . and "III = f (III ) will be the strain along nIII . as we will show later. and df=d > 0 for all > 0). since the latter are usually the basic variables in the ﬁnite element model.

2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.1–10: we might consider " to be deﬁned by the matrix function " = f ( V) .2–3 (1.4. We now need an algorithm to obtain ". which is possible only for certain choices of the strain measure. Notice the resemblance to the deﬁnition of the stretch matrix. where we understand a matrix function to mean that the two matrices have the same principal directions with their principal values related by the deﬁnition of f . nII . f (). and nIII .2–2 we have written the matrix " by using the principal strain directions in the current conﬁguration. F 1 FT 0 I = V 1 V 0 I 2 2 2 T T T = (I 0 1) nI nI + (II 0 1) nII nII + (III 0 1) nIII nIII : 1. II 2 and III 2. The unit matrix I can be written as I = nI nI T + nII nII T + nIII nIII T : Using Equation 1.4. the algorithm requires computation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a 3 2 3 matrix at each of many points in the model at each of many iterations. The strain measures reported by ABAQUS are enumerated in “Conventions.4. In a ﬁnite element code the deformation gradient F is usually computed at each material calculation point from the displacement solution at the nodes of each element and the interpolation function chosen for the element. We can then calculate "I = f (I ). which is a convenient shorthand way of indicating a relationship between two matrices. for the function f chosen as the strain measure and. given a choice of strain measure.1–12.2–3) .4.4. In Equation 1. which involves some computational cost. We could equally have begun with the polar decomposition into a stretch followed by rotation of the principal directions of stretch: " would be deﬁned in a similar way and would then be associated with its principal directions in the reference conﬁguration. Thus.1–12: the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 3 2 3 matrix F 1 FT are I 2 . it would be useful if " could be computed less expensively from F. There is no obvious reason for this choice: either approach would sufﬁce so long as the user knows which is being used. However.4. Equation 1.” Section 1. and nI .2–2) completely characterizes the state of strain at the material point. thus. ABAQUS generally reports strains referred to directions in the current conﬁguration. etc. We now consider one such possibility. This algorithm is available immediately from Equation 1. construct " = "I nI nI T + "II nII nII T + "III nIII nIII T : This algorithm also gives principal strain and stretch values—often a useful output because they give a concise description of the state of deformation at a point.4.STRAIN MEASURES Introduction & Basic Equations " = " I nI nI T + "II nII nII T + "III nIII nIII T (1.

+ @X @X is useful only for small displacement gradients—that is. (The more standard deﬁnition of Green’s strain matrix is obtained by using FT 1 F instead of F 1 FT . Thus.” Section 1. Finally.2. was restricted so that. However. ! "= 1 2 @u @u T . we see "g = 1 2 ( F F T 0 I) 1 is then a generalization of Green’s strain in one dimension. This can be demonstrated by considering pure rotation of a specimen: even though the material is not stretched. small-strain formulations for such problems as shell buckling. followed by rigid body rotation of those axes. We have already suggested that logarithmic strain is the most appropriate for elastic-plastic or elasticviscoplastic materials in which the elastic strains are always small (because the yield stress is small compared to the elastic modulus).2–4 . V. Recall that strain is the link between the kinematics and the constitutive theory. or stretch along the principal axes. The small-strain. for small strains but arbitrary rotations. f (). U. R.2–3. both the strains and the rotations must be small for this strain measure to be appropriate. so the strain matrix is taken on the reference conﬁguration instead of the current conﬁguration as a basis: "G = 1 2 ( F T 1 F 0 I ): The deﬁnition we have adopted is consistent with taking the strain matrix on the current conﬁguration.2–2 and Equation 1. The choice is arbitrary.4. for such cases Green’s strain is a very convenient choice for computing the strain. all strain measures are the same to the order of the approximation. large-rotation approximation is often useful—especially in structural problems (shells and beams) because there the thinness or slenderness of the members often allows large rotations to occur with quite small-strains—and Green’s strain is commonly used in large-rotation. followed by stretch along those axes. the components of this measure of strain become nonzero as the rotation increases. so it appears that the computational convenience of Green’s strain cannot be used to advantage. it is worth remarking that the familiar “small-strain” measure used in most elementary elasticity textbooks.STRAIN MEASURES Green’s strain was deﬁned in one dimension as "G = that 1 2 ( 2 0 1): Comparing this one-dimensional deﬁnition with Equation 1. This advantage makes Green’s strain computationally attractive. thus. the choice of a strain function.4.4. The only difference between the two deﬁnitions is the conﬁguration in which the matrix is deﬁned— whether we think of the motion as rigid body rotation of the principal axes of stretch. available directly from the deformation gradient without ﬁrst having to solve for the principal directions. Reference • “Conventions. so the strain choice should be optimal based on the two considerations of convenience and appropriateness.) Green’s strain matrix is.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1. R.

rather than looking at a ﬁxed point in space and watching the material ﬂowing through this point. x. The velocity of a material particle is v= x @ @t . so d v=L x=L F X 1d @ @t : We could also obtain the velocity difference directly by d v= ( _ F X) = F X 1d 1d . so usually the constitutive relationships are deﬁned in rate form.3 RATE OF DEFORMATION AND STRAIN INCREMENT Many of the materials we need to model are path dependent. Here.4. where v L= x @ @ (1.3–1 . we introduced the deﬁnition of the deformation gradient matrix. again.4. we take the Lagrangian viewpoint: we observe a material particle and follow it through the motion. of a ﬁxed material particle. dX.1.4. where _ F= F @ @t . which requires a deﬁnition of strain rate. F: d x=F X 1d 1d 1 . The velocity difference between two neighboring particles in the current conﬁguration is d v= v x=L x x @ @ 1d 1d . where the partial differentiation with respect to time (t) means the rate of change of the spatial position. we see that _ L F=F 1 1.” Section 1. the gauge length between them in the reference conﬁguration. having chosen these particles. because dv is deﬁned as the velocity difference between two neighboring material particles and.3–1) is the velocity gradient in the current conﬁguration. has no time derivative. In “Deformation.RATE OF DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations 1.4. so. Comparing the two expressions for dv in terms of the reference conﬁguration gauge length dX. The Lagrangian point of view is used for the mechanical modeling capabilities in ABAQUS because we are usually dealing with history-dependent materials and the Lagrangian perspective makes it easy to record and update the state of a material point since the mesh is glued to the material. is the same throughout the motion and.

_ dv . just as in small motion theory we decompose the inﬁnitesimal displacement gradient into an inﬁnitesimal strain and an inﬁnitesimal rotation. The typical inelastic constitutive model requires as input a small but ﬁnite strain increment ". from the total deformation in the increment. thus. Since these are rate quantities. v.3–2 1 . " is not integrable into a total strain measure. F: _ _ _ 1 1 1 1F = 1 V 1 1R: 1. Nevertheless. In ABAQUS/Explicit and for shell and membrane elements in ABAQUS/Standard. In one dimension " is "= _ which identiﬁes " as the rate of logarithmic strain. for example. when the principal strain directions rotate independent of the material. with the displacement. the identiﬁcation of " with the rate of logarithmic strain in the particular case of nonrotating principal directions provides a useful interpretation of the logarithmic measure of strain as a “natural” strain if we think of " . as a “natural” measure of strain rate. The symmetric part of the decomposition is the strain rate (it is called the rate of deformation matrix in many textbooks) and is _ L = F F 01 : 1 _ "= 1 0L + LT 1 2 ! @v T 1 @v = 2 @ x + @x : = 1 0L 0 LT 1 2 ! @v T @v = 1 @x 0 @x : 2 _ These are particularly simple and familiar forms. the spin can be treated as a vector. For most element types in ABAQUS/Standard we approach this problem by ﬁrst using the polar decomposition in the increment to deﬁne the change in the average material rotation over the increment. The antisymmetric part of the decomposition is the spin matrix. dx " = ln : This interpretation would also be correct if the principal directions of strain rotate along with the rigid body motion (because the identiﬁcation can be applied to each principal value of the logarithmic strain matrix). as it is deﬁned above as the symmetric part of the velocity gradient with respect to current spatial position. In the general case. we can decompose L into a symmetric strain rate matrix and an antisymmetric rotation rate matrix. as well as vector and tensor valued state variables (such as the stress) that are written on the current conﬁguration. " is identical to the elementary deﬁnition _ of “small strain” if we replace the particle velocity. a slightly different algorithm is used to calculate R. R.4. u.RATE OF DEFORMATION or Now L will be composed of a rate of deformation and a rate of rotation or spin.

1 we can make use of the polar decomposition of the increment of deformation into a stretch on the axes at 1 ) to write the start of the increment followed by rotation ( 1F = 1R 1U 1 d L = dt (1F) F01 d = dt (1R) 1U + 1R 1 1 d = dt (1R) 1RT + 1R 1 1U dt d d dt 1 1 U0 1 1 R T 1 1 1 (1U) 1U01 1RT 1 1 1 so that the integrand in the deﬁnition of the increment of strain is 1R T 1 L+L T 1 d 1R = dt (1U) 1U01 + 1U01 d dt (1U): 1.3–2.3–2) _ Then our integration of " is the matrix 1". solely to account for the rigid body rotation in the increment: a 1R a ) 1 for a vector.3–3 .4.4.4. thus. on the basis at the end of the increment. this is 1 1" = 2 1R(t + 1t) Since Z 1 1t 0 1 R (t + ) L (t + ) + L ( + ) 1R(t + ) d 1R(t + 1t)T : T 1 T t 1 (1. rotates the deformation basis—in the sense that it rotates the principal axes of Since we assume deformation and. and A 1R A 1R T ) 1 1 for a tensor. For this we proceed as follows. which may provide further updates to them because of constitutive effects. as 1R 1 1 L L = 1R(t + 1t) 1R(t + )T L 1R(t + ) 1R(t + 1t)T .4. These rotated variables are now passed to the constitutive routines.3–3) 1 d L = dt (1F) 1F01. and deﬁned by Z 1t 1" = sym0L(t + )1 d: 1 1 1 +1 0 Using Equation 1. which must be supplied in the form of the strain increment ".RATE OF DEFORMATION Introduction & Basic Equations All vectors and tensors associated with the material (whose values are available at the beginning of the increment from previous calculations) can now be rotated to the conﬁguration at the end of the increment. 0 1t: (1. These constitutive effects will be associated with deformation. referred to the ﬁxed basis at t t. provides a measure of average material rotation—we can deﬁne the velocity gradient at any time during the increment.

as long as we assume that the stretch at any time during the increment has the same principal directions as the total increment of stretch (on the ﬁxed basis at the start of the increment).4.3–4 . 1" = ln(1I )nI nI + ln(1II )nII nII + ln(1III )nIII nIII = ln 1V: 1U( + ) = 1U( + 1 ) 0 1 Thus.RATE OF DEFORMATION We now assume that the incremental stretch at any time in the increment written on the basis at the .3–3. III . from Equation 1. so that beginning of the increment. but it is consistent with the levels of approximation used in the integration of the inelastic constitutive models. hence. therefore. the logarithmic deﬁnition of incremental strain provides the required integral of the strain rate expressed as the rate of deformation. hence.2. Reference • “Conventions. write 1 d (1U) 1 1U01+1U01 1 d (1U) = (1I 0 1)(1=1t) NI NI 2 dt dt 1 + (1I 0 1)( =1t) (1II 0 1)(1=1t) NII NII + (1III 0 1)(1=1t) NIII NIII + 1 + (1II 0 1)( =1t) 1 + (1III 0 1)( =1t) Z 1t 1 d and. always has the same principal directions I .4. 0 2 dt 01 + 1U01 1 d (1U) d (1U) 1 1U dt = ln(1I )NI NI + ln(1II )NII NII + ln(1III )NIII NIII so that. This assumption might be questionable if the increments are very large. thus. have a simple method for calculating the strain increment for use in this type of constitutive model without any additional loss of accuracy compared to what we already accept in the constitutive integration itself. We. and. II . where p is any scalar that we take to grow during the increment: that monotonically from 0 to 1 during t.” Section 1. This assumption amounts to requiring that the components of stretch grow proportionally t p t t . 1U N N N 1U = 1 + (1I 0 1) 1t NI NI + 1 + (1II 0 1) 1t NII NII + 1 + (1III 0 1) 1t NIII NIII d (1 dt and 1 (1I 0 1)NI NI + (1II 0 1)NII NII + (1III 0 1)NIII NIII U) = 1t 1 1 01 = 1U + 1 + (1I 0 1)( =1t) NI NI 1 + (1II 0 1)( =1t) NII NII + 1 + (1 10 1)( =1t) NIII NIII : III We can.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1. ﬁnally.

4. The motion deﬁned by F consists of rigid body motion and deformation. the principal values of the nominal elastic strain "el are all very small compared to unity: j"el I j << 1. the assumption that the elastic strains are always small forms the basis of almost all of the inelastic material models provided in ABAQUS. thus. For the general case there is no advantage in associating rigid body motion with both the inelastic and the elastic deformation: we lose nothing by writing where R is the rigid body rotation of the principal axes of deformation and Vel and Vpl are each symmetric. 1. such as conventional structural metals. _ by deﬁning the elastic and plastic velocity gradients.4–2) and Lpl pl = _ F 1 ( Fpl )01. 1 (1.4–1) from which we can obtain the velocity gradient with respect to position in the current conﬁguration. we can imagine isolating the immediate neighborhood of a single point in the material. Lel = Fel (Fel )01 1 1 1 (1. the reverse of the elastic deformation. _ L = F 1 F01 . we are writing the deforming part of the motion as an inelastic stretch along the principal axes of the total deformation and an elastic stretch along these same axes. 1 1 Fel = Vel = (1 + " I ) I el n nI + (1 + "el II )nII nII + (1 + "el III )nIII nIII . Since the behavior is so common. The deformation between the original reference state and this elastically unloaded state is then the inelastic deformation. and allowing the material to unload: the deformation associated with this unloading will then be (Fel )01 .4. by F = Vel Vpl R. We can take advantage of this behavior to simplify the description of the deformation of such a material. removing all external forces from the isolated piece.4–1 . For the materials of concern here we now assume that. if we write Vel = I + "el . be decomposed as F = Fel Fpl . preventing any further inelastic deformation. This section discusses the description of the deformation for this case. We begin by assuming that the material has a natural elastic reference state in the sense that. as _ _ L = Fel (Fel )01 + Fel Fpl (Fpl )01 (Fel )01 .4. Then L = Lel + Fel Lpl (Fel )01. can carry only very small amounts of elastic strain (the elastic modulus is typically two or three orders of magnitude larger than the yield stress). Fpl : Fpl = (Fel )01 F: 1 The total deformation can.4 THE ADDITIVE STRAIN RATE DECOMPOSITION Many useful materials.STRAIN RATE DECOMPOSITION Introduction & Basic Equations 1. 1 1 1 1 which we write as analogy with the deﬁnition of the total velocity gradient. at any time in the deformation.4. Thus.

" = sym(Lel ). Reference • “Inelastic behavior. elastic.4–1 when we use the symmetric part of the velocity gradient _ with respect to current position (the rate of deformation.” Section 11. The strain rate decomposition is used in this form in almost all of the inelastic constitutive models in ABAQUS: whenever we refer to an elastic or inelastic _ _ strain rate. el pl _ _ _ " " +" .4.4–2 . We see that it derives from the general decomposition Equation 1. ") as the measure of strain rate and when the total elastic strain is always small compared to one.4–2 can be approximated: L = Lel + (I + " el ) 1 Lpl 1 (I + ("el )01 ) Lel + Lpl : Taking the symmetric part. and inelastic strain rates. and " = sym(Lpl ) are the total. we imply " el or "pl .4–3) _ _ _ where " = sym(L).1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1.4.STRAIN RATE DECOMPOSITION and so Equation 1.1.4. el pl (1.4–3 is the classical “strain rate decomposition” of plasticity theory.4.4. Equation 1.

and let the body force at any point within the volume of material under consideration be f per unit of current volume.5. (1. The displacement ﬁnite element method is based on approximating this equilibrium requirement by replacing it with a weaker requirement.EQUILIBRIUM AND VIRTUAL WORK Introduction & Basic Equations 1. dV . Applying the Gauss theorem to the surface integral in the equilibrium equation gives Z S n1 dS = Z @ V @x 1 dV : 1.” where “loading” implies some series of events to which the body’s response is sought. forces.1–2) where n is the unit outward normal to S at the point. we should emphasize that we are adopting a Lagrangian viewpoint: the volume being considered is a volume of material in the body—speciﬁcally. Force equilibrium for the volume is then Z S t dS + Z V f dV = 0: (1. The exact solution of such a problem requires that both force and moment equilibrium be maintained at all times over any arbitrary volume of the body. where we are examining a volume in space and watch material ﬂowing through that volume.5. Using this deﬁnition. which is distinct from the Eulerian approach. that equilibrium must be maintained in an average sense over a ﬁnite number of divisions of the volume of the body. deformations. Let V denote a volume occupied by a part of the body in the current conﬁguration.1–1) The “true” or Cauchy stress matrix at a point of S is deﬁned by t =n1 . stresses. and let S be the surface bounding this volume.) Let the surface traction at any point on S be the force t per unit of current area.1–2 is Z S n1 dS + Z V f dV = 0: Gauss’s theorem allows us to rewrite a surface integral as a volume integral according to Z S n1( ) dS = Z @ V @x 1 ( ). In this section we develop the exact equilibrium statement and write it in the form of the virtual work statement for later reduction to the approximate form of equilibrium used in a ﬁnite element model.5.5.1 EQUILIBRIUM AND VIRTUAL WORK Many of the problems to which ABAQUS is applied involve ﬁnding an approximate (ﬁnite element) solution for the displacements. and—possibly—other state variables such as temperature in a solid body that is subjected to some history of “loading. V is the volume of space occupied by this material at the “current” point in time. vector or tensor. Equation 1.5. (Again. where ( ) is any continuous function—scalar.1–1 .

1–5) 1.) The basis for the development of a displacement-interpolation ﬁnite element model is the introduction of some locally based spatial approximation to parts of the solution.5. deﬁned by Equation 1.” deﬁned. body forces. In deriving them we have made no approximation with respect to the magnitude of the deformation or rotation—the equations are an exact statement of equilibrium so long as we are precise about our deﬁnitions of surface tractions.1–2).1–2 . If there are. (1. the differential equilibrium statement in any particular direction at any particular point can always be recovered by choosing the test function to be nonzero only in that direction at that point. Conversely. vector-valued “test function. which is completely arbitrary except that it must obey any prescribed kinematic constraints and have sufﬁcient continuity: the dot product of this test function with the equilibrium force ﬁeld then represents the “virtual” work rate. volume. As the test function is quite arbitrary. The test function can be imagined to be a “virtual” velocity ﬁeld. need only consider translational equilibrium when explicitly writing the equilibrium equations.5. thus providing the differential equation of translational equilibrium: @ @x 1 + f = 0: (1. which is obtained by multiplying the pointwise differential equations by an arbitrary. To develop such an approximation. but they are not relevant to any of the models provided in ABAQUS.5. we automatically satisfy moment equilibrium and. For this case of equilibrium with a general stress matrix.1–3) These are the three familiar differential equations of force equilibrium. we begin by replacing the three equilibrium equations represented by Equation 1. by taking the stress matrix to be symmetric. Taking the dot product of Equation 1. and integrating. stress (Cauchy stress. Moment equilibrium is most simply written in the general case by taking moments about the origin: Z Z S (x 2 t) dS + V (x 2 f ) dV = 0: Use of the Gauss theorem with this equation then leads to the result that the ‘‘true’’ (Cauchy) stress matrix must be symmetric: = T .1–4) so that at each point there are only six independent components of stress. (The moment equilibrium equation written above assumes that there are no point couples acting on the volume.1–3 by an equivalent “weak form”—a single scalar equation over the entire body. the stress matrix does not have the symmetry property of Equation 1. v. with suitable continuity.5.5.5.EQUILIBRIUM AND VIRTUAL WORK Since the volume is arbitrary.1–3 with v results in a single scalar equation at each material point that is then integrated over the entire body to give Z @ V @x 1 +f 1 v dV = 0: (1.1–4. and area. this equivalent “weak form” is the virtual work principle. this equation must apply pointwise in the body.5. therefore.5. Continuum mechanics models that allow for such point couples have been developed. over the entire volume.

v + : @x @ so that Z @ V @ x 1 1 dV v amp . = t 1 v dS 0 : @x dV @ S V amp. (using the Gauss theorem with the ﬁrst term) v Z Z amp.EQUILIBRIUM AND VIRTUAL WORK Introduction & Basic Equations The chain rule allows us to write @ @ x ( v) = 1 1 @ @ x 1 1 v . (using the de.

nition of Cauchy stress with the .

the virtual work statement. S V = 1 Z @ ( 1 v) 0 : @ Thus.5. v dV @ @ v x Z ZV @ x = n 1 1 v dS 0 : @ x dV .1–5. With these deﬁnitions : L = : D + : : Since is symmetric. we obtain the virtual work equation in the classical form 1. We can decompose the gradient into a symmetric and an antisymmetric part: L = D + . can be written Z S t 1 v dS + f 1 v dV = V @ Z Z : @ v dV : @x From the previous section we recognize v = L @x as the virtual velocity gradient in the current conﬁguration. Equation 1.rst term). : = 1 : L 0 1 : LT = 1 : L 0 1 : L = 0 : 2 2 2 2 Finally.5.1–3 . where D = sym(L) = 1 (L + LT ) 2 is the virtual strain rate (the virtual rate of deformation) and = asym( L) = 1 ( L 0 LT ) 2 is the virtual rate of spin.

We can show that any two of these three statements (virtual work. Z S v t dS + 1 Z V v f dV : 1 (1.EQUILIBRIUM AND VIRTUAL WORK Z Recall that .2.5. Reference • “Conventions. tf V : D dV = . Its advantage in this regard is that it is a statement of equilibrium cast in the form of an integral over the volume of the body: we can introduce approximations by choosing test functions for the virtual velocity ﬁeld that are not entirely arbitrary. and are an equilibrium set. This approach provides a stronger mathematical basis for studying the approximation than the alternative of direct discretization of the derivative in the differential equation of equilibrium at a point.1. 1 D = 2 @ v + @v T . equilibrium. with a suitable test function. but whose variation is restricted to a ﬁnite number of nodal values.5.1–4 . = T . The principle of virtual work is the “weak form” of the equilibrium equations and is used as the basic equilibrium statement for the ﬁnite element formulation that will be introduced in “Procedures: overview and basic equations. @x @x v ! and is compatible with all kinematic constraints. .” Section 1.1–6) t=n 1 @ @ D and v are compatible. The virtual work statement has a simple physical interpretation: the rate of work done by the external forces subjected to any virtual velocity ﬁeld is equal to the rate of work done by the equilibrating stresses on the rate of deformation of the same virtual velocity ﬁeld.” Section 2. v x 1 + f = 0.1.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1. which is the typical starting point for a ﬁnite difference approach to the same problem. and compatibility of the test function ) imply the other: we can thus use the virtual work principle. as a statement of equilibrium.

the stress measure deﬁned by " dW 0 = : d" .5.2–1 . but so far we only have “true” stress and a wide range of possible strain measures. derived on the basis of the discussion in “Strain measures.” " Section 1. This internal virtual work rate may be rewritten as an integral over the natural reference volume: Z Z V V0 0 is the Jacobian of the elastic deformation between the natural reference and the current where J = dV=dV volume—the ratio of the material’s volume in the current and natural conﬁgurations.5.2–1 deﬁnes a conjugate stress measure for any chosen strain measure. and is now the stress matrix that is work conjugate to d". although—as we develop the argument—it is worth remembering that the Cauchy (“true”) stress is—from the engineer’s viewpoint—probably the only measure of stress of practical interest as an output value from a computer code like ABAQUS. “Mechanical Constitutive Theories.” The other (second Piola-Kirchhoff stress) is discussed because it is frequently mentioned in standard texts.2–1) : D dV = J : D dV 0 . for isothermal deformations. elastic. the rate of deformation. reference state to which it will return upon unloading.5.5. One of the alternative stress deﬁnitions developed in this section (Kirchhoff stress) is relevant to the constitutive development in Chapter 4.5. this reference state will be modiﬁed by the inelastic deformation to which the material is subjected. The internal virtual work rate was expressed in Equation 1.2.1–6 directly in terms of Cauchy stress. we expect the elasticity of the material to be derivable from a thermodynamic potential written about this reference state so that.5. Equation 1. This exercise has some value. (1.5. we can deﬁne a stress matrix conjugate to any strain matrix that we might choose to use. For a material that yields. Further. It is convenient to think of a solid material as having a natural. because it is a direct measure of the traction being carried per unit area by any internal surface in the body under study. = J (1. in the sense that the product of the stress and the strain rate deﬁnes work per current volume. For a fully elastic material like rubber. state. By deﬁning the concept of conjugacy more precisely. On this basis we formalize the concept of conjugacy by writing the work rate per unit of volume in this elastic reference state as where " is a particular choice of strain matrix. such as a metal. this state will always be the original. unstressed. and the virtual velocity gradient.STRESS MEASURES Introduction & Basic Equations 1.1–6) expresses equilibrium in terms of Cauchy (“true”) stress and the conjugate virtual strain rate.2–2) is work conjugate to the strain measure whose rate is the rate of deformation D = sym @v @x : 1. For this reason ABAQUS always reports the stress as the Cauchy stress. According to the work conjugacy concept just deﬁned.2 STRESS MEASURES The virtual work statement (Equation 1.4. (Here “conjugate” means work conjugate. there will be a potential function for the elastic strain energy per unit of the natural reference volume.) It is natural to think of stress and strain as conjugate quantities.

it follows that _ _ dW 0 = J : (F0T 1 "G 1 F01 ) = J (F01 1 1 F0T ) : "G : (This last manipulation is most readily seen by looking at the equation in component form. It is useful in the development of constitutive models at large strain because it is the most directly available stress measure when we wish to think of the strain rate measured by the rate of deformation and are considering a material with an elastic reference state.” Section 1. where is the rotation of the principal axes of deformation and is the right stretch matrix (the stretch written on the reference conﬁguration). II = 1+" II III = 1 + "III . the standard Green’s strain matrix was deﬁned with respect to the reference conﬁguration as F "G = 1 2 1 2 ( F T F 0 I) . the right stretch tensor can be written as U = (1 + "I )NI NI T + (1 + "II )NII NII T + (1 + "III )NIII NIII T = I + ": 1. D = F0T 1 "_ G 1 F01. We now develop the stress measure work conjugate to Green’s strain. because Green’s strain matrix. can be computed directly from the deformation gradient . We can perform the polar decomposition as = 1 .” Section 1. If we write the principal stretches in terms of nominal principal strains. " G . . thus.3) we have _ = 1 so that F L F _ "G = F T 1 0L + L T 1 1 F 2 T = F 1D1F 1 and. the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress is readily interpreted.4. The discussion of strain suggested that Green’s strain is convenient for the description of problems involving small strains but rotations that are not small.) Thus.5. _ is the stress that is work conjugate to "G . 1 so the rate of Green’s strain is _ "G = (_ _ F T 1 F + FT 1 F ) : From the discussion of the rate of deformation (“Rate of deformation and strain increment.2–2 . For general motions including large strains is not readily interpreted physically. where F0T means the inverse of the transpose of F. Since the work rate per unit reference volume is dW 0 = J : D. This stress measure. But for the important case of large rotations and small strains. is known as the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor.2.STRESS MEASURES This measure of stress is called Kirchhoff stress. S = J F01 1 1 F0T S S U F RU R I = 1+ "I .4. From “Strain measures.

“Mechanical Constitutive Theories. and also because we prefer to use Cauchy stress as the most natural expression of the stress at a point. the (1.” all stress measures are indistinguishable. 1 and the inverse deformation gradient can be approximated by F 0 1 = ( I + " )0 1 R T (I 0 " ) 1 R T . (We have identiﬁed this in one dimension as the logarithmic strain. if the stress-strain curve for a material is plotted using different stress and strain measures (for example.STRESS MEASURES Introduction & Basic Equations The deformation gradient can be written as F = R (I + " ).2–3 . 1) component of S.” The work conjugacy principle implies that. regardless of the current orientation of that surface. = J .5. Thus. J Therefore. as will be seen in Chapter 4. When the small-strain approximation is no longer valid. One interpretation of this is that. Thus.) We then use the Kirchhoff stress. as the stress measure for our constitutive deﬁnitions. From a constitutive viewpoint we have already introduced the basic idea of the approach we will follow: we identify the natural reference for the material’s elastic response and use stress and strain measures that provide a conjugate pairing so that the elastic potential can be readily expressed.5. Then. throughout the deformation. Since we are often interested in the rate behavior of a material. for this case we can think of S as a “material” or “corotational” stress: the material stress and strain are unique. provided strains remain small. to the order of the approximation.2–3) Neglecting terms of order strain compared to unity (since this is the small-strain approximation). S 11 will always be the axial stress in the beam. it is attractive to consider the usage of the strain measure whose rate is the rate of deformation. consider a beam whose axis was initially parallel to the X -axis. if we use a rectangular Cartesian basis system. For example. is the normal component of force per unit area acting on a surface that was normal to the X -axis in the reference conﬁguration. = det F = det(R)det(I + " ) = 1 + 0("): S (1 + 0("))(I 0 " ) 1 RT 1 1 R 1 (I 0 ")T : S = RT 1 1 R: (1. because in this case the strain measures are the same. associated with directions in the reference conﬁguration. In addition. 1 since—for the small-strain case—all entries in " are very much smaller than one. “true” stress versus 1. it is essential to use appropriate measures of stress and strain. S 11 . it is this stress measure that is used in forming constitutive models in ABAQUS at large strains. we obtain This result gives a very simple physical interpretation of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress for small strains but arbitrarily large rotations: the components of S are the rotated axis components of . for “small strains. the components of S are the stress components. with respect to the reference state for the material’s elasticity. That is. no matter how much the beam is rotated or bent (provided the strains remain small compared to unity).

Reference • “Conventions.2–4 .5.” Section 1.2.STRESS MEASURES log strain. and as nominal stress versus engineering strain) the small-strain approximation is no longer appropriate at strain levels where these two plots differ to any degree considered important to the analysis.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1.

because the Kirchhoff stress components are associated with spatial directions in the current conﬁguration (recall that the Kirchhoff stress is J . but equally clearly this rate of change of stress has nothing to do with the constitutive response of the material making up the bar. Write the stress components on the global (1.5.5. Obviously during t1 ! t2 .3–1). 2.) The problem. was decomposed into a rate of deformation and a spin. it was suggested that an appropriate stress measure for stress-sensitive materials (such as yielding materials) is the Kirchhoff stress. The differences are signiﬁcant only if ﬁnite rotation of a material point is accompanied by ﬁnite shear. and all other ij = 0. t n t n e v x @v @v D = 1 @x + @x 2 T ! and Our concept of the motion of the base vectors in ABAQUS/Standard is that e = 1 e : _ e 1 @v = 2 @x 0 @v @x T ! : For shell and membrane elements a slightly different approach is used to rotate the base vectors. 3: These vectors cannot stretch but are deﬁned to spin with the same spin as the material. then. even though from a constitutive point of view the material is unchanged. 11 = P=A.3 STRESS RATES Many of the materials we wish to model with ABAQUS are history dependent. where J is the volume change from the reference conﬁguration and is the Cauchy stress. 3) rectangular Cartesian basis. @ =@ . such as the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress.2. we must divide the increment of or into two parts—one attributable to rigid body motion only and a remainder that is then. . In “Stress measures. We.” Section 1. is that the components of or are associated with current directions in space and. would stay constant during the above rotation.STRESS RATES Introduction & Basic Equations 1. therefore. d11 6= 0 and d22 6= 0. d and d will be nonzero if there is pure rigid body rotation. 2. Recall that the spatial gradient of the material particle velocity at a point. based on the current conﬁguration: we can write it in terms of its Now consider any matrix components in the directions: e T T = T . 22 = P=A. associated with the rate form of the stress-strain law. presumably. and all other ij = 0. where and are vectors in the current conﬁguration). while at time t2 . This deﬁnition is not simply the material time rate of Kirchhoff stress. because its components are associated with a material basis. At some time t imagine attaching to a material point a set of base vectors. Thus. lying along the x-axis at time t1 and rotated—with the axial force held constant—to lie along the y-axis at time t2 (see Figure 1. (A materially based stress. and it is common for the constitutive equations to appear in rate form. At time t1. We can derive a simple result for this purpose for any matrix whose components are associated with spatial directions. = 1.5. therefore. deﬁned by = 1 . need to deﬁne the rate of Kirchhoff stress for use in the constitutive equations. consider a uniaxial tension specimen under constant axial force P . To illustrate the issue.

e eT : .

Taking the time derivative then gives _ _.

_ .

T = T_ .

e eT + T .

e eT + T .

e eT : .

3–1 . 1.5.

1 time t1 P y.1 Figure 1. or Jaumann. The second and third terms are the rate of T caused by the rigid body spin. so the ﬁrst term is that part of T caused by other effects (in the case of stress. so _ T = Tr + T .2 P P x. The corotational rate of T for shells and membranes is called the Green-Naghdi rate and differs slightly from the Jaumann rate. rate of T.5.STRESS RATES y.2 P time t2 x. the rate associated with the constitutive response). We will write this as Tr . called the corotational.3–1 Rotated specimen.

e _ T e.

+ T .

e _T e.

we can rewrite this as _ T = Tr + T . : From the deﬁnition of e as rigid base vectors that spin with the local rigid body motion.

1 e T e.

+ T .

e T e.

3–2 .5. 1 T = Tr + T + T T 1 1 : 1.

“Mechanical Constitutive Theories. have the total rate of any matrix associated with spatial directions in the current conﬁguration as the sum of the corotational rate of the matrix and a rate caused purely by the local spin. Reference r d (J ) = d (J ) + J 1 + 1 T : dt dt r We are assuming that the constitutive theory will deﬁne d (J ).3–3 . so this equation provides a convenient link between that material model and the overall change in “true” (Cauchy) stress (which is the stress measure deﬁned directly from the equilibrium equations). in terms of the rate of deformation and past history.2. the rate of change of Kirchhoff stress can be written as reference volume. thus.STRESS RATES Introduction & Basic Equations We.” Section 1. which is the stress measure work conjugate dt to the rate of deformation. “stress rate” per reference volume r will mean d (J ).5. the corotational stress rate per dt • “Conventions.” where the constitutive models in ABAQUS are discussed.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1. In Chapter 4. the corotational rate of Kirchhoff stress. For example.

.

X. Y. We refer to this local material basis at time t as eM jt . spatial. where the superscript M indicates that the basis i is associated with material calculations and jt means that the basis is taken at time t. In this section Latin subscripts (like the i above) take the range 1–3.5.and 3-directions in material directions in the cross-section. For anisotropic materials the material basis must be deﬁned by the user and rotates with the average rigid body spin of the material. while Greek subscripts will take the range 1–2. In this case the material basis and the element basis are not the same. The purpose of this section is to deﬁne the manner in which such tensors are stored and updated. Z system is used—the material basis is ﬁxed in time. although for structural elements the material basis changes with time. orthonormal. a. with isotropic materials the material basis is always the same as the element basis. element’s nodes at times t and t The polar decomposition of F is +1 1 1F = 1V 1R.4 STATE STORAGE Many of the constitutive models in ABAQUS require tensors to be stored to deﬁne the state at a material calculation point.STATE STORAGE Introduction & Basic Equations 1. and for beams and trusses it is deﬁned with the 1-direction along the axis of the member and the 2.4–1 =1 I n I n I . For isotropic materials in structural surface elements (shells and membranes) the local system is deﬁned by the standard ABAQUS convention described in “Conventions. + 1t of local motion at the material calculation point is deﬁned 1F def @ xtx t : = @ +1 t This matrix is calculated from the gradient interpolator of the ﬁnite element and the coordinates of the t. say (such as the stress tensor ). Three types of local basis are used in ABAQUS for material calculations. The orientation of that system with respect to the global X.5.2. Such “material state tensors” are stored as their components in a local.” Section 1. For isotropic materials in continuum elements the global. 1. 1 where 1R is the average rigid body rotation at the material point and 1V is a pure stretch matrix: 1V = 3 X1 I (here 1I is a principal stretch ratio and nI is a principal stretch direction). Z spatial system is stored as a rotation from the global axis system. is stored in terms of its components along the material basis: ( ) ( ) a = aij eM eM : i j The increment from time t to time t by the incremental deformation gradient.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. system at the material calculation point. Any tensor associated with the material’s state. Thus. Y.

the strain increments are rotated from the element basis into the material basis: e 1"M = 1"E [eM eE ][eM eE ]: ij kl i k j l 1 1 1 1 Likewise. where 1ar is the change in a caused by constitutive behavior and 1R is the average incremental rigid j 1 j 1 During an increment any material state tensor changes according to to deﬁne the update of material tensor components: (aij ) t+1t = 1ar + 1Rik(akl) t1Rjl: ij It is. therefore. Since material tensors are written in terms of their components in the material basis system. 3 1"M = 1"E [eM eE ][eM eE ]. the material stiffness matrix. (aij ) t+1t = 1ar + (aij ) t: ij j j and so the update of a material tensor’s components simpliﬁes to However. e 1Rij = eM t+1t 1R eM t: i j j 1 1 j 1 1R e 1 eM t+1t = 1R eM t: i i j j In this case we see that 1Rij = ij . at the start of the material calculation routines. since in this case the material basis system is not the same as the element basis system.STATE STORAGE body rotation of the material. M . rotates with the average rigid body rotation i . necessary to project 1R onto the material basis systems at the start and end of the increment For isotropic materials the M have been chosen for geometric convenience only. the stress increments are rotated back to the element basis for integration into the discretized approximation to the equilibrium equations: E M 1ij = 1kl [eE eM ][eE eM ]: i k j l Dijkl In addition. Speciﬁcally. E i (which is chosen for geometric convenience for element calculations). . def = @ij @"kl must also be rotated from the material basis to the element basis: E Dijkl M = Dmnpq [eE eM ][eE eM ][eE eM ][eE eM ]: i m j n k p l q 1 1 1 1 For a shell or membrane only two-dimensional rotations are required—for example. this update is computed as j j a t+1t = 1ar + 1R a t 1RT . since M 3 e e E because both are unit vectors along the normal to the surface. at the end of the material calculation routines. so the Rij are i quite general. and so is updated by of the material. transformations must be done to change basis system. For anisotropic materials the material basis system.

.

1 1 Reference • “Conventions.4–2 .2.” Section 1.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1.5.

@x _ where " is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor (see “Rate of deformation and strain increment.5–3) From Cauchy’s equation of motion we have @ 1 +f @x = dv : dt 1.5–2) since we also know (see “Equilibrium and virtual work.5.1) that @v _ : = " : .5–1 yields 1 d ( v 1 v + U )dV dt V 2 Z Z = @ _ 1 + f ) 1 v + : " ]dV: V @x [( (1. Substituting Equation 1. the ﬁrst term of the right-hand side of Equation 1. U t f n Using Gauss’ theorem and the identity that t = 1 n on the boundary S .5.ENERGY BALANCE Introduction & Basic Equations 1.5.5–1 can be rewritten as Z S v 1 tdS = @ ) 1 (v 1 )dV @x ZV @v @ = 1 ) 1 v + : ]dV [( @x @x ZV @ _ = 1 ) 1 v + " : ]dV.5–1 .5.3).5 ENERGY BALANCE The conservation of energy implied by the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics states that the time rate of change of kinetic energy and internal energy for a ﬁxed body of material is equal to the sum of the rate of work done by the surface and body forces.5.5–1) where v is the current density.5–2 into Equation 1.5. is the internal energy per unit mass.5.” Section 1.5. [( @x V ( Z (1.5. (1.4. is the body force vector.” Section 1. is the velocity ﬁeld vector. is the surface traction vector. and is the normal direction vector on boundary S . This can be expressed as 1 d ( v 1 v + U )dV dt V 2 Z Z = Z S v 1 tdS + V f 1 v dV.

tf . the internal energy is split into two contributions: Z t Z Z t Z 0 c 1 _ _ EU = : " dV dt = + d : "dV dt V V 0 0 Z t Z Z t Z _ _ c : " dV dt + d : "dV dt = V V 0 0 = E I + EV .5. EU . and the frictional traction. we integrate it in time: Z Z t Z 1 _ v 1 vdV + U dV = EW F dt + constant.5. the kinetic energy.5. is given by v 1 vdV: V 2 For convenience.5–2 .5–3 gives 1 d ( v 1 v + U )dV dt V 2 Z dv _ 1 v + : " )dV ZV dt d 1 _ = [ ( v 1 v ) + : "]dV: dt 2 V = ( = _ : ": Z From this we get the energy equation The internal energy. V 2 V 0 _ where EWF is the rate of work done to the body by external forces and contact friction forces between the contact surfaces. An energy balance for the entire model can be written as EU + EK + EF 0 EW = constant. t. _ _ where EW is the rate of work done to the body by external forces and EF is the rate of energy dissipated by contact friction forces between the contact surfaces. into the surface distributed load.ENERGY BALANCE Substituting this into Equation 1. tl . 1 (1.5–4) where EK . _ EWF can be written as Z _ EWF = S v1t l dS + Z V f 1 v dV 0 0 Z S v 1 tf dS _ = EW _ 0 EF .5.5–1) more convenient to use. is then deﬁned as dU dt Z EU = V U dV Z t Z = 0 V _ : "dV dt: To make the energy balance (Equation 1. EK = Z 1. deﬁned as Z Z _ v 1 tdS + f 1 v dV: EWF = S V We can further split the traction.

and " cr are elastic.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “ABAQUS/Explicit output variable identiﬁers. which we continue to call the internal energy. References • “ABAQUS/Standard output variable identiﬁers.” Section 4. and viscoelasticity). EV is the energy dissipated by viscous effects.5–5) where ES is the recoverable elastic strain energy. and dashpots). and EI is the remaining energy. and EC is the energy dissipated by time-dependent deformation (creep. If we introduce the strain _ _ _ _ _ _ _ decomposition.2.ENERGY BALANCE Introduction & Basic Equations where c is the stress derived from the user-speciﬁed constitutive equation and d is the viscous stress (deﬁned for bulk viscosity.2.5. Z0t ZV _ c : "dV dt dt + Z t Z 0 V _ c : " pl dV dt + Z t Z 0 V _ c : "cr dV dt (1. "pl . swelling. material damping. and creep strain rates.” Section 4. EP is the energy dissipated by plasticity.5. can be expressed as EI = Z t Z _ c : "el dV = V 0 = ES + EP + EC .5–3 .2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 1. respectively). " = "el + "pl + " cr (where "el . plastic. EI . the internal energy.

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1 2.14 2.6 2.9 2.17 2.12 2.Chapter 2 Procedures Overview Nonlinear solution methods Buckling and postbuckling Nonlinear dynamics Modal dynamics Complex harmonic oscillations Steady-state transport analysis Analysis of porous media Coupled ﬂuid-solid analysis Piezoelectric analysis Heat transfer Coupled thermal-electrical analysis Mass diffusion Substructuring Submodeling Fracture mechanics Stress linearization Design sensitivity analysis 2.8 2.16 2.4 2.18 .13 2.11 2.2 2.10 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.15 2.

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Automatic control is particularly valuable in cases where the time or load increment varies widely through the step. as is often the case in diffusion type problems (such as creep.1. A step is any convenient phase of the history—a thermal transient. ABAQUS/Standard then automatically selects the increments as it develops the response in the step.1–1 . The nonlinear procedures in ABAQUS/Standard offer two approaches to this. Direct user control of increment size is one choice. a “step” is just a static analysis of a load change from one magnitude to another.7. Procedures 2.PROCEDURES OVERVIEW 2. In nonlinear problems the objective is to obtain a convergent solution at a minimum cost. Since the state of the model (stresses. ABAQUS/Standard provides both linear and nonlinear response options.1.) is updated throughout all analysis steps. so linear analysis is always considered as linear perturbation analysis about the state at the time when the linear analysis procedure is introduced. if natural frequency extraction is performed after a geometrically nonlinear static analysis step. The procedure choice can be changed from step to step in any meaningful way. thus deﬁning the type of analysis to be performed during the step: dynamic stress analysis. fully automatic and requires no user intervention. In this chapter the basic equations for the most important analysis procedures in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are described.” Section 7.e. whereby the user speciﬁes the incrementation scheme. for example. etc. hence. In each “step” the user chooses a procedure. In its simplest form in ABAQUS/Standard. eigenvalue buckling. the preload stiffness will be included. etc. This linear perturbation approach allows general application of linear analysis techniques in cases where the linear response depends on preloading or the nonlinear response history of the model. and consolidation). A basic concept in ABAQUS is the division of the problem history into steps. etc. strains. the explicit dynamics procedure cannot be used in the same analysis as any of the procedures in ABAQUS/Standard. hence. heat transfer. However.) are discussed. ABAQUS provides a capability to import a deformed mesh and associated material state from ABAQUS/Explicit into ABAQUS/Standard and vice versa. An important aspect of this ﬂexibility is the manner in which ABAQUS allows the user to step through the history to be analyzed. damping. This approach is usually more efﬁcient. cavity radiation. a dynamic transient. User-speciﬁed time incrementation is not available because it would always be nonoptimal. Automatic control is the alternate approach: the user deﬁnes the step and speciﬁes certain tolerances or error measures. temperatures. a creep hold. etc. transient heat transfer analysis. because the user cannot predict the response ahead of time. Thus.. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are separate program modules with different data structures. The time incrementation scheme is. In some sections speciﬁc aspects of an analysis procedure (i. the effects of previous history are always included in the response in each new step. In ABAQUS/Explicit the time incrementation is controlled by the stability limit of the central difference operator.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. This is accomplished by deﬁning analysis procedures.1 PROCEDURES: OVERVIEW AND BASIC EQUATIONS ABAQUS is designed as a ﬂexible tool for ﬁnite element modeling. This procedure is described in “Transferring results between ABAQUS/Explicit and ABAQUS/Standard. The program is truly integrated.

v v v = NN vN : The continuum variational statement Equation 2.1.1. We begin with the equilibrium statement. “Elements. 1 Z V 1 (2.5.5.PROCEDURES OVERVIEW Basic ﬁnite element equations This section describes the basic equations for standard displacement-based ﬁnite element analysis.1–1 is. the interpolation assumption gives v v " " = . and because it is a rate form. so must also have the same spatial form: N u = N N uN .” Section 1. uN are nodal variables. . " Now " is the virtual rate of material strain associated with .1–1) where N are interpolation functions that depend on some material coordinate system.1. thus.1–6: Z V : dV D Z = S tT v dS + f T v dV : 1 Z V 1 Following the discussion in “Equilibrium and virtual work. Introducing the above interpolation constrains the displacement to have a certain spatial variation. the left-hand side of this equation (the internal virtual work rate term) is replaced with the integral over the reference volume of the virtual work rate per reference volume deﬁned by any conjugate pairing of stress and strain: Z where c and " are any conjugate pairing of material stress and strain measures. must be compatible with all kinematic constraints. The virtual ﬁeld. Equation 1. The particular choice of " depends on the individual element—see Chapter 3. written as the virtual work principle. it must be linear in .” The ﬁnite element interpolator can be written in general as V0 " c : " dV 0 = Z S tT v dS + f T v dV . approximated by a variation over the ﬁnite set vN . and the summation convention is adopted for the uppercase subscripts and superscripts that indicate nodal variables. Hence.

N vN . where .

on the current position. N is a matrix that depends. The matrix . in general. . of the material point being considered.

N that deﬁnes the strain variation from the variations of the kinematic variables is derivable immediately from the interpolation functions once the particular strain measure to be used is deﬁned. Without loss of generality we can write .

N = .

N ). N ( . and—with this notation—the equilibrium equation is approximated as x x N Z vN Z V .

2.1. N : c dV 0 = vN 0 Z S NT N 1 t dS + V NT 1 f dV N .1–2 .

we can choose each one to be nonzero and all others zero in turn. to arrive at a system of nonlinear equilibrium equations: Z This system of equations forms the basis for the (standard) assumed displacement ﬁnite element analysis procedure and is of the form V0 .PROCEDURES OVERVIEW since the v N are independent variables.

the inertia contribution is more commonly considered separately. Let such a restricted variation be indicated by @N = @=@uN .1–3) where d( ) represents the linear variation of the quantity ( ) with respect to the basic variables (the degrees of freedom of the ﬁnite element model). Ar = jdS=dS 0 j is the surface area ratio between the reference and the current conﬁguration. H g " H : d" + g. only. In dynamic analysis.. allowing variations in the nodal variables. 0 df J Z d Z (2.1. “Mechanical Constitutive and for the material models currently available Theories. giving Z V0 (d c : " + c : d")dV 0 0 " " V 1 tT 1 v dS 0 tT 1 vdAr Ar dS S S Z Z T 1 vdV 0 f T 1 vdJ 1 dV = 0.1–3 term by term with this in mind. we begin by taking the variation of Equation 2. we proceed as follows.1–2) F N (uM ) = 0 discussed above. The above equations are valid for static and dynamic analysis if the body force is assumed to contain the inertia contribution.1. direction of straining. however. and on the kinematic assumptions used to form the generalized strains. See Chapter 4. " @" @uN = . The ﬁrst term contains d c .1. From the choice of generalized strain measure and interpolation function.1. H g @N " = From the above constitutive assumption.” for a detailed discussion of forming in ABAQUS. In the above expression J = jdV=dV 0 j is the volume change between the reference and the current volume occupied by a piece of the structure and. N : c dV 0 = Z NT t dS + NT f dV : S N V N 1 1 Z (2. We now assume that the constitutive theory allows us to write V d c = where and are deﬁned in terms of the current state. uN .1–1. likewise. leading to the equations Procedures M NM uM + F N (uM ) = 0: For the Newton algorithm (or for the linear perturbation procedure) used in ABAQUS/Standard. Examining Equation 2. To develop the Jacobian. we need the Jacobian of the ﬁnite element equilibrium equations. etc. The Jacobian matrix is obtained by restricting the above variation.

N: @N c = H : .

1–3 .N: 2.1.

" " = @M "uM Z = .PROCEDURES OVERVIEW " Now. since " is the ﬁrst variation of " with respect to nodal variables.

M uM : Thus. the ﬁrst term in the Jacobian matrix is V 0 .

M : H : .

the . since the strain measure " will always be nonlinear in displacement. N dV 0. the usual “small-displacement stiffness matrix.” except that.

which is c : @N .1.1–3 is Z V This is rewritten as 0 " c : d" dV 0 : Z Z V0 V0 " c : @N " dV 0 . The second term in Equation 2. N in this term will be a function of displacement.

centrifugal load) do depend on position—for example. depends on the pressure magnitude. Z T N 0 NM 1 QS dS 0 NT 1 QV dV : S V M N 2. N 1 f + f J @N J = Q V . x) and f = f (. we can write the Jacobian terms pertaining to the last four terms of Equation 2. M dV 0: This term contributes to the Jacobian and is the “initial stress matrix. In general. these load vectors can be written t = t(. if is caused by pressure on the surface.1. Whether the load depends on position or not depends on the particular load type. but common types of loading (pressure.1–3 as N v = NM vM . The variation of the load vector with nodal variables can then be written symbolically as t @N 1 t + t A r @N A r = Q S . on the direction of the normal to the surface.1–4 Z .1.1–3 are considered next.1. N @N and then writing where M is obtained directly from the interpolation functions. and on the current surface area: the latter two are functions of the current position of points on the surface.” The external load rate terms in Equation 2. t where represents the externally prescribed loading parameters. x).

” The actual form of the load stiffness is very much dependent on the type of load being considered—see Chapter 3.” and Hibbitt (1979) for examples.PROCEDURES OVERVIEW These are commonly called the “load stiffness matrix. The complete Jacobian matrix is then KMN = Z . “Elements.

: H : .

N dV V0 M 0 + 0 c : @N .

1.1.1.1–2 and Equation 2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.1.1–4 provide the basis for the Newton incremental solution.1–5 . Equation 2.1. Reference Procedures • “Procedures: overview.” Section 6.1–4) Thus. given speciﬁcation of the interpolation function and constitutive theories to be used. M dV 0 0 NT 1 QS dS 0 NT 1 QV dV : V S M N V M N Z Z Z (2.

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to the solution has been obtained. ABAQUS/Standard generally uses Newton’s method as a numerical technique for solving the nonlinear equilibrium equations.2. the magnitude of each M will be small.1–1 is to be solved at each increment. after an iteration i. The motivation for this choice is primarily the convergence rate obtained by using Newton’s method compared to the convergence rates exhibited by alternate methods (usually modiﬁed Newton or quasi-Newton methods) for the types of nonlinear problems most often studied with ABAQUS. Two issues arise: how the discrete equilibrium statement Equation 2.1 NONLINEAR SOLUTION METHODS IN ABAQUS/Standard The ﬁnite element models generated in ABAQUS are usually nonlinear and can involve from a few to thousands of variables. This means that F N F is the force component conjugate to the N th variable in the problem and N ( M) = 0 u . . M (2. Assume that. . an approximation M M ui . (2. The basic formalism of Newton’s method is as follows. Many of the problems to which ABAQUS will be applied are history-dependent.1–1.1–1 for the uM throughout the history of interest.1–1 . .NONLINEAR SOLUTION METHODS 2.1–2) u M) i : is the Jacobian matrix and F iN = N ( M ) i u c The next approximation to the solution is then u M = M+ M i+1 i i+1 2.2. = 0 M is a close approximation to the solution.2.1–1) Procedures N( M + M ) = 0 i i+1 u c u c : u Expanding the left-hand side of this equation in a Taylor series about the approximate solution gives F If u c the ﬁrst two terms above can be neglected giving a linear system of equations: K N M P P ( i ) i+1 2 N M P Q + P Q ( i ) i+1 i+1 + . so the solution must be developed by a series of “small” increments.2. and so all but i i+1 N( M) + i u @F @u @ F @u @u u c c : M i then where K iNP P+1 = 0 i NP = N ( i P c @F @u F u F iN .2. Let ci+1 be the difference between this solution and the exact solution to the discrete equilibrium equation Equation 2. and how the increment size is chosen. The basic problem is to solve Equation 2. In terms of these variables the equilibrium equations obtained by discretizing the virtual work equation can be written symbolically as u is the value of where F the M th variable.2.2.

but the user is allowed to choose a symmetric approximation to the Jacobian on the grounds that the resulting modiﬁed Newton method converges quite well and that the extra cost of solving the full nonsymmetric system does not justify the savings in iteration achieved by the quadratic convergence of the full Newton method. in ci+1 ABAQUS/Standard also prints peak values in the force residuals.2. incremental displacements. in which the Jacobian in Equation 2. This method is attractive for mildly nonlinear problems involving softening behavior (such as contained plasticity with monotonic straining) but is not suitable for severely nonlinear cases. compared to Newton. The most commonly used alternative to Newton is the modiﬁed Newton method.” Section 2. First. the integration of history-dependent variables must be performed completely over the increment at each iteration and not obtained as the sum of integrations associated with each Newton iteration. ci . in calculating the Fi ). the method is expensive per iteration. (In some cases ABAQUS/Standard uses an approximate Newton method if it is either not able to compute the exact Jacobian matrix or if an approximation would result in a quicker total solution time.1–2 is symbolically rewritten ci+1 P = 0[KiNP ]01FiN and the inverse Jacobian is obtained by an iteration process. In ABAQUS/Standard this is done by assuming that the basic nodal variables. and corrections to the incremental displacements at each iteration so that the user can check for these contingencies himself.2.1–2 . the complete Jacobian matrix is sometimes difﬁcult to formulate. the savings might be offset by the additional arithmetic involved in the residual evaluations (that is. 2.NONLINEAR SOLUTION METHODS and the iteration continues. The more appropriate methods for structural applications appear to be reasonably well behaved in all but the most extremely nonlinear cases—the tradeoff is that more iterations are required to converge.) Another alternative is the quasi-Newton method. While the savings in forming and solving the Jacobian might seem large. u. the intermediate. In other cases the user is allowed to drop interﬁeld coupling terms in coupled procedures for similar reasons.2. but in other cases they are more expensive. vary linearly over the increment. Both these criteria are checked by default in an ABAQUS/Standard solution. ABAQUS/Standard offers the “BFGS” quasi-Newton method: it is described in “Quasi-Newton solution technique. Convergence of Newton’s method is best measured by ensuring that all entries in FiN and all entries N are sufﬁciently small. thus. so it must be calculated numerically—an expensive (and not always reliable) process. and for some problems it can be impossible to obtain this matrix in closed form. nonconverged solutions obtained during the iteration process are usually not on the actual solution path.2. as in the initial strain method of simple contained plasticity problems). When any iterative algorithm is applied to a history-dependent problem. Thus. and in the cascading vector transformations associated with the quasi-Newton iterations. There are a wide range of quasi-Newton methods.2. Secondly. for some practical cases quasi-Newton methods are more economic than full Newton.1–2 is recalculated only occasionally (or not at all. in which Equation 2. so that u ( ) = 01 0 1t 1u(t) + 1t u(t + 1t). apparently for two reasons. several of the models in ABAQUS/Standard result in a nonsymmetric Jacobian matrix. Newton’s method is usually avoided in large ﬁnite element codes. because the Jacobian must be formed and solved at each iteration. For example.

If convergence is deemed unlikely. thus. The issue of choosing suitable time steps is a difﬁcult problem to resolve. dynamic. ABAQUS/Standard continues with the iteration process. In dynamic and diffusion problems it is exceptional to encounter discontinuities in the time history. For static problems a number of schemes have been suggested for automatic step control (see. Thus.2. This control is handled internally. The technique used in ABAQUS/Standard for this is discussed in “Intermittent contact/impact. These detailed controls are based on empirical testing. therefore.1–3 . The basic idea is that the time stepping operator t in terms of displacement at the end deﬁnes the velocities and accelerations at the end of the step t t . most static problems have no imposed time scale. ABAQUS/Standard adjusts the load increment. Equilibrium is then established at t ensures an equilibrium solution at the end of each time step and.) However. this accuracy requirement imposes restrictions on the choice of time step. and an increment that appears to be converging is not aborted because it needed a few more iterations. ABAQUS/Standard determines whether convergence is likely in a reasonable number of iterations. at the beginning and end of any Procedures ( +1 ) ( +1 ) 2. if convergence is deemed likely. In this way excessive iteration is eliminated in cases where convergence is unlikely. Then. the automatic time stepping is based on the concept of half-step residuals (Hibbitt and Karlsson. because inertia or viscous effects provide smoothing in the solution. or diffusion cases. for example. In contrast. in static cases sharp discontinuities (such as bifurcations caused by buckling) are common. limit load. 1979). which prevents excessive computation in cases where buckling. the considerations upon which time step choice is made are quite different for the three different problem classes. require special consideration in static cases but are handled naturally in dynamic or diffusion cases. ABAQUS provides both “automatic” time step choice and direct user control for all classes of problems. 1978). By comparing consecutive values of these quantities. g t ( + 1 t) = g (t) + Z t+1t t dg d ( ) d at each iteration. (One of the exceptions is impact. and the only criterion involved in time step choice is accuracy in modeling nonlinear effects.. it will cut back the increment size if an element inverts due to excessively large geometry changes. Several other controls are built into the algorithm.” Section 2. g(t). However. It is always necessary to model the response as a function of time to some acceptable level of accuracy.2. for any history-dependent variable. Bergan et al. the automatic schemes in ABAQUS are based on extensive experience with a wide range of problems and.NONLINEAR SOLUTION METHODS where we compute 0 1t represents “time” during the increment. First of all. or unconstrained systems. the considerations are quite different in static. with user override if needed. generally provide a reliable approach. Even if the problem is linear. which of the step and conditions at the beginning of the step. ABAQUS/Standard uses a scheme based predominantly on the maximum force residuals following each iteration. One other ingredient in this algorithm is that a minimum increment size is speciﬁed. Direct user control can be useful in cases where the problem behavior is well understood (as might occur when the user is carrying out a series of parameter studies) or in cases where the automatic algorithms do not handle the problem well.4. In the case of dynamic or diffusion problems time is a physical dimension for the problem and the time stepping scheme must provide suitable steps to allow accurate modeling in this dimension. or some modeling error causes the solution to stall. Softening systems. for example. In dynamic analysis when implicit integration is used.

3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Time integration accuracy in transient problems.” Section 8. Clearly. the time step is considered to be too big and is reduced by an appropriate factor. If the maximum half-step residual is sufﬁciently below the user-speciﬁed tolerance. Here.NONLINEAR SOLUTION METHODS individual time step. together with the solution obtained at t t= . by using the integration operator. as well as in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.3. The algorithm is somewhat more complicated at traumatic events such as impact. Otherwise.” Section 8.2. if these residuals are several orders of magnitude greater than those permitted. The time step control is based on measuring the equilibrium error (the force residuals) at some point t . ( + 1 2) ( +1 ) References • “Convergence criteria for nonlinear problems. However. the time step can be increased by an appropriate factor for the next increment.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.1–4 . the time step is deemed adequate. If the maximum interpolate within the time step.3.2.” Section 2. They are products of experience and many numerical experiments and have been shown to be effective in several problem areas of interest. the time step can also be adjusted based on the magnitude of residuals in the ﬁrst or second iteration following such events.4. These algorithms are discussed in more detail in “Intermittent contact/impact. these equilibrium solutions do not guarantee equilibrium throughout the step. to during the time step. The evaluation is performed at the half step t entry in this residual vector—the maximum “half-step residual”—is greater than a user-speciﬁed tolerance. convergence is unlikely and the time step is altered immediately to avoid unproductive iteration.

ABAQUS/Standard uses the standard Newton method.2. The principal advantage of Newton’s method is its quadratic convergence rate when the approximation at NM provide an iteration i is within the “radius of convergence”—that is. 0 (2. Equation 2.2–2) where c0M is the correction to the solution from the previous iteration. the BFGS (Broyden. The user must select this method explicitly: by default.2. There are a number of important nonlinear applications where the Jacobian is symmetric.2. as described in “Nonlinear solution methods in ABAQUS/Standard. especially when the problem is large. when the gradients deﬁned by Ki improvement to the solution. This method is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard and is described in this section. deﬁned in “Nonlinear solution i methods in ABAQUS/Standard. Fletcher. The “quasi-Newton” methods are such an approach. is fairly well conditioned.2. and does not change greatly from one iteration to the next.2.2.” Section 2. i0 Procedures (2.2.2–1 is the basic quasi-Newton so that Ki i equation. In most cases ABAQUS/Standard uses Newton’s method to solve these equations.2 QUASI-NEWTON SOLUTION TECHNIQUE A major contribution to the computational effort involved in nonlinear analysis is the solution of the nonlinear equations (Equation 2.” Section 2.2–1 can be written = FiN 0 FiN 1.QUASI-NEWTON SOLUTION TECHNIQUE 2. the direct solution of the linear equations can dominate the entire computational effort. and Matthies and Strang (1979) have shown that. for systems of equations with a symmetric Jacobian matrix.2–1 . Goldfarb. For convenience we deﬁne the change in the residual from one iteration to the next as e NM uM F N (u M ) 0 F N (u M 1 ) = K i i i0 i 0 1 0 uM 1 . it is difﬁcult to derive the form of the matrix algebraically.2. that satisfy the secant condition: e NM approaches K NM as the iterations proceed. Examples are implicit dynamic time integration with small time increments relative to the periods of the natural vibrations that participate in the response or small-displacement elastic-plastic analysis where the yielding is conﬁned (such as occurs in many practical fracture mechanics applications).1–1). The calculation of the Jacobian matrix is a problem because. Matthies and Strang’s implementation of the BFGS method is a computationally inexpensive method h i e NM of creating a series of approximations to Ki N i e =K iNM cM .2. Shanno) method can be written in a simple form that is especially effective on the computer and is successful in such applications. and this same matrix has to be solved. The basis of quasi-Newton methods is to obtain a series of improved approximations to the Jacobian e NM matrix.2–1 and retain the symmetry 2. The method has two major disadvantages: the Jacobian matrix has to be calculated.2. The solution of the Jacobian is a problem because of the computational effort involved: as the problem size increases. it can be less expensive to use an alternative to the Newton approach to the solution of the nonlinear equations.1.2–1) N i so that Equation 2. in many important cases. i 01 that satisfy Equation 2. In such cases.1. Ki .

so the same kernel can be used for several increments if the BFGS updates are successful. In the ABAQUS/Standard implementation the kernel is the actual Jacobian matrix @F N =@uM . the premultiplication and postmultiplication operations result in inner products of vectors and the scaling of vectors by constants: it is this organization that makes the method computationally attractive. i.2–2 . and the update is accomplished a “kernel” matrix. e MN e MN . so usually a new kernel matrix is formed and stored after some iterations. say.2–3) where i h i01 = 0 M cM i i e MN In the actual implementation of this version of the BFGS method.2. each Ki is not stored: rather. is used (as the decomposition of KI ). Reference • “Convergence criteria for nonlinear problems. .QUASI-NEWTON SOLUTION TECHNIQUE h i 01 h i 01 eN e NM and positive deﬁniteness of Ki M . I + 2. . In general. i i i : h i 01 3 (2. the rate of convergence of the quasi-Newton method is slower than the quadratic rate of convergence of Newton’s method.2. However. . the default number of iterations is 8. Because of the form of these terms.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.3. too many such products (i0I being bigger than. 5–10) are not attractive.” Section 8. They accomplish this by updating Ki01 “product plus increment” form: h e MN Ki i 01 e NM to Ki using a = 2 L I N L 0 i c N i i 3h e PL K i0 1 i 01 2 IP M 101 0 i iP cM + i cN cM . ABAQUS/Standard does not reform the kernel unless this value is exceeded. KI by premultiplication of the kernel matrix by the terms 2 L I NL 0 j cN j j 3 and postmultiplication of the kernel matrix by the terms 2 IP M 0 j jP cM j 3 for j = I + 1. It is formed whenever a speciﬁed number of iterations have been done without obtaining a convergent solution. though faster than the linear rate of convergence of the modiﬁed Newton method.

This approach. and R(t) is the residual vector. We also expand the residual vector in a truncated Fourier series in the same form as the displacement solution: n [Rs sin k!t + Rc cos k!t] . We use a truncated Fourier series for this purpose: n u (t) = u 0 + [us sin k!t + uc cos k!t] . and u0. To avoid the considerable numerical expense associated with such a transient analysis. I (t) represents the internal force vector generated by the stress. Rs . the direct cyclic algorithm is likely to be less expensive to use than the full Newton approach to the solution of the nonlinear equations. The equilibrium equations can then be written as the following linear system of equations: Kc(i+1) = R(i) . k k Procedures X where K is the elastic stiffness matrix and i stands for the iteration number. the solution of these nonlinear equations can dominate the entire computational effort.2. X T Z 0 2. The basic formalism of this method is as follows. where F (t) is the discretized form of a cyclic load that has the characteristic F (t + T ) = F (t) at all times t during a load cycle with period T . R (t) = R 0 + k k k=1 where each residual vector coefﬁcient R0. As the problem size increases. ! = 2=T is the angular frequency. The conversion of R(t) into Fourier terms is done incrementally on an element-by-element basis: 2 T R0 = R(t)dt. and uc are unknown displacement coefﬁcients. therefore. The direct cyclic algorithm uses a modiﬁed Newton method in conjunction with a Fourier representation of the solution and the residual vector to obtain the stabilized cyclic response directly. can be quite expensive. since the application of many loading cycles may be required before the stabilized response is obtained. Because the elastic stiffness serves as the Jacobian matrix throughout the analysis.DIRECT CYCLIC ALGORITHM 2. We are looking for a displacement function that describes the response of the structure at all times t during a load cycle with period T and has the characteristic u(t + T ) = u(t). a direct cyclic algorithm is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard and is described in this section. k k k=1 where n stands for the number of terms in the Fourier series.3–1 . especially when the problem is large. us . Therefore. the equation system is solved only once. and Rc in the Fourier series corresponds to a displacement k k coefﬁcient. Consider ck the corrections to the coefﬁcients of k k the displacement solution. At each instant in time it typically involves using Newton’s method to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations R (t) = F (t) 0 I (t) = 0 .2.3 DIRECT CYCLIC ALGORITHM The classical approach in ABAQUS/Standard to obtain the stabilized response of an elastic-plastic structure subjected to cyclic loading is to apply the periodic loading cycles repetitively to the unstressed structure until a stabilized state is obtained.

There are two accuracy aspects to this algorithm: the number of Fourier terms and the number of iterations to obtain convergence. k k k s(i+1) s (i ) s(i+1) uk = u k + ck : The updated displacement coefﬁcients are used in the next iteration to obtain displacements at each instant in time. Hence. Since the direct cyclic algorithm uses the modiﬁed Newton method. Both “automatic” time incrementation and direct user control of the time incrementation can be used in the direct cyclic method. More Fourier terms usually provide a more accurate solution but at the expense of additional data storage and computational time. local inaccuracies in the stress are less important.” Section 6. ABAQUS/Standard uses an adaptive algorithm to determine the number of Fourier terms during the analysis. the goal is to obtain a good approximation of the plastic strain cycle at each point.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. is always imposed from the beginning of an analysis. In determining the number of terms. This process is repeated until convergence is obtained. By delaying the application of the periodicity condition. Therefore. Reference u0 = u0 + 0 c .2. Each pass through the complete load cycle can therefore be thought of as a single iteration of the solution to the nonlinear problem. By default. in which the solution of an iteration starts with the solution at the end of the previous iteration. this is rarely necessary since the average stress and strain levels are usually not needed for low-cycle fatigue life predictions. when the loading is close to causing ratchetting). Convergence of the direct cyclic method is best measured by ensuring that all the entries in Rk and ck are sufﬁciently small. In such cases the user may wish to delay the application of the periodicity condition as an artiﬁcial method to reduce this drift. cs . we solve for the corrections to the displacement Fourier coefﬁcients— The next displacement coefﬁcients are then (i+1) (i ) (i+1) uc(i+1) = uc(i) + cc(i+1) . the periodicity condition. without affecting the shape of the stress-strain curves or the amount of energy dissipated during the cycle. However.2. • “Direct cyclic analysis. ABAQUS/Standard allows the user to choose when to impose the periodicity condition.DIRECT CYCLIC ALGORITHM Rs k =T T 2 2 ZT Z T 0 0 R(t) sin k!t dt. the user can inﬂuence the mean stress and strain level. both these criteria are checked in an ABAQUS/Standard solution. in cases where the periodic solution is not easily found (for example. and cc . R(t) cos k!t dt: Rc = k c0 . in which a constant elastic stiffness matrix serves as the Jacobian throughout the analysis. These nonlinearities are severe and would probably lead to convergence difﬁculties if they were included in the direct cyclic algorithm. The number of Fourier terms needed to obtain a solution depends on the time variation of the cyclic load as well as the variation of the structure response. the state around which the periodic solution is obtained may show considerably more “drift” than would be obtained in a transient analysis. k k At the end of each loading cycle. keep in mind that the objective of this kind of analysis is to make low-cycle fatigue life predictions. interface nonlinearities such as contact and friction are not taken into account.3–2 . By default.

and applied body forces qB q. and boundary displacements u. the virtual 1 F0T . q. where the prebuckling response is almost linear. and the deformation gradient F. In the buckling analysis procedure in ABAQUS we do not distinguish between the geometry of the base state and the linearly perturbed conﬁgurations. The buckling load estimate is obtained as a multiplier of the pattern of perturbation loads.3. Each distinct value of corresponds to a linear perturbation of the base state. The equations of equilibrium for an arbitrarily chosen conﬁguration during buckling. The corresponding rate form is given by Z VB _ @v P : @ X dV B = Z SB _ p v dS B + 1 Z VB _ b v dV B : 1 (2. the velocity gradient L. then for loads t.1–1) Since we have assumed that the base state and the current state are indistinguishable. p is the nominal traction on the boundary S B of the body in the base state. where the additional tractions and displacements are applied on mutually complementary parts of the boundary. and u the stress response will be .3. where is the velocity gradient L. If X represents the position of a material point in the base state. applied tractions tB t. q. 1 where v is an arbitrary virtual velocity ﬁeld. This estimation is typically useful for “stiff” structures. body forces b. and V B is the volume that the body occupies in the base state. we consider an elastic deformation with “small” displacement gradients under additional surface tractions t. and u. The following physical problem is addressed in eigenvalue buckling analysis: from an arbitrarily achieved base conﬁguration with stresses B in equilibrium with surface traction tB and body forces qB .1 EIGENVALUE BUCKLING PREDICTION ABAQUS/Standard contains a capability for estimating elastic buckling by eigenvalue extraction. the equilibrium equations can be expressed as Procedures 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 Z + 1 Z VB P: dV B @v @X = SB p 1 v dS B + Z VB b v dV B . referred to as the current conﬁguration. Such nontrivial incremental displacement ﬁelds are referred to as buckling modes. b represents the body force per unit volume in the base state. A consistent application of the small-displacement gradient assumption to the kinematics and the constitutive equation from an initially stressed state leads to the solution of a linear problem as the response to the additional loading. including nonlinear effects. which are added to a set of base state loads. It represents the initial state to which the perturbation loads are added. are written in terms of the nominal stress P in the base state.3. Among these perturbed states we seek special values of that allow for the existence of nontrivial incremental displacement ﬁelds with arbitrary magnitudes as valid solutions to the problem. As a result of this assumption we can seek the buckling modes as incremental displacements out of the base state geometry with stresses B . The base state of the structure may have resulted from any type of response history.EIGENVALUE BUCKLING PREDICTION 2. Since the problem is linear. we now proceed to express the left-hand side in terms of the rate of Kirchhoff stress . if is the stress response to the loads t. Such a deformation is a linear perturbation on a predeformed state. The response to the perturbation loads must be elastic up to the estimated buckling load values for the eigenvalue estimates to be reasonable.1–1 . Using the relations P _ = 2.

it follows that p and b at any given material point also change only through their dependence on the deformation gradient. For any material point the changes in t and q during buckling are completely characterized by the change of the deformation gradient at that point. and the 2 _ P: = VB Z @v dV B @X Z _ =L 1 F.1–2) . Assuming a hypoelastic constitutive law.EIGENVALUE BUCKLING PREDICTION Kirchhoff stress based on the base state as the reference conﬁguration.1–1 we note that the nominal tractions p and body forces b are given by p t dS=dS B and b q dV =dV B . Since the ratios of the surface area and volume measures between the reference and current conﬁgurations can be viewed as functions of the deformation gradient F only.1–1 VB _ P: @v dV B @X = = VB [ r : D + : (LT 1 L 0 2D 1 D)] dV B : In addition. the governing equation for the buckling analysis becomes () Z (B + 1) : (LT 1 L 0 2D 1 D) dV B 0 D : C( B ) : D dV B + VB VB Z Z B @p : L dSB 0 B v 1 @1p : L dSB 0 @F v1 S B @F S @1b Z Z @bB B0 v1 @F : L dV v1 @F : L dV B = 0. For the right-hand side of Equation 2.3. r = C( ) : D. For example. we can replace the Kirchhoff stress with the Cauchy stress since it is assumed that the current and reference conﬁgurations are indistinguishable. VB VB 2. hence. their rates of change can be written as = _ p= p= _ @p _ :F @F @p :L @F and and _ b= _ b= @b _ : F. for a pressure load the magnitude of the pressure remains constant but the surface normal changes—a change that is completely characterized by the change in the deformation gradient. loosely speaking. and F takes the form Z Z VB Jaumann rate of Kirchhoff stress r to transform this expression into [_ : L 0 ( 1 LT ) : L] dV B : _ We now use the relation between the rate of Kirchhoff stress . where dS and dV are the elements of surface area and volume in the current conﬁguration. and the change in the applied tractions and body force intensities arises due to the change in geometry.3.1–2 Z (2. where C is a fourth-order tensor that can depend on the current stress.3. the magnitude of the applied forces at any material point is kept ﬁxed. @F @b : L: @F or when the current and reference conﬁgurations are indistinguishable. Equation 2. the material spin ! = 1 (L 0 LT ).3.

To derive the ﬁnite element discretization for the expression above. The effective moduli are evaluated for the value of the stress and deformation in the base state. hypoelasticity. the governing equations for buckling then take the form of the standard eigenvalue problem: X v = v N N N (X ).1–2. the partial derivatives appearing in the load stiffness terms are all evaluated at uM corresponding to . Using the standard ﬁnite element approach.3. M @ NN B ) : @N : C ( dV B + 0 = B @x @ x sym V sym " N T M N # Z @N @ NM N B : @N dV B 0 0 2 @x 1 1 @@ x @x @x VB sym sym Z Z B @ bB N 1 @ p dS B 0 N @uM NN 1 @uM dV B . transforms into the ﬁnite element expression NN with 1 @ pB : @F @ NM vM @X @ pB = NN 1 @uM vM . rate effects and plasticity are ignored. the load stiffness term for the surface tractions appearing in Equation 2. and the load stiffness: K NM Z NM NM (K0 + K1 )vM = 0.3.EIGENVALUE BUCKLING PREDICTION where B and are the nominal tractions generated during buckling corresponding to the base state . the initial stress stiffness. respectively. Procedures NM is the base state stiffness and K NM is the differential stiffness. Since we do not distinguish between the current conﬁguration and the reference conﬁguration. SB VB where @ pB =@uM and @ bB =@uM are the derivatives of the nominal surface tractions and body forces with =0 F=I v1 @ pB @F :L . The base state stiffness is where K0 1 the sum of the hypoelastic tangent stiffness. similar deﬁnitions apply for the nominal tractions B and the linear perturbation tractions body force terms.1–3 " T # . For example. respect to the nodal displacements. The differential stiffness consists of the sum of the initial stress stiffness due to the perturbation stresses and the load stiffness due to the perturbation loads: N F = I + @@X M 1 @N @x K uK : N @ NM N NM = dV B 0 0 2 @x K1 1 : 1 @@ x B V sym sym Z Z p b NN 1 @1M dSB 0 B NN 1 @1M dV B : @u @u SB V Z @ NN @x 2. and hyperelasticity. The constitutive relation can represent elasticity. we introduce the interpolated velocity ﬁeld p t 1p 1t where represents the position in the base state.

” Section 6. the contribution derived from the applied loads (the load stiffness) is symmetric only if the applied loading is conservative— that is.2. If the load stiffness is nonsymmetric.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. 1 1 1 + + Reference • “Eigenvalue buckling prediction. however. Although in most analyses the lowest mode is the only one of interest. the contribution will be symmetrized since ABAQUS can solve eigenvalue problems only with symmetric matrices. and u are denoted by QN . q. the eigenvalues i represent the multipliers that provide the estimated generalized buckling load as P N i QN .1–4 . NM K NM (that is.EIGENVALUE BUCKLING PREDICTION The contribution in this expression that is derived from the stress is symmetric. If the generalized nodal “loads” resulting from both applied forces tB and qB as well as prescribed displacements uB are denoted by P N and those due to t. the structure is not “stiff” in If the tangent stiffness is predicted poorly by K0 1 the sense that the response is nonlinear prior to buckling). a nonlinear analysis using the Riks method is required to obtain a reliable estimate for the load carrying capacity of the structure. while the N corresponding eigenvectors vi give the associated buckling modes.3. ABAQUS is able to extract several modes simultaneously. if the loads can be derived from an energy potential. It is also worth noting that the common case of an antisymmetric buckling mode on a symmetric base state and buckling load is easily done with ABAQUS.

the most successful seems to be the modiﬁed Riks method—see. the load and/or the displacement may decrease as the solution evolves. Development of the solution requires that we traverse this path as far as required.2–1 Typical unstable static response.3. Crisﬁeld (1981). Several methods have been proposed and applied to such problems.3. Ramm (1981). at any time there 2. Also. that all load magnitudes vary with a single scalar parameter.3. during periods of the response. The essence of the method is that the solution is viewed as the discovery of a single equilibrium path in a space deﬁned by the nodal variables and the loading parameter. The basic algorithm remains the Newton method. therefore.2–1 .MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM 2. and Powell and Simons (1981)—and a version of this method has been implemented in ABAQUS.3. The modiﬁed Riks method is an algorithm that allows effective solution of such cases. Of these. we assume that the response is reasonably smooth—that sudden bifurcations do not occur. where the loaddisplacement response can exhibit the type of behavior sketched in Figure 2. It is assumed that the loading is proportional—that is. Procedures Load load maximum displacement maximum displacement minimum load minimum Displacement Figure 2. for example.2–1—that is.2 MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM It is often necessary to obtain nonlinear static equilibrium solutions for unstable problems.

1 u. automatic incrementation algorithm for static case in ABAQUS/Standard) along the tangent line to the current solution point and then searching for equilibrium in the plane that passes through the point thus obtained and that is orthogonal to the same tangent line. and let uN be the displacements at that time. . The solution space is scaled to make the dimensions approximately the same magnitude on each axis. = =( ) and the solution path is then the continuous set of equilibrium points described by the vector uN in this scaled space. Here the geometry referred to is the space of displacements..3. so that ( NM M K o vo = PN: = (~ . For these reasons.2–2 and is described below. 1) : (~o . in the 1 o = 0 N 6 1 l 1 1 vo vo + 1 2 ~ ~N (here vo is vo scaled by u). based on the convergence rate. The tangent stiffness. The scaled space is then spanned by ( = 1 2 . The sign of 1o —the direction of response along the tangent line—is chosen so vN uN that the dot product of 1o (~o . vN o vN 1l. ) 12(~o . Suppose the solution has been developed to the point Ao uN o . Further.3. (1~01 . 101) > 0. All components of this vector will be of order unity.. hence.2–2 . many of the materials (and possibly loadings) of interest will have path-dependent response. solution space. convergence rate-dependent. in the initial (linear) iteration. it is essential to limit the increment size. 1) = 1l2. 101). vN u0 and. and the load parameter mentioned above. and we solve Ko load P N . The algorithm is shown in Figure 2. is positive: 1o(~o . (~ . that is 1o (~o 1~N1 + 101) > 0: v N u0 2. the increment size is limited by moving a given distance (determined by the standard. In ABAQUS this is done by measuring the maximum absolute value of all displacement variables. as it is implemented in ABAQUS. Basic variable deﬁnitions Let P N N . o NM . We also deﬁne P P N P N 2 .MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM will be a ﬁnite radius of convergence.2–2) is chosen from a speciﬁed path length. Let be the load magnitude parameter. ) The increment size Ao to A1 in Figure 2. so at any time the actual load state is P N . 1) : (1~N1. P N P N =P . The value 1l is initially suggested by the user and is adjusted by ~N N the ABAQUS/Standard automatic load incrementation algorithm for static problems. rotations. 1) on the solution to the previous increment. In the modiﬁed Riks algorithm. is formed. the degrees of freedom of the model) be the loading pattern.3. as deﬁned with one or more of the loading options in ABAQUS. uN =u displacements uN = ~ ~ = =~ =( ).

It is possible that in some cases. ∆ λ-1) -1 (~ . Figure 2.2–2 Modiﬁed Riks algorithm.3.1) 0 Procedures Equilibrium surface A 0 ~N u Figure 2. ) λ A0 ~ u This direction will be chosen and will take the solution the wrong way along the equilibrium path.MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM λ A 1 A 2 ~ (vN . ~ (∆uN . Figure 2.1) 1 ρ1 ~N (v .3.3. where the response shows very high curvature in the uN space.2–3 . for example. this criterion will cause the wrong sign to be chosen—see.3.2–3. 2.2–3 Example of incorrect choice of sign for 1 .

+ 1 ) 1 (~ . Check equilibrium: V N + 1uN . The solution is now corrected now found the point A1 uN o N .2–2. IN = Z a. N 1 = 1 1 = 1 0 vo = ( = 1 2 3 etc:): b. we have N o vo o o in Figure 2. < " << . unless the increment size is too large or the solution bifurcates sharply. To check for such cases is computationally expensive: one approach would be for the solution to be found at o 0 " 01. Thus. Form I N . .MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM The wrong sign is rarely chosen in practical cases. by the following onto the equilibrium path in the plane passing through A1 and orthogonal to vo iterative algorithm. at the state (uo i RN i . K NM . at Ai in Figure 2. 1) o . 1 0 1 (~ + 1 ~ .2–2. . and the simple dot product given above is used alone to determine the sign of o .3. the internal (stress) forces at the nodes.3. uN Initialize: i i For i iteration i . such a check is not included. Because the case is so rare. so that we obtain a vector that gives a close approximation of the directed tangent at Ao . o + 1i)—that is.

If not. c. and add it to cN i where i RN P N =P is the projection d.3. 0i) + (~N . we i proceed.3.2–4 e. Update for the next iteration. Ri : N . P N and RN . we solve simultaneously with two load vectors. vi ~N ~ which simpliﬁes to give and the solution point is now Ai : (uN + 1uN + cN + viN . ci K = P . N : dV . i = ( o + 1 i )P N 0 I N : vi . and obtain two N displacement vectors. ) = 2 8 v ci vN (0. 1) ~ (~ . vi and cN . 1) (~ . Now scale the vector vi i i of the scaled residuals onto P N so that we move from Ai to Ai+1 in the plane orthogonal N —see Figure 2. 2. N If all the entries in RN are sufﬁciently small.2–2. Solve: NM 8 M M 9 8 N N 9 That is. the increment has converged. o + 1i + ): o i i 1uN+1 = 1uN + cN + viN i i i 1i+1 = 1i + i = i + 1. =0 c N vo ~i ~N N vo + 1 . 1)9 : (~o . . and K NM @I = @uM . 1) = 0. This gives the equation to vo (~ . i) + (~iN .

” Section 6.2. rather than to the tangent at the beginning of the increment. The total path length traversed is determined by the load magnitudes supplied by the user on the loading options. The main motivation for this additional modiﬁcation comes from the use of the method in plasticity problems. Reference Procedures • “Unstable collapse and postbuckling analysis. assisted by ABAQUS/Standard’s automatic incrementation scheme if that is chosen. while the number of increments is determined by the user-speciﬁed time increment data.MODIFIED RIKS ALGORITHM and return to (a) above for the next iteration. The implementation in ABAQUS/Standard includes the additional update after each iteration: v N o = iN v : This causes the equilibrium search to be orthogonal to the last tangent.3. where the ﬁrst iteration of each increment uses the elastic material stiffness to establish the direction of straining and so provides a stiffness that is not representative of the tangent to the equilibrium path if active plasticity is occurring.2–5 .4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

2.4.1

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

ABAQUS offers dynamic analysis options for both linear and nonlinear problems. In the case of purely linear systems, methods based on the eigenmodes of the system are almost always chosen because they can provide insight into the structure’s behavior that is not otherwise available and because they are usually signiﬁcantly more cost-effective than the direct integration methods that are usually used for nonlinear problems. The linear dynamic analysis methods provided in ABAQUS/Standard are discussed in “Modal dynamics,” Section 2.5. For mildly nonlinear dynamic analysis problems the “modal projection method” is provided. The basis of that method is to use the eigenmodes of the linear system (extracted from an eigenfrequency analysis) as a set of global Ritz functions—a set of global interpolation functions, in the terminology of the ﬁnite element method—whose amplitudes deﬁne the response. ABAQUS/Standard provides direct time integration using the explicit, central difference operator for this option. For any more severely nonlinear case the dynamic response is obtained by direct time integration of all of the degrees of freedom of the ﬁnite element model. The methods provided for this type of analysis are discussed in this section. The choice of operator used to integrate the equations of motion in a dynamic analysis is inﬂuenced by many factors. ABAQUS/Standard is designed to analyze structural components, by which we mean that the overall dynamic response of a structure is sought, in contrast to wave propagation solutions associated with relatively local response in continua. Belytschko (1976) labels these “inertial problems” and classiﬁes them by stating that “wave effects such as focusing, reﬂection, and diffraction are not important.” Structural problems are considered “inertial” because the response time sought is long compared to the time required for waves to traverse the structure. Dynamic integration operators are broadly characterized as implicit or explicit. Explicit schemes, as t based entirely on available values used in ABAQUS/Explicit, obtain values for dynamic quantities at t at time t. The central difference operator, which is the most commonly used explicit operator for stress analysis applications, is only conditionally stable, the stability limit being approximately equal to the time for an elastic wave to cross the smallest element dimension in the model. Implicit schemes remove this t based not only on values upper bound on time step size by solving for dynamic quantities at time t t. But because they are implicit, nonlinear equations must at t, but also on these same quantities at t be solved. In structural problems implicit integration schemes usually give acceptable solutions with time steps typically one or two orders of magnitude larger than the stability limit of simple explicit schemes, but the response prediction will deteriorate as the time step size, t, increases relative to the period, T , of typical modes of response. See, for example, Hilber, Hughes and Taylor (1978) for a discussion of such errors. Three factors should be considered when selecting the maximum allowable time step size: the rate of variation of the applied loading, the complexity of the nonlinear damping and stiffness properties, and the typical period of vibration of the structure. In general, a maximum increment versus period ratio t=T < 1/10 is a good rule of thumb for obtaining reliable results. Thus, the relative economy of the two techniques of integration depends on the stability limit of the explicit scheme, the ease with which the nonlinear equations can be solved for the implicit operator, the relative size of time increments that can provide acceptable accuracy with the implicit scheme compared to the stability limit of the explicit scheme, and the size of the model.

Procedures

+1

+1

+1

1

1

2.4.1–1

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

In ABAQUS/Standard the time step for implicit integration can be chosen automatically on the basis of the “half-step residual,” a concept introduced in Hibbitt and Karlsson (1979). By monitoring the values t= once the solution at t t has been obtained, the accuracy of the of equilibrium residuals at t solution can be assessed and the time step adjusted appropriately. To discuss the dynamic procedures further, we write out the d’Alembert force in the overall equilibrium equation, Equation 2.1.1–1. The body force at a point, f , can be written as an externally prescribed body force, F, and a d’Alembert force:

+1 2

+1

f = F 0 u ;

where is the current density of the material at this point and body force term in the virtual work equation is

u is the displacement of the point.

The

Z

V

f 1 v dV =

Z

V

F 1 v dV 0

Z

V

u 1 v dV:

The d’Alembert term can be written more conveniently in terms of the reference volume and reference density, 0 , as Z where u is the acceleration ﬁeld. When implicit integration is used, the equilibrium equations are written t), and u is calculated from the time integration operator. The at the end of a time step (at time t interpolator approximates the displacement at a point as

V0

0 u 1 v dV0;

+1

u = N N uN ;

so that provided that NN are not displacement dependent. This is the case for most of the elements in ABAQUS; the form taken for the d’Alembert force terms in those instances where it is not true (the Hermite cubic beams, B23 and B33) is discussed in detail in Chapter 3, “Elements.” With this interpolation assumption, the d’Alembert force term is Z

u = N N uN ;

0

V0

0 N N

1 NM dV0 uM ;

that is, the consistent mass matrix times the accelerations of the nodal variables. The ﬁnite element approximation to equilibrium, Equation 2.1.1–2, is

M NM uM

where

M NM

=

Z

+ I N 0 P N = 0;

0 N N

(2.4.1–1)

is the consistent mass matrix,

IN

=

V0 Z

1 NM dV0

V0

N : dV0

2.4.1–2

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

is the internal force vector, and

PN

=

Z

S

NN t dS +

1

Z

V

NN F dV

1

is the external force vector. In this context the terms “matrix” and “vector” refer to matrices and vectors in the space of the nodal variables uN . The deﬁnition of the mass matrix introduced above is the “consistent” mass: the mass matrix obtained by consistent use of the interpolation. The ﬁrst-order elements in ABAQUS all use “lumped” mass, where the mass matrix is a diagonal matrix. The lumped matrix is obtained by adding each row of the consistent matrix onto the diagonal. For these ﬁrst-order elements the lumped mass matrix gives more accurate results in numerical experiments that calculate the natural frequencies of simple models. The implicit operator used for time integration of the dynamic problem is the operator deﬁned by Hilber, Hughes, and Taylor (1978). This operator is a single parameter operator with controllable numerical damping—the damping being most valuable in the automatic time stepping scheme, because the slight high frequency numerical noise inevitably introduced when the time step is changed is removed rapidly by a small amount of numerical damping. The operator replaces the actual equilibrium equation (Equation 2.4.1–1) with a balance of d’Alembert forces at the end of the time step and a weighted average of the static forces at the beginning and end of the time step:

Procedures

**operator deﬁnition is completed by the Newmark formulae for displacement and velocity integration:
**

0 1 u ujt+1t = ujt + 1t ujt + 1t2 ( 0

)jt +

ujt+1t _ 1

M NM uM jt+1t + (1 + )(I N jt+1t 0 P N jt+1t ) 0 (I N jt 0 P N jt) + LN jt+1t = 0; (2.4.1–2) where LN jt+1t is the sum of all Lagrange multiplier forces associated with degree of freedom N . The

2

(2.4.1–3)

and

ujt+1t = ujt + 1t _ _

with

0

**(1 0
)jt +
ujt+1t1; u
**

and

(2.4.1–4)

=

1 2 4 (1 0 ) ;

= 0

1 2

0 1 0: 3

Hilber, Hughes, and Taylor (1978) present cogent arguments for the use of Equation 2.4.1–2– Equation 2.4.1–4 for integrating structural dynamics problems. The main appeal of the operator is its controllable numerical damping and the form this damping takes, slowly growing at low frequencies, with more rapid growth in damping at high frequencies. Control over the amount of numerical damping is , there is no damping and the operator is the trapezoidal rule provided by the parameter : with = ); while with 0 = , signiﬁcant damping is available. This operator is used (Newmark,

primarily because the slight numerical damping it offers is needed in the automatic time stepping scheme. Each time step change introduces some slight noise or “ringing” into the solution; a little numerical damping ( 0 : seems a good choice) quickly removes this high frequency noise without having any signiﬁcant effect on the meaningful, lower frequency response. An energy content output is available and should be printed to monitor the overall energy balance. This has been done in all of the dynamic examples in the

=14

=0 = 13

= 0 05

2.4.1–3

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

ABAQUS Example Problems Manual and shows that the numerical dissipation is always quite small (less than 1% of the total energy). The integration of rotations during implicit dynamic calculations is done to preserve accuracy in cases where the rotary inertia is different in different directions in a body. For this purpose the accelerations are integrated in the body axis system, so that Newmark’s formula gives the change in velocity as

_ _ jt+1t = jt + 1t
jt+1t + (1 0
)jt ;

where is the angular velocity of the node and is its angular acceleration, both taken in the current t; t is the time increment. direction of the body axis at time t or at time t In the global system this is

h

i

_

+1 1

_ _ jt+1t = 1t
jt+1t + [e jt+1t e jt] 1 jt + 1t(1 0
) jt ;

where e e are orthonormal base vectors deﬁning the body axis system. Since these are orthonormal vectors, this can be rewritten as

h

i

= ()

Then

** _ _ (2.4.1–5) jt+1t = 1t
jt+1t + 1C 1 jt + 1t(1 0
) jt ; where 1C is the incremental rotation matrix. Let 1 be the increment in rotation from time t to t + 1t.
**

See “Rotation variables,” Section 1.3.1, for a discussion of rotation variables, rotation matrices, and the exponential mapping of a skew-symmetric matrix. Newmark’s formula for the time integration of the rotation increment in the body axis system gives

h

i

1C = exp[1^]; where 1^ is the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector 1.

1C is

1 _ 1 = 1tjt + 1t2 2 0

jt +

jt+1t : Since 1C 1 1 = exp[1^] 1 1 = 1 , the components 1 are the same relative to the body axes at time t or t + 1t. In the global system this is 2

jt+1t + 1C 1 1tjt + 1t2 1 0

jt : _ 1 = 1t 2 Solving for the unknown velocity and acceleration at time t + 1t, the velocity update equation is _ _ jt+1t = 1 + 1C 1 1 0 jt + 1t 1 0 jt ; 1t

2

and the acceleration update equation becomes

_ _ jt+1t = 1 jt+1t + 1C 1 1 0 1 jt 0 1 jt : 1t
1t

2.4.1–4

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

The automatic time stepping for dynamic problems in ABAQUS is based on the half-step residual ﬁrst proposed in Hibbitt and Karlsson (1979). The concept is quite appealing intuitively. Satisfaction of Equation 2.4.1–1 at the end of each time step (or actually of the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor form, Equation 2.4.1–2) ensures equilibrium in the discrete sense of the ﬁnite element model at these points in time but does not say anything about the quality of equilibrium at intermediate time points. The idea of the half-step residual is to calculate the equilibrium residual error (the left-hand side of Equation 2.4.1–1) t= ) and to assess the error in the dynamic response at some intermediate time point (chosen as t prediction by the magnitude of that error. The half-step residual is based on the assumption that the accelerations vary linearly over the time interval (this is the basis of Newmark’s formulae) so that, for any nodal displacement or rotation component, u:

+1 2

Procedures

= (1 0 )jt + ujt+1t; 0 1: u Having already solved for the state at t + 1t, this equation, together with Newmark’s formulae now written for the time interval from t to t + 1t, requires that 2 1uj = 31ujt+1t + (1 0 2)1tujt + 2(1 0 ) 12t ujt; _ u j = _

1t 1uj + 1 0

ujt + 1 0 2

1tujt; and _ 1 u jt + 1 0 1 u jt ; _ u j = 2 2 1 u j 0

11t

1t 2

where

u j

With these equations it is possible to evaluate the equilibrium residual at any time within the step. Presumably, if the solution is accurate, this residual will be small compared to signiﬁcant forces in the problem. The residual at the end of the time step is

1ujt+1t = ujt+1t 0 ujt is the increment in displacement obtained for the time step, 1t.

RN jt+1t = M NM uM jt+1t + (1 + )(I N jt+1t 0 P N jt+1t ) 0 (I N jt 0 P N jt ) + LN jt+1t :

The residual at the start of the step is

**RN jt = M NM uM jt + (1 + )(I N jt 0 P N jt) 0 (I N jt0 0 P N jt0 ) + LN jt;
**

where t0 is the time at the start of the previous time step during normal time stepping analysis or if this is the ﬁrst increment after an initial acceleration or impact calculation. Then the residual at t is deﬁned as

t0 = t +1t=2

RN jt+1t=2 def M NM uM jt+1t=2 + (1 + )(I N jt+1t=2 0 P N jt+1t=2) =

1 0 2 (I N jt 0 P N jt + I N jt0 0 P N jt0 ) + LN jt+1t=2;

2.4.1–5

IMPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

where the

I N jt+1t=2 ; etc.

are computed for conditions at time

(t + 1t=2) and

LN jt+1t=2 def =

1 N N 2 (L jt+1t + L jt):

The “half-step residual,” Rjt+1t=2, is deﬁned as the magnitude of the largest entry in RN jt+1t=2 and provides a measure of accuracy of the time-stepping solution. The motivation behind the calculation of the half-step residual is to provide a measure of the accuracy of the solution for a given time step. Numerical tests show that it provides a sensitive accuracy check on dynamic solutions and suggest that, if P is a typical magnitude of real forces in an undamped elastic system (for which the high frequency response must be modeled reasonably accurately), then if

Rjt+1t=2 0:1P consistently, the time stepping solution has high accuracy; if Rjt+1t=2 P consistently, the time stepping solution has moderately good accuracy; if Rjt+1t=2 10P consistently, the time stepping solution is rather coarse.

Problems with large amounts of natural dissipation of energy, such as elastic-plastic systems, are usually less sensitive to time step choice than purely elastic problems, because the energy that appears in higher frequency modes is quickly dissipated. In such cases maximum half-step residuals in the range of 1–10 times typical forces indicate quite acceptable accuracy for most studies, and even values of 10–100 times typical forces can give useful results for primary effects, such as overall deformation. Thus, the method can offer relatively cost-effective solutions for highly dissipative systems for which we require only moderately accurate prediction of the overall response. The half-step residual is the basis of the adaptive time incrementation scheme. If the half-step residual is small, it indicates that the accuracy of the solution is high and the time step can be increased safely; conversely, if the half-step calculation shows the solution is coarse, the time step used in the solution should be reduced. The algorithm is described in detail in “Time integration accuracy in transient problems,” Section 8.3.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. The algorithm is purely empirical, but experience shows that it works quite well (Hibbitt and Karlsson, 1979), most especially in initially excited problems with high dissipation, such as impulsively loaded problems (or problems with short duration forcing) with extensive plasticity. In these cases the scheme is economic because the time step naturally increases as the solution progresses and the high frequency response is dissipated. The above observations are based on using the Hilber-Hughes-Taylor operator with 0 : : The slight numerical damping that the operator introduces removes the noise that inevitably enters the solution when the time step is changed. Even in quite lengthy problems the overall energy totals, computed on the basis of physical mechanisms in the model, balance well. The energy balance calculation is useful in assessing a solution—for example, the extent to which energy is dissipated by plasticity can be measured— and it is recommended that the user request occasional printout of the energy balance calculation when doing any analysis with ABAQUS.

= 0 05

Reference

• “Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration,” Section 6.3.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual

2.4.1–6

INTERMITTENT CONTACT/IMPACT

2.4.2

INTERMITTENT CONTACT/IMPACT

Many dynamic problems involve intermittent contact, often with severe impact occurring when the structures hit. The contact algorithms in ABAQUS/Standard are designed to handle such cases. An example is the pipe whip problem, in which the ﬂuid escaping from a ruptured pipe causes pipe motion and possible impact with restraints along the pipe. Depending on the geometry of the pipe and the position of the postulated break, severe impact can occur since the pipe may acquire high velocity before hitting a motionless restraint. Impact conditions with hard contact are modeled in ABAQUS/Standard with the assumption that, at the time of impact, the two impacting surfaces instantaneously acquire the same velocity in the direction of the impact. This “fully plastic” impact concept is essential to any discrete model, the accuracy of the physical representation of local effects being dependent on the spatial model adopted. It should be emphasized that the plastic impact assumption is local: it is assumed that, at impact, energy is dissipated by some mechanism that is not modeled and whose spatial and temporal scale is inﬁnitesimal compared to the discrete model. In the case of a beam model of a pipe hitting some other structure, this would presumably be the local plastic deformation of the pipe wall where it impacts the other structure. The points that acquire the same velocity sometimes separate just after the impact: part of the dynamic contact algorithm is designed to handle this case. The local plastic impact concept is quite different from the simple “assumed coefﬁcient of restitution” methods sometimes used in scoping analyses in place of detailed analysis of the history of contact forces. The method discussed here is speciﬁcally designed to allow as much—or as little—of this local detail to be obtained, as required. The usual time integration procedures in ABAQUS maintain the energy balance in terms of the energy mechanisms of the discrete model, so the instantaneous jumps that occur in the velocity and acceleration at impact imply that some other system of equations must govern the solution during impact. Thus, we view the impact events as separate from the usual time stepping and develop a set of impulse equations that allow the propagation of the solution over these instants of time and, hence, provide initial conditions from which the normal time stepping solution can continue to the next such event. To develop the governing equations for impact, assume that, at some time t0, a part I of the surface of two bodies, A and B , comes into contact. Denote the velocities and accelerations of corresponding parts just before impact as

u

Procedures

0 _ 0 _ BI 0 0 AI AI BI

; u ; u ; u u

and

_ + _ + + + AI BI AI BI

;u ;u ;u

just after impact. The fully plastic impact assumption requires that corresponding points acquire the same velocity and acceleration in the direction of impact immediately after impact so that, at time t+ : 0

Here

n is the current normal to the interface surface I . Writing u u+ 0 u0 to describe the velocity “jump” at

n 1 uAI = n 1 uBI ; _ _ n 1 uAI = n 1 uBI :

(2.4.2–1)

1_ = _

_

t

0 at a point, we have

2.4.2–1

INTERMITTENT CONTACT/IMPACT

0 _ n 1 u0

AI

_ + 1u

1

AI

_ _ = n 0u 0 + 1 u

1

BI

1

BI

:

(2.4.2–2)

The component of the force per unit area between the bodies across I in the normal direction n, N I , must satisfy

I NA I NA

= 0N for t t0 = N = 0 for t < t0:

I B I B

(2.4.2–3)

Since ﬁnite velocity jumps are occurring at the time of impact in inﬁnitesimal time (compared to the time scale of the simulation), during the inﬁnitesimal interval t0 to t+ , N I dominates all other forces in 0 0 the system except for the d’Alembert forces. This simpliﬁes the virtual work equation during t0 to t+ to 0 0

X hZ

A;B

V

u u dV

1

i

+

Z

I

NA n uA dS

1

+

Z

NB

I

n 1 u

B

dS

= 0:

Integrating from t0 to t+ , 0 0

+ XhZ Z t0

V t

n 1 uB at t0, and NB 0NA , so the second term in Equation 2.4.2–4 is zero. But n 1 uA However, the constraint (Equation 2.4.2–2) must be satisﬁed by augmenting Equation 2.4.2–4 with a Lagrange multiplier term with H as the multiplier:

X

A;B

A;B

=

0 0

u u dV

1

i

+

Z Z t+

I

0 0 t 0

NA n uA

1

+N

B

n 1 u

B

dS

= 0:

(2.4.2–4)

=

Z

V

_ 1u 1 u dV +

Z

I

Hn

0 _ _ _ _ 1 u 0 + 1u 0 u0 0 1u

AI AI BI

1

BI

dS:

The ﬁrst term has been integrated over t0 to t+ to give the velocity jump term. Taking the variation 0 0 in the second term and noting that n cannot rotate in the inﬁnitesimal time interval because there is no discontinuity in displacement, we obtain

X

A;B

Z

V

1u 1 u dV + _

Z Z

I

Hn

1 u 0 u

AI AI BI

0

1

BI

dS

_ _ + (1u 0 1u ) 1 n H dS =0 ( )=0

I

(2.4.2–5)

Z

0

I

_ u0 0 u0 1 n H dS: _

AI BI

1

This equation is the impulse condition, which can be solved for the velocity jump u at all nodes. The solution also provides the impulse per unit area, H : the time integral of the pressure between the surfaces over the inﬁnitesimal time of impact. The equilibrium equation written at time t+ and including the 0 can then be used to obtain the initial accelerations immediately after constraint that n 1 uAI 0 uBI impact.

1_

2.4.2–2

INTERMITTENT CONTACT/IMPACT

The two sets of equations (for the velocity jumps and the initial accelerations at t+ ) require solution 0 of the mass matrix, augmented by the constraint, with different right-hand sides for the initial acceleration and the velocity jump equations. When the elements attached to the nodes that impact have consistent mass matrices, the equations will give velocity and acceleration jumps throughout that part of the model and not just at the impacting nodes themselves. From these initial conditions at t+ the usual time stepping 0 R _ _ equations can continue, augmented by the constraint that I n 1 (uA 0 uA) dS = 0, which is imposed by a Lagrange multiplier. Since this multiplier represents the interface pressure, its value is monitored for possible separation: if a negative value is seen (that is, if a state of tension exists between A and B across I ), the constraint is removed: this requires another solution for the initial accelerations just after removal of the constraint, although there will be no velocity jump at that time. Separation can occur immediately after impact. If so, the equilibrium equations must be solved again without the constraint to ﬁnd the corresponding accelerations. In any real problem, impact and separation will occur at some intermediate point in a time step. To accommodate this, ABAQUS/Standard ﬁrst solves the time step by ignoring impact, then estimates (by linear interpolation) the average time of impact or separation of all points that change in the increment, tI , and again solves the increment to that time. All surface contact changes are assumed to take place at that interpolated time point, with the surface clearances adjusted as necessary. For reasonable time steps this geometric adjustment is slight. Typically, the time step used in the solution following a severe impact event is one or two orders of magnitude smaller than that preceding the event. As the high frequency noise generated by impact dissipates (through plasticity and the artiﬁcial damping introduced by the parameter in the time integration operator), the time step is expanded by the automatic time stepping algorithm and the solution proceeds accordingly. Soft contact conditions treat impact as an “elastic” event that does not destroy any kinetic energy. The change in velocity is determined by the amount of interpenetration. Thus, with soft contact the standard implicit integration procedure is used and no impulse equations need be solved. Under truly high velocity impact conditions, this may result in nodes bouncing back immediately after impact. This may lead to excessive contact chattering, resulting in convergence problems and small time increments. For this reason, softened contact is not recommended in “true” impact calculations. However, in certain dynamic calculations where impact effects are not critical—such as sheet forming, drop forging, or rolling operations—soft contact can work well because cutbacks due to impact calculations are avoided. The soft contact constraint is enforced via Lagrange multipliers. If the soft contact constraint compatibility is not satisﬁed within the given tolerance, a severe discontinuity iteration is performed.

Reference

Procedures

• “Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration,” Section 6.3.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual

2.4.2–3

SUBSPACE DYNAMICS

2.4.3

SUBSPACE DYNAMICS

An alternative approach provided in ABAQUS/Standard for analysis of nonlinear dynamic problems is the “subspace projection” method. This method uses direct, explicit integration of the dynamic equations of equilibrium written in terms of a vector space spanned by a number of eigenvectors. The eigenmodes of the system, extracted in an eigenfrequency step prior to the dynamic analysis, are used as the global basis vectors. This method can be very effective for systems with mild nonlinearities that do not substantially change the mode shapes. The method cannot be used for contact problems. As with the other direct integration methods, it is more expensive in terms of computer time than the modal methods of purely linear dynamic analysis, but it is often signiﬁcantly less expensive than the direct integration of all of the equations of motion of the model. This method is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard using the explicit (central difference) operator to integrate the equations of motion projected onto the eigenmodes. In this procedure the explicit integration method is particularly effective because the eigenmodes are orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix so that the projected system always has a diagonal mass matrix and because the stability limit is determined by the highest eigenfrequency associated with the modes used in the analysis and not by the highest eigenfrequency of the structure. Let us write the ﬁnite element approximation to the virtual work equations as

Procedures

uN M N M uM + I N 0 P N = 0;

where

(2.4.3–1)

M NM = IN PN =

Z Z

V0

0 NN 1 NM dV0

and displacement variation. and the variations in displacement are expressed in terms of eigenmodes: uN = uN X X 8 N q .3–2) _ where q . 8 N q . The nodal displacements.4. velocity. accelerations. q. and Z S NN 1 t dS + Z V NN 1 F dV is the external force vector. uN = _ = 8N q_. = V0 is the internal force vector. acceleration. N : dV0 is the consistent mass matrix.4. respectively. X (2. q . and q represent generalized displacement. Substitution into the virtual work expression yields the formula for the acceleration associated with mode as 2. X uN = 8N q. velocities.3–1 .

The stability limit is determined by the highest eigenfrequency of the modes used in the analysis: where !max is the highest circular frequency of the eigenmodes that are used as the basis of the solution. speciﬁed either explicitly by the user or implicitly by continuation of the previous dynamic step. Having calculated the generalized acceleration for each mode. Note that the method is noniterative. hence.” Section 6. there are no tolerances required for the procedure. This leads to an initial generalized velocity for the mode in the form _ q = _0 8 M m N 1 NM uM : _ 0 As in standard explicit dynamic integration. The number of eigenvectors spanning the solution space for a subspace dynamic analysis can be speciﬁed by the user.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. (2.3–4) The nodal values for all kinematic variables are obtained using the formulæ in Equation 2. • “Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration. stressed geometry (by using another eigenfrequency extraction step). the method is conditionally stable. It is possible to perform a subspace dynamic simulation for some time and then reextract the modes based on the current.3–2. this stability limit is usually much less restrictive than the stability limit for standard explicit integration. When initial velocities are applied. the generalized displacement and velocity are calculated with the central difference operator qt+1t = qt + qt 1t2 . the initial velocity vector u0 has to be projected into the eigenspace.3–3 it is seen that the element residuals are projected onto the vector space spanned by the chosen number of eigenmodes.3–2 . Throughout the procedure a ﬁxed time increment is used: the value is chosen as the smaller of the time increment speciﬁed by the user. The 80% factor is intended as a safety factor.4. qt+1t = 1qt=1t + qt 1t=2: _ (2.4.4.3–3) From Equation 2. Reference 1tstable = ! 2 max . or 80% of the stable time increment. The default number of vectors will be equal to the number of eigenvectors extracted in the eigenfrequency calculation. This can improve the accuracy of the method in certain cases.3. Since we will generally use a relatively small number of modes.4. followed by continuation of the analysis with the new modes as the subspace basis system.SUBSPACE DYNAMICS where m is the generalized mass associated with mode : m = 8N M NM 8M : 1 8N P N 0 I N q = m (no sum on ). so a small increase in the highest eigenfrequency caused by nonlinear effects will not cause the integration to become unstable.4.

where Si . x . We can now write I def = Z V0 0 (N N N M xN 1 xM I 0 N N N M xN xM ) dV 0 : Recognizing that the primitive mass matrix is def M NM = Z V0 0 N N N M dV 0. ABAQUS/Standard provides such output.4–1 . where I is a unit matrix. the translational velocity of an equivalent rigid body. ! . and the rotation of an equivalent rigid body motion around the center of mass. where N N are the ﬁnite element interpolation functions associated with each degree of freedom and xN is the vector of current nodal positions. 2. .4 EQUIVALENT RIGID BODY DYNAMIC MOTION It is often useful to obtain the equivalent rigid body motion of part of a model (or of the whole model): the position and translational velocity of the part’s center of mass and its angular rotation and velocity about the same center of mass. For simplicity of notation we deﬁne some quantities. are material coordinates in the part. This section deﬁnes how these values are calculated. 3. The mass of the part is X Procedures M def = Its ﬁrst mass moment about the origin is Z V0 Z 0 dV 0: J def = Its second mass moment about the origin is V0 0 x dV 0 : I def = Z V0 0 (x 1 x I 0 x x) dV 0 . x . It is convenient to invoke the relation x = N N xN (the summation convention is assumed). We wish to compute the current spatial _ position of the center of mass of the part. based on equivalent momentum. i = 1. resulting in a displacement of u(Si ). In these deﬁnitions an “equivalent rigid body” means a rigid body with the same mass distribution and the same translational and angular momentum as the actual deforming part in the current conﬁguration.EQUIVALENT RIGID BODY MOTION 2. we have I def M NM (xN 1 xM I 0 xN xM ): = 2. The density of the part in its initial conﬁguration is 0(Si ).4. Let V be the volume of a part for which the equivalent rigid body motion values are requested. the angular velocity of this equivalent rigid body. The spatial position of a material particle in its initial conﬁguration is (Si ) and in the current conﬁguration is x(Si ). u. the translational displacement of an equivalent rigid body motion.4.

ABAQUS uses the lumped mass formulation for low-order elements. Consider that the conﬁgurations are known and that the axis of rotation of the body is denoted by the unit vector p. We now generalize this concept by integration of the constituent parts. Certain ABAQUS elements produce lumped or structural contributions to this second mass moment (rotary inertias) not shown in these equations. b= Z V Xp 1 xp dV: 2. Z x = _ V0 The angular velocity of the part is deﬁned by equating the angular momentum of the part and of the equivalent rigid body about the center of mass: Z V0 _ 0 (x 0 x ) 2 x dV 0 = I 1 !.4–2 .4. As a consequence. by equating the translational momentum of the equivalent and the actual body. where I = I + M (x x 0 x 1 x I ) is the second mass moment of the part about its center of mass. respectively. The perceived translational motion of the center of mass in an equivalent rigid body motion is calculated as Z u = 0 u dV 0 =M: H def = Z V0 The equivalent rigid body rotation of the part with respect to its center of mass requires some conceptual approximations as follows. This provides ! = I 01 1 [H 0 J 2 x ].EQUIVALENT RIGID BODY MOTION We can immediately obtain x = J =M 0 x dV 0 =M: _ and. = p = jXp 2 xp j Xp 1 x p X where the subscript p denotes the projection of a vector into a plane normal to p. especially for coarse meshes. _ where _ _ 0 x 2 x dV 0 = M NM xN 2 xM V0 is the angular momentum of the part about the origin. A material particle sees such rotation relative to the center of mass as p 2 xp tan01 jXp 2 xp j . Deﬁne Z a= V Xp 2 xp dV. Denote the relative positions of a material particle with respect to the center of mass in the undeformed conﬁguration and in the deformed conﬁguration X and x. the second mass moments of inertia can deviate from the theoretical values.

which is a homogeneous set of equations in the components of p with coefﬁcients made out of integrals of known quantities. Every material particle rotates exactly an angle = av in such a way that Z a = p sin Procedures V jXp jjxp j dV. where the vector V X 2 x dV is easily calculated from available quantities. x . 1) the displacement of a particle is orthogonal to the rotation vector. We can then calculate the projection of the old and new position onto the plane normal to p with Xp = X 0 p p 1 X. a Z b = cos V jXp jjxp j dV. For such a ﬁeld.4. That can easily be proved as follows. from which p can be solved. A necessary condition for the validity of the intuitive generalization above is that if the part undergoes an arbitrary rigid body rotation. therefore. jaj = p . which yields Z R b= V X 0 ( X 1 p )p 2 3 1 [x 0 (x 1 p)p] dV 2. The second condition can be written in the form Z V p 2 (x + X ) 2 3 2 [x 0 X] dV = 0. To determine p we consider the characteristics of the displacement ﬁeld of a rigid body rotation. = pp and by simple substitution one then obtains Z a= V X0 X1p p 2 0 1 3 2 [x 0 (x 1 p) p] dV 1 Z V X 2 x dV.4–3 = (I 0 p p) : Z V X x dV: . and. only appears in products with the position of particles in the known current conﬁguration. and 2) the displacement is orthogonal to the position vector at half the motion. but with the modiﬁcations below they can be expanded in such a way that the (initially unknown) current center of mass. jaj = tan : b In all of these equations the direction vector p is unknown. With p known. its deﬁnition automatically ensures that the ﬁrst statement is satisﬁed. a becomes determined. The quantity b can be calculated using with the same expressions.EQUIVALENT RIGID BODY MOTION The average Euler rotation then follows with the equation av = jaj tan01 jaj : a b These integrals are not easily calculated. In a deformable body context we try to determine p by forcing these two statements to be true in an average sense. the formula returns the rotation. Considering that we are looking strictly at a rotation with respect to the center of mass. xp = x 0 p p 1 x.

” Section 6. for instance. it is assumed that such rotations will produce motions of points that will measurably contribute to the calculation.EQUIVALENT RIGID BODY MOTION Once a and b are known. is readily determined. The determination of the equivalent rigid body rotation is based on average particle translations. the calculated average rigid body rotation will be calculated as zero.4–4 . even if the elements have indeed rotated.4. However. Reference • “Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration. it is possible to ﬁnd pathological cases in which that would not be the case.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. Rotational degrees of freedom are ignored in the calculation of this variable. if the part of the model considered consists of rotary inertia elements only.3.

is required for initial conditions. F is the applied load vector. certain constraints. For presentation of results. We assert the following condition: =0 _ 1 _ 2 _ u(+ 1 ) = u(0) + 1 2 u(0) t (1) : Substituting this expression into the update expression for u(i+ 2 ) yields the following deﬁnition of u(0 2 ) : 1 u (0 1 ) _ 2 _ 1 = u 0 12 u _ (0) t _ (0) (0) : 2. The central difference integration operator is explicit in that the _ 1 kinematic state can be advanced using known values of u 0 2 and u from the previous increment. 1 1 Special treatment of the mean velocities u(i+ 2 ) .5 EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS The explicit dynamics analysis procedure in ABAQUS/Explicit is based upon the implementation of an explicit integration rule together with the use of diagonal or “lumped” element mass matrices. and presentation of results. The key to the computational efﬁciency of the explicit procedure is the use of diagonal element mass matrices because the inversion of the mass matrix that is used in the computation for the accelerations at the beginning of the increment is triaxial: +1 u 2 u =u +1 u 1 _ 2 _ where u is velocity and u is acceleration. The equations of motion for the body are integrated using the explicit central difference integration rule The explicit integration rule is quite simple but by itself does not provide the computational efﬁciency associated with the explicit dynamics procedure. where M is the diagonal lumped mass matrix. the state velocities are stored as a linear interpolation of the mean velocities: _ 2 2 _ u(i+1) = u(i+ 1 ) + 1 1 (i+1)u(i+1) t : The central difference operator is not self-starting because the value of the mean velocity u(0 2 ) needs ) of velocity and acceleration are set to zero unless they are to be deﬁned. Procedures t (i+1) (i + ) . The superscript ( ) refers to the increment number and 0 and + refer to midincrement values. and I is the internal force vector. u(i0 2 ) etc. i 1 2 i i 1 2 (i ) (i ) u (i ) = M 0 1 1 ( F (i ) 0 I (i ) ) _ _ .4.4.EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 2.5–1 . The explicit procedure requires no iterations and no tangent stiffness matrix. The initial values (at time t speciﬁed by the user. t u(i+ 1 ) = u(i0 1 ) + 1 _ 2 _ 2 (i+1) (i ) (i+1) t (i ) (i ) .

The time incrementation scheme in ABAQUS/Explicit is fully automatic and requires no user intervention. The global estimation algorithm is not used when any of the following capabilities are included in the model: ﬂuid elements. An estimate of the highest eigenvalue in the system can be obtained by determining the maximum element dilatational mode of the mesh. As the step proceeds. the stability limit will be determined from the global estimator once the algorithm determines that the accuracy of the global estimation is acceptable. thick shells (thickness to characteristic length ratio larger than 0. A trial stable time increment is computed for each element in the mesh using the following expression: max element is the element maximum eigenvalue. constraints such as boundary conditions and contact have the effect of compressing the eigenvalue spectrum. This algorithm continuously updates the estimate for the maximum frequency. max p where is the fraction of critical damping in the highest mode. c d 2. The central difference operator is conditionally stable. ABAQUS/Explicit initially uses the element by element estimates.0).5–2 . which the element by element estimates do not take into account. which determines the maximum frequency of the entire model. A conservative estimate of the stable time where !max 2 1t = !element . and the stability limit for the operator (with no damping) is given in terms of the highest eigenvalue in the system as 1t ! 2 max : In ABAQUS/Explicit a small amount of damping is introduced to control high frequency oscillations. With damping the stable time increment is given by 1 t ! 2 ( 1 + 2 0 ). The stability limit based upon this highest element frequency is conservative in that it will give a smaller stable time increment than the true stability limit that is based upon the maximum frequency of the entire model. inﬁnite elements. and nonisotropic elastic materials with temperature and ﬁeld variable dependency. In general. ABAQUS/Explicit contains a global estimation algorithm. dashpots. ABAQUS/Explicit uses an adaptive algorithm to determine conservative bounds for the highest element frequency.4. The above stability limit can be rewritten as 1t = min( Le ). Contrary to our usual engineering intuition.EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Stability The explicit procedure integrates through time by using many small time increments. increment is given by the minimum taken over all the elements. introducing damping to the solution reduces the stable time increment. JWL equation of state.92) or thick beams (thickness to length ratio larger than 1. material damping.

2 1e ^ ^ 2^ =K0 : 3 K If the strain increments are insigniﬁcant. dilatational wave speed of the material. the characteristic element dimension is Le = pBA B iI iI . In the case where the volumetric strain increment is signiﬁcant but the deviatoric stress increment is not. Effective Lamé’s constants. 1vol 1e = ^ 1 1S :: 1e . where BiI is the element gradient operator. 1S = 2^1e . vol as the increment pressure stress. and . o and o . Considering the 4-node uniform strain quadrilateral (CPE4R). ^ = 01p . these relationships will not yield numerically meaningful results.EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS where Le is the characteristic element dimension and cd is the current effective. We assume a hypoelastic stress-strain rule of the form ^ = trace( ) 1 1 1 ^ Procedures 1 where K is the effective bulk modulus. In this circumstance ABAQUS/Explicit sets the effective Lamé’s constants to the initial values for the material. The characteristic element dimension is derived from an analytic upper bound expression for the maximum element eigenvalue. the effective shear modulus is estimated to be 2 ^ 2^ = 1 (3(o + 2o ) 0 3K ) : 2 cd = ( + 2^) : These effective moduli represent the element stiffness and determine the current dilatational wave speed in the element as s^ Bulk viscosity Bulk viscosity introduces damping associated with the volumetric straining.5–3 . The current dilatational wave speed is determined in ABAQUS/Explicit by calculating the effective hypoelastic material moduli from the material’s constitutive response. p 0 1 3 of volumetric strain. and e as the deviatoric strain increment. 2. Similar characteristic element dimensions are derived for all element types found in ABAQUS/Explicit. Its purpose is to improve the modeling of high-speed dynamic events. The effective moduli can then be computed as ^ ^ 1p = 0K 1vol.4. We deﬁne p as the increment in the equivalent . S as the increment in the deviatoric stress. are determined in the following manner.

For the same reason.5–4 . The quadratic bulk viscosity is applied only if the volumetric strain rate is compressive. It generates a bulk viscosity pressure. _vol) : c d Linear bulk viscosity is always included in ABAQUS/Explicit. bulk viscosity introduces damping associated with volumetric straining. which is linear in the volumetric strain: pbv1 = b1 cd Le _vol . is the current material density. the new values will be used in any subsequent steps unless they are redeﬁned. The bulk viscosity pressures are based upon the dilatational mode of each element. Consider a simple one element problem in which the nodes on one side of the element are ﬁxed and the nodes on the other side have an initial velocity in the direction of the ﬁxed nodes. where b1 is a damping coefﬁcient (default=. Linear bulk viscosity or truncation frequency damping is used to damp the high frequency ringing that leads to unwanted noise in the solution or spurious overshoot in the response amplitude. the element—without the quadratic bulk viscosity—would collapse to zero volume in one time increment (because the stable time increment size is precisely the transit time of a dilatational wave across the element).” m. The fraction of critical damping in the dilatational mode of each element is given by = b1 0 b22 Le min(0.4. The quadratic bulk viscosity pressure will introduce a resisting pressure that will prevent the element from collapsing. The ﬁrst is found in all elements and is introduced to damp the “ringing” in the highest element frequency. If the default values are changed in a step. = 0 06 =12 Rotational bulk viscosity for shell elements For the displacement degrees of freedom. The parameters b1 and b2 can be : and b2 : .2) and all other quantities are as deﬁned for the linear bulk viscosity. cd is the current dilatational wave speed. 12 1t 2. The default values are b1 can be changed from step to step. in shells the high frequency ringing in the rotational degrees of freedom is damped with linear bulk viscosity acting on the mean curvature strain rate. Le is an element characteristic length. The quadratic bulk viscosity pressure will smear a shock front across several elements and is introduced to prevent elements from collapsing under extremely high velocity gradients. and vol is the volumetric strain rate. If the initial velocity is equal to the dilatational wave speed of the material. This damping generates a bulk viscosity “pressure moment.06). The second form of bulk viscosity pressure is found only in solid continuum elements (except CPS4R). where b2 is a damping coefﬁcient (default=1. This form is quadratic in the volumetric strain rate: _ pbv2 = (b2Le_vol)2.EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS There are two forms of bulk viscosity in ABAQUS/Explicit. This damping is sometimes referred to as truncation frequency damping. The bulk viscosity pressure is not included in the material point stresses because it is intended as a numerical effect only—it is not considered to be part of the material’s constitutive response. The bulk viscosity parameters redeﬁned by the user. which is linear in the mean curvature strain rate: m 2 = b1 h0 cd L 1 .

is added to the direct components of the moment resultant.EXPLICIT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS where b1 is a damping coefﬁcient (default = 0.4. h0 is the original thickness. L is the characteristic length used for rotary inertia and 11 22 is twice the increment in mean curvature.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.” Section 6.3. Reference • “Explicit dynamic analysis. and The dilatational wave speed is given in terms of the effective Lamé constants as 1 = 1 +1 cd = s^ ( + 2^) : Procedures The resultant pressure moment mh.5–5 . transverse shear stiffness scaling. is the mass density. cd is the current dilatational wave speed. where h is the current thickness.06).

.

1 or. For example. The symmetrized system has real squared eigenvalues. This opens the way to several response evaluation methods that are computationally inexpensive and provide useful insight into the structure’s dynamic behavior. The mathematical eigenvalue problem is a classical ﬁeld of study. = i!. may not be positive deﬁnite or symmetric. therefore. where ! is the circular frequency.5.1–2) If the model contains hybrid elements. and only a small number of eigenpairs are usually required. 2. This equation is available immediately from a linear perturbation of the equilibrium equation of the system. and the eigenvalue problem can be written as 0 0!2 [M ] + [K ] fg = 0: 1 (2. their orthogonality property allows the linear response of the structure to be constructed as the response of a number of single degree of freedom systems. However. for symmetric eigenproblems we will also assume that [K ] is positive semideﬁnite. using the structure’s modes up to a limiting cutoff frequency. The eigenvalue problem for natural modes of small vibration of a ﬁnite element model is 0 2 M Procedures MN + C MN + K MN 1 N = 0 [M ] + [C ] + [K ] fg = 0. 2. hence. which is symmetric and positive deﬁnite in the problems of interest here. is the eigenvalue. [K ] is the stiffness matrix. and.EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION 2. Several such methods are provided in ABAQUS/Standard and are described in the following sections. which may include large-displacement effects. such as “stress stiffening” (initial stress terms).5.5. Wilkinson’s (1965) book provides an excellent compendium on the problem. or contact elements. For many important cases the matrices are symmetric. 0 2 (2. which is usually taken as 33 Hz (cycles/second). Therefore. Once the modes are available.5. and real eigenvectors only. obtain its natural frequencies of vibration or investigate possible bifurcations that may be associated with kinematic instabilities.5. and fg is the eigenvector—the mode of vibration. [C ] is the damping matrix. In this case becomes an imaginary eigenvalue.1–1 . This system can be symmetrized by assuming that [K ] is symmetric and by neglecting [C ] during eigenvalue extraction. the system of equations contains Lagrange multipliers and the stiffness matrix [K ] becomes indeﬁnite.1–2. contact pairs.5. in classical matrix notation. and much work has been devoted to providing eigenvalue extraction methods.1 EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION There are many important areas of structural analysis in which it is essential to be able to extract the eigenvalues of the system and. all the terms of the mass matrix corresponding to the Lagrange multipliers are equal to zero. all the eigenvalues are imaginary. The eigenvalue problems arising out of ﬁnite element models are a particular case: they involve large but usually narrowly banded matrices. and the eigenvalue problem can still be written as Equation 2. structural evaluation for seismic events is often based on linear analysis. The eigensystem (Equation 2.1–1) where [M ] is the mass matrix. Typically.1–1) in general will have complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

For symmetrized eigenproblems ABAQUS/Standard offers two approaches: Lanczos and subspace iteration methods.1–4) . Both the subspace iteration and the Lanczos methods. [M 3 ].5. for example. Assume that. after the ﬁrst iteration of the method. A small set of base vectors is created. These matrices are 0!2 [M 3] + [K 3])fg = 0 2. by iteration. The ﬁrst step in the algorithm is to deﬁne a new set of base vectors by solving ^ [K ][V ](i+1) = [M ][V ](i) : (2. N ).1–2 (2. Subspace iteration—the basic algorithm The application of the subspace iteration method to eigenproblems arising from ﬁnite element models of the dynamic behavior of structures has been discussed by a number of authors—see Ramaswami (1979) for references. . The eigenproblem ( [ K 3 ]. a previously decomposed matrix). .5. n = 1. The number of rows of [V ](i) is. and the number of columns is the dimension of the subspace. exists. For complex eigenproblems the subspace projection method is used. These are considered as the “base vectors” that deﬁne the m-dimensional subspace out of the n dimensions deﬁned by the variables in the ﬁnite element model. of dimension m by m. Newman and Pipano. m. thus deﬁning a “subspace”: this “subspace” is then transformed. The stiffness and mass matrices of the structure are then projected onto the subspace by 3 ^ T ^ [K ] = [V ](i+1) [K ][V ](i+1) . thus. fV gni) . .5. 3 ^ ^ [M ] = [V ](i+1) [M ][V ](i+1) . where m ( is less than the number of variables in the ﬁnite element model. a set of m vectors. 1980) and the subspace iteration method. 1973. involves the solution of the complete set of linear stiffness equations for several right-hand-side vectors (with. the size of the complete set of equations (the number of variables in the ﬁnite element model. Parlett. The various parts of these algorithms are discussed in the remainder of this section. into the space containing the lowest few eigenvectors of the overall system. and a stiffness matrix. T thus deﬁning a mass matrix. The basic idea is a simultaneous inverse power iteration.1–3) This operation. Eigenvalue extraction for symmetric systems The structural eigenvalue problem has received considerable attention since the advent of ﬁnite element models. have been implemented in ABAQUS/Standard. Ramaswami (1979) summarizes available methods for the problem: the most attractive appear to be the Lanczos method (see. . m. at the i-th iteration. in the subspace. a classical method that was introduced into ﬁnite element applications by Bathe and Wilson (1972). a generalized “inverse power sweep” with m vectors. We arrange these vectors as the columns in the matrix [V ](i) .EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION ABAQUS provides eigenvalue extraction procedures for both symmetric and complex eigenproblems. using the Householder and Q-R algorithm for the reduced eigenproblem.

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION

is now solved completely in the subspace using the Householder and Q-R methods, which are discussed below. The eigenvectors have now been deﬁned in the reduced space and can be transformed back to the full space of the structural problem to deﬁne [V ] for the next iteration:

^ [V ](i+1) = [V ](i+1) [];

where [] = [fg1 jfg2j 1 1 1jfgm ]. This completes an iteration. With m = 1 (a one-dimensional subspace), the method reduces to the simple “inverse power sweep” method (see Wilkinson, 1965, or Strang, 1976). The advantage of the subspace method is the extraction of the eigenvalues in reduced space, which will cause a rapid convergence to the eigenvectors in full space. The number of base vectors carried in the iterations and the choice of initial base vectors are, therefore, important for an economical 2 2 2 solution. The convergence rate of a particular eigenvalue is proportional to !i =!(m+1) , where !(m+1) is the eigenvalue corresponding to the next vector, m + 1 beyond the m vectors used to deﬁne the subspace. The default value of m used in ABAQUS is m = min(2p; p + 8), where p is the number of eigenvectors requested. If more vectors are used, the number of required iterations is reduced, but each iteration takes longer because of the greater number of right-hand sides. Increasing m can sometimes improve the performance of the algorithm signiﬁcantly. The choice of starting vectors is also important. There is no requirement that these should be close to the eigenvectors for rapid convergence. The Householder and Q-R steps rotate the vectors into the eigenvectors as long as the base vectors span the space of the eigenvectors. The approach used is to choose initial vectors that span this space as completely as possible. The algorithm used in ABAQUS/Standard for this purpose is that of Bathe and Wilson (1972). They recommend using the diagonal mass terms as one vector: the other vectors are unit vectors, providing a set of single unit entries at the nodes and the degrees of freedom with the largest mass terms. A check is made to ensure that all degrees of freedom are represented in these additional vectors. This completes the description of the basic subspace iteration algorithm as it is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard. The small eigenproblem, for which all eigenpairs must be found, is solved by the Householder and Q-R algorithms. These algorithms are described at the end of this section.

Lanczos eigensolver

Procedures

The implementation of the Lanczos eigensolver as a powerful tool for extraction of the extreme eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of a sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblem has been discussed by a number of authors; see, for example, Parlett (1980), Parlett and Nour-Omid (1989), Simon (1984), and Ericsson and Ruhe (1980). A shifted block Lanczos algorithm was developed and described in detail by Grimes, Lewis, and Simon (1994). The Lanczos procedure in ABAQUS/Standard consists of a set of Lanczos “runs,” in each of which a set of iterations called steps is performed. For each Lanczos run the following spectral transformation is applied:

[M ] ([K ]

0 [M ])01 [M ]fg = [M ]fg;

2.5.1–3

(2.5.1–5)

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION

where is the shift, is the eigenvalue, and fg is the eigenvector. This transformation allows rapid convergence to the desired eigenvalues. The eigenvectors of the symmtrized problem (Equation 2.5.1–2) and the transformed problem (Equation 2.5.1–5) are identical, while the eigenvalues of the original problem and the transformed problem are related in the following manner:

!2

= 1 + :

A Lanczos run will be terminated when its continuation is estimated to be inefﬁcient. In general, only tens of eigenvalues (closest to the shift value) are computed in a single Lanczos run. The possibility of computing many eigenmodes by carrying out several runs with different shift values is an important feature of the Lanczos eigensolver. Within each run a sequence of Krylov subspaces is created, and the best possible approximation of the eigenvectors on each subspace is computed in a series of “steps.” In each Lanczos step the dimension of the subspace grows, allowing better approximation of the desired eigenvectors. This is in contrast to the subspace iteration method, in which the dimension of the subspace used to approximate the eigenvectors is ﬁxed. In theory the basic Lanczos process (in the assumption of “exact” computations without taking into account round-off errors) is able to determine only simple eigenvalues. The shifting strategy (and the Sturm sequence check as a part of it) detects missing modes and enforces computation of all the modes during the subsequent Lanczos runs. However, this strategy is expensive if the multiplicity of certain eigenvalues is high. Therefore, a “blocked” version of the Lanczos algorithm is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard. The idea is to start with a block of orthogonal vectors and to increase the dimension of the Krylov subspaces by the block size at each Lanczos step. This approach allows automatic computation of all multiple eigenvalues if the largest multiplicity does not exceed the block size. Another important advantage of the blocked Lanczos method is that it allows efﬁcient implementation of expensive computational kernels such as matrix-blocked vector multiplications, blocked back substitutions, and blocked vector products. As discussed above, the Lanczos process consists of several Lanczos runs. Each Lanczos run is associated with some shift value that remains constant during the run. The initial shift value, 1 , is determined (by a heuristic approach) using the geometric mean of the centers of the Gershgorin circles, termed the “problem scale.” At the beginning of each Lanczos run a factorization of the shifted matrix [K ] 0 p [M ] (where p is the run number) is carried out, after which a sequence of Lanczos steps is performed. Each block Lanczos step i is implemented in ABAQUS/Standard in the following manner: 1. Solve the system of linear equations with b right-hand sides (b is the Lanczos block size) using the factorized shifted matrix:

([K ] ^ 0 p[M ]) [V ](i+1) = [M ][V ](i);

where [V ](i) is a block of Lanczos vectors. The number of rows of [V ](i) is the number of variables in the ﬁnite element model, and the number of columns is the Lanczos block size b. The initial block of vectors [V ](1) is a set of random vectors orthonormalized using the procedure: [I ] = [V ]T [M ][V ](1) ; where [I ] is the identity matrix. (1)

2.5.1–4

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION

2. Set the auxiliary block of vectors:

^ [U ](i+1) = [V ](i+1) 0 [V ](i01)

i ;

where

i is a b 2 b upper triangular matrix.

1 = [0]. 3. Compute the symmetric matrix i of size b:

i = [U ]Ti+1)[M ][V ](i): (

4. Formulate the Lanczos residual:

Procedures

[R](i+1) = [U ](i+1) 0 [V ](i)i :

5. Normalize the residual. Compute a block of vectors, [V ](i+1), such that

[V ](i+1)

i+1 = [R](i+1)

and

where

i+1 is a b 2 b upper triangular matrix. 6. Estimate the loss of orthogonality between [V ](i+1) and [V ](j ) ; for j = 1; 2; :::;i 0 1, using the partial reorthogonalization technique; and perform reorthogonalization if necessary (see Simon, 1984; Grimes, Lewis, and Simon, 1994). 7. Perform “local reorthogonalization”: recompute [V ](i+1) to provide

[I ] = [V ]Ti+1)[M ][V ](i+1); (

[0] = [V ]Ti+1)[M ][V ](i): (

8. Solve the following reduced eigenvalue problem for the band matrix [T ]:

[T ][S ] = [S ] [] ;

where

and [S ] and [] are, respectively, the matrices containing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the reduced eigenproblem. This problem is solved by the Householder and Q-R algorithms, which are discussed below.

2 1

T 3 2 T 6

2 2

3 7 6 7 T

3 3

4 6 7 [T ] = 6 7

4 4 ::: 6 7 4 T5 ::: :::

i

i i

2.5.1–5

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION

9. Determine the error bounds in eigenvalue approximation for the symmetrized eigenvalue problem (Equation 2.5.1–2) (see Parlett, 1980; Grimes, Lewis, and Simon, 1994). Check the termination conditions of the Lanczos run. The Lanczos run terminates if one of the following conditions is satisﬁed: • All the eigenvalues required for the current run are extracted. • The triangular matrix

i+1 is singular or ill-conditioned. • The number of Lanczos steps exceeds the maximum number allowed. • Continuation of the current run is evaluated to be inefﬁcient. This decision is based on the estimation of the “cost per eigenvalue” over the next few steps (the Lanczos run is continued as long as the cost per eigenvalue is decreasing). After termination of each Lanczos run, the converged eigenvectors of the symmetrized problem (Equation 2.5.1–2) are recovered using the blocks of vectors [V ](j ) ; j = 1; 2; :::; i and the eigenvectors [ S ]. Once the Lanczos run for the shift p is completed, the shift value p+1 is computed using the results of all the previous Lanczos runs. To describe the shifting strategy, the following concepts are introduced: The “computational interval” is the interval between the minimum and maximum eigenvalues of interest. This interval can be ﬁnite (both ends are ﬁnite), semi-inﬁnite (only one end is ﬁnite), or inﬁnite (both ends are inﬁnite). The “center point” is the point in the computational interval nearest to the desired eigenvalues. The Sturm sequence number, ([A]), of a real nonsingular symmetric matrix [A] is the number of negative eigenvalues. This number is equal to the number of negative terms in the diagonal matrix [D ] of the Cholesky decomposition [A] = [L][D ][L]T and is, therefore, available after the Cholesky decomposition is completed. Let 1 and 2 be two shift values such that (1 < 2) : Then the number of eigenvalues of the symmetrized problem (Equation 2.5.1–2, assuming that [M ] is positive deﬁnite or positive semideﬁnite) in the interval [1 ; 2] is equal to ([K ] 0 2[M ]) 0 ([K ] 0 1[M ]) : If this number is equal to the number of eigenvalues actually determined by the Lanczos algorithm, the interval [1; 2] is called “a trust interval.” The trust interval containing the center point is referred to as “a primary trust interval” (denoted by the key “+” in the trust intervals list printed in the message ﬁle). The shifting strategy is aimed at constructing the primary trust interval inside the computational interval containing the required number of eigenvalues closest to the center point. One of the most important features in the formulation of the shift update strategy is the concept of a “sentinel.” The sentinels are the endpoints of the intervals containing exclusively converged eigenvalues closest to the current shift value (in each direction). The sentinels are computed during each Lanczos run and are updated at the end of each step after the eigenvalue analysis of the reduced matrix [T ] is completed. The basic assumption is that there are no missing eigenvalues inside the sentinels; therefore, they are excluded from the computation intervals for the upcoming Lanczos runs. This assumption is later veriﬁed on the basis of the Sturm sequence check, and a special procedure is activated if some eigenvalues are missing. If no missing eigenvalues are detected, the sentinels transform directly into the corresponding trust intervals.

2.5.1–6

EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION

The new shift values are selected on the basis of the nonconverged eigenvalue approximations after the Lanczos run is terminated. Assuming the same convergence properties for the upcoming runs, the new shift values are selected in such a way that the number of eigenvalues expected to be found in the upcoming runs will be close to the number of eigenvalues found inside the corresponding sentinels on the previous run.

The Householder method with quarter rotation

The Householder method is used to reduce a general matrix to a symmetric tridiagonal form. A tridiagonal matrix is one whose only nonzero entries are on or immediately adjacent to the diagonal. The ﬁrst step is to transform Equation 2.5.1–4 to the form

0

Procedures

[A] 0 !2 [I ]

1

f g = 0 ;

where [I ] is the identity matrix. This is done by using a Cholesky decomposition of [M 3 ] and then premultiplying and postmultiplying [K 3 ] by the inverse of the lower and upper triangular matrices that are, thus, obtained:

[A] = [L]01 [K 3 ][LT ]01;

where

To preserve symmetry in [A], it is necessary that the decomposition of [M 3 ] result in two matrices that are the transpose of each other. A Cholesky decomposition produces the desired result but adds the requirement that the matrix [M 3 ] be positive deﬁnite. [M 3] should always be positive deﬁnite (because [M ] is positive deﬁnite in all of the problems considered here) if the base vectors deﬁning the subspace are not linearly dependent across [M ]. In practice the choices made for starting values of the base vectors usually satisfy this requirement, although cases can arise when this is not true. Then ABAQUS/Standard will reduce the dimensionality of the subspace to obtain a positive deﬁnite [ M 3 ]. The Householder transformation starts with the matrix [A] and, proceeding one column at a time, reduces all the entries outside the tridiagonal part of the matrix to zero by the transformation

[L][L]T = [M 3]:

[ A ] 2 = [ U ] 0 1 [ A ] 1 [ U ]1 : 1

The matrix [U ] is of the form

(2.5.1–6)

1 C C: A

1 B0 U = B0 B @ 0 0

0

0 0 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 [H ]

0 0C

For the ﬁrst transformation [H ] is of the same order as [A] and [U ]; that is, m 2 m, the dimension of the subspace. However, each transformation reduces the order of [H ] by one, the leading parts of [U ] being 1 on the diagonal and 0 outside the diagonal, as illustrated above.

2.5.1–7

because the transformation (Equation 2. This process gradually reduces the offdiagonal terms of [A] so that the diagonal terms approach the eigenvalues. which has the same eigenvalues as the original matrix. write the kth column of [A] jX j = bX cfX g : k below the diagonal as T fX g = ba +1 . 2. the order of the matrix can be reduced by one. a c : k . The next step is to calculate the eigenvalues of the tridiagonal matrix. with a value that is not close to an eigenvalue.5. it is quite possible that the process will converge to an incorrect number. a c : 2.k n. This is done by the Q-R algorithm. . The Q-R process will converge to the eigenvalues in ascending order. [Q]T Q = [I ]) and [R] is an upper-triangular matrix (that is.k T 4. The next matrix in the iteration is obtained by premultiplying and postmultiplying [A] by [Q]: [A] +1 = [Q] [A] [Q] = [Q] [Q] [R] [Q] = [R] [Q] : i T i i i T i i i i i i Because [Q] is orthonormal. This will lead to a signiﬁcant improvement in the convergence rate. all the terms in [R] below the diagonal are zero).k n. In this method the matrix [A]. The Householder algorithm produces a symmetric tridiagonal matrix. and as soon as an eigenvalue is obtained. p k .1–8 . where [Q] is an orthonormal matrix (that is. Deﬁne a vector. If the shift is done too early.EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION The matrix 1. which is now tridiagonal (although this is not a requirement for the method to work). a method of shifting is introduced. To speed up convergence.k k .k k . this will not affect the eigenvalues. leading to the following iterative loop: [B ] = [ A ] 0 [I ] i i i [Q ] [R ] = [ B ] [B ] +1 = [R] [Q] [A] +1 = [B ] +1 + [I ]: i i i i i i i i i The shift cannot be used until the iteration is converging toward an eigenvalue. but once that is obvious. Then. .5. 1 [H ] = [I ] 0 2 bV cfV g fV gbV c: This algorithm is developed in detail in Strang’s (1976) book. a +2 . . [H ] is obtained by the following algorithm: If this is the kth iteration. the shift value i can be set to the expected eigenvalue. .k bV c = ba +1 c + jX jba +1 . is factored into [Q][R]. Calculate the norm 3.1–6) does not alter the eigenvalues.

. N ]T [C ][1 . N ]T [K ][1. symmetric system (Equation 2. . In the standard notation used in this manual. damping. 38 9 8 9 where is the eigenvalue just obtained and fV g is any vector. . . . [K 3 ] = [1. N ]f3gk . To ensure that consecutive vectors are orthogonal.5. .5. .EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION The ﬁnal step after the eigenvalues have been obtained is to calculate the eigenvectors by using the inverse power method to solve for an eigenvector. Next. . . N ]. . N ]. [C 3 ] = [1. . solve for fg. . . but the right eigenvectors of the original system need to be recovered: where fgk is the approximation of k-th right eigenvector of the original system. . This small complex eigenvalue system is solved using the standard QZ method for generalized nonsymmetric eigenproblems. the number of eigenvectors is relatively small.1–1). . we arrive at the following eigenproblem: 0 2 [ M 3 ] + [ C 3 ] + [K 3 ] f 3 g = 0 : 1 Typically. . . . a slight numerical shift must be included to decompose it and. Subspace projection method In the subspace projection method the original eigensystem (Equation 2.5. . .1–2). N ]: Then. . 2. .5. this vector will be obtained regardless of the right-hand-side vector fV g. . as long as fV g is not orthogonal to the eigenvector. . . p is the mode number. 2. . where N refers to the nodal variable in the problem and = 1. . . Complex eigenvalues of the projected system are the approximation of the eigenvalues of the original system (Equation 2. Since [K 3] 0 [M 3 ] is singular. Complex eigenvalue extraction Procedures ABAQUS/Standard offers the subspace projection method to solve for complex eigenvalues and right eigenvectors of the original eigenproblem (Equation 2. the original mass. .1–9 fgk = [1. given any right-hand side: 2 [K 3 ] 0 [M 3 ] = V . a few hundred is common.5.1–1). the symmetrized eigenproblem must be solved prior to the complex eigenvalue extraction procedure to create the subspace onto which the original system will be projected. . . especially in the case of multiple 2 eigenvalues. . fV3g is always chosen to be orthogonal to the previously extracted eigenvectors. Thus. Because the left-hand-side matrix is singular in the direction of the eigenvector fg.1–1) is projected onto a subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the undamped. and stiffness matrices are projected onto the subspace of N eigenvectors: [M 3 ] = [1. . N ]T [M ][1. thus. the matrix of eigenvectors [] is written as N .

i are real and imaginary components of the eigenstress tensor and " r .3.2.” Section 6.5.5 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Complex eigenvalue extraction. where r .1–10 . References • “Eigenvalue buckling prediction.” Section 6.” Section 6. "i are real and imaginary components of the eigenstrain tensor. which for the complex eigenvalue extraction is deﬁned as follows: ES = 1 [( r : " r + i : " i) + 4 p ( r : "r 0 i : " i)2 + ( r : " i + i : "r )2].6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.3.EIGENVALUE EXTRACTION The only energy density calculated in the eigenvalue extraction procedures is the elastic strain energy density.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Natural frequency extraction.

The superscripts N and M refer to degrees of freedom of the ﬁnite element model. and the composite modal damping for each mode so that these variables are available for use in subsequent linear dynamic analysis. 2. Generalized mass The “generalized mass” associated with mode is (no sum over ).5. Modal participation factors The participation factor for mode in direction i. ABAQUS/Standard allows the user to choose between two types of eigenvector normalization: the eigenvectors can be scaled so that the largest entry in each vector is unity. y0 . 0i .MODAL VARIABLES 2. the effective mass. ^ where ei is unity. and ^ ^ z0 represent the coordinates of the center of rotation. The normalization type determines only the manner in which the eigenvectors are represented. TiN is 01 B0 B0 B B0 B @0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ( z 0 z0 ) 0 (z 0 z 0 ) 0 ( y 0 y 0 ) 0 (x 0 x 0 ) 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 (y 0 y 0 ) 1 8 e 1 9 >^ > (x 0 x0 ) C > e2 > C>^ > < = 0 0 0 1 6 ^ C e3 . and all other ep zero. . It is deﬁned as 0i = 1 N NM M M Ti m (no sum over ). x. and x0. ABAQUS/Standard automatically calculates the participation factor. C > e4 > C>^ > A > e5 > ^ :e . thus.2 VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NATURAL MODES OF A MODEL After an eigenfrequency step has been used to ﬁnd the eigenvalues of a model. y. deﬁned for the translational degrees of freedom and for rotation around the center of rotation. y. . Procedures m = N M NM M where M NM is the structure’s mass matrix and N is the eigenvector for mode . i = 1.2–1 . 2. . where TiN deﬁnes the magnitude of the rigid body response of a degree of freedom in the model (N ) to imposed rigid body motion (displacement or inﬁnitesimal rotation) in the i-direction. 6) is represented in the eigenvector of that mode. The choice of eigenvector normalization type does not inﬂuence the results of subsequent modal dynamic steps.5. at a node with the usual three displacement and three rotation components. is a variable that indicates how strongly motion in the global x-. or they can be normalized so that the generalized mass for each vector is unity (m = 1). and z are the coordinates of the node.. For example. The participation factors are.or z -direction or rotation about one of these axes (indicated by i.

These 0 1 are assembled into fractions of critical damping values for each mode. c . 6) is deﬁned as me = (0i)2 m i (no sum over ): If the effective masses of all modes are added in any particular direction. an additional acoustic effective mass is computed for each mode as outlined in “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis. 2. Thus. References NM a and Ma is the part of the structure’s • “Natural frequency extraction. according to 0 1 N c = m 1 X a NM a M a ! M (no sum over ). . Modal effective mass The effective mass for mode associated with kinematic direction i (i = 1. Composite modal damping ABAQUS/Standard provides an option to deﬁne a composite damping factor for each material.1.2–2 . except for mass at kinematically restrained degrees of freedom..” Section 2. this suggests that modes that have signiﬁcant participation in excitation in that direction have not been extracted.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.9. if the effective masses of the modes used in the analysis add up to a value that is signiﬁcantly less than the model’s total mass.9.” Section 12.1.1. the sum should give the total mass of the model.5. .” Section 2. an additional acoustic participation factor is computed for each mode as outlined in “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis.” Section 6.5 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Material damping. where a is the critical damping fraction given for material mass matrix made up of material a.MODAL VARIABLES For coupled acoustic-structural eigenfrequency analyses. For coupled acoustic-structural eigenfrequency analyses.3. .

only the lowest few frequencies are usually required to obtain an accurate estimate of a structure’s linear dynamic response to relatively long-term loading (for example.5.2). Modal dynamic time history analysis (see “Modal dynamic analysis. These methods are cost-effective compared to fully nonlinear dynamic response analysis developed in terms of all the system’s degrees of freedom.” Section 2.4.3–1 . The subspace projection method for steady-state response is described in “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis.7.5. c.5. Steady-state harmonic response analysis (see “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis. The basic concept of modal superposition is that the response of the structure is expressed in terms of a relatively small number of eigenmodes of the system. its steady-state response to low frequency excitation). even though the system exhibits nonlinear or frequency-dependent effects during the dynamic response. the choice of the ﬁnite element model). The orthogonality of the eigenmodes uncouples this system. and “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis. ABAQUS/Standard has two “subspace” procedures—one for nonlinear dynamic and the other one for steady-state dynamic analysis—that use some of the eigenmodes of the system on which the equilibrium equations are projected. b.5.2.5. for example. and the choice of the number of eigenmodes used to represent the system. Procedures 2.3 LINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS USING MODAL SUPERPOSITION Linear dynamic analysis using modal superposition is computationally inexpensive and can provide useful insight into the dynamic behavior of a system.LINEAR DYNAMICS 2. The procedures provided for modal dynamic analysis of linear systems are summarized below: a. the loading deﬁnitions. and the subsequent computational effort involved in obtaining the dynamic response by modal superposition methods is relatively small.3.” Section 2. Furthermore.4. The response is integrated through time: the integration method used is exact for loadings that vary piecewise linearly with time. The method has very low computational cost and gives useful information about the spectral behavior of a system with respect to frequency. Response spectrum analysis (see “Response spectrum analysis.” Section 2.” Section 2. In both cases the system’s eigenmodes are used as a set of global basis vectors for computing the dynamic response.1).5). With modern eigenvalue/eigenvector extraction techniques— such as the subspace method available in ABAQUS/Standard—the cost of obtaining a sufﬁcient basis of eigensolutions is not excessive.6. Response spectrum analysis is often used to obtain an approximate upper bound to the peak signiﬁcant response of a system to an input spectrum as a function of frequency: it gives the maximum response of a one degree of freedom system as a function of its fundamental frequency of vibration and of its damping ratio. only eigenmodes that are close to the frequencies of interest are usually needed. The time-domain subspace projection method is described in “Subspace dynamics. Thus. the only approximations in this analysis procedure are the linearization of the problem. This procedure can be used to obtain the time history response of a system to loading conditions that are given as functions of time.6). especially when compared to the cost of the direct integration methods used for general nonlinear analysis (“Implicit dynamic analysis. but the superposition and orthogonality principles apply only to purely linear systems: for this reason the methods described in this section are implemented only for linear analysis.6.” Section 2. the spatial modeling (that is.” Section 2.” Section 2. The technique can be extended in a limited way into the nonlinear régime.

” The response is calculated in terms of statistical quantities.” Section 6.LINEAR DYNAMICS This procedure is used when the steady-state response of a system to harmonic excitation is required. displacement.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. This procedure is used when the structure is excited continuously and the loading can be expressed statistically in terms of a “Power Spectral Density Function. The “subspace” method is typically less expensive than the direct method. The direct method is signiﬁcantly more expensive computationally than the modal method: it is needed if the system is nonsymmetric (because ABAQUS presently does not have a nonsymmetric eigenvalue extraction capability) or if the system’s behavior includes frequency-dependent parameters. Reference • “Dynamic analysis procedures: overview.5. The solution is given as the peak amplitudes and phase relationships of the solution variables (stress.” Section 2.3–2 . It is generally used for nonsymmetric systems or when the system’s behavior includes frequency-dependent parameters or discrete damping. etc.8). A similar option is provided for direct harmonic response analysis without using the eigenmodes as a basis.3. d.5.) as functions of frequency: postprocessing options are provided to display such results conveniently. Random response analysis (see “Random response analysis. such as the mean value and the standard deviation of nodal and element variables.

when damping is given as a fraction of critical damping associated with each mode. after any disturbance the system will return to a static equilibrium state as rapidly as possibly without any oscillation. Typically. The equation of motion for a one degree of freedom system (one of the eigenmodes of the system) is Procedures mq + cq + kq = 0. c the damping. A is a constant. Thus. Critical damping is deﬁned as the damping that makes this expression zero: p If the system is critically damped. the values used are in the range of 1% to 10% of critical damping. several options are provided in ABAQUS/Standard to introduce damping. as follows: Critical damping factors The damping in each eigenmode can be given as a fraction of the critical damping for that mode. This method of introducing damping has no physical basis in the ﬁnite element model: it is a purely mathematical concept introduced in association with the eigenmodes of the system. the concept cannot be extended to nonlinear applications where the equations of motion of the system are integrated directly and where the natural frequencies of the system are constantly changing because of nonlinearities.5. and 0 c 6 c2 0 k : = 2m 4m 2 m ccr = 2 mk: r The solution will be oscillatory if the expression under the root sign is negative.4 DAMPING OPTIONS FOR MODAL DYNAMICS For linear dynamic analysis based on modal superposition. and q the modal amplitude. The solution is of the form where k the stiffness. _ q = A exp t. Rayleigh damping Rayleigh damping is deﬁned by a damping matrix formed as a linear combination of the mass and the stiffness matrices: C MN = M MN + .MODAL DAMPING OPTIONS 2. where m is the mass.

be converted into critical damping fractions for each mode: this is the way Rayleigh damping is handled in ABAQUS/Standard. Rayleigh damping can.5. therefore.K MN : With Rayleigh damping the eigenvectors of the damped system are the same as the eigenvectors of the undamped system. 2.4–1 .

Reference Structural damping assumes that the damping forces are proportional to the forces caused by stressing of the structure and are opposed to the velocity.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. M is the eigenvector of the th mode. Any combination of damping options can be used in an analysis: the effects will be added if several damping deﬁnitions are chosen. These values are converted into a weighted average for each eigenmode. where is the critical damping ratio used in mode . and m is the generalized mass associated with the th mode (m = M M MN N . which is the case when the excitation is sinusoidal.5. This form of damping can be used only if the displacement and velocity are exactly 90 out of phase. Structural damping N where I N are the forces caused by stressing of the structure. Mm is the mass matrix associated with material m. FD are the damping forces. Composite modal damping When composite modal damping is used.” Section 12. so structural damping can be used only in steady-state and random response analysis. The damping forces are then N FD = isI N . weighted by the mass matrix according to the equation = M M MN N m m m 1 (no sum over ). and i = 01. no sum over ). m is the critical damping fraction deﬁned for MN material m.MODAL DAMPING OPTIONS A form of Rayleigh damping is also provided in ABAQUS for nonlinear analysis. s is the p structural damping factor. When the problem is nonlinear the mass damping factor can be used directly: the stiffness damping factor is interpreted as creating viscoelastic behavior in which the viscosity is proportional to the elasticity. • “Material damping.4–2 . which gives exactly the stiffness proportional damping effect deﬁned above for the linear case. a damping value is deﬁned for each material as a fraction of critical damping to be associated with that material.1.

5–2) = . equal to. These solutions can be combined and written in the general form + 2!q_ + !2q = f = f 01 + 1f 1t. The excitation is given as a function of time: it is assumed that the amplitude curve is speciﬁed so that the magnitude of the excitation varies linearly within each increment. for any of which the equilibrium equation at time t is q where is the critical damping ratio (the ratio of the damping term in this equation to that damping that would cause critical damping of the equation). For convenience. are constants. and f is the change in f over the time increment. which is t. or less than critical damping (that is. or negative). depending on whether the damping in the modal equilibrium equation is greater than. 1f =1t is constant). zero.MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 2.5. j = 1.5. since we have assumed that the loading only varies linearly over the time increment (that is. ! the square root of the eigenvalue in the eigenfrequency step that precedes the modal dynamic time history analysis). 1t t t t (2. we deﬁne p ! = ! 1 0 2: qt qt ft t t ij ij qt+1t qt+1t a11 a21 a12 a22 b11 b21 b12 b22 Damping less than critical This case is the most common and gives a11 = exp (0!1t) ! sin !1t + cos !1t ! 1 a12 = exp (0!1t) sin ! 1t ! ! sin !1t a21 = 0 exp (0!1t) p 1 0 2 ! a22 = exp (0!1t) cos ! 1t 0 ! sin !1t 2.5. There are three cases of this solution for nonrigid-body motion (! 6= 0).5–1 . _ _ + f +1 where a and b . When the model is projected onto the eigenmodes used for its dynamic representation. i.5–1) Procedures = p 1 1 (2.5 MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS The modal dynamic procedure provides time history analysis of linear systems. The solution to this equation is readily obtained as a particular integral for the loading and a solution to the homogeneous equation (with no right-hand side). depending on whether ( 2 0 1) is positive. q is the “generalized coordinate” of the mode (the amplitude k=m is the natural frequency of the undamped mode (obtained as of the response in this mode). f is the magnitude of the loading projected onto this mode (the “generalized load” for the mode). 2. we obtain a set of uncoupled one degree of freedom systems.5.

5.MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 2 2 + 22!0 1 sin !1t + !12 + !21t cos !1t + !31t 3 !! ! 1t 2 2 0 1 sin !1t + 2 cos !1t + 1 0 2 b12 = exp (0!1t) ! 2 ! 1t ! 3 1t !2 ! 3 1t 2 2 0 1 + b21 = 0 exp (0!1t) ( cos ! 1t 0 ! sin !1t) ! ! 2 ! 1t !! 1 + 2 0 1 0 ( sin !1t + ! cos !1t) !2 !3 1t ! ! 2 1t 201 2 2 ! ! !!21t + ( sin !1t + ! cos !1t) !31t b22 = 0 exp (0!1t) 0 ( cos ! 1t 0 ! sin ! 1t) + !211t b11 = 0 exp (0! 1t) Damping equal to critical In this case = exp (0!1t) (1 + !1t) a12 = exp (0!1t) 1t a21 = 0 exp (0!1t) (!)2 1t a22 = exp (0!1t) (1 0 !1t) 1 + 2 + 1 b11 = 0 exp (0!1t) 0(1 + !1t) !2 ! 3 1t !2 2 0 1 + 1 0 2 b12 = exp (0!1t) (1 + !1t) ! 3 1t !2 !2 ! 3 1t 1 + 2 + 1 0 !1t 0 1 2 b21 = 0 exp (0!1t) (!) 1t !2 ! 3 1t ! 2 1t 1t!2 2 0 1 0 !1t + 1 2 b22 = 0 exp (0!1t) 0(!) 1t 3 ! 1t 1t!2 ! 2 1t a11 Damping higher than critical In this case = exp (0!1t) ! sinh !1t + cosh !1t ! 1 a12 = exp (0!1t) sinh ! 1t ! ! sinh !1t a21 = exp (0!1t) p 2 0 1 ! a22 = exp (0!1t) cosh ! 1t 0 ! sinh !1t a11 2.5–2 .

5–1) is reduced to 2.MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 2 2 2 0 1 2 + !2!1t sinh !1t + !12 + !231t cosh !1t + !31t 2 !! 2 0 1 sinh !1t + 2 cosh !1t + 1 0 2 b12 = exp (0!1t) 2 ! ! 1t ! 3 1t ! 2 ! 3 1t 2 2 0 1 + ! b21 = 0 exp (0!1t) ( cosh !1t 0 ! sinh ! 1t) 2 ! ! 1t ! ! 1 1 0 (0! sinh ! 1t + ! cosh !1t) !2 + !21t 0 !2 1t 3 2 ! 2! 0 1 b22 = 0 exp (0!1t) 0 ( cosh !1t 0 ! sinh !1t) 2 ! 1t 2 + 1 + (0! sinh !1t + ! cosh !1t) !31t !21t b11 = 0 exp (0! 1t) Rigid body mode with damping Procedures If there are rigid body modes in the ﬁnite element model.5.5–1) is reduced to q + q = ft01t + _ Only Rayleigh damping can be speciﬁed for a rigid body mode.5. the equation of motion (Equation 2. The equation of motion (Equation 2. Furthermore. since the critical damping is zero. since it is a rigid body mode. there will be one or several eigenvalues that are zero.5–3 . appears (stiffness damping requires that there be straining of the body).5.5–3) a11 =1 b11 = 0 2 (1 0 exp (01t)) 1 + + 1t 1 t 1 1 1t 1 b12 = (1 0 exp (01t)) 2 0 2 + 1 t 2 1 1 + 1 (1 0 exp (01t)) 0 1 b21 = 1 t b22 = 0 2 (1 0 exp (01t)) + 1t 1 a12 = (1 0 exp (01t)) a21 =0 a22 = exp (01t) 1 1 1 1 + 1t 0 1t 2 1 1 Rigid body mode without damping For the particular case of a rigid body mode without damping. only the mass damping factor.5. . For this case 1f 1t: 1t (2.

Initial conditions At the beginning of the step initial displacements and initial velocities must be converted to equivalent values of the generalized coordinates. Since this is usually not the case.MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS q = f t0 1 t + For this case a11 =1 a12 =1t a21 =0 a22 =1 1 t2 b11 = 3 1 t2 b12 = 6 1t b21 = 2 1t b22 = 2 1f 1t: 1t (2. u= where are the modes. and R are the modal reaction force amplitudes corresponding to each eigenvector . and the response of the physical variables is then immediately available by summation: X q X "= " q X = q X R= R q . " are the modal strain amplitudes.5. m 2.5–4) Response of nodal and element variables The time integration is done in terms of the generalized coordinates. which can only be done exactly if the number of eigenvectors equals the number of degrees of freedom. are the modal stress amplitudes.5–4 1 . the initial values of the generalized coordinate displacement and velocity are calculated as q = N M M MN x0 .5.

If velocities are given for tabular or equally spaced amplitude curve deﬁnitions.5. 2 z 2 1t zt + 1 zt+1t : zt+1t = zt + zt 1t + _ 3 2 zt+1t = zt + _ _ Reference • “Transient modal dynamic analysis. the accelerations at t = 0 and t = 1t are 3 05 3 z3 z0 = 12t and 1t = 21t 22 1t : 31t z z 1t z uabs = z + x. velocity.5–5 .” Section 6. the motion at the base is added to the relative values: where 1t (t + zt+1t) .MODAL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS where m is the generalized mass for eigenvector . or acceleration given for the points where the displacements of the structure are prescribed. If the displacement or velocity history has nonzero values at time t 0. = = The response is calculated relative to the base. the acceleration at acceleration histories are made at times t 0 and t t 0 is 3 3 z3 0 2zt3+1t + zt3 : zt+1t = t+21t 1 t2 =1 = 0 z 0 = 1t 0 : z_ 1t z_ If displacements are given. for initial velocities M MN is the mass matrix.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. In all cases these base motions are converted into an acceleration history. If velocities are given. If total values of nodal variables are required. 0 Similarly. _ uabs = z + x.3. and xN are the initial displacements. the acceleration is deﬁned by the central difference rule Procedures If displacements are given. is the eigenvector. corrections to the above t. the acceleration is deﬁned by the central difference rule z3 _ 0 z_ 3 zt+1t = t+21t t : 21t In the above expressions a superscript * indicates user-deﬁned amplitude data. _ _ uabs = z + x. q = _ Base motion deﬁnition M M MN xN : _0 m 1 Many linear dynamic problems involve ﬁnding the response of a structure to a “base motion”: a time history of displacement.

.

A FORTRAN program to build spectra in this way from an acceleration record is given in “Analysis of a cantilever subject to earthquake motion. If more precise values are required. together with the manner in which multidirectional excitations are combined. the maximum values of displacement. and Smeby (1984) and in the book by A. Since no one method gives good approximations for all cases. S V (!. Several approximations are introduced by response spectrum analysis.5. In response spectrum analysis the estimates of peak values are obtained by combining the peak responses of the participating modes corresponding to user-speciﬁed spectra deﬁnitions.) Procedures 2. The integration described in “Modal dynamic analysis. ). Thus. This process is repeated for all frequency and damping values in the range of interest to construct displacement. and acceleration spectra.6 RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS Response spectrum analysis is intended to provide an inexpensive approach to estimating the peak response of a model (usually a model of a structure) subjected to “base motion”: the simultaneous motion of all nodes ﬁxed with boundary conditions. The manner in which these peak modal responses are combined to estimate the peak physical response.” Section 2.5. .” Section 1. a modal dynamic analysis step can be used to integrate the system through time and. Gupta (1990). ). The equation of motion of the system is integrated through time to ﬁnd peak values of relative displacement. velocity. since it is exact when the base motion record varies linearly with time. thus.5.f. Different spectra are often applied in different excitation directions. In other cases the time history of a known base excitation must ﬁrst be converted into a response spectrum by considering the response of a single degree of freedom system excited by the known base motion. The method is not appropriate if the excitation is so severe that nonlinear effects in the system are important. the peak modal responses can be calculated.6–1 . Since response spectrum analysis is commonly used as a basic design tool. The method is typically used to estimate the response of a building or of a piping system in a building to an earthquake. The choice of the summation rules depends on the particular case and is a matter of the user’s judgment. These methods are discussed in the Regulatory Guide 1. and acceleration are found for the linear. The conversion from a time history of excitation into an equivalent frequency domain spectrum is based on the behavior of a single degree of freedom system. Once the spectra are known. and the fraction of critical damping present in the system. In such cases the user works from the given spectra. can be used for this purpose. develop its response to the given base excitation. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. and absolute acceleration.92 (1976) of the U.S. ). in the papers by Anagnastopoulos (1981). K. S D (!.13 of the ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual (ﬁle cantilever_spectradata. relative velocity. several methods are offered. velocity. !. For this purpose the single degree of freedom system is characterized by its undamped natural frequency. The approach assumes that the system’s response is linear. one degree of freedom system. so it can be analyzed in the frequency domain using its lowest eigenmodes—8—and eigenfrequencies !— extracted in a previous eigenfrequency step. Even for a linear system the response spectrum method provides only estimates of the peak response.4.5. and S A (!. Der Kiureghian (1981).RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 2. introduces approximations. spectra are deﬁned in many design codes for such applications as seismic analysis of buildings. In such a case the time history of the base excitation must be known and used with a dynamic analysis step to obtain the system’s response.

S V . the value of any physical variable is deﬁned from the amplitudes of the modal responses (the “generalized coordinates”). stress. Any number of spectra can be deﬁned. When modal methods are used to deﬁne a model’s response.RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS If there is no damping. which we denote by k. or they can be components of a single base excitation acting in an arbitrary direction. and 0j is the participation factor for mode in direction j (see “Variables associated with the natural modes of a model. for the deﬁnition of 0j ). Similar _max expressions for (q )k and ( )k are obtained by using velocity or acceleration spectra in the above qmax max D (q ) k = c k S k Xt 0 k j j . ) k displacement. for increasing values of damping. 0 1max the peak response of some physical variable Ri (a component of Let us denote by Ri (!.6–2 . k = 1.5. but the subscript k is no longer relevant and should be ignored. k max _ k (Ri )max = 8i (q )k .” Section 2. Sk j direction cosine for the kth spectrum.2.) caused by motion in the natural mode excited by the response spectrum in excitation direction k at frequency ! and with damping . q. 3. The ﬁrst stage in the response spectrum procedure is to estimate the peak values of these modal responses. The response spectrum procedure allows up to three spectra. section force. to be applied to the model in orthogonal physical directions deﬁned by their direction cosines. . !. formula. 2. Denote the component of the eigenvector associated with Ri by 8i . _ 2. Linear interpolation on a logarithmic scale is used to compute the response for any required frequency and damping factor. A response spectrum is deﬁned by giving a table of values of S at increasing values of frequency.5. tk . for each mode we can combine these peak responses into a single value by specifying algebraic summation of the values for the different spatial directions: max q = X (q k max )k : In this case the modal combinations discussed below still apply. We now have estimates of the peak responses of the “generalized coordinates”—the amplitudes of the responses of the natural modes of the system for excitation in each direction. These spectra can come from different excitations (with a certain level of correlation between them). so these relationships are used whenever a conversion is needed. etc. tk is the j th where ck is a user-deﬁned scaling parameter. If the input spectra in the different directions are components of a single base excitation acting in an arbitrary direction. For mode and spectrum k this is j D (!. and S A is given by 1 1 SD = SV = 2 SA : ! ! In ABAQUS/Standard it is assumed that the damping is always small. ) is the kth displacement spectrum. Then (Ri )max = 8i (qmax )k . the relationship between S D . reaction force.

Since the peak responses in the different modes will not in general occur at the same time. so several formulæ are offered.RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS and max k (Ri )max = 8i ( )k : q We need to combine these estimates of the peak physical responses in the individual modes into 1max 0 estimates of the total peak response of the particular physical variable to the given spectrum. this combination is only an estimate. as follows: Summation of the absolute values of the modal peak responses estimates (Ri )max = k X. Ri (!. ) k .

.

.

(Ri )max .

Square root of the summation of the squares (SRSS) estimates (Ri )max k = s X0 (Ri )max 2 : k 1 This summation usually provides a reasonable estimate if the natural frequencies of the modes are well separated.: k Procedures This provides the most conservative estimate of the peak response. The Naval Research Laboratory method distinguishes the mode. since it assumes that all modes provide peak response in phase at the same time. .

This gives the estimate (Ri )max = . . in which the physical variable has its maximum response. and adds the square root of the sum of squares of the peak responses in all other modes to the absolute value of the peak response of that mode.

(Ri )max .

+ k .

k .

.

sX 0 6=.

the modes must be reasonably well-spaced in the frequency domain to obtain an accurate estimate with this method. ABAQUS/Standard provides two of them: the Ten Percent method recommended by Regulatory Guide 1. A variety of methods are available that aim to improve the estimation for structures with closely spaced frequencies. (Ri )max 2 : k 1 Again.92 modiﬁes the SRSS method by adding a contribution from all pairs of modes and .92 (1976) of the U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the complete quadratic combination method.S. Both methods reduce to the SRSS method if the modes are well separated with no coupling among them. which was ﬁrst introduced by Der Kiureghian (1981) and developed by Smeby and Der Kiureghian (1984). The Ten Percent method described in Regulatory Guide 1.

giving the estimate s (Ri )max = k X ((Ri )max )2 + 2 k <. whose frequencies are within 10% of each other.

X.

.

.

(Ri )max (Ri )max .

: k .

k The frequencies of modes and .

are considered to be within 10% whenever !.

< . 0 ! 0:1.

: !.

2.5.6–3 .

RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS The complete quadratic combination method (CQC) combines the modal response with the formula ( Ri )max = k sX X .

( Ri )max .

k . (Ri )max .

k and 3 where .

are cross-correlation coefﬁcients between modes frequencies and modal damping between the two modes: .

. which depend on the ratio of .

= where 1 2 0 r.

2 8 p 2 .

( + r.

.

) r.

+4 .

r.

2 1 + .

r +4 2 2 2 + .

r.

. their correlation coefﬁcient will be . If double eigenvalues occur with the same damping coefﬁcient.

If modes are well-spaced. = 1. their cross-correlation coefﬁcient will be small (.

Regulatory Guide 1.92 speciﬁes that this directional summation be based on the square root of the sum of the squares summation rule: ( ! r. in such cases.3 of the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual). since.” Section 2. This method is usually recommended for asymmetrical building systems. we still need to sum over the directions indicated by the subscript k. other methods can underestimate the response in the direction of motion and overestimate the response in the transverse direction (see “Response spectra of a three-dimensional frame building. << 1) and the method will give the same results as the SRSS method. For the case of different base excitations acting along orthogonal directions.2.

= .

For details on the CQC method applied to more general cases. Reference • “Response spectrum analysis.” The existence of a set of directions along which the ground motions can be considered uncorrelated is discussed by Penzien and Watabe (1975).10 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.5.” Section 6. In the ABAQUS implementation of the CQC method it is assumed that the horizontal components act along the principal directions and are of equal intensity. : ! Ri )max = s X0 k ( Ri )max 2: k 1 This rule is appropriate when the base motions in different directions are statistically independent (uncorrelated)—when they are acting along “principal directions.6–4 . see Smeby and Der Kiureghian (1984). Such considerations are especially important when the CQC modal combination method is used.3.

m is the generalized mass associated with the mode.5. where F N = F cos 9 and F N = F sin 9. in which the equations of steady harmonic motion of the system are solved directly without using the eigenmodes. ABAQUS/Standard also has a “direct” steady-state linear dynamic analysis procedure. It is equivalently possible to write the loading in terms of its magnitude. Rayleigh damping is deﬁned by Rayleigh coefﬁcients damping low and high frequency modes. Rayleigh damping can be reproduced exactly by modal damping as s is the structural damping 2 c = . in which the equations are projected onto a subspace of selected eigenmodes of the undamped system. respectively. The load vector is written in terms of its real and imaginary N N parts. ! is the undamped frequency of the mode.7–1) N N f1 + if2 = N (F1 + iF2 ): In this equation summation is implied by the repeat of the superscript N indicating a degree of freedom in the model. Modal damping deﬁnes c = 2 !. The forcing is deﬁned N N by the frequency. This section describes the linear steady-state response procedure based on the eigenmodes. projected N: onto the eigenmode 1 (f + if ) exp(i t). In many cases steady-state linear dynamic analysis in ABAQUS/Standard uses the set of eigenmodes extracted in a previous eigenfrequency step to calculate the steady-state solution as a function of the frequency of the applied excitation. phase. and (f1 + if2 ) exp(i t) is the forcing associated with this mode. and the real and imaginary parts of the nodal equivalent forces. for when the model includes damping. where is the fraction of critical damping in the mode. F0 and N = F N exp i( t + 9). since this is the manner in which the loading is deﬁned in ABAQUS/Standard (as load N case 1 and load case 2). . The projection of the equations of motion of the system onto the th mode gives 2 q + cq + ! q = _ Procedures where q is the amplitude of mode (the th “generalized coordinate”). F1 and F2 . as F 0 0 0 1 2 Several representations of modal damping are provided. and a “subspace” steady-state linear dynamic analysis procedure. _ coefﬁcient for the mode.7 STEADY-STATE LINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Steady-state linear dynamic analysis predicts the linear response of a structure subjected to continuous harmonic excitation. or for systems in which the governing equations are not symmetric. Structural damping gives a damping force proportional to the modal amplitude: 2 c q = is !q.5. c is the damping associated with this mode (see below). but throughout this section we are working with only a single modal equation. These options are intended for systems in which the behavior is dependent on frequency. F1 and F2 . so no summation is implied by the repeat of the mode subscript . 2 m 1 (2.STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS 2. 9.

+ !. .

and are the where .

! = + : 2! 2 Introducing all of these damping deﬁnitions into Equation 2.5.5.7–1 gives 2.7–1 .

STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS 2 2 2 q + 2 !q + .

+ 2 2 (! 0 2 )2 + ( )2 (! 0 2 )2 + ( )2 q = H0f0 exp i( t + 9). (2.7–3) 1 <(H) = m " 0 1 # where denotes The amplitude of the response is s !2 2 = 2 ! + .5.7–2) The solution to this equation is p where f0 = (f1)2 + (f2 )2 is the amplitude of the projected load vector and H0( ) is the amplitude of the complex “transfer function” for mode that deﬁnes the response in mode from the force projection onto that mode and is deﬁned by its real and imaginary parts as 2 f 1 ! 0 2 + 2 f22 2 0 2)2 + ( )2 (! (! 0 )2 + ( )2 # " 0 2 1 f 2 ! 0 2 f 1 1 0 =(H) = m .5. + ! q + is ! q + !q = _ _ 0 1 m 1 (f + if ) exp (i t): 1 2 (2.

7–2 . where u1 and u2 are the real are imaginary parts of the displacement. 2 (! 0 )2 + ( )2 9 = arctan (=(H)=<(H)) : If a harmonic base motion is applied. the corresponding accelerations are a1 = 0 v1 . a2 = 0 2 u2. + ! + : H0f0 = <(H)2 + =(H)2 f0 = and the phase angle of the response is p m 1 q 1 f 0 . The peak amplitude of any physical variable. uN . If the base motion is given as a velocity or displacement. a2 = 0 v2 . a1j and a2j are the real and imaginary uN = X N q : 2. ^j 2j m parts of the base acceleration. is available from the modal amplitudes as NM is the structure’s mass matrix and eM is a vector that has unit magnitude in the direction of where M ^j the base acceleration at any grounded node and is otherwise zero. where v1 and v2 are the real and imaginary parts of the velocity. the real and imaginary parts of the modal loads are given as f 1 = 0 f 2 = 0 1 N M NM eM a exp (i t). ^j 1j m 1 N M NM eM a exp (i t). or a1 = 0 2 u1 .5.

” Section 6.5.3.8 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual. Reference • “Mode-based steady-state dynamic analysis. The biasing is described in “Mode-based steady-state dynamic analysis. Since the structural response peaks around the natural frequencies.3.8 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Procedures 2. a bias function is used to cluster the response points around the frequencies.” Section 6.7–3 .STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS Steady-state response is given as a frequency sweep through a user-speciﬁed range of frequencies.

.

if x(t) is the variable being considered (such as the height of the road surface in the case of a car driving down a rough road).5. We need some assumptions to make this characterization possible.) and. f (x). constant. statistically. hence—if required—the variance and root mean square values of these same variables. if we take several samples of the excitation. This section provides brief deﬁnitions and explanations of the terms used in this type of analysis. displacements. This term means that. Although the excitation varies in time. which is the case for the variables that we need to consider. strains. and the response of a building to an earthquake. These restrictions ensure that the excitation is. Hurty and Rubinstein (1964). such as the “jet noise” emitted by a jet engine.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS 2. etc. Statistical measures Procedures We deﬁne some measures of a variable that characterize it in a statistical sense. then any statistical function of x. and Thompson (1988). must have the same value regardless of what time origin we use to compute f : 0 1 0 1 f x(t) = f x(t + ) for any : We also need the excitation to be ergodic.8 RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Random response linear dynamic analysis is used to predict the response of a structure subjected to a nondeterministic continuous excitation that is expressed in a statistical sense by a cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix. the response of a structure to noise. Examples of random response analysis are the study of the response of an airplane to turbulence. the response of a car to road surface imperfections. Detailed discussion of the theory of random response analysis is provided in the books by Clough and Penzien (1975). The mean value of a random variable x(t) is E (x ) = T !1 T lim 1 Z T 2 0T 2 x(t) dt: Since the dynamic response is computed about a static equilibrium conﬁguration. Since the loading is nondeterministic. Thus.8–1 . the time average of each sample is the same. the mean value of any dynamic input or response variable will always be zero: E (x ) = 0 : The variance of a random variable measures the average square difference between the point value of the variable and its mean: 2 r (x ) = T !1 T lim 1 Z T 2 0 0T 2 x(t) 0 E (x) dt: 12 2. In the following discussion we also assume that the random variables are real. in some sense it must be stationary—its statistical properties must not vary with time.5. it can be characterized only in a statistical sense. The random response procedure uses the set of eigenmodes extracted in a previous eigenfrequency step to calculate the corresponding power spectral densities (PSD) of response variables (stresses.

Correlation Correlation measures the similarity between two variables. 2. x1 (t) and x2 (t). F2 (t + d=v) = F1(t).RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Since E (x) = 0 for our applications. if they are not similar.) The cross-correlation function is.8–1 Two random records to be correlated. Generally we prefer to use the same units as the variable itself. x1(t) t x2(t) t Figure 2. If the separation of the axles is d and the car is moving at a steady speed v. so that—for example—the variance of a force has units of (force)2 .5. (Such a case would arise. the product x1 x2 will sometimes be negative and sometimes positive so that the integral over all time will provide a much smaller value. on average each variable has equal positive and negative content. the back axle sees the same road proﬁle as the front axle. in studying a car driving along a rough road. for example. If the variables are quite similar. deﬁned as Rx1 x2 ( ) = T !1 T lim 1 Z T 2 0T 2 x1(t)x2 (t + ) dt: Since the mean value of any variable is zero. Thus. with one of them shifted in time by some ﬁxed value to allow for the possibility that they are similar but shifted in time. If F2 is the force applied to the rear axle (as a concentrated load in ABAQUS) and F1 is the force applied to the front axle. their cross-correlation (for some values of ) will be large. but delayed by a time = d=v.5. thus. the cross-correlation between two random functions of time. output variables p 2 in ABAQUS/Standard are given as root mean square (“RMS”) values. regardless of the choice of . r (x) = r . the variance is the same as the mean square value: E (x 2 ) = lim T !1 T 1 Z T 2 0T 2 x2(t) dt: The units of variance are (amplitude)2 . in turn applies a force to the car frame through the suspension.8–2 . Therefore. is the integration of the product of the two variables. Assume that the road proﬁle moves each wheel which.

The autocorrelation of a variable x(t) is. as ! 0. also use the normalized autocorrelation: 0T 2 x(t)x(t + ) dt: r ( ) = Obviously R( ) is symmetric about = 0: R ( ) : 2 r R(0 ) = R( ). therefore. R ( ) = T !1 T lim 1 Z T 2 2 Clearly.5. However.” its autocorrelation will be very small whenever 6= 0: there will be no time shift that allows the variable to correlate with itself. This kind of function is known as a “wide band” random function. We can.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS A simple result is R x1 x2 ( ) = T !1 T T !1 T T !1 T lim 1 Z Z Z T 2 0T 2 T 2 x1 (t)x2(t + ) dt x1 (t 0 )x2(t) dt x2 (t)x1(t 0 ) dt Procedures = lim 1 0T 2 T 2 = lim = 1 R x2 x1 (0 ): 0T 2 For convenience the cross-correlation can be normalized to deﬁne the nondimensional normalized cross-correlation: R ( ) : r x1 x2 ( ) = p 2 x1 x2 2 r (x 1 ) r (x 2 ) Thus. R( ) ! r : the autocorrelation equals the variance (the mean square value). if x1 = 0x2. if x1 = x2. Intuitively we can see that if the variable is “very random. and the value of R( ) never exceeds its value at = 0: 2 R( ) R(0) = r : The autocorrelation function of records with very similar amplitude over the wide range of frequencies drops off rapidly as increases. r ! 0.8–3 . If x1 and x2 are entirely dissimilar. r(0) = 01. with small values of r indicating that x1 and x2 have quite different time histories. Thus. if the variable is not so random—if it is just a vibration at a ﬁxed frequency—the autocorrelation will be close to 61 whenever is chosen to be some integer multiple of half the period of the vibration. (When r = 0 the variables are said to be orthogonal. the autocorrelation provides a measure of how random a variable really is. Now consider the cross-correlation of a variable with itself: the autocorrelation. r(0) = 1.) Clearly 01 r 1. therefore. 2.

each time the shift.8–2 Wide band noise record and its autocorrelation. Such a function is called white noise. R( ) = lim T !1 T 1 Z T 2 =A 2 T !1 T lim 1 cos !0 0T 2 2 A2 sin !0 t sin !0(t + ) dt Z T 2 Z T 2 sin !0 t cos !0 t dt 0T 2 sin !0 t dt + sin !0 0T 2 2. since R( ) must attain the same value. known as a “narrow band” function. Performing the integration through time.5. R(0) = r .8–3 Autocorrelation of white noise.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Wide band noise x(t) R(τ) t O τ Figure 2.5. R(τ) σz2 τ Figure 2.5.8–4 . . and its autocorrelation is zero except at = 0. The extreme case of such a function is a simple sinusoidal vibration at a single frequency: x = A sin !0t. Then R( ) 2 must also be periodic. Let us now consider the opposite case. corresponds to the period of vibration. White noise has the same amplitude at all frequencies. The most extreme wide band random function would have an autocorrelation that is just a delta function: 2 r if = 0 R ( ) = ( ) = 0 if 6= 0.

8–4 Sine wave and its autocorrelation. the variable has a narrow frequency content centered around the frequency corresponding to the periodicity of R( ). Narrow band response R(τ) = ce -k |τ| cos ω0τ O τ Figure 2. We can extend this concept to detect the frequency content of a random variable by crosscorrelating the variable with a sine wave: sweeping the wave over a range of frequencies and examining the cross-correlation tells us whether the random variable is dominated by oscillation at particular frequencies. thus tells us about the nature of the random variable.5. R( ).5.8–5 Narrow band record and its autocorrelation. The autocorrelation.5. 2. ergodic random processes is best understood by examining them in the frequency domain. the variable has a broad frequency content. We begin to see that the nature of stationary. If R( ) drops off rapidly as the time shift moves away from = 0.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS 1 = A2 Tlim T !1 = 1 2 cos !0 = Z T 2 1 2 0T 2 (1 0 cos 2!0 t) dt + sin !0 Z T 2 1 2 0T 2 sin 2!0 t dt A2 cos !0 2 r cos !0 : Type of record Sine wave x(t) = A sin (ω0t + θ) Autocorrelation R(τ) = A cos ω0τ 2 2 Procedures t O τ Figure 2. if it drops off more slowly and exhibits a cosine proﬁle.8–5 .

which contains many discrete frequencies. consider a variable. We can write x(t) in terms of a Fourier series expanded in N steps of a fundamental frequency !0: x (t) = n=1 N X [a cos(in!0 t) + b sin(in!0 t)] : n n The series begins with the n = 1 term because the mean of the variable must be zero. An = The variance of x(t) is (a 0 n 0 ibn )=2 n + ibn )=2 for n > 0. r (x ) = 2 A3 exp(0in!0 t)An exp(in!0 t) dt. A3 is the complex conjugate n A 3 = < (A n ) 0 i = (A n ). for n < 0. x(t).RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS As an illustration. for n = 0. Continuing. T!1 T 0 T n=0N n 2 lim 1 2 Z T N X using the orthogonality of Fourier terms. r (x ) = 2 A A3 dt T!1 T 0 T n=0N n n 2 N N N X X . We can write this series more compactly as a complex Fourier series (keeping in mind that we will be interested only in the real part): x (t) = where An of An : and = <(An ) + i=(An ) is the complex amplitude of the nth term. n ( (a n=0N N X An exp(in!0 t).

.

2 X 2 .

An .

we see that An A3 is the variance. = n n=0N n=0N n=0N lim 1 2 Z T N X where xn = < An exp(in!0 t) 0 1 is the nth component of the Fourier series. In particular. = An A3 = r (x n ). Thus. the variance (the mean square value) of the series is the sum of the variances (the mean square values) of its components. thanks to the orthogonality of Fourier terms. is thus S x (f n ) = 2 A A3 . of the variable at the frequency n!0. !0 n n 2.8–6 . n 2 The contribution to the variance of x. or mean square value. per unit frequency. at the frequency fn = n!0=(2). r (x).5.

is deﬁned by x (t) = or. although— since ABAQUS does not have any built-in units—the frequency could be expressed in any other units of cycles per time. Sx fn tells us the amount of “power” (in the sense of mean square value) contained in x. f ! . thus. 1 Z 1 x(!) exp(i!t) d!: x (t) = 2 01 01 x(f ) exp(i2ft) df Simple manipulation provides 1 Z 120x(!) + x(0!)1 cos !t + i0x(!) 0 x(0!)1 sin !t3 d!. not Sx ! . () () Fourier transforms Since the variables of interest in random response analysis are characterized as functions of frequency. per unit frequency. Sx is the power spectral density (PSD) of the variable x: ( ) 1 0 r (x ) = 2 Z 1 01 Sx (f ) df. Sx should not be given per circular frequency (radians per time): ABAQUS assumes that Sx f . therefore.8–7 . etc. We. Sx (fn )1f: As we examine x as a function of frequency. the Fourier transform plays a major role in converting from the time domain to the frequency domain and vice versa. stress.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS since we are stepping up the frequency range in steps of be written as 2 r (x ) = n=0N N X 1f = !0=(2). 2 0 1 0 so x(0 ) + x(0!) =(2) is the amplitude of the cosine term in x(t) at the circular frequency !. where (variable) is the unit of the variable (displacement. which we write as x f . Procedures where f is the frequency in cycles per time (usually Hz). The Fourier transform of x t . in terms of the circular frequency ! Z 1 () () = 2f . Notice that Sx has units of (variable)2 /frequency.5. The variance can. force. this expression shows that we must have 0 1 0 1 = x(!) = 0= x(0!) x (t) = 2. However. As we consider smaller and smaller intervals.). at the frequency fn . In this case “frequency” is almost always given in Hz. If x(t) is real only (which is the case for the variables we need to consider). ! 1 while x(!) 0 x(0!) =(2) is the amplitude of the sine term. see the physical meaning of the Fourier transform—it provides the complex magnitude (the amplitude and phase) of the content of x(t) at a particular frequency.

which shows that the transformations between the time and frequency domains are rather symmetrical. and so x(0f ) x3 (0f ) = x3 (f )x(f ) = x(f )x3 (f ): We have already shown that we can write the variance in terms of the power spectral density as Z r (x ) = By comparison. We now need Parseval’s theorem: Z 1 01 x1 (t)x3 (t) dt = 2 = = Z 1 Z01 1 x 3 (t) 2 Z 1 01 Z 1 01 x3 (t) exp(i2ft) dt df 2 01 x1 (f )x3 (f ) df: x 1 (f ) 2 01 Z 1 x1 (f ) exp(i2ft) df dt Applying this theorem to the variance (the mean square value): 2 r = = lim 1 Z T 2 Z T !1 T 1 0T 2 1 x2 (t) dt x(f )x3 (f ) df: 01 T !1 T = lim Since x(t) is real. 2 1 01 1 Sx (f ) df: x(f )x3 (f ): S x (f ) = We also see that T !1 T lim S x (0 f ) = S x (f ): 2.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS and which means that < x (! ) 0 1 = < x(0!) . x (f ) = 1 01 x(t) exp(0i2ft) dt. we know that x(0f ) x3 (f ). 0 1 x(0!) = x3 (!): Z For completeness we also note the inverse transformation.8–8 .5.

(using the result above). we write the variance as 2 r (x ) = = Z1 Z0 1 0 [ S x (f ) + ~ Sx (f ) df. Thus. we can also write this equation as 0 exp( 01 R( ) exp(0i2f ) d: 0 Z 0 =2 1 R ( ) 0i2f ) + exp(i2f ) 1 d R( ) cos(2f ) d. Sx (0f )] df ~ where Sx (f ) is the single-sided PSD deﬁned as ~ S x (f ) = S x (f ) + S x (0 f ).RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS To avoid integration over negative frequencies. Procedures Since Sx (0f ) = Sx (f ). for f 0.5. the power spectral density is the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function. Z 0 so that ~ S x (f ) = 4 1 R( ) cos(2f ) d: 2. The inverse transform is S x (f ) = Since R( ) is symmetric about =0 Z 1 S x (f ) = Z 1 (R(0 ) = R( )).8–9 . we see that ~ S x (f ) = 2 S x (f ) : Now consider the autocorrelation function: R ( ) = = lim T !1 T 1 lim 1 Z T 2 Z T 2 0T 2 x (t) Z x(t)x(t + ) dt Z 1 01 Z = T !1 T 1 0T 2 1 x(f ) exp i2f (t + ) df dt 0 1 = 01 T !1 T 01 1 1 3 x (f )x(f ) exp(i2f ) df lim = T !1 T Z01 1 Z lim 1 x(t) exp(i2ft) dt x(f ) exp(i2f ) df 01 Sx (f ) exp(i2f ) df.

RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Cross-spectral density Following a similar argument to that used above to develop the idea of the power spectral density. we can deﬁne the cross-spectral density (CSD) function. SNM (f ). which gives the cross-correlation between two variables. S x1 x2 (f ) = Z Z 1 01 T 2 Rx1 x2 ( ) exp(0i2f ) d: Transforming the original deﬁnition of Rx1x2 ( ) to the frequency domain provides R x1 x2 ( ) = = lim 1 Z T !1 T 0 T x1(t)x2 (t + ) dt 2 lim 1 T 2 Z = T !1 T 0 T 2 1 lim 1 x 1 (t) Z Z 1 Z = 01 T !1 T 01 1 1 3 x1 (f )x2(f ) exp(i2f ) df: lim 01 T !1 T S x1 x2 (f ) = lim 1 1 01 x2 (f ) exp i2f (t + ) df dt 0 1 x1 (t) exp(i2ft) dt x2(f ) exp(i2f ) df By comparison. Rx1x2 ( ). Here we think of N and M as two of the degrees of freedom of the ﬁnite element model that are exposed to the random loads or prescribed base motions. Sx1 x2 (f ). In typical applications the range of frequencies will be limited to those to which we know the structure will respond—we do not need to consider frequencies that are higher than the modes in which we expect the structure to respond.8–10 . as R x1 x2 ( ) = with the inverse transformation Z 1 01 Sx1 x2 (f ) exp(i2f ) df. 2.5. A system is excited by some random loads or prescribed base motions. which are characterized in the frequency domain by a matrix of cross-spectral density functions. T !1 T x1 (f )x2(f ): 1 3 We could also write S x1 x2 (f ) = Tlim T 2 !1 3 = S x2 x 1 ( f ) = S x 2 x 1 ( 0 f ) : x3 (f )x1 (f ) 3 Random response analysis The general concept of random response analysis is now clear.

is for us to consider how ABAQUS/Standard ﬁnds the linear response to the random excitation. where the autocorrelation of the road surface proﬁle. together with known geometric data. ABAQUS/Standard computes it by integrating the single-sided power spectral density of the variable over the frequency range. the response of a building to seismic loading might be used to obtain the motions of the attachment points for a piping system in the building so that the piping system can then be analyzed. For example. These are usually not of interest. 2. the cross-correlation of the left and right road surface proﬁles will also be required to deﬁne the excitation.8–11 . N will depend on the number of eigenmodes used in the superposition and on the user-speciﬁed number of points between the eigenfrequencies. etc. will deﬁne the loading for some other system. (If. as shown above. since Procedures r = pR sZ (0) = 1 0 ~ Sx (f ) df: This integration is performed numerically by using the trapezoidal rule over the range of frequencies speciﬁed for the random response step: r v u u10 t S (f ~ 1 2 2 0 f1 ) + N 01 X i=2 ~ ~ Si (fi+1 0 fi01 ) + SN (fN 0 fN 01 ) . The transformation of the problem into the frequency domain inherently assumes that the system under study is responding linearly: the random response procedure is considered as a linear perturbation analysis step. in this case. displacement. (They might be needed if the analysis involves obtaining results that. The PSD history of any particular variable will tell us the frequencies at which the system is most excited by the random loading. Si is the Sx at the frequency fi . The RMS value is used instead of variance because it has the same units as the variable itself.) The system will respond to this excitation. then.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS The values of SN M (f ) might be provided by Fourier transformation of the cross-correlation of time records or by the Fourier transformation of the autocorrelation of a single time record. The user must ensure that enough frequency points are speciﬁed so that this approximate integration will be sufﬁciently accurate. together with the speed of the car and the axle separation. and ABAQUS/Standard does not provide them. the road proﬁle seen by the wheels on the left side of the car is not similar to that seen by the wheels on the right side of the car.) An overall picture is provided by looking at the variance (the mean square value) of any variable. We might also compute the cross-spectral densities between variables. and N is the number of points at which the response was calculated. 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ where S1 denotes Sx at the user-deﬁned lower frequency range f1 . The only option would be to model the entire system together. We are usually interested in looking at the power spectral densities of the usual response variables—stress. the RMS value is provided for this purpose. in turn. allow S12 (f ) to be deﬁned for the front (1) and rear (2) axles. What remains. as in the case of the car driving along a roughly grooved road.5.

The discrete (ﬁnite element) linear dynamic system has the equilibrium equation uN M N M uM + C NM uM + K NM uM _ 0 1 = uN F N .5. F N are the external loads. like above. while the number of physical degrees of freedom might be O(103)–O(105). repeated subscripts and superscripts are assumed to be summed over the appropriate range except when they are barred. where M NM is the mass matrix. Roman superscripts and subscripts indicate physical degrees of freedom. so the number of modes is usually O(101 )–O(102). We project the problem onto the eigenmodes of the system. and uN is an arbitrary virtual variation. The eigenmodes are orthogonal across the mass and stiffness matrices: N M NM M . we need the transformation from load to response as a function of frequency. uN is the value of degree of freedom N of the ﬁnite element model (usually a displacement or rotation component.7. Greek superscripts and subscripts indicate modal variables.) Typically the structural dynamic response is well represented by a small number of the lower modes of the model. To do this the modes are ﬁrst extracted from the undamped system: 0 2 M NM ! 0 K NM N 1 = 0: (Here.” Section 2. Since the random response is treated as the integration of a series of sinusoidal vibrations. this transformation is based on the same steady-state response function used for a steady-state dynamic analysis and described in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis. C NM is the damping matrix. Therefore. K NM is the stiffness matrix.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS The frequency response function Random response is studied in the frequency domain. or an acoustic pressure). and throughout the remainder of this section.

= 0 m k 0 N K NM M = .

if = .

if 6= .

. if = .

if 6= .

some codes normalize the eigenmodes so that m = 1. . In contrast.0. m 6= 1 in general.) We assume that any damping is in the general form of “Rayleigh damping”: C NM = M NM + . Thus. (The eigenmodes are normalized so that the largest entry in N is 1.

thus. _ 2.5.8–12 . projects into a set of uncoupled modal response equations. The problem. m q + c q + k q = f .K NM so that C NM will also project into a diagonal damping matrix c.

Projecting this matrix onto the modes provides the cross-spectral density function for the generalized (modal) loads: f F S.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS where is the generalized load for mode and q is the “generalized coordinate” (the modal amplitude) for mode .7. Response development F Random loading is deﬁned by the cross-spectral density matrix SNM (f ). where H (f ) is the complex frequency response function deﬁned in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis. which links all loaded degrees of freedom (N and M ). Steady-state excitation is of the form f = N F N f = A exp(i2ft) and creates response of similar form that we write as Procedures q = HA exp(i2ft).5.” Section 2.

(f ) = N SNM (f )M : .

The complex frequency response function then deﬁnes the response of the generalized coordinates as q f 3 S.

(f ) = H S.

(f )H.

. the response of the physical variables is recovered from the modal responses as q u SNM (f ) = N S. 3 where H is the complex conjugate of H. Finally.

(f )M .

so that the power spectral density of degree of freedom uN is q u SN N (f ) = N S.

(f )N : .

Therefore. The PSDs for the velocity and acceleration of the same variable are u _ u SN N (f ) = (2f )2SN N (f ) and u u SN N (f ) = (2f )4 SN N (f ): 1)–O(102) eigenmodes but many more (O(103 )–O(105 )) Recall that we may typically have O(10 physical degrees of freedom. if many of the physical degrees of freedom are loaded (as in 2.8–13 .5.

it may be computationally expensive to perform operations such as f F S.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS the case of a shell structure exposed to random acoustic noise).

(f ) = N SNM (f )M . .

which involve products over all loaded physical degrees of freedom and must be done at each frequency in the range considered. In contrast. operations such as q f 3 S.

(f ) = H(f )S.

(f )H.

(f ) are relatively inexpensive since they are done independently for each combination of modes. Forming q u SN N (f ) = N S.

(f )N .

ABAQUS/Standard will calculate the response only for the element and nodal variables requested. may be expensive if we choose to compute the results for a large selection of physical variables (displacements. all variables are computed at the requested restart frequency. accelerations. if a restart analysis is requested with the random response procedure. : J P J (f ) X I 9IJ NN Here J is the number of cross-correlation deﬁnitions included in the random response step. Each cross-correlation deﬁnition refers to an input complex frequency function. etc. velocities. The user is advised to write the restart ﬁle for the last increment only. The spatial crosscorrelations are then deﬁned by the complex set of values 9IJ . To reduce the computational cost of random response analysis. which can add substantially to the computational cost. stresses. ABAQUS/Standard assumes that the cross-spectral density matrix for the loading can be separated into a frequencydependent scalar function (containing the units of the CSD) and a set of coupling terms that are independent of frequency as follows: F SNM (f ) = X P (f ) X 9 J 2 F F SNM (f ) = SMN (f ) F SNN (f ) = < X J 33 I IJ NM for for ! N < M.). N > M. However. NM f With this approach the cross-spectral density function for the generalized loads. P J (f ). S.

(f ). can be constructed as X X f S.

(f ) = P J (f ) N M 9IJ .

S. NM J I h i3 f f for N > M.

(f ) = S.

f S (f ) = < " X J P J (f ) N M X I 9IJ NM !# : 2.8–14 .5. (f ) ! for N < M.

leaving . they can be computed once only.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS Since the N M I IJ are not functions of frequency.

8–15 . Although this procedure is not natural for typical correlated loadings (like road excitation or jet noise). depending on how the frequencies in one octave band are related to the frequencies in the next. The approach works well for uncorrelated and fully correlated loadings. x for = for one-third octave band conversion. the center frequency for an octave band bounded by lower frequency fL and upper frequency fU is given by () th =1 3 Since fU =fL = 2x . There are various ways to convert from decibel units to units of power/ frequency. which are quite common cases. the center frequency doubles from octave band to octave band. and x uses full octave band conversion to convert from decibel units to units of power/frequency. A general formula relates the center (midband) frequencies fc between octaves as ( f c i) f (i01) c () Procedures = 2x. ABAQUS/Standard full octave band conversion. =1 where the superscript i denotes i octave band and x is a chosen value. the change in frequency within any given octave band is 1f = f 0 f = f [2 : x 0 20 : x]: U L c 05 05 To convert from one type of conversion formula to the next. Since decibel units are based upon log scales. For example. The approach then reduces the computational cost for models with many loaded physical degrees of freedom. Decibel conversion P9 ABAQUS/Standard allows the user to provide an input PSD (say P f ) in decibel units rather than units of power/frequency. we need the following general decibel to power/frequency conversion equation: db(f ) = 10 log P (f ) . loadings can always be deﬁned this way by using enough cross-correlation deﬁnitions. NM the frequency-dependent operations to be done only in the space of the eigenmodes. P x =1 f ( ) ref 2. as shown by the above equation. we can easily show that log f = 1 log f + 1 log f 2 2 c U L : fU = fc 20:5x and fL = fc 200:5x: Thus.5. For full octave band conversion.

Reference • “Random response analysis. Thus.RANDOM RESPONSE ANALYSIS where Pref is a reference power value.” Section 6.11 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. the equivalent full octave band reference power value would be Pref = 3 0536 : P (1=3) : ref This conversion would be valid only at the one-third octave band center frequencies that coincide with the full octave band center frequencies. When x .5. if we are given Pref (i. we will simply use the notation Pref . f fc = (x ) () =1 3 =1 =1 P f ( )= 2 fc p 1 = : 2 Pref 10 db(f )=10 The PSD data can be given with respect to some other type of octave band frequency scale. In that case we can convert the PSD data at those frequencies coinciding with the full octave band scale by computing an equivalent full octave band reference power based on the following ratio: Pref (x ) P ref (1=3) = p2[2 10 20 ] 0:5x 0:5x : For example.. one-third octave band frequency scale). full octave band conversion for x = ).e. since octave band conversion for x p and ABAQUS/Standard uses a full octave band conversion.8–16 . Thus. The subscript x means that the power reference is given or one-third for the type of conversion represented by x (e. only every third data point should be considered.3..g.

ABAQUS/Standard differentiates it to obtain the acceleration. :::. j = 1.5. ub . fug. and the applied base motion excitation. A common case is that of a bridge whose supports are subjected to the same earthquake record but with a time shift. Primary base motions Procedures Let us consider structural motions relative to the base motion.9–1 . Rayleigh damping with 6= 0 is not allowed). For modal-based dynamic analyses with modal dynamic. which typically is the only base if the motion can be described by a single set of rigid body motions. zj . fut g. The suppressed degrees of freedom that are associated with named boundary conditions make up the secondary base or bases. fu b g: fu t g = fug + fu b g. Multiple bases are required if base motions cannot be described by a single set of rigid body motions. of the dynamic system will now consist of the relative response. If the prescribed excitation is given in the form of a displacement or a velocity. Here it has been assumed that there is no damping on rigid body modes (i.9 BASE MOTIONS IN MODAL-BASED PROCEDURES Structures subjected to ground motion by earthquakes or other excitations such as explosions or dynamic action of machinery are examples in which support motions may have to be considered in the analysis of dynamic response. _ mm mm j =1 X 2.e. The base motion vector can be expressed in terms of the rigid body mode vectors.. Substituting of motion gives futg in the linearized equation The base acceleration is converted into applied inertia loads 0[M ]fubg. 6: [M ]fug + [C ]fug + [K ]fug = 0[M ]fubg: _ fu b g = X fT g z : 6 j =1 j j Projecting the equation of motion into the eigenspace we have qm + 6 cm k qm + m qm = 0 (0m )j zj . steady-state dynamic. 2. with similar expressions for velocities and accelerations. The suppressed degrees of freedom are grouped into one or more bases. the support motions are simulated by prescribed excitations called base motions that are applied to the suppressed degrees of freedom. Multiple bases can be used only in modal dynamic and steady-state dynamic analyses. and time dependent base motion values. fT gj . ABAQUS/Standard uses different approaches to handle primary and secondary base motions. The degrees of freedom that are suppressed without being assigned to a named base make up the primary base.BASE MOTIONS 2. and the “big mass” method is used for secondary base motions. The total response. The modal participation method is used for primary base motions. or random response steps.5.

This generates additional low frequency modes associated with the masses Mbig .9–2 fP s g = X[Mbig]fuisg. and TA. (0m )j = 1 fgT [M ]fT gj m mm is the modal participation factor for mode m and degree of freedom j . the equation of motion for combined primary and secondary base motions is readily written as Ps N = Mbig us N . V. i . the number of eigenvalues extracted is automatically increased. The participation factors are used to calculate the equivalent forcing function. and m . km . the primary base motions are added to the relative responses. the size of the subspace will grow proportionally to the number of degrees of freedom associated with secondary bases. and relative accelerations—output variables U. and modal mass.BASE MOTIONS where qm and fgm denote the relative generalized coordinate and mode shape for the mode cm and mm are modal stiffness. In this approach a big mass (much bigger than the total mass of the structure) is added to each degree of freedom in a secondary base during the eigenfrequency step. To keep the number of frequencies of interest the same. Using the notation used in the equation of motion for primary base motions. respectively). total velocities. Hence. Instead. more low frequency modes will be extracted in the frequency analysis step. TV. To obtain total kinematic quantities (such as total displacements. The kinematic constraints are built into the eigenvectors and into the participation factors for each mode. The desired base motion is obtained by applying a point force to each degree of freedom in the modal superposition step: where Mbig is the big mass and us N is the applied acceleration prescribed for degree of freedom N associated with secondary supports. respectively). and total accelerations—output variables TU. As more big masses are applied. The mass matrix [M ] now contains the mass of the structure as 2.5. Kinematic boundary conditions deﬁned without being assigned a base name in an eigenfrequency step cannot be changed in any of the subsequent modal-based procedures. respectively. and A. Secondary base motions The base motion treatment described above cannot be applied to secondary bases. _ with i i ] is the diagonal matrix containing the big masses for secondary base i and fui g is the s where [Mbig base motion applied to this base. ABAQUS/Standard uses a “big mass” approach to simulate the motion of secondary bases. which implies that all degrees of freedom in the primary base must be subjected to the same rigid body motion. modal damping. and the equation of motion is solved for the relative quantities (such as relative displacements. [M ]fug + [C ]fug + [K ]fug = 0[M ]fubg + fPs g. relative velocities.

Hence.4. the presence of the masses will be noticeable in the output tables printed in the eigenvalue extraction step. References Procedures • “Transient modal dynamic analysis.” Section 6. The big masses should be chosen as large as possible to obtain accurate base motions but should not be so large as to cause excessive round-off errors or overﬂows.” Section 19.” Section 6. including those obtained at the secondary supports. the quantities solved for are relative to the primary support.1.8 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Random response analysis.5.3.12 of the ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual. Projecting the equation of motion into the eigenspace (expanded by the low frequency modes) we obtain 6 c k 1 qm + m qm + m qm = 0 (0m )j zj + _ fgT fP g: mm mm mm m s j =1 X Again.11 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Amplitude curves.3.” Section 6. ABAQUS/Standard chooses each big mass equal to 106 times the total mass of the structure and each big rotary inertia equal to 106 times the total moment of inertia of the structure.” Section 1. which are introduced in the eigenfrequency step. The big masses.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Mode-based steady-state dynamic analysis. See “Double cantilever subjected to multiple base motions.3.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.9–3 . are not included in the model for other steps in a multiple step analysis. To provide six digits of numerical accuracy. for an example of the use of the base motion feature. the total mass of the structure and the printed messages about masses and inertia of the entire model are not affected. However. as well as in the information for the generalized masses and effective masses.BASE MOTIONS well as the big masses associated with the secondary bases.

.

DIRECT STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS 2. including radiation boundary conditions and inﬁnite elements (as described in “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis. using the Rayleigh damping coefﬁcients speciﬁed under the material deﬁnition.1). and the “subspace” procedure described in “Subspace-based steadystate dynamic analysis.6. where the perturbed solution is obtained by linearization about the current base state. Discrete damping (such as dashpot elements) can be included.1 DIRECT STEADY-STATE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS For structures subjected to continuous harmonic excitation. and " is the strain variation that is compatible with the displacement variation . For the calculation of the base state.5.8. Viscous damping can be included in the procedure.9. is the surface " traction.6.” Section 2. This procedure belongs to the perturbation procedures. the structure may exhibit material and geometrical nonlinear behavior as well as contact nonlinearities. c is the mass proportional damping factor (part of the Rayleigh damping assumption).” Section 2.” Section 4. is the density of the material.7. The formulation is based on the dynamic virtual work equation.3).6.” Section 2. ABAQUS/Standard offers a “direct” steadystate dynamic analysis procedure in addition to the “modal” procedure described in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis. (2.1–1) u t N M NM uM + C(NM uM + I N 0 P N = 0. All properties can be frequency dependent. and with viscoelastic material modeling (as described in “Frequency domain viscoelasticity. The procedure can also be used for coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis. is the stress. Procedures Z where _ and are the velocity and the acceleration.1). with piezoelectric medium (as described in “Piezoelectric analysis. u m) _ Z NN 1 NM dV .” Section 2.2.10. The discretized form of this equation is u V u 1 u dV + Z V _ c u 1 u dV + Z u V " " : dV 0 Z S t u 1 t dS = 0.

6. the load and response in the step deﬁne the change from the base state. deﬁned by the subscript 0. is the internal load vector.6. is the mass damping matrix. 2. Since steady-state dynamics belongs to the perturbation procedures.6. is the external load vector: (2.1–2) where the following deﬁnitions apply: M NM = C(NM = m) IN = PN = ZV ZV ZV is the mass matrix. N : dV t (2.1–3) c NN 1 NM dV S NN 1 t dS For the steady-state harmonic response we assume that the structure undergoes small harmonic vibrations about a deformed. stressed state.1–1 .

DIRECT STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS The change in internal force vector follows by linearization: 1I N = Z h V 1.

N : + .

N : 1 i dV: The change in stress can be written in the form where el is the elasticity matrix for the material and .

c is the stiffness proportional damping factor (the other part of the Rayleigh damping assumption). The strain and strain rate changes follow from the displacement and velocity changes: D 1 = Del : (1" + .

" 1" = .c1_ ) .

1–2 as 1_ = . This allows us to write Equation 2.6. M 1uM .

1–4) where we have deﬁned the stiffness matrix V . M 1uM : " _ uN NM NM _ M NM uM + (C(m) + C(k) )uM + K NM uM 0 P N = 0.6. K NM = Z " (2.

@.

N : 0 + .

N @uM Z : Del : .

M # dV and the stiffness damping matrix NM C (k ) = .

.

N : Del : .

6. M dV: V c For harmonic excitation and response we can write 1uM = 0< 0uM 1 + i = 0uM 11 exp i t and 0 1 0 1 where < uM and = uM are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes of the displacement.1–2 . where 2 3 2 3 0 1 1 0 < 2ANM 3 = 2 NM 3 < 0uM 1 = < 0 N 1 .6.1–5) 2.1–4 and writing the result in matrix form yields 0 1 1P N = 0< 0P N 1 + i = 0P N 11 exp i t. < P N 0 1 and = P N are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of the force applied to the structure is the circular frequency. A P = ANM 0< ANM = uM 0= P N 2 3 < 2ANM 3 = K NM 0 2 M NM = ANM = 0 (C(NM + C(NM ): m) k) (2. Substituting the expressions for harmonic excitation and response in and Equation 2.6.

” Section 6. The procedure is activated by deﬁning a direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis step.DIRECT STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS Note that both the real and imaginary parts of AN M are symmetric.1–3 . Both real and imaginary loads can be deﬁned. For this procedure all amplitude references must be given in the frequency domain.6. As output ABAQUS/Standard provides amplitudes and phases for all element and nodal variables at the requested frequencies. Reference • “Direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Procedures 2.3.

.

2–1) M NM = K NM PN = = Z Z " @.” Section 4.6. The discretized form of the linearized dynamic virtual work equation for a solid or structural system can be written as Procedures uN M N M uM where the following deﬁnitions apply: +C NM uM + K NM uM _ 0 PN = 0.” Section 2. The procedure can also be used for viscoelastic material modeling (“Frequency domain viscoelasticity. where the perturbed solution is obtained by linearization about the current base state.7.3). For the calculation of the base state the structure may exhibit material and geometrical nonlinear behavior as well as contact nonlinearities. Discrete damping (such as dashpots) can be included.” Section 2.6.7. The procedure is activated by deﬁning a subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis step. The main advantage of this method is that it allows frequency-dependent behavior to be considered at a relatively small cost increase over the purely linear analysis via the “modal” procedure described in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis.2 SUBSPACE-BASED STEADY-STATE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS For structures subjected to continuous harmonic excitation.5.6. (2.8. and the “direct” procedure described in “Direct steady-state dynamic analysis. Viscous damping can be included in the procedure using the Rayleigh damping coefﬁcients speciﬁed under the material deﬁnition.SUBSPACE-BASED STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS 2. ABAQUS/Standard offers a “subspace” steadystate dynamic analysis procedure in addition to the “modal” procedure described in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis.1. This procedure is a perturbation procedure.” Section 2.5.

N .

V V St N N 1 NM dV @uM : Z 0 + .

N : Del : .

and el is the elasticity matrix for the material. M # dV is the mass matrix. NN 1 t dS u t u D C NM is the damping matrix. is the external load vector. The procedure assumes that the complex displacement changes for the damped system can be written in the form uM = M a. 0 is the stress in the base state. The eigenfrequency step prior to the subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis has extracted neig eigenmodes of the undamped system using ( 0!2 M MN + K MN )N = 0. is the density of the material. is the stiffness matrix. where ! is the eigenfrequency in radians/time. is the surface traction. _ and are the velocity and the acceleration. We assume that both the stiffness K NM and the damping C NM are frequency dependent.

. .

.

2–1 .6.2–2) 2. = 1.6. :::. (2. neig .

SUBSPACE-BASED STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS where a.

the equation of motion projected onto the subspace is provided: M.6. are the complex modal amplitudes.6. Using Equation 2.2–2 in Equation 2.2–1 and premultiplying with .

a.

+ C.

( )_ .

+ K.

( )a.

= P ( ) a where . .

2–3) and is the excitation frequency. the projected damping and stiffness matrices are not diagonal. = 1. Since the eigenmodes are not orthogonal to the damping and stiffness matrices in the equilibrium equations (because of the frequency-dependent properties). :::. For harmonic excitation and response we can write M. (2. neig .6.

. = N M NM M .

K.

( ) = N K NM ( )M . .

C.

( ) = N C NM ( )M . .

P ( ) = N P N ( ). a.

= (< (a.

) + i = (a.

where < (a. )) exp i t and P = (< (P) + i = (P)) exp i t.

) and = (a.

6. ) are the real and imaginary parts of the modal amplitudes and < (P) and = (P) are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of the force applied to the structure after projection onto the subspace. Substituting the expressions for harmonic excitation and response in Equation 2.2–3 and writing the result in matrix form yields < [A.

] = [A.

] = [A.

] 0< [A.

] < (a .

= (a . ) = < (P ) .

) 0= (P) where < [A.

] = K.

0 2 M.

= [A. .

] = 0 C.

: The equation is solved for the real and imaginary part of the complex modal amplitudes a.

and ﬂuid-solid coupling effects. radiating boundary. The acoustic material damping equivalent. coupled. The resulting modes and frequencies are associated with the coupled.6. is treated in a similar manner to solid material damping effects. in this case the “damping” matrix also contains volumetric drag. volumetric drag. . and damped acoustic-structural system of equations onto the space spanned by the set of coupled ﬂuid-solid modes. However. undamped ﬂuid-solid system. For an acoustic-only analysis the development is very similar to that of the solid-only case. Although the original formulation of the coupled acoustic-structural eigenvalue extraction problem is unsymmetric. and Equation 2.2–2 . the equations are rearranged such that the ﬂuid-solid coupling effects are retained without making the problem unsymmetric. 2. For a coupled acoustic-structural analysis the development is similar.2–2 can be used to compute the real and imaginary part of the nodal displacements. The subspace-based steady-state dynamic procedure will project the full.6. impedance boundary.

6. All amplitude references must be given in the frequency domain.3.SUBSPACE-BASED STEADY-STATE DYNAMICS As output ABAQUS/Standard provides amplitudes and phases for all element and nodal variables at the requested frequencies.9 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Procedures 2.” Section 6.2–3 . Reference • “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis.

.

described by X n T X Y X Y = R s (X 0 X 0 ) + X 0 . a steady state is possible in a frame that moves at the speed of the ground velocity but does not spin with the body in the rolling motion. where the ground velocity of the body is described in terms of a constant cornering motion.7. For an axisymmetric body traveling at a constant ground velocity and constant angular rolling velocity. In this moving frame the rigid body rotation is described in a spatial or Eulerian manner and the deformation in a material or Lagrangian manner. 1 2.1–1 Constant cornering motion. the motion of a particle at time t consists of a rigid rolling rotation to position .STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS 2. We consider the case shown in Figure 2.7.7. It is this kinematic description that converts the steady moving contact ﬁeld problem into a purely spatially dependent simulation. which The body is rotating with a constant angular rolling velocity ! around a rigid axle in turn rotates with constant angular velocity around the ﬁxed cornering axis through point c . This choice of reference frame allows the ﬁnite element mesh to remain stationary so that only the part of the body in the contact zone requires ﬁne meshing. The capability uses a reference frame that removes the explicit time dependence from the problem so that a purely spatially dependent analysis can be performed.7. Hence. at 0 .1–1 .1–1. ω T n Ω X0 Xc Figure 2. Kinematics of steady-state rolling Procedures The kinematics of the rolling problem are described in terms of a coordinate frame that moves along with the ground motion of the body.1 STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS ABAQUS/Standard provides a specialized analysis capability to model the steady-state behavior of a cylindrical deformable body rolling along a ﬂat rigid surface.

we deﬁne a map (Y. t): It follows that x @ Y _ = @ Y 1 @@t + @ . the velocity of the particle can be written as n v @ @ _ = !R @ Y 1 S + @ = !R @S + @ . Rs is the spinning rotation matrix deﬁned as ^ Rs = exp (^ t) and ! is the skew-symmetric matrix associated with the rotation vector ! = !T.7. Using this result.STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS ^ ^ where Rc is the cornering rotation given by Rc = exp ( t) and is the skew-symmetric matrix associated with the rotation vector = n.1–2 . and a subsequent cornering rotation (or precession) around n to position y so that y = R c 1 (x 0 X c ) + X c . _ _ _ = y = R c 1 (x 0 X c ) + R c 1 x : To describe the deformation of the body. @t @t @ = n 2 (y 0 Xc ) + !R Rc 1 @S + Rc 1 @ : @t The acceleration is obtained by a second differentiation and some manipulation: a @ = 2 (nn 0 I) 1 (y 0 Xc ) + 2! R n 2 Rc 1 @S + 2 n 2 Rc 1 @ @t @ @ + !2 R2 Rc 1 @S + 2!R Rc 1 @S@t + Rc 1 @ : 2 @t2 2 2 2 To obtain expressions for the velocity and acceleration in the reference frame tied to the body. together ^ = 1 Rc = ^ 1 Rc . t). which gives the position of point X at time t as a function of its location Y at time t so that x = (Y. we use the transformations vr = RT 1 v and c ar = RT 1 a c so that we obtain vr @ = n 2 (x 0 Xc ) + !R @S + @ @t 2. The ! velocity of the particle then becomes v followed by a deformation to point x. so that x where where S _ with Rc = S 1 Y is the distance-measuring coordinate along the streamline. where R = jY 0 X0j is the radius of a point on the reference body. the velocity of the reference body can be written as @ Y=@t = !R S. and introducing the circumferential direction S = T2(Y0X0 )=R. Similarly. @t @Y _ = R s 1 (X 0 X 0 ) = ! T 2 (Y 0 X 0 ): @t ^ _ ^ Noting that Rs = ! 1Rs = !T1Rs.

hence. @ = ar = !2 R2 @S . The last term combines the acceleration that gives rise to Coriolis and centrifugal forces resulting from rotation about T. The velocity of the center of the body X0 (which must lie on the axis T) is v0 @ @ = 2 (nn 0 I) 1 (x 0 Xc ) + 2! R n 2 @S + !2 R2 @S : 2 Procedures = n 2 (X 0 0 X c ) since the motions due to rolling and deformation vanish on the axis. as shown in Figure 2. a which corresponds to straight line rolling. we move Xc far away from the center of the body x0 but keep v0 the same. this Coriolis effect vanishes so that the acceleration gives rise to centrifugal forces only. To obtain the expression for straight line motion. 2. Noting that !R@ =@S is a measure of velocity. In that case ! 0 and.1–2.7. When the deformation is uniform along the circumferential direction.STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS and ar @ = 2 (nn 0 I) 1 (x 0 Xc ) + 2! R n 2 @S + 2 n 2 @ @t @ @ + !2R2 @S + 2!R @S@t + @ : 2 @t2 vr 2 2 2 For steady-state conditions these expressions reduce to and ar @ = n 2 (x 0 Xc ) + !R @S 2 The ﬁrst term in the last expression can be identiﬁed as the acceleration that gives rise to centrifugal forces resulting from rotation about n.7. 2 2 v0 ω T X0 Figure 2.1–3 .7. in the limit v @ = v0 + vr = v0 + !R @S . the second term can be identiﬁed as the acceleration that gives rise to Coriolis forces.1–2 Straight line rolling.

hence. Assuming that the velocity of a point on the foundation (or rigid surface) is vR . For points on the surface of the deformable body vD @ = n 2 (x 0 Xc ) + !R @S + @ . the virtual work contribution becomes 5 = 0 2 + ! 2 Z 2 V Z (x 0 Xc ) 1 (nn 0 I) 1 v dV 0 2! R @ @S Z R V Z 1 @v @S V n @ 2 @S 1 v dV dV and the rate of virtual work becomes d 5 = 0 2 + ! 2 R 2 V Z dx 1 (nn 0 I) 1 v dV 0 2! R 1 @v @S dV : Z @d @S V n 2 @d 1 v dV @S V For straight line rolling only the last term in each expression needs to be taken into account. @t where n is the cornering axis (which must be normal to the rigid surface) and is the cornering angular velocity around n. the relative motion becomes v @ = vD 0 vR = n 2 r + !R @S + @ @t 0 vR . @t 2. This equation can be split into normal and tangential components.STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS Inertia The virtual work contribution from the d’Alembert forces is 5=0 Z V a v dV : 1 Using the divergence theorem.7. we start with the expressions for velocity derived in the previous section. where r = x 0 Xc . The rate of penetration is _ = 0n 1 v = n 1 vR 0 !R n 1 @ 0 n 1 @ : @S @t For any point in contact n 1 @=@S = 0.1–4 . h h _ = n 1 vR 0 n 1 @ . Contact conditions To obtain the contact conditions.

and p is the contact pressure. are two orthogonal unit vectors tangent to the contact surface so that n . _ 2. when eq < crit . q occurs.1–5 . Procedures = t 1 v = t 1 (n 2 r) + !R t 1 _ Variations in yield @ 0 t 1 vR : @S = t 1 (n 2 r) + !R t 1 _ For straight line rolling we can replace n 2 r by v0 so that we obtain @ + !R t 1 @S 0 t 1 vR @ 0 t 1 vR : @S @ 0 t 1 vR : @S = t 1 v0 _ and = !R t 1 _ 2 2 eq = 1 + 2 . so For steady-state conditions @=@t ( = 1 2) _ @ @S + t 1 @ 0 t 1 vR. is equal to the critical stress.STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS which in incremental form reduces to the standard contact condition 1h = n (1xR 0 1xD ): For steady-state conditions n 1 1xR = 0 and 1xD = 0. the rate of slip is = t 1 v = t 1 (n 2 r) + !R t 1 _ where t . a relationship between frictional stress and slip velocity must be developed.7.” which follows from the relation _ s = crit : crit _ The allowable viscous slip velocity is deﬁned as a fraction of the circumferential velocity crit = 2Ff !R. is the friction coefﬁcient. @t =0 = t 1 2 t2 . 1 Similarly. A Coulomb friction law is provided for steady-state rolling. _v where is the tangential slip velocity and s is the “stick viscosity. On the other hand. where 1 and 2 are shear stresses along t. no relative motion To complete the formulation. The condition of no relative motion is approximated in ABAQUS by stiff viscous behavior = s . The law assumes that slip occurs if the frictional stress. crit = p.

7. These expressions contribute to the standard virtual work contribution for slip. Z A dA. 5 = and rate of virtual work for slip.1–6 .1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.STEADY-STATE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS where Ff is a user-deﬁned slip tolerance.” Section 6.4. d 5 = Z A (d + d )dA: Reference • “Steady-state transport analysis.

When the medium is partially saturated. is 1. This explains the sign in this equation. The dimensions of the region modeled must not be so large that the gravitational gradient of atmospheric pressure causes a signiﬁcant change in the air pressure.” which is assumed to be relatively (but not entirely) incompressible. does not vary with time.8. The most common example where this simpliﬁcation applies is a porous medium that is quite permeable to gas ﬂow. The total stress acting at a point. 1976). that is free to move through the medium if driven. is made up of a volume of grains of solid material.1–2) In the case where trapped ﬂuid is present in the system. This requires that the nonwetting ﬂuid can diffuse through the medium sufﬁciently freely so that its pressure. we assume that the effective stress is made up of two components weighted according to the relative volume of trapped ﬂuid and porous material: 2. is assumed to be made up of an average pressure stress in the wetting liquid. and an “effective stress. and a volume of wetting liquid. but uw and ua are pressure stress values.EFFECTIVE STRESS PRINCIPLE 2. dVv . ua .8.8. dVw dVv . dV . we simply assume that is equal to the saturation of the medium (we deﬁne saturation later in this section). The porous medium modeling provided considers the presence of two ﬂuids in the medium. never exceeds the pressure applied to this ﬂuid at the boundaries of the medium. systems containing particles that absorb the wetting liquid and swell in the process) there may also be a signiﬁcant volume of trapped wetting liquid. which is relatively compressible. One is the “wetting liquid. both ﬂuids exist at a point: when it is fully saturated. deﬁned by Procedures 3 = + uw + (1 0 )ua I: 0 1 (2. the voids are completely ﬁlled with the wetting liquid.8.” 3 .” an average pressure stress in the other ﬂuid. and there can be no external event that provides a transient change in the air pressure. a volume of voids. dVg . The elementary volume. In some systems (for example. This simpliﬁcation reduces the effective stress principle to 3 = + uw I: (2. which remains constant throughout the process being modeled. Often the other is a gas.1–1) Stress components are stored so that tensile stress is positive.1–1 . We simplify the model by assuming that the pressure applied to the nonwetting ﬂuid is constant throughout the domain being modeled.0 and 1. provided that the corresponding loading term (for example. is a factor that depends on saturation and on the surface tension of the liquid/solid system (Wu. There is very sparse experimental evidence of its dependence on saturation.1 EFFECTIVE STRESS PRINCIPLE FOR POROUS MEDIA A porous medium is modeled in ABAQUS/Standard by the conventional approach that considers the medium as a multiphase material and adopts an effective stress principle to describe its behavior. ua. uw . An example of such a system is soil containing ground water. exposed to atmospheric pressure. in which the nonwetting ﬂuid is air. called the “wetting liquid pressure.0 when the medium is fully saturated and between 0. and is small enough that its value can be neglected. atmospheric pressure on the boundary of the medium) is also omitted from the equilibrium equations and that ua is small enough that its effect on the deformation of the medium is not important (or that deformation is measured from the state = 0ua I). This assumption allows ua to be removed from the equation. .0 in unsaturated systems when its value depends on the degree of saturation of the medium. and because of this lack of data. dVt.

As preliminaries.4). for example). Newton’s method is generally used to solve the governing equations for the implicit time integration procedure.8. n. fundamental constitutive assumptions that incorporate the effective stress principle as outlined above (“Constitutive behavior in a porous medium. linearized. perturbations about a deformed state is also sometimes required (for vibration studies. porosity. state variables): Constitutive models that are appropriate for voided materials. (2. is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume: n def = dVv dV =1 0 dVg 0 dVt : dV dV Using the superscript 0 to indicate values in some convenient reference conﬁguration allows the porosity in the current conﬁguration to be expressed as n = 10 dVg dV 0 dVg0 dVt 0 dVg0 dV dV 0 dV 01(1 0 n0 0 n0 ) 0 nt . such as soils.3).” The remaining parts of “Analysis of porous media.EFFECTIVE STRESS PRINCIPLE 3 = (1 0 nt ) 0 nt ptI. void ratio.” Section 2. are described in Chapter 4. The porosity of the medium.8. together with a constitutive theory for the soil skeleton whereby is deﬁned as a function of the strain history and temperature of the soil: = (strain history.” Section 2. and nt is the ratio of trapped ﬂuid volume to total volume. = 1 0 Jg J t 1 1 so that 0 n 0 nt J g 0 n 0 0 n0 = J . For these reasons the development includes a deﬁnition of the form of the Jacobian matrix for the two-phase model.8. Analysis of small.8.1–3) where is the effective stress in the porous material skeleton. discuss the equilibrium equation for porous media (“Discretized equilibrium statement for a porous medium. temperature.” Section 2. and the continuity equation that governs the ﬂow of the wetting liquid (“Continuity statement for the wetting liquid phase in a porous medium.8.2). t J def . We assume that the constitutive response of the porous medium consists of simple bulk elasticity relationships for the liquid and for the soil grains. pt is the average pressure stress in the trapped liquid. as deﬁned later in this section.” Section 2. and saturation are deﬁned. “Mechanical Constitutive Theories.

.

= .

(2.1–4) where dV .8.

.

.

dV 0 .

.

.

.

def . is the ratio of the medium’s volume in the current conﬁguration to its volume in the reference conﬁguration.

dV .

Jg = .

g .

.

dV 0 .

g 2.1–2 .8.

1 0 n = 1 1+e : (2.” Section 6.7.1–3 .1–5) Procedures Saturation. relationships are readily derived as e Conversion = 1 0 n n . s.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. e = dVv =(dVg + dVt). and nt def = dVt dV is the volume of trapped wetting liquid per unit of current volume. instead of porosity.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Geostatic stress state. def ABAQUS generally uses void ratio.EFFECTIVE STRESS PRINCIPLE is the ratio of the current to reference volume for the grains.7.8. n = e 1+ e . is the ratio of free (untrapped) wetting liquid volume to void volume: s def = dVw dVv : The volume ratio of free wetting liquid at a point is nw def = dVw dV = sn: The total volume of wetting liquid (free liquid plus trapped liquid) per unit of current volume is nf = sn + nt : References • “Coupled pore ﬂuid diffusion and stress analysis.” Section 6.8.

.

are surface tractions per unit area. where w is the density of the wetting liquid and g is the gravitational acceleration. In a ﬁnite element model equilibrium is approximated as a ﬁnite set of equations by introducing interpolation functions. Si . the formulation cannot be applied directly to a centrifuge experiment unless the model in the machine is small enough that g can be treated as constant). The interpolation is assumed to be based on material coordinates in the material skeleton (a “Lagrangian” formulation). where N (Si ) are interpolation functions deﬁned with respect to material coordinates. v t v x Procedures f f only with the weight of the dry porous medium. and ^ are body forces per unit volume. which represent nodal variables.2 DISCRETIZED EQUILIBRIUM STATEMENT FOR A POROUS MEDIUM Equilibrium is expressed by writing the principle of virtual work for the volume under consideration in its current conﬁguration at time t: Z V " : " dV def Z = S t1 v dS + ^ v dV.8.8. but consideration of such formulations does not require any important extension of the development at this stage. 1 (2. f For simplicity we consider this loading explicitly so that any other gravitational term in ^ is associated Z where are all body forces except the weight of the wetting liquid. which we assume to be constant and in a constant direction (so that. with the summation convention adopted for the superscripts. Thus. v N ).EQUILIBRIUM FOR POROUS MEDIA 2. f V 1 Z " where is a virtual velocity ﬁeld. for example. The virtual rate of deformation is interpolated as N " " = . The notation used to indicate such discretization are those quantities with uppercase superscripts (for example. For simplicity. in this section we consider only the case where the problem has no internal constraints— such as incompressibility—and the discretization is made entirely by approximating equilibrium: this results in the displacement (or stiffness) method. For our system ^ will often include the weight of the wetting liquid.2–1) v = NN vN . we write the virtual work equation as fw = (sn + nt)w g. is the true (Cauchy) stress. The virtual velocity ﬁeld is interpolated by f V " : " dV Z = S t v dS + f v dV + 1 Z Z V 1 V (sn + n t ) w g v dV. Mixed formulation (“hybrid”) elements are available for porous medium analysis with ABAQUS/Standard. " = sym(@ =@ ) is the virtual rate of deformation.

8. N vN .2–1 . 2.

.EQUILIBRIUM FOR POROUS MEDIA where. in the simplest case.

The virtual work equation is thus discretized as V S V V where the vN are assumed to be independent. @ N x although more general forms are used in some of the elements in ABAQUS. I N : Z N def .N = sym @ N . The term conjugate to vN on the left-hand side of this equation is referred internal force array.

N : dV : I = V N . P PN (P N def = vN Z . the external force array. is taken from the right-hand side: Likewise.

These considerations imply a need for the Jacobian matrix of the system. to subsequently as the Z S NN t dS + NN f dV + 1 Z Z V 1 V (sn + n ) t w NN 1 g dV includes any d’Alembert forces). which deﬁnes the variation of each term in the equations with respect to the basic variables of the discretized problem. The load stiffness term associated with the weight of the wetting liquid is @f dxN @xN + @f P P du : @uw 0 Z 1 2 VJ d J (sn + nt )w 3 NN 1 g dV.8. The load stiffness matrix is discussed in Chapter 3. which—for this case—are the nodal positions.” Section 2. Also.8. linear perturbations of the system are sometimes of interest (an example is the small vibration problem). xN (or. uN . “Loading and Constraints. Choosing each vN to be nonzero in turn expresses equilibrium as a balance of internal and external forces: IN 0 P N = 0: (2. w meaning df def = From the variation of discretized equilibrium.8.2–2. Equation 2. The equilibrium equations are written at the end of a time increment when implicit integration is used and. small.” for particular load types. Symbolically we write such a variation of a term. the term dP N gives rise to the mass matrix (for the d’Alembert forces) and the “load stiffness matrix” in the Jacobian. 2. as df .4.2–2 . f say. Newton’s method is often used for their solution.8. deﬁne the state of the porous medium. “Elements. together with the continuity equation discussed in “Continuity statement for the wetting liquid phase in a porous medium.2–2) These discretized equilibrium equations. for all but the simplest cases. they are nonlinear. N : dV N = v Z NN 1 t dS + Z NN 1 f dV + Z N (sn + nt )w N 1 g dV .” and Chapter 6. equivalently. the displacements xN 0 X N ). and the nodal wetting liquid pressure values.

EQUILIBRIUM FOR POROUS MEDIA where J def .

.

dV = .

dV 0 .

.

.

.

.

is the ratio of volume in the current conﬁguration to volume in the reference conﬁguration. The term dI N is Z dI N =d = Z V .

3. caused by variations in the strain or other state variables) and d = asym(@dx=@ x) is the spin of the material. and “Solid element formulation.” Section 1. Since the effective stress. the Jacobian contribution from stress in the porous medium is dI N V J 1 .2. “State storage.5. N : dV The ﬁrst term includes d(J ). This issue is discussed in detail in “Rate of deformation and strain increment. Introducing the spatial discretization into the second term provides a contribution to the initial stress matrix.4. is generally stored as components associated with spatial directions.4. which is the variation of stress caused by variations in nodal positions and pore liquid pressure values.3.2. .5. For the purpose of the present development we assume that the variation of stress is d(J ) = dr (J (1 0 nt )) 0 d(Jntpt I) + J (d 1 + 1 d T ) 0 d(Juw ) I.” Section 1. where dr (J ) is the variation in effective stress associated with constitutive response in the material (that def is. Using this assumption. before the spatial discretization of the solution variables) this term is deﬁned by the effective stress principle and by the constitutive assumptions used for the material and is discussed in more detail below.” Section 1. the rotation of the material during an increment must be included in the formulation.” Section 3. “Stress rates. In a continuum sense (that is.

N : d(J ) + : d.

N .

dV: Procedures = Z 2 V J 1 .

N : fdr (J (1 0 n ) )0d(Jn p I)g + : (d.

N + 2.

N 1 d ) .

t t t 3 d " 0 .

N : I ( + uw du )duw 0 .

8.” Section 6.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Geostatic stress state. w " where d" def = sym(@dx=@ x) is the strain rate (the “rate of deformation”) so that dJ J " " = trace(d") = I : d": (2.2–3) References • “Coupled pore ﬂuid diffusion and stress analysis.7. N : I uw I : d" dV.8.7.2–3 .” Section 6.

.

Here g () is the thermal expansion coefﬁcient for the solid matter .3–1) reference conﬁguration. Here w () is the liquid’s thermal expansion coefﬁcient. Both u=Kw and "th are w assumed to be small. voids that contain liquid and gas. and entrapped liquid attached to the solid matter. I is the initial temperature at this point 0 in the medium. Liquid response Procedures For the liquid in the system (the free liquid in the voids and the entrapped liquid) we assume that where w is the density of liquid’s bulk modulus.8. The mechanical behavior of the porous medium consists of the responses of the liquid and solid matter to local pressure and of the response of the overall material to effective stress. and u w 1 + Kw 0 "th .3 CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR IN A POROUS MEDIUM A porous medium in ABAQUS/Standard is considered to consist of a mixture of solid matter. and w is the reference temperature for thermal expansion.8. Grains response The solid matter in the porous medium is assumed to have the local mechanical response under pressure 1 g p 1 + K suw + 1 0 n 0 n 0 "th . The assumptions made about these responses are discussed in this section. and 0 0 "th = 3g ( 0 g ) 0 3g jI (I 0 g ) g is its volumetric thermal strain. 0 is its density in the w (2. is the current temperature. (2. Kw () is the 0 0 "th = 3w ( 0 w ) 0 3w jI ( I 0 w ) w is the volumetric expansion of the liquid caused by temperature change. w 0 w w the liquid.3–2) g 0 g t g where Kg () is the bulk modulus of this solid matter.POROUS MEDIUM CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR 2.8. s is the saturation in the wetting ﬂuid.

.

. 0 and g is the reference temperature for this expansion.

1 0 g =0 .

g It is important to distinguish Kg and g as properties of the solid grains material. caused by the medium being made up of irregular grains in partial contact.8. 2. is assumed to be small. They may also be caused by the system being only partially saturated. The porous medium as a whole will exhibit a much softer (and generally nonrecoverable) bulk behavior than is indicated by Kg and will also show a different thermal expansion. with the voids containing a mixture of relatively compressible gas and relatively incompressible liquid. These effects are partially structural.3–1 .

Tanaka and Fillmore also show the ﬁrst term in the series dominates. and the volume is entirely occupied with gel and solid matter when the effective gel radius is s ra = n0 J 4 ka : The gel swelling behavior is. where ra is the radius of a gel particle that is completely dry. aN and N are material parameters.POROUS MEDIUM CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR Liquid entrapment Entrapment of liquid is associated with speciﬁc materials that absorb liquid and swell into a “gel. linear effect: ra = _ f r a 0 ra 1 * s01+ f a 0 (r a ) 3 f dry (r a ) 3 0 (r a ) 3 (r ) 3 !+ .3–2 . hf i = 0 otherwise. the maximum radius that the gel particles can achieve before they must touch (in a face center cubic arrangement) is t = ra def n0 pJ 4 2k a 3 1 3 1 3 . Tanaka and Fillmore (1979) show that. f where ra is the fully swollen radius approached as t ! 1 and N . its radius change can be modeled as ra = r f 0 a XN N a exp 0 t N . In that case the surface available to absorb and entrap liquid is reduced until. when a single sphere of such material is fully exposed to liquid. if the gel particles occupy the entire volume except for solid material. liquid entrapment must cease altogether. so the model can be simpliﬁed to f ra = ra 0 a1 exp 0 t 1 : This provides the rate form r f 0 ra ra = a _ : 1 When the gel particles are only partially exposed to liquid (in an unsaturated system).” A simple model of this behavior is based on the idealization of this gel as a volume of individual spherical particles of equal radius ra . 1 0 [(ra )3 0 (ra )3 ]=[(ra )3 0 (ra )3 ]. With ka gel particles per unit reference volume. further modiﬁed to be 2. we assume that the gel will swell only when the saturation of the surrounding medium exceeds the f f dry dry effective saturation of the gel.8. where hf i = f if f > 0. therefore. Further. it seems reasonable to assume that the swelling rate will be lessened according to the level of saturation. We combine these into a simple. The packing density and swelling may cause the gel particles to touch.

3–3.8.8. nt = dVt dV = uw 10 Kw th + "w : (2.8. we assume dVt = and thus 1 u 0 Kw ht J w + "w th htdV 0 .8. w where pt is the average pressure stress in the gel ﬂuid and "vol is its volumetric effective strain.3–3 .8. s) is deﬁned by the integration of Equation 2.3–4) Combining this with Equation 2.3–5) We assume that.8. in the initial state.3–3) Thus. entrapment of liquid in the medium may cause an additional volume change ratio: 1+ dVt 0 dVt0 dV 0 = 1 + Jnt 0 n0 : t 2.POROUS MEDIUM CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR ra = _ rf 0 ra a s01+ 1 * 0 (r a ) 3 f dry (r a ) 3 0 (r a ) 3 f (r a ) 3 !+ 1 0 t ra 0 ra s t ra 0 r a 2! : (2. where ht def 4 = 3 3 dry r a 0 (r a ) 3 k a . Effective strain From Equation 2. This entrapped liquid can be compressed by pressure so that. when the porous medium is under stress.3–1 and neglecting small terms compared to unity then provides J w n ht : 0 t w (2. the effective saturation of the gel is the same as the saturation of the surrounding medium: 0 f f dry r a = (r a ) 3 0 (r a ) 3 0 (r a ) 3 2 0 1 (1 0 s0 ) 31 3 : The constitutive behavior of the gel containing entrapped ﬂuid is given by the elastic bulk relationship pt = 0Kw ("vol 0 "th ). In addition. 0 1 Procedures where ra (J.3–2 we see that the volumetric strain 0uw =Kg + "th represents that part of the g total volumetric strain caused by pore pressure acting on the solid matter in the porous medium and by thermal expansion of that solid matter.8. in an unstressed medium the entrapped liquid volume is assumed to be dVt = ht dV 0.

8.3–8) Then. we can write the Jaumann rate of change of the effective stress in terms of the rate of change of the kinematic and pore liquid pressure variables as " dr (J (1 0 nt) ) = J (1 0 nt)D : d" + 0 is deﬁned for each particular model in Chapter 4. D " d"ms ds du . “Mechanical Constitutive Theories. state variables. we assume = (history of ". (2. The remaining part of the strain in the medium. " ms (s) is a saturation driven moisture swelling strain that represents the volumetric swelling of the solid skeleton in partially saturated ﬂow conditions.8.8.” where Also. “Mechanical Constitutive Theories.8. and using Equation 2.2–3.” From this assumption.3–7) d(Jntpt I) = JntKw II : " 0 d" ds ms ds du : duw w " d" + s 3K g + uw ds 3Kg duw + ht 3Kw (1 + Jnt 0 n0 ) t I duw (2.POROUS MEDIUM CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOR Finally. for the effective pressure stress of the ﬂuid entrapped in the gel. This moisture swelling can be isotropic or anisotropic. etc): Speciﬁc constitutive models of this type are discussed in Chapter 4. ds duw w s 3K g + uw ds 3Kg duw + ht 3Kw (1 + Jnt 0 n0 ) t I duw.3–6) is the strain that is assumed to modify the effective stress in the medium. dI N = Z 2 V .8. .3–5. " def 10 th 1 = " + 3 suw 0 "g 0 1 ln(1 + Jnt 0 n0) t Kg 3 I 0 "ms (s) (2. from Equation 2. That is.

N " : f(1 0 nt)D + ntKw IIg : d" d 0 .

N : ( + uw du )I w uw ds s t 0 3K + 3K du + 3K (1 +hJn 0 n0 ) f(1 0 nt)D + ntKw IIg : I g g w w t t "ms ds duw + du f(1 0 nt )D + nt Kw IIg : d" ds w 3 .

" + : (d.

N + 2.

N 1 d ) 0 .

8.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. N : Iuw I : d" dV: (2.8.3–4 .” Section 12.3–9) Reference • “Pore ﬂuid ﬂow properties.

4–1 .8. equating the rate of increase in liquid mass stored at a point to the rate of mass of liquid ﬂowing into the point within the time increment. coupled. therefore. The volume of such trapped liquid is written Vt . equilibrium and continuity equations. An example is a geotechnical problem. Consider a volume containing a ﬁxed amount of solid matter. 2. The medium may be wholly or partially saturated. The wetting liquid can attach to and. be trapped by certain solid particles in the medium: this volume of trapped liquid attached to solid particles forms a “gel. In the reference conﬁguration it occupied space V 0 . The liquid ﬂow is described by introducing Darcy’s law or.” A porous medium is modeled approximately in ABAQUS by attaching the ﬁnite element mesh to the solid phase. When the medium is only partially saturated the remainder of the voids is ﬁlled with another ﬂuid. This continuity statement is deﬁned in this section. Wetting liquid can ﬂow through this volume: at any time the volume of such “free” liquid (liquid that can ﬂow if driven by pressure) is written Vw . with soil containing water and air: continuity is written for the water phase. where vw is the average velocity of the wetting liquid relative to the solid phase (the seepage velocity) and n is the outward normal to S .4 CONTINUITY STATEMENT FOR THE WETTING LIQUID PHASE IN A POROUS MEDIUM ABAQUS/Standard provides capabilities for particular cases of ﬂuid ﬂow through a porous medium.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID 2. by absorption into the gel. Wetting liquid can also become trapped in the volume. The equation is integrated in time by using the backward Euler approximation. with this liquid. Forchheimer’s law. Liquid can ﬂow through this mesh. alternatively. A continuity equation is. The total derivative of this integrated variational statement of continuity with respect to the nodal variables is required for the Newton iterations used to solve the nonlinear. The continuity equation is satisﬁed approximately in the ﬁnite element model by using excess wetting liquid pressure as the nodal variable (degree of freedom 8). where w is the mass density of the liquid.8. The time rate of change of this mass of wetting liquid is d dt Z Z = V w (nw + nt) dV Z 1 d0 Jw (nw + nt) dV: V J dt 1 The mass of wetting liquid crossing the surface and entering the volume per unit time is 0 S w nw n 1 vw dS. required for the liquid. In the current conﬁguration this volume occupies space V with surface S . It is written in a variational form as a basis for ﬁnite element approximation. The total mass of wetting liquid in the control volume is Procedures Z V w dVw + dVt 2 3 Z = V w (nw + nt ) dV. These cases are associated with having a relatively incompressible wetting liquid present in the medium. This expression is also derived in this section. thus. interpolated over the elements.

this provides the pointwise equation J dt 1 d0 J w nw ( + nt)1 + @@x 1 (w nw vw ) = 0: Z The equivalent weak form is Z V uw J dt 1 d0 J w nw ( + nt)1 dV + V uw @x @ 1 (w nw vw ) dV = 0. continuous. giving Z V0 uw 0 J w nw ( + nt) t+1t 0 J w nw ( + nt ) t Z 1 dV 0 + 1t uw V0 uw J 1 ( w n w v w ) @x @ t+1t dV 0 = 0. 1 (w nw vw ) dV 0 = 0: where uw is an arbitrary. w 2. The divergence theorem allows the equation to be rewritten as Z V uw 1 u w (nw + nt) 0 J w (J (nw + nt) 0 1t 0 nw @ @xw 1 vw dV 0 0 w w + 1t w Z S uw w 0 w t nw n 1 vw dS = 0.8. This statement can also be written on the reference volume: Z Z V0 uw d0 dt J w nw ( + nt)1 dV 0 + 1 0 V0 uw J @x @ In ABAQUS/Standard this continuity statement is integrated approximately in time by the backward Euler formula. over the current volume.4–2 .CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID Equating the addition of liquid mass across the surface S to the rate of change of liquid mass within the volume V gives the wetting liquid mass continuity equation Z V J dt 1 d0 J w nw ( + nt ) 1 dV =0 Z S w nw n 1 vw dS: Using the divergence theorem and because the volume is arbitrary. is Z 0 V 1 w (nw + nt) t+1t 0 J 1 0 Z + 1t t+1t J w nw ( + nt ) t @ 1 dV V uw 1 ( w n w v w ) @x t+1t dV = 0: We now drop the subscript t+1t by adopting the convention that any quantity not explicitly associated with a point in time is taken at t+1t. which. variational ﬁeld. 0 . w where—for convenience—we have normalized the equation by the density of the liquid in the reference conﬁguration.

1975): sn w (1 + . whereas Forchheimer’s law is commonly used for situations involving higher ﬂow velocities. w where z is the elevation above some datum and g is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration. On the other hand. @x u = z + gw . Darcy’s law states that. under uniform conditions. Darcy’s law is generally applicable to low ﬂuid ﬂow velocities. the volumetric ﬂow rate of the wetting liquid through a unit area of the medium. Darcy’s law can be thought of as a linearized version of Forchheimer’s law. Forchheimer’s law states that the negative of the gradient of the piezometric head is related to a quadratic function of the volumetric ﬂow rate of the wetting liquid through a unit area of the medium (Desai. deﬁned as def b v = 0k 1 @ . sn w . this is the same as 1 w J (sn + nt) 0 1t w sn @ uw 1 vw dV w uw 0 (sn + nt ) 0 w J 0 0 @x w w t Z w + 1t uw 0 snn 1 vw dS = 0: S w (2.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID Since nw Z V = sn. 1972): Procedures v sn w where b k is the permeability of the medium and is the piezometric head. which acts in the direction opposite to z . is proportional to the negative of the gradient of the piezometric head (Bear.8.4–1) Constitutive behavior The constitutive behavior for pore ﬂuid ﬂow is governed either by Darcy’s law or by Forchheimer’s law.

v where .

. This nonlinear permeability can be deﬁned to be dependent on the void ratio of the material. We see that. 1987). Forchheimer’s law approaches Darcy’s law. the two ﬂow laws are identical. . e is a “velocity coefﬁcient” (Tariq. if . as the ﬂuid velocity tends to zero. Also.

b can be anisotropic and is a function of the saturation and void ratio of the material. b w w @x k =0 k k b b K = (1 + . b has units of velocity (length/time). [Some authors refer to b as the hydraulic conductivity (Bear. 1972) and deﬁne the permeability as (x ) pv 1 v ) = 0k 1 @ .

g where is the kinematic viscosity of the ﬂuid (the ratio of the ﬂuid’s dynamic viscosity to its density).4–3 .8. x = gw @x w 2. so @ @ 1 @uw 0 g .p1vw 1 vw ) k.] We assume that g is constant in magnitude and direction.

e is the permeability of the fully saturated medium. with ks : and k x. Nguyen and Durso (1983) observe that. We. The function ks can be deﬁned by the user. We assume these dependencies are separable. The permeability of a particular ﬂuid in a multiphase ﬂow system depends on the saturation of the phase being considered and on the porosity of the medium. Introducing the ﬂow constitutive law allows the mass continuity equation (Equation 2.8.4–1) to be written () (1) = 1 0 ( ) = Z 1 w J (sn + nt) uw w (sn + nt )0 0 w J 0 V w t @ uw ks + 1t 0 g(1 + . in steady ﬂow through a partially saturated medium. def where ks s provides the dependency on saturation. the permeability varies with s3 . therefore. so b k = ks k.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID where g = 0g@z=@ x is the gravitational acceleration (we assume that w varies slowly with position). take ks s3 by default.

3–2. pvw 1 vw ) @x 1 k 1 @uxw @ Zw w + 1t uw 0 snn 1 vw dS = 0: S w 0 w g dV (2. g 0 g 1 = J1 1 + K uw + 1 0 np0 n 0 "th: g g g t Combining this with Equation 2.8.3–4. and again approximating to ﬁrst-order in small quantities.” Section 2.1–4 and neglecting all but ﬁrst-order terms in small quantities.4–4 .8. we obtain 1 w p n 1 0 nt 0 (1 0 n0 0 n0 ) + + uw t 0 J Kg w 0 0 1 1 + (1 0 nJ 0 nt ) K 0 K Kw g w 1 (1 0 n0 0 n0)("th 0 "th): 0 (1 0 nt )"th + 1 0 n t w J t w g Combining this result with Equation 2. From Equation 2.8.8.8.8.4–2) Volumetric strain in the liquid and grains The bulk behavior of the grains was discussed in “Constitutive behavior in a porous medium.3–1 and again neglecting second-order terms in small quantities.8. 2. we obtain u p w 0 0 th 0 0 n 0 n t K 0 "g n 0 nt : Kg J g 1 + + 1 (1 ) 1 Using Equation 2.3.

Nguyen and Durso. We assume that 2.8. 1983) that.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID 1 w p n 1 0 (1 0 n0 0 n0 + ht ) + + uw t 0 J Kg w 1 0 Kw + (1 0 n 0 0 n0 ) t J 1 1 "th + (1 w J 0n 0 0 Kg 0K 1 (2.0 1. Negative values of uw represent capillary effects in the medium. 0uw .8. For uw < 0 it is known (see.8.1).0 saturation Figure 2. and thus s < 0. the medium is fully saturated for uw > 0. Typical forms of these limits are shown in Figure 2.4–5 . at a given value of capillary pressure.4–1. We write these limits as sa s se . where sa (uw ) is the limit at which absorption will occur (so _ _ that s > 0). and se (uw ) is the limit at which exsorption will occur. for example.4–3) nt )("th w 0 0 w "th ): g Saturation Because uw measures pressure in the wetting liquid and we neglect the pressure in the other ﬂuid phase in the medium (see “Effective stress principle for porous media. the saturation lies within certain limits. Procedures pore pressure -uw exsorption scanning absorption 0.” Section 2.8.4–1 Typical liquid absorption and exsorption behavior.8.

Assume that the . as shown in Figure 2. also be written as ua s during absorption w and ue s during exsorption.4–1. Saturation is treated as a state variable that may have to change if the wetting liquid pressure is outside the range for which its value is admissible according to that actual data corresponding to Figure 2. thus.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID these relationships are uniquely invertible and can.4–1. We approximate these with a straight line. We also assume that some wetting liquid will always be present in the w medium: s > . The evolution of saturation as a state variable is deﬁned as follows.8.8. Bear (1972) suggests that the transition between absorption and exsorption and vice versa takes place along “scanning” curves.

s. saturation at time t.

is known. initially assuming s t+1t = s t . We then obtain s t+1t .t. It must satisfy the constraints () () 0 otherwise: We solve the continuity equation for uw t+1t .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

s.

t = 1:0 if uw > 0:0. s a (u w .

t ) s .

t s e (u w .

t ) by the following rules: .

.

.

.

else if uw t+1t > ua (st) then s t+1t = sa (uw t+1t) and w . if uw t+1t > 0:0 then s t+1t = 1:0 and s_ = 0:0.

.

.

.

.

.

ds duw ds duw = = else if ( uw t+1t < ue st w .

.

.

.

.

.

( ) then .

s t+1t .

.

= ( .

se uw .

t+1t ) and .

dse .

.

duw .

uw .

.

dsa .

.

duw .

uw .

.

.

.

. t +1t . otherwise s t+1t = s t + where ds=duw .

8.s is the slope of the scanning line. These choices are shown in Figure 2. Jacobian contribution ) .4–2.

ds .

.

1u duw .

s w and ds duw = ds .

.

duw . .

the only contribution of this term to the Jacobian is the variation in the integral caused by change in surface area in that part where the mass ﬂow is prescribed.4–2 is +1 Z V J 1 uw d J w (sn + nt) + 1t d 0 w 0 g w Using Equation 2. Thus. Equation 2. uw .8.4–2 with respect to x and uw at time t Consider ﬁrst the surface integral. is prescribed and that part where the wetting liquid pressure. The remaining part of the variation of Equation 2. The surface divides into that part across which the liquid mass ﬂow rate.4–3 we have Jks @ uw @uw (1 + .s t +1t The Jacobian contribution from the continuity equation is obtained from the variation of t.8. is prescribed. w snn 1 vw . We neglect this contribution.8.

2.8. pvw 1 vw ) @x 1 k 1 @x 0 w g dV: 0 p J w sn s J 1 + 0 w Kg + (1 0 n0 0 n0)("th 0 "th) t w g u 1 + Kw 0 "th1 0 1 + n0 + n0 0 ht + uw (1 0 n0 0 n0) K 0 K1 w t t w g w .4–6 .

0 st+∆t st 1.0 s -uw -uw t+∆t e uwt+∆t<uw(st) 0.0 st st+∆t 1. 2.8.4–7 .0 s Figure 2.4–2 Evolution of s in unsaturated cases.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID -uw uw t+∆t a >uw(st) Procedures -uw t+∆t 0.8.

0 1 d J w sn =s 0 w J 0 3K + sJ 1 ht ds 0 0 (J 0 1 + n + n t 0 h t ) 0 : : + duw 9K g Kg Kw (1 + ht 0 n0) t s s 0 0 0 0 (J 0 1 + n + n t ) + (1 0 n 0 nt ) duw : + Kw Kg g I: D + JI : " d" I D I Equation 2.8. here we only write the linearized ﬂow version reﬂecting Darcy’s law (. which is deﬁned by the evolution equation given w in “Constitutive behavior in a porous medium.3. and so makes no contribution to the Jacobian. Although we include it in the software.3–5 shows that J (w =0 )nt ht.” Section 2. Finally.8. thus.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID and. neglecting small terms compared to unity. the Jacobian contribution from the permeability term is rather complex in the general case of the nonlinear Forchheimer ﬂow law.

8. = 0): d Jks @ uw @ x 1k1 @uw 0 w = @ dks ds @ uw @ uw " 1 1 @uw 0 w 1 1 @uw 0 w duw : d" + J Jks @ @ ds duw @ @ @uw @uw @ d T @ uw @ d @ uw 0 Jks @ 1 @ 1 1 @ 0 w 0 Jks @ 1 1 @ 1 @ du @ uw 1 1 @@ w + Jks @ 1 @ uw d 1 " + Jks 1 de 1 @uw 0 w (1 0 n)2 K : : 0 1 d" @ @ 3 g 1 ht 1 0 0 " duw + + ( (1 0 n 0 nt ) + nt ) : d" 0 J 9K g 9Kw (1 + ht 0 n0 ) t (1 0 n0 0 n0 ) t du + nt du : + w JKg Kw w x g x k g I x x g x x k x x k x k g x x I g x k x x x k x x I D I 2.4–8 .

1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.7.8.CONTINUITY FOR WETTING LIQUID Using these results provides the Jacobian of the continuity equation as Z V uw 1 I : D + I : d" " s 0 3Kg + ds 1 (J 0 1 + n0 + n0 0 h ) 0 + JK s duw J n n + Kt + 1 0J K0 nt 0 x 1 k 1 @ x 0 w g I @uw 1 0 1 I : D + 1 (1 0 n0 0 n0) + ntI : d" dk " + de 1 @x 0 w g (1 0 n)2 3K t J g du u + @ @ xw 1 k 1 @ @ x w ds u + k1 dks du @ @xw 1 k 1 @uxw 0 w g @ s ds w 1 1 u t + (1 0 n)2 @ @xw 1 dk 1 @uxw 0 w g I :9D : I 0 K 0 K (1 +hh 0 n0) de @ Kg g w t t + 1t 0 g ks @ uw @ @uw w 0 n0 (J 0 1 + n + nt ) + s 1 0J K0 nt duw 0 0 t t 1 t I : D : I Kg + Kw (1 +hht 0 n0) 9K g s t g Procedures w 0 0 References w @ uw 1 @@dx 1 k 1 @x x g duw @uw u 0 w g + @ @ xw 1 k 1 @x 0 @uw 1 @@dx @x x 1T dV: • “Coupled pore ﬂuid diffusion and stress analysis.” Section 6.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Pore ﬂuid ﬂow properties.” Section 12.7.4–9 .

.

to ensure numerical stability. This is the so-called staggered approach to the solution of coupled systems of equations. This process continues until succeeding iterations produce negligible changes in the solutions obtained. u and b b pore ﬂuid ﬂow: (B MQ )T vM + H QP uP = QQ : There are two common approaches to solving these coupled equations. The second approach is to solve the coupled systems directly. v 1 N where 0 1.8.COUPLED DIFFUSION/DEFORMATION EQUATIONS 2. We ﬁrst introduce a time integration operator in the pore ﬂuid ﬂow equation. The operator chosen is the simple one-step method: Procedures t+ t = t + N 4 N 4t[(1 0 )tN + vt+4t]. This direct approach is used in ABAQUS/Standard because of its rapid convergence even in severely nonlinear cases. One approach is to solve one set of equations ﬁrst and then use the results obtained to solve the second set of equations. the ﬂow equation becomes b t b 0(B MQ )T M 0 4tH QP cP = 4t[0QQ 4t + (B MQ )T vtM 4t + H QP uP+4t]: c u + t+ Then the coupled system of equations to be solved is K MN N c 0 LMP cP = P M 0 I M u and where 0(B MQ )T cM 0 4tH QP cP = RQ . u RQ = b b t 4t[0QQ 4t + (B MQ )T vtM 4t + H QP uP+4t]: + t+ 2.5–1 .8.5 SOLUTION STRATEGY FOR COUPLED DIFFUSION/DEFORMATION The governing equations of pore ﬂuid diffusion/deformation are equilibrium: K MN cN 0 LMP cP = P M 0 I M . These results in turn are fed back into the ﬁrst set of equations to see what changes (if any) result in the solution. In fact. we choose = 1 (backward difference) so that v t+ t = 4 t ( t+ 4 t 0 t ) : With this operator the pore ﬂuid ﬂow equation at time (t + 4t) can be rewritten as 4 M M b b t b (B MQ )T t+4t + 4tH QP uP+4t = 4tQQ 4t + (B MQ )T t : t+ Using the Newton linearization.

The lack of symmetry may be due to a number of effects: changes in geometry. dependence of permeability on void ratio.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. or if a total pore pressure (versus excess pore pressure) analysis is performed. nonsymmetric. if the effects of changes in geometry or nonlinear permeability are signiﬁcant. and inclusion of ﬂuid gravity load terms in total pore pressure analyses. They are. in other cases it uses the symmetric solver by default. ABAQUS/Standard uses the nonsymmetric equation solver by default in all steady-state or partially saturated coupled analyses. In the latter cases.5–2 .7. the user is advised to activate the unsymmetric solver. in general.” Section 6.8. The steady-state version of the coupled problem is also nonsymmetric. Reference • “Coupled pore ﬂuid diffusion and stress analysis.COUPLED DIFFUSION/DEFORMATION EQUATIONS These equations form the basis of the iterative solution of a time step in a coupled ﬂow deformation solution in ABAQUS/Standard. changes in saturation in partially saturated cases.

as described in “Direct steady-state dynamic analysis.5. The acoustic medium in ABAQUS may have velocity-dependent dissipation. caused by ﬂuid viscosity or by ﬂow within a resistive porous matrix material. as described in “Modal dynamic analysis. The formulation of this loading case is discussed in “Loading due to an incident dilatational wave ﬁeld. 3.” Section 2. a ship subjected to underwater incident wave loads due to an explosion may experience plastic deformation. as described in “Steady-state linear dynamic analysis. the inward normal derivative of pressure (and normal ﬂuid particle acceleration) is zero.) 2.” Section 6. Steady-state harmonic (linear) response analysis can be performed for a coupled acoustic-structural system. If the applied load has zero magnitude (that is.2.5.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM 2. or “reactive. or large motions of internal machinery may occur. Procedures 2. (Boundary conditions can be used to specify pressure at any node in the model. The steady-state procedure is based on direct solution of the coupled complex harmonic equations.” Section 5. For example.7. if no concentrated load or other boundary condition is present).1. 5. An incident wave loading. These elements are provided to model a variety of phenomena involving dynamic interactions between ﬂuid and solid media. representing the inward normal derivative of pressure per unit density of the acoustic medium resulting from the arrival of a speciﬁed wave. in coupled ﬂuid-solid problems the ﬂuid forces in this linear regime are high enough that nonlinear response of the structure needs to be considered. Acoustic-structural coupling deﬁned either by using surface-based coupling procedures (see “Surfacebased acoustic-structural medium interaction. It is applicable to problems involving blast loads and to acoustic scattering problems.6.6. on a modal-based procedure. as described in “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis. which means that the default boundary condition of the acoustic medium is a rigid.” Section 2.3.” Section 2. Often.1 COUPLED ACOUSTIC-STRUCTURAL MEDIUM ANALYSIS ABAQUS provides a set of elements for modeling a ﬂuid medium undergoing small pressure variations and interface conditions to couple these acoustic elements to a structural model. ﬁxed wall (Neumann condition). such as the study of the noise level in a vehicle.1. 4. Mode-based linear transient dynamic analysis is also available. including impedance.” Section 2. The possible conditions at the surface of the acoustic medium are: 1.1–1 . Prescribed pressure (degree of freedom 8) at the boundary nodes.5.2. An impedance condition. rather general boundary conditions are provided for the acoustic medium.7) or by placing ASI coupling elements on the interface between the acoustic medium and a structure.” boundaries. or on a subspace-based procedure. In addition. representing an absorbing boundary between the acoustic medium and a rigid wall or a vibrating structure or representing radiation to an inﬁnite exterior.9. The acoustic ﬂuid elements can also be used with nonlinear response analysis (implicit or explicit direct integration) procedures: whether such results are useful depends on the applicability of the small pressure change assumption in the ﬂuid.9. Prescribed inward normal derivative of pressure per unit density of the acoustic medium through the use of a concentrated load on degree of freedom 8 of a boundary node.

i ) @@x 1 uf . The acoustic excess pressure is readily available from this pseudo-pressure subject to the cavitation condition. This section deﬁnes the formulation used in these elements. deﬁned as the product of the bulk modulus and the compressive volumetric strain. and compressible. i ) @ @x 1 uf . The constitutive behavior of the ﬂuid is assumed to be inviscid. A total wave formulation is used for a nonlinear acoustic medium undergoing cavitation. i ) u = 0. uf is the ﬂuid particle acceleration. plays the role of the material state variable instead of the acoustic excess pressure. uf is the ﬂuid particle velocity.9. or salinity of water on which f and may depend (see “Acoustic medium.9.1–1) @x where p is the excess pressure in the ﬂuid (the pressure in excess of any static pressure). the ﬂuid is assumed to undergo free expansion without a corresponding drop in the dynamic pressure. so p = 0Kf ( x.” Section 12.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM The ﬂow resistance and the properties of the absorbing boundaries may be functions of frequency in steadystate response analysis but are assumed to be constant in the direct integration procedure. For an acoustic medium capable of undergoing cavitation. i ) u + f (x. linear. humidity of air. The constitutive behavior for an acoustic medium capable of undergoing cavitation can be stated as p = max fpv . where pc is the ﬂuid cavitation limit and p0 is the initial acoustic static pressure. The d’Alembert term has been written without convection on the assumption that there is no steady ﬂow of the ﬂuid. When the absolute pressure drops to this limit value. and i are i independent ﬁeld variables such as temperature.1. Acoustic equations The equilibrium equation for small motions of a compressible. This is usually considered sufﬁciently accurate for steady ﬂuid velocities up to Mach 0.3.1–2) where Kf is the bulk modulus of the ﬂuid. f is the density of the ﬂuid. is deﬁned as pv = 0Kf (x. adiabatic ﬂuid with velocity-dependent momentum losses is taken to be @p f f + (x . pc 0 p0g . the absolute pressure (sum of the static pressure and the excess dynamic pressure) cannot drop below the speciﬁed cavitation limit. a measure of the volumetric strain.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual). x is the spatial _ position of the ﬂuid particle. The pressure would rebuild in the acoustic medium once the free expansion that took place during the cavitation is reversed sufﬁciently to reduce the volumetric strain to the level at the cavitation limit. is the “volumetric drag” (force per unit volume per velocity). _ (2.1–2 . 2.9. (2. where a pseudo-pressure pv . This formulation is very similar to the scattered wave formulation presented below except that the pseudo-pressure.

The boundary of a region of acoustic medium that obeys Equation 2.1–1 and Equation 2.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM Physical boundary conditions in acoustic analysis Acoustic ﬁelds are strongly dependent on the conditions at the boundary of the acoustic medium. Sfr .9.1–2 can be divided into subregions S on which the following conditions are imposed: Sfp .9. Sft . S.

This condition also prescribes the motion of the ﬂuid particles and can be used to model acoustic sources. Quite a few physical effects can be modeled in this manner: in particular. An example is the carpet glued to the ﬂoor of a room or car interior that absorbs and reﬂects acoustic waves. placed between acoustic media and rigid bafﬂes. and symmetry planes. an acoustic-structural boundary. This is also true in onedimensional analysis (i. an impedance boundary condition surface does not model any mass associated with the reactive lining. where we prescribe the normal derivative of the acoustic medium. Sfrs . This type of boundary condition is also referred to as an imposed impedance. . As implemented in ABAQUS. due to the presence of a compliant or reactive intervening layer.” the “radiating” acoustic boundary. 2.. where the value of the acoustic pressure p is prescribed. acoustic media extend sufﬁciently far from the region of interest that they can be modeled as inﬁnite in extent. incident wave ﬁelds. In such cases it is convenient to truncate the computational region and apply a boundary condition to simulate waves passing exclusively outward from the computational region. Consequently.” or impedance boundary condition. but the tangential motions are uncoupled.e. where the relevant acoustic properties include the cross-sectional areas of the elements. ﬂuid-ﬂuid boundaries do not require special treatment in ABAQUS. Often. It is analogous to a spring and dashpot interposed between the ﬂuid and solid particles. displacement continuity requires that the normal forces per unit mass on the ﬂuid particles be equal. piping or ducts). On such an interface. it should be incorporated into the boundary of the structure.1–3 . This thin layer of material provides a “reactive surface. or a “Dirichlet to Neumann map. so this condition is enforced automatically during element assembly. Procedures S . to the acoustic medium. where the motion of an acoustic medium is directly coupled to the motion of a solid. the “reactive” acoustic boundary. On such an acoustic-structural boundary the acoustic and structural media have the same displacement normal to the boundary.9. rigid walls (bafﬂes). Sfs . This quantity is the natural boundary traction in ABAQUS. This layer induces an impedance condition between the relative normal velocity between acoustic ﬂuid and solid structure and the acoustic pressure. where there is a prescribed linear relationship between the ﬂuid acoustic pressure and its normal derivative. where the displacements are linearly coupled but not necessarily identically equal. the effect of thin layers of material. admittance. if such a mass exists. whose own motions are unimportant. a boundary between acoustic ﬂuids of possibly differing material properties.

neglect the gradient of =f . and integrating over the ﬂuid: Z Vf p 1 Kf p+ f K f p0 _ @ @x 1 @p f @ x 1 dV = 0: Green’s theorem allows this to be rewritten as Z Vf p 1 Kf p+ f K f p _ + @p @p 1 dV f @ x @ x 1 Z + @p dS = 0: p n0 1 f @x S 1 (2.1–4 .1–3) The assumption that the gradient of =f is small is violated where there are discontinuities in the quantity =f (for example.1–5) is eliminated from Equation 2. we divide Equation 2. on the boundary between two elements that have a different =f value). the equilibrium equation.1–4 to produce Z Vf p 1 Kf p+ f K f p _ + @p @p 1 dV f @ x @ x 1 0 Z S 0Sfp p (T (x)) dS = 0. For linear transient dynamic analysis. Equation 2. for convenience.9. (2. the modal procedure can be used and is much more efﬁcient.9.1–1 by f .9.1–6) where.9. is used on the remainder of the boundary to relate the pressure gradient to the motion of the boundary: n0 1 ( Using this equation.9. take its gradient with respect to x. To derive the partial differential equation used in direct integration transient analysis. the term 1 @p f @ x + @p n0 1 @ x f _ u f + )=0 uf on S 0 Sfp : (2. is obtained by introducing an arbitrary variational ﬁeld.9. some approximations are made in the transient case that are not needed in steady state.9.1–2 to obtain the equation of motion for the ﬂuid in terms of the ﬂuid pressure: 1 Kf p+ f K f p0 _ @ @x 1 1 @p f @ x = 0: (2. Equation 2.1–1. To derive a symmetric system of ordinary differential equations for implicit integration. and combine the result with the time derivatives of Equation 2.9. the boundary “traction” term 2. primarily with regard to the treatment of the volumetric drag loss parameter and spatial variations of the constitutive parameters.1–4) Assuming that p is prescribed on Sfp .9.9. Variational statement An equivalent weak form for the equation of motion. p.1–3.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM Formulation for direct integration transient dynamics In ABAQUS the ﬁnite element formulations are slightly different in direct integration transient and steady-state or modal analyses.

Procedures p is prescribed and p = 0.9. a unit of T (x) yields a lower local volumetric acceleration. The layer of material. which represents a rigid immobile boundary. in the absence of volumetric drag this boundary traction is equal to the inward acceleration of the particles of the acoustic medium: T (x ) = n 0 1 u f on S 0 Sfp : (2. Consequently. all of the other boundary conditions described above can be formulated in terms of T (x). Except for the imposed pressure on Sfp .1. this enforces a value of ﬂuid particle acceleration. the impedance expression is simply the inverse. This equation is in the form of an admittance relation.1–8) When volumetric drag is present. the boundary tractions in the variational statement become 2. when volumetric drag exists in a transient acoustic model. respectively.9. The spring and dashpot parameters are k1 and c1. the reactive boundary between the acoustic medium and a rigid bafﬂe.” Section 6. See “Loading due to an incident dilatational wave ﬁeld. if the medium has nonzero volumetric drag.1–7) has been introduced. This term has dimensions of acceleration.1–5 . In direct integration transient dynamics we enforce the acoustic boundary conditions as follows: On Sfp . for example.3. (2. Incident wave ﬁelds on a boundary of a ﬂuid are modeled with a T0 that varies in space and time. Using this deﬁnition for the ﬂuid velocity. An imposed T0 = ain can be used to model the oscillations of a rigid plate or body exciting a ﬂuid. corresponding to the effect of the arrival of the wave on the boundary. divided by the true mass density: a force per unit mass of ﬂuid. As mentioned above. we apply a condition that relates the velocity of the acoustic medium to the pressure and rate of change of pressure: _ 0n0 1 uf = ( k1 p + c1 p) _ On Sfr . n0 1 uf = T0 = ain.9. a unit of T0 imposed at the boundary will result in a relatively lower imposed particle acceleration. where we prescribe the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure per unit density: Tft (x) T0 : In the absence of volumetric drag in the medium.9. 1 1 on Sfr .1–9) where 1=k1 and 1=c1 are user-prescribed parameters at the boundary. due to drag losses.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM T (x) = n0 1 ( f u + f 1 @p _ ) u ) = 0n0 1 ( f f @ x on S 0 Sfp (2. the boundary traction is the normal derivative of the pressure ﬁeld. On Sft . they are per unit area of the acoustic boundary. acts as a spring and dashpot in series distributed between the acoustic medium and the rigid wall. A special case of this boundary condition is ain = 0. in admittance form.

ACOUSTIC MEDIUM Tfr (x) 0 On S.

. we apply the radiation boundary condition by specifying the corresponding impedance: T .1–10) the radiating boundary.9. 1 p+ f c1 1 f k1 + 1 c1 p+ _ 1 k1 p : (2.

we apply the acoustic-structural interface condition by equating displacement of the ﬂuid and solid. the mixed impedance boundary and acoustic-structural boundary. we apply a condition that relates the relative outward velocity between the acoustic medium and the structure to the pressure and rate of change of pressure: p on Sfrs : (2.9. using the admittance parameters of Equation 2.1–44. In the presence of volumetric drag it follows that the acoustic boundary traction coupling ﬂuid to solid is T (x) = n0 1 ( m + u m _ u ): f In ABAQUS/Standard the formulation of the transient coupled problem would be _ made nonsymmetric by the presence of the term n0 1 ( f um ). um m u _ f 8 u m (t). Applying this equation to the deﬁnition of T (x). deﬁned below.9.1–43 and Equation 2. (x ) 0 1 c1 p+ _ 1 a1 p . which enforces the condition n0 1 uf = n0 1 um .9. In the great majority of practical applications the acoustic tractions associated with volumetric drag are small compared to those associated with ﬂuid inertia. On Sfs . the acoustic-structural interface.9.1–6 . where um is the displacement of the structure. so this term is ignored in transient analysis: Tfs (x) n0 1 um : On Sfrs .1–11) k1 c1 This relative normal velocity represents a rate of compression (or extension) of the intervening layer. we obtain for the transient case: n 0 1 (u m 0 u f ) = _ _ 1 p+ _ 1 2.

For simplicity in this equation all other loading terms except the ﬂuid pressure and surface traction t have been neglected: they are imposed in the usual way. is the density of the material.1–7 . Z V " " : dV Z + Z + V c um 1 um dV _ Z + where is the stress at a point in the structure.9. Sfs pum 1 n dS 0 Z St V um 1 um dV (2.1–15) um 1 t dS = 0.9. n is the outward normal to the structure.9.9. um is a variational " displacement ﬁeld.9.1–14) The structural behavior is deﬁned by the virtual work equation.1–12) This expression for T (x) is the sum of its deﬁnitions for Sfs and Sfr .1–13) These deﬁnitions for the boundary term. t is the surface traction applied to the structure. 2. p is the pressure acting on the ﬂuid-structural interface. c is the mass proportional damping factor (part of the Rayleigh damping assumption for the structure). are introduced into Equation 2. In the steady-state case the effect of volumetric drag on the structural displacement term in the acoustic traction is included: Tfrs (x) = n0 1 ( m + u m 1 1 1 1 _ p0 + u )0 p 0 p: _ f f c1 f k1 c1 k1 Procedures (2. T (x).1–6 to give the ﬁnal variational statement for the acoustic medium (this is the equivalent of the virtual work statement for the structure): Z Vf p 1 Kf p+ p Z + Sfrs 1 1 p+ + p + p dS _ f c1 f k1 c1 k1 S 1 Z Z 1 + p p + p dS 0 _ p n0 1 um dS c1 a1 S S 1 1 p p+ + p + p 0 n0 1 um dS = 0: _ c k c k Z + fr fi fs f K f p _ + @p @p 1 dV 0 f @x @x 1 Z Sft p T0 dS f 1 f 1 1 1 (2. and " is the strain variation that is compatible with um .ACOUSTIC MEDIUM 1 1 1 1 Tfrs (x) = n0 1 ( m ) 0 u p0 + p 0 p: _ f c1 f k1 c1 k1 (2.9. um is the acceleration of a point in the structure.

The problem is discretized by introducing interpolation functions: in the ﬂuid p = H P pP .1–16) ^ The new function pP makes the single variational equation obtained from summing Equation 2. 2 . .ACOUSTIC MEDIUM The discretized ﬁnite element equations Equation 2.1–14 and Equation 2.9. P = 1. We use a Galerkin method for the structural system.1–15 deﬁne the variational problem for the coupled ﬁelds m and p.1–14 and Equation 2. N = 1. We also use the superscripts P . Q to refer to pressure degrees of freedom in the ﬂuid and N . up to the number of displacement degrees of freedom.9. In these and the following equations we assume summation over the superscripts that refer to the degrees of freedom of the discretized model.9.9. the variational ﬁeld has the same form as the displacement: m = N uN . . .9. 2 .1–15 dimensionally consistent: PQ p PQ _ PQ PQ PM 0 pP (MfPQ + Mfr )Q + (CfPQ + Cfr )pQ + (KfPQ + Kfr + K. M to refer to displacement degrees of freedom in the structure. up to the number of pressure nodes and in the structure m = N uN . . For the ﬂuid we use p = H P pP but with the subsequent Petrov-Galerkin substitution u u N u N pP = d2 dt2 ( p ): ^ P (2.

+u m) _ (2. for simplicity. we have introduced the following deﬁnitions: MfPQ fr f Z = M PQ = C PQ = ZV 1 f K f H P H Q dV.1–17) where. 1 PQ Cfr K PQ f PQ Kfr . )pQ 0 Sfs uM 0 PfP ^ QN N I N + M NM uM + C(NM uM + hSfs iT pQ 0 P N = 0.9.

Sfr [Sfrs f c1 = S ZS [ 1 H P H Q dV.9. Z S 1 fi c1 H P H Q dS. K PQ = 1 1 + H P H Q dS + Sfr [Sfrs f k1 c1 Z 1 @H P @H Q 1 @ dV. f Vf f K Z fr frs k1 H P H Q dS. 2.1–8 . x x Z S 1 fi a1 H P H Q dS. = Vf f @ Z 1 P Q = H H dS.

QN pQ are In the case of coupled systems where the forces on the structure due to the ﬂuid— Sfs very small compared to the rest of the structural forces—the system can i solved in a “sequentially be h h i where .ACOUSTIC MEDIUM PM Sfs = Z Z S [S fs ft frs H P n0 1 NM dS.

. P The term Pf is the nodal right-hand-side term for the acoustical degree of freedom pP . i. PfP = S Z M NM = NN NM dV. We see that the volumetric drag-related terms are “mass-like”. N is the strain interpolator. This equation deﬁnes the discretized model. This term is obtained by integration of the normal derivative of pressure per unit density of the acoustic medium over the surface area tributary to a boundary node. or the applied “force” on this degree of freedom. proportional to the ﬂuid element mass matrix.e. H P T0 dS. ZV NM = c NN NM dV. C(m) ZV N = .

P S 1 1 1 t Procedures T QN pQ term omitted. The structural equations can be solved with the Sfs 2 PM 3 uM an analysis without ﬂuid coupling. in coupled” manner. i. I ZV N = NN t dS. with Sfs imposed as a boundary condition. N : dV. Time integration T The equations are integrated through time using the standard implicit (ABAQUS/Standard) and explicit (ABAQUS/Explicit) dynamic integration options. This two-step analysis is less expensive and advantageous for systems such as metal structures in air.. the ﬂuid equations can be solved. From the implicit integration operator we obtain relations between the variations of the solution variables (here represented by f ) and their time derivatives: Da def = f pP def f_ = P .e. Dv = f : f p ^ The equations of evolution of the degrees of freedom can be written for the implicit case as 1 PQ PQ _ 0pP D (MfPQ + Mfr )pQ + (CfPQ + Cfr )pQ a PQ + K PQ + K PQ )pQ 0 Sfs uM 0 PfP PM + ( Kf fr . Subsequently.

QN N I N + M NM uM + C(NM uM + hSfs iT pQ 0 P N = 0: + u m) _ 2.1–9 .9.

ACOUSTIC MEDIUM The linearization of this equation is 0pP PQ + M PQ ) + Dv (C PQ + C PQ ) + 1 (K PQ + K PQ + K PQ ) (M f fr fr f fr .

= 0: 0 (2. If any of these effects is expected to be signiﬁcant in an analysis. neglecting any damping terms and any terms associated with a reactive surface. in addition to those inherent in any ﬁnite element method. This may be important in lossy. These equations are symmetric if the structural stiffness is symmetric. the effect of volumetric drag on the radiation boundary conditions is approximate. is applied to the coupled system of equations. and manipulating the equations yields QN NM Sfs T B6 PM 0MfPQ @4 Sfs PQ T 0 K 02 K 0 3 Kf PQ 7 0 !2 4 5 2 M NM 0 0 0 0 0 f 0 Kf 31 8 M 9 <u = C Q 0 5A PQ : p Q . the eigenvalue problem can be stated as " K NM 0 Sfs QN T # uM 2 M NM PM PQ pQ 0 ! 0Sfs K f PQ M 0 f u p M Q = 0: (2.1–18) As stated.1–17. this problem cannot be solved in ABAQUS due to the unsymmetric stiffness and mass = p=! 2 . This solution method for the coupled 2. the spatial gradients of the ratio of volumetric drag to mass density in the ﬂuid are neglected. The explicit central difference procedure described in “Explicit dynamic analysis. Finally. derivation of symmetric ordinary differential equations in the presence of volumetric drag requires some approximations.” Section 2. The auxiliary variable is internal to ABAQUS/Standard and is not available for output.5. the user should realize that the results obtained are approximate.9. Summary of additional approximations of the direct integration transient formulation As mentioned above. Da f Da h iT QN dpQ P PM duM + pP 1 PfP + uN Sfs + p Sfs Da N K NM + Da M NM + Dv (C(NM + C(NM ) duM = 0.1–10 . First. augmenting the system of equations with matrices. + u m) k) dp Q where dp and du are the corrections to the solution obtained from the Newton iteration. Introducing an auxiliary variable. and C(k) is the structural damping matrix.1–19) This augmented system of equations is used for the eigenvalue extraction. Equation 2.9. Second. to maintain symmetry.9. Kf p = !2 Kf . K NM is the NM structural stiffness matrix. the effect of volumetric drag on the ﬂuid-solid boundary terms is neglected. inhomogeneous acoustic media. For explicit integration the ﬂuid mass matrix is diagonalized in a manner similar to the treatment of structural mass.4.9. Formulation for eigenvalue extraction and mode-based procedures From the discretized equation.

is chosen to be a constant pressure ﬁeld of unity. Equation 2.9. analogous to the rigid body modes for the structural problem outlined in “Variables associated with the natural modes of a model. The left and right eigenvector subspaces are then used to compute modal quantities (generalized mass.” Section 2. where ! is the Procedures 0L = 1 vM T M NM 0 0Sfs Mf m Q 1 Q 0 Ta = m M f Ta and 0R = 1 0 T M NM 0 u M = 1 00 T S u M + T M p Q 1 : a fs a f 0Sfs Mf pQ m Ta m ABAQUS/Standard will then report the acoustic participation factor computed as 0ac = and an acoustic effective mass computed as q 0L 0R =mac e mac = (0ac)2 m : The scaling by mac in the equation for 0ac is arbitrary. R = u Q . Most of these computations are conducted in a very similar fashion to the way they are carried out in the pure structural problem and will not be discussed here. if a singular acoustic mode : uM . and damping matrices in modebased procedures (such as subspace-based steady-state dynamics or transient modal dynamic analysis) to obtain a reduced system of equations. stiffness. participation factors. otherwise 2 Q mode . If these effects are not signiﬁcant.0 (minus the contributions from nodes constrained in the acoustic degree of freedom). orthogonalization against the singular acoustic modes is done in the Lanczos eigensolver. pQ = ! . the mode-based procedure is preferred because of its efﬁciency. a “rigid body” acoustic mode. A total “acoustic mass” is then deﬁned as mac = TaT Mf Ta. there are left. First. The only exception worth a brief discussion is the choice for the calculation of the acoustic participation factors and effective masses.1–18.1–11 . Ta .9. the sum of all acoustic effective masses is 1. Since the original system of equations.and right-hand-side eigenvectors.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM acoustic-structural eigenvalue problem is implemented only for the Lanczos eigensolver.5. p where vM = For any nonsingular acoustic circular eigenfrequency. 2. this scaling ensures that when all eigenmodes are extracted. Formulation for steady-state response The direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis procedure is the preferred solution method for acoustics in ABAQUS if volumetric drag and/or acoustic radiation are signiﬁcant.2. However. as follows. Left and right acoustic participation factors are deﬁned as 0. If Kf is singular. It can be shown that the left and right eigenvectors are as follows: M M L = v Q . is unsymmetric. effective mass) and to project the mass.

as though the volumetric drag were absent and the density complex. We begin with the equilibrium equation f = 0 2 f: @p @x _ + u f + f u f = 0 + i )~ f = 0: u + i (2. .9. f_ = i f.9.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM All model degrees of freedom and loads are assumed to be varying harmonically at an angular frequency . Equation 2.9.9. We divide this equation by and combine it with the second time derivative of the constitutive law.1–12 . to obtain ~ 1 p 0 @ 1 1 @ p = 0: 0 K ~ @ x @ x ~ f 2 (2. The variational statement is Z Vf p 1 @ p ~ 1 ~ 0 2 K p 0 @@x 1 @ x dV = 0: ~ f Integrating by parts.1–2. ~ where f is the constant complex amplitude of the variable f . Variational statement The development of the variational statement parallels that for the case of transient dynamics. thus. as ~ @p ~ 0 2 ( f @x f ~ and. so we can write ~ f = f exp i t.1–21) @x The equilibrium equation is now in a form where the density is complex and the acoustic medium ~ velocity does not enter. Thus.9. as was done in the transient dynamics formulation. write @p ~ 0 2 (~) uf = 0: ~ (2.1–20) and use the harmonic time-derivative relations to obtain We deﬁne the complex density. we have ~ ~ 2 p dV + Z 1 @p 1 @ p dV + Z p 1 @ p 1 n0 dS = 0: 0 p K ~ @x @x ~ @x ~ f Vf Vf S Z 2.1–22) We have not used the assumption that the spatial gradient of r=f is small.

9. On Sfr . analogous to transient analysis. On Sfp . ~ we prescribe Procedures The condition n0 1 uf drag. p is prescribed.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM In steady state the boundary traction is deﬁned as ~ T (x ) 0 ~ 1 @ p 1 n0 = 0 2n0 1 uf = n0 1 uf : ~ @x ~ This expression is not the Fourier transform of the boundary traction deﬁned above for the transient case. even in the presence of volumetric the reactive boundary between the acoustic medium and a rigid bafﬂe. On Sft . we apply 2 ~fr (x) 0 i 0 p: ~ T c k 1 1 (2. The application of boundary conditions may be slightly different for some cases in steady state. due to this deﬁnition of the traction. The steady-state deﬁnition is based on the complex density and includes the volumetric drag effect in such a way that it is always equal to the acceleration of the ﬂuid particles. ~ Tft (x) T0 : = T0 = ain is enforced.1–23) On S.

However. .9. we apply the radiation boundary condition impedance in the same form as for the reactive boundary but with the parameters as deﬁned in Equation 2. ~ ~ T (x ) = 0 2 n 0 1 u m .9. the condition _ _ n 0 1 (u m 0 u f ) = results in the deﬁnition: k1 1 p + 1 p on _ c 1 Sfrs ~ u Tfrs (x) = 0 2 n0 1 (~ m ) 0 2 i p+ ~ p: ~ c1 k1 In this case the effect of volumetric drag is included without approximation. the acoustic tractions in the steady-state case make no assumptions about volumetric drag.1–38 and Equation 2.1–39. we equate the displacement of the ﬂuid and solid as in the transient case. Consequently. the radiating boundary. the acoustic boundary traction coupling ﬂuid to solid. can be applied without affecting the symmetry of the overall formulation. the mixed impedance boundary and acoustic-structural boundary. the acoustic-structural interface.1–13 . On Sfrs . 2. On Sfs .9.

9. Because the volumetric drag effect is contained in the complex density. except for the pressure “stiffness” term.9.9. Z Vf 2 @p ~ = 2 @p ~ ~ 0p K p + 2 + f2 = 2 @p 1 @ x + (i ) 2 + 2 = 2 @p 1 @ x dV @x @x f f Z Zf ~ p 2 n0 1 um dS 0 p ain dS + S S [S i 2 Z p p0 ~ k p dS = 0: ~ + c ft fs frs (2.1–14 . the acoustic-structural boundary term in this formulation does not have the limitation that the volumetric drag must be small compared to other effects in the acoustic medium. and the imposed boundary traction term. the ﬁnite element equations are derived as before. We arrive again at Equation 2. ~ The above equation uses the complex density. In addition. 1=.9. We manipulate it into a form that has real coefﬁcients and an additional time derivative through the relations ~ to obtain 1= 2 f f = + 2 = 2 + i 2 + 2 = 2 . f i @p @x 1 @p _ = @x . Finally.1–24) Sfr [Sfi [Sfrs 1 1 The discretized ﬁnite element equations Applying Galerkin’s principle. whether or not the volumetric drag is large. in this formulation the applied ﬂux on an acoustic boundary represents the inward acceleration of the acoustic medium.1–17 with the same matrices except for the damping and stiffness matrices of the 2. the radiation boundary conditions. the radiation boundary conditions do not make any approximations with regard to the volumetric drag parameter.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM The ﬁnal variational statement becomes Z @p ~ 1 ~ 1 0 2p K p + @p @ x dV ~ @x f Vf i 2 Z Z p 0 k p dS ~ 0 p ain dS + c1 1 S S [S Z ~ + p 2 n0 1 um dS S i 2 Z p p0 ~ k p + 2 n0 1 um dS = 0: ~ ~ + c 1 ft fr fi fs Sfrs 1 1 This equation is formally identical to Equation 2.1–4.

S 1 PQ = 0. Kfr PQ K. which now appear as CfPQ KfPQ = Z Z = c1 H P H Q dS.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM acoustic elements and the surfaces that have imposed impedance conditions.

= 0 : PQ Cfr fr = Vf 2 f 2 Z Vf f = 2 @H P + 2 = 2 @ f @H P 2 = 2 @ + x 1 x 1 @H Q dV. @ @H Q dV. about a deformed. the total stress can be written in the form 0 1 = 0 + 1 = 0 + Del : (1" + . Hence. identiﬁed by the preﬁx . @ x x Procedures The matrix modeling loss to volumetric drag is proportional to the ﬂuid stiffness matrix in this formulation. For steady-state harmonic response we assume that the structure undergoes small harmonic vibrations. stressed base state. which is identiﬁed by the subscript .

" where 0 is the stress in the base state. el is the elasticity matrix for the material.c1_ ) . .

thus introducing the viscous part of the material behavior). from the discretization assumption. D 1" = .c is the stiffness proportional damping factor chosen for the material (to give the stiffness proportional contribution to the Rayleigh damping. and.

9. m) k) with K NM = # Z " @. k) _ and Equation 2.1–17 can be rewritten. as h i PQ PQ PM u ~ p 0 pP 0 2 (MfPQ + Mfr ) + i (CfPQ + Cfr ) + KfPQ 1~Q + 2Sfs 1~M 0 1PfP ^ h i h QN iT ~ u p +uN 0 2M NM + i (C(NM + C(NM ) + K NM 1~M + Sfs 1~Q 0 1P N = 0. using the time-harmonic relations. For the internal force vector this yields 1I N = K NM 1uM + C(NM 1uM . M 1uM : To solve the steady-state problem. we assume that the governing equations are satisﬁed in the base state. and we linearize these equations in terms of the harmonic oscillations.

N .

N : Del : .

M dV : 0 + .

9. V @uM 2.1–15 (2.9.1–25) .

and NM C (k ) = Z h .ACOUSTIC MEDIUM (this stiffness includes the initial stress matrix. so “stress stiffening” and “load stiffness” effects associated with the base state stress and loads are included).

c .

N V : Del : .

hence. We substitute these equations into Equation 2.9. pP = 0 0 pP . < P N and = P N are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of the force ~P ~P applied to the structure.9. Equation 2.9. <(Pf ) and =(Pf ) are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitude of the acoustic traction (dimensions of volumetric acceleration) applied to the ﬂuid.1–26 is symmetric. < uM . and is the circular frequency. 0 1 where < pQ .1–16. we can write 0 Q 11 Q 0 0 Q1 1~ = 0< 0p 1+ i = 0p 11 i t p ~ ~ exp M = < uM + i = uM exp i t ~ ~ 1~ u ~ ~ ~ 1P N = < P N + i = P N exp i t ~ ~ ~ 1PfP = < PfP + i = PfP exp i t.9. which yields the coupled complex linear equation system and 2 2 h i h i h i 3 PM ~ > < APQ = APQ Sfs 0 i 7 8 0 Q1 9 8 02< PfP 9 > f f > > 6 h > h ~ > > 6 > PQ i 0<hAPQ i PM 7 > < 0pQ 1 > > 0 02 = P P > > > > 0 0 Sfs 7 < = p = < ~f > 6 = Af = f ~ 6h 0 M1 = iT i h i 7 h . and = uM are the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes of ~ 0~ 1 0 ~ 1 0 ~ 1 ~ ~ the response. If damping is absent. M i dV: We assume that the loads and (because of linearity) the response are harmonic. the user can specify that only the real matrix 2.1–25 and use the time-harmonic form of ^ Equation 2. = pQ . The system may be quite large.1–16 . and. This set of equations is solved for each frequency requested in the direct-solution steady-state dynamics procedure.1–26) where i h PQ PQ < APQ = 02 (KfPQ + Kfr ) 0 (MfPQ + Mfr ) f i h PQ = APQ = 0 01(CfPQ + Cfr ) f i h < ANM = K NM 0 2 M NM s i h = ANM = 0 (C(NM + C(NM ): s m) k) and If K NM is symmetric. : 0= P N QN iT =hANM i 0<hANM i 5 = u ~ > 0 0 Sfs s s (2. because the real and imaginary parts of the structural degrees of freedom and of the pressure in the ﬂuid all appear in the system. > > > > 4 ~ h > > . 7 6 QN 6 S ~ > > ~ 0 < ANM = ANM 7 > < 0uM 1 > > < P N > > s s 7> 6 fs : > .9.

1–28) In steady state this linearized equation can be written in the form of Equation 2.9.1–29) 2. through coefﬁcients of shear viscosity and bulk viscosity . f (2. Volumetric drag and ﬂuid viscosity The medium supporting acoustic waves may be ﬂowing through a porous matrix. the coupled system can be split into an uncoupled structural analysis and an acoustic analysis driven by the structural response. respectively. = ( f ) = 0 6 ~ 4 2 1+ Kf 2 0 1 + 4 3 + 4 3 3 so that the viscosity effects can be modeled as a volumetric drag parameter with the value =4 1+ 6 2 0 + Kf 2 0 Kf 4 1 3 7 12 5 f K f : + 4 3 If the combined viscosity effects are small. 3 7 12 5 f . provided the ﬂuid forces on the structure are small.1–27) Fluids also exhibit momentum losses without a porous matrix resistive medium. acoustics is the study of volumetrically straining ﬂows. 1968): @ @p 1 @ x @x = + 4 @ @p f 3 1 _: p0 Kf Kf @ x @ x 3 (2. In this case the parameter is the ﬂow resistance. These are proportionality constants between components of the stress and spatial derivatives of the shear strain rate and volumetric strain rate. Nonzero r values for the acoustic medium and nonzero 1=c1 values for the impedances represent damping.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM equation should be factored in the analysis. A propagating plane wave with nominal _ particle velocity uf loses energy at a rate _ E = Procedures 2 3 _ 0 u f 2 : (2. with 2 < ( f ) = 6 ~ 4 1+ 2 Kf Kf 2 0 0 1 + 4 3 7 12 5 f .9.9. @ @p 1 @x @x Kf p.9.9. the pressure drop required to force a unit ﬂow through the porous matrix. however. As mentioned above for the transient case.1–21. The linearized Navier-Stokes equations for adiabatic perturbations about a base state can be expressed in terms of the pressure ﬁeld alone (Morse and Ingard. In ﬂuid mechanics the shear viscosity term is usually more important than the bulk term .1–17 . such as ﬁberglass used for sound deadening. so both constants can be important.

The energy loss rate for a propagating plane wave in this linearized.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM so we can write Kf In steady-state form @ @p 1 @x @x @ @ 0 f @t2 p + ( + 4 )( Kf ) @t3 p = 0: 3 2 3 f (2. = 0pI.1–11 (or alternatively Equation 2. is ~ = 0 1 1 v: ^ I 2 ~ In an acoustic medium the stress tensor is simply the acoustic pressure times the identity tensor.1–30) @ @p 1 f @ x @ x 1 + 2 1 0 i + 4 3 K K2 f f ! p = 0. so this expression simpliﬁes to p ~ ~ = 01 p @ ^ ~@x I ^ " # 2i! ~ : The hats denote complex conjugation. The real part of the intensity is referred to as the “active intensity. In steady-state dynamics the acoustic particle velocity at any ﬁeld point is v @p ~ ~ = i! @ x : ~ The acoustic intensity vector.1–33) Several secondary quantities are useful in acoustic analysis.1–31) where is the forcing frequency.9. (2.9.9. (2. a measure of the rate of ﬂow of energy at a point. small-viscosity case is _ E Acoustic output quantities =0 + 4 3 2 f 2u f 3 2 : _ K f (2.” and the imaginary part is the “reactive intensity.1–18 .1–32) with density constant with respect to frequency.” Impedance and admittance at ﬂuid boundaries Equation 2.1–9) can be written in a complex admittance form for steady-state analysis: 2.9.9.9. adiabatic.9. derived from the fundamental acoustic pressure ﬁeld variable. This leads to the following analogy between viscous ﬂuid losses and volumetric drag or ﬂow resistance: 2 f = Kf 4 + 3 .

as in Equation 2.9. a required complex impedance or admittance value can be entered for a given frequency by ﬁtting to the parameters 1=c1 and 1=k1 using Equation 2.9. For radiation boundaries of simple shapes—such as planes.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM n0 1 (um 0 uf ) = ( _ _ where we deﬁne 1 + i )p = 1 p = 0T (x)(i )01 . spheres.9.9. the complex impedance can be shown to be Procedures pK = rK ( Z ( ) = ~ f f f + i ): (2. The small-drag versions of these equations are used in the direct time integration procedures. to a thickness of 1=3 to a full wavelength. In these cases we model a layer of the acoustic medium using ﬁnite elements. In particular. and Z ( ) is the corresponding complex impedance.1–35) The term 1=Z ( ) is the complex admittance of the boundary. We then impose a condition on this surface to allow the acoustic waves to pass through and not reﬂect back into the computational domain. They are a function of frequency if the volumetric drag is nonzero.1–36) For the impedance-based nonreﬂective boundary condition in ABAQUS/Standard. out to a “radiating” boundary surface.1–20).1–34) 1 1 + i : Z ( ) c1 k1 (2.9. we include local algebraic radiation conditions of the form ~ ~ ~ where k = =Kf is the wave number and is the complex density (see Equation 2. f is a geometric factor related to the metric factors of the curvilinear coordinate system used on the boundary. the equations above are used to determine the required constants 1=c1 and 1=k1.1–42. c k Z ( ) 1 1 (2. and .9. Radiation boundary conditions Many acoustic studies involve a vibrating structure in an inﬁnite domain. For absorption of plane waves in an inﬁnite medium with volumetric drag. and the like—simple impedance boundary conditions can represent good approximations to the exact radiation conditions. Thus.1–35.

for steady-state analysis.9.1–23.9.1–9 reveals that.1–1). is a spreading loss term (see Table 2. with k1 and p n0 1 @p @x ~ = M p = f (ik + . Equation 2.1–37 and Equation 2.9. Comparison of Equation 2. there exists a direct analogy to the reactive boundary equation.9.

9. )p. (2.1–37) 1 = =( Kf ~ pf f.

9.9.1–38) 2. f f (2. ) 0 2 (1 + ( = )2 ) .1–19 .

ACOUSTIC MEDIUM f .

1–40. and p: retaining only @p 1 n0 1 = f p i @ x f " # f K f . In the acoustics equation we use the boundary term @p _ 0n0 1 @ x 1 = n0 1 uf + uf : f f (2.1–39) For transient procedures the treatment of volumetric drag in the acoustic equations and the radiation conditions necessitates an approximation.r=f 1 = <( p f ) + : 2 (1 + ( = )2 ) c1 f Kf ~ f (2.9.1–37 with Equation 2.9. expanding about ﬁrst-order terms leads to = 0.9.1–40) Combining Equation 2.9.

1–41) The Fourier inverse of the steady-state form results in the transient boundary condition @p 1 n0 1 =f p 1 @ x f " # f K f . p+f f " + p 2 f f K f !# (2.9.

9. to implement this expression. we deﬁne the admittance parameters " 1 = pf c 1 # f K f (2. Consequently.1–10).1–42) This expression involves independent coefﬁcients for pressure and its ﬁrst derivative in time. which includes independent coefﬁcients for the ﬁrst and second derivatives of pressure only.1–43) and 1 =f a 1 " . p+f _ f " + p p: 2 f f K f # (2.9.9. unlike the transient reactive boundary expression (Equation 2.

9.1–44) so the boundary traction for the transient radiation boundary condition can be written n0 1 @p 1 @ x f = c1 p + a1 _ 1 1 p: The values of the parameters f and . 2 f f K f # (2. f + p .

9. In the table refers to the eccentricity of the ellipse or spheroid. vary with the geometry of the boundary of the radiating surface of the acoustic medium. and em is the vector that orients the major axis.1–1. or the semimajor axis of the ellipse or spheroid.9. The plane wave condition is the exact impedance for plane waves 2. These algebraic boundary conditions are approximations to the exact impedance of a boundary radiating into an inﬁnite exterior. xg is the vector locating the integration point on the ellipse or spheroid. x0 is the vector locating the center of the ellipse or spheroid. The geometries supported in ABAQUS are summarized in Table 2. r1 refers to the radius of the circle.1–20 . sphere.

9.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM Table 2.1–1 Boundary condition parameters. Geometry Plane Circle or circular cylinder Ellipse or elliptical cylinder Sphere Prolate spheroid f q 1 1 1 1 .

1977).9. for example. The elliptical and prolate spheroidal conditions are based on expansions of elliptical and prolate spheroidal wave functions in the low-eccentricity limit (Grote and Keller. Figure 2. But this is not always the case. Thus we have n0 1 cos =p r f K f p 1 + p p: _ f _ 1 (2. An improvement on radiation boundary conditions for plane waves As already pointed out. we adopt the plane-wave-radiation equation used in Sandler (1998).9.e. while the elliptical condition is asymptotic.9. the radiation boundary conditions derived in the previous section for plane waves are actually based on the presumption that the sound wave impinges on the boundary from an orthogonal direction.1–1 shows a general example for plane waves in which the sound wave direction differs from the boundary normal by an angle of . _ (2.1–41). the circular condition is asymptotically correct for the ﬁrst mode (Bayliss et al.9.. Engquist and Majda. The spherical condition exactly annihilates the ﬁrst Legendre mode of a radiating spherical surface. 1982). This exact description of the geometry is the starting point for many developments of approximate absorbing boundary conditions (see..9.1–21 . 1 _ = C p = cos p. we can obtain an improved radiation boundary condition 2. 1995). i. To consider this situation accurately.1–46) Using the ﬁrst-order expanding approximation to the second term in the square root in the above equation (similar to what we did to reach Equation 2.1–45) C n p ~ ~ _ where C = Kf = is the sound speed with = f + p=p and Cn is the corresponding speed normal n0 1 @p @x @p 1 @ x f to the boundary. the prolate spheroidal condition exactly annihilates the ﬁrst term of its expansion. 1 0 2r 1 1 2 r1 102 02 [(xg 0x0 )1em =r1 ]2 Procedures q 1 r1 1 1 1 0 2 02 [(xg 0x0 )1em =r1 ]2 r1 normally incident to a planar boundary.

1–2). The method described in this section can be used only for direct integration transient dynamics. @x (2.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM s sound wave Cs C n - = C Ö K f r~ ~ r= rf+ rp p .. the use of a small half-step residual tolerance is strongly suggested since in many cases the pressure and its related residual along the radiation boundaries are very weak relative to the @p @n =n 1 @H P P p @x and @p @s =s 1 @H P P p . In addition.1–22 . and three-dimensional geometries.9.9.1–1 A plane wave not normally incident to the boundary. Although in theory the iteration process in ABAQUS/Standard can solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations accurately.1–48) The normal and tangential derivatives @p=@ n and @p=@ s at the integration points can be evaluated using the corresponding element along the radiation boundary surface (see Figure 2. and it cannot be used with steady-state or modal response.e. axisymmetric.1–42 only by a factor of cos for plane waves. Finally. Cn n q boundary Figure 2. In two dimensions the cos can be calculated as @p cos = j @ n j= s 2 2 @p + @p : @n @s (2.9. @p 1 n0 1 @ x f cos =p K f f p+ _ 2 f p : (2.9.9.9. i.9. the method makes the equilibrium equations nonlinear.1–47) It can be found from comparison that this equation differs from Equation 2. as shown in Equation 2.1–48.1–49) 2. it is available for planar. where pP are the nodal pressure values of the element.9.

shock.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Acoustic loads.9.” Section 19. other places in the modeled domain.” Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.1–23 .1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Acoustic medium.4.” Section 12.9.4.1–2 An element along the boundary. and coupled acoustic-structural analysis.” Section 6.ACOUSTIC MEDIUM x element x integration points Procedures boundary Figure 2. The nodal pressures are updated using the explicit central difference procedure described in “Explicit dynamic analysis.5.9. References • “Acoustic. The computation of cos at the integration point is based on the nodal pressures.3.

.

where u is an arbitrary. and " = sym(@ u=@ x). The mechanical equilibrium equation is Z Z Z f 1 u dV. The electrical ﬂux conservation equation is " : " dV = t 1 u dS + Z V q 1 E dV Z Z = S qS ' dS + V qV ' dV.1–2) where q is the electric ﬂux vector. (2.10. scalar ﬁeld (the virtual potential). (2. The elements that are used in this case contain both displacement degrees of freedom and the electric potential as nodal variables. continuous. 2. The basic equations for a piezoelectric linear medium are deﬁned in the following. three alternative forms of the constitutive equations are presented: e-form: ij = Dijkl "kl E 0 e ' Em . where ' is an arbitrary.10. qS is the electric ﬂux per unit area entering the body at a point on def its surface.PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSIS 2.10. and the potential gradient E is known as the electrical ﬁeld. qi = eijk "jk + Dij d-form: ' E "ij = Sijkl kl + dmij Em . Following Ikeda (1990). in which is the density of the body). Equilibrium and ﬂux conservation Procedures The piezoelectric effect is governed by coupled mechanical equilibrium and electric ﬂux conservation equations. qV is the electric ﬂux entering the body per unit volume. ABAQUS/Standard has the capability to perform fully coupled piezoelectric analysis. and vice versa. f is the body force per unit volume in the body (such as the d’Alembert force def " f = 0 u. The electric ﬂux vector q is known as the electrical displacement.1–1) V S V where is the “true” (Cauchy) stress at a point currently at x. t is the traction across a point of the surface of the body.1 PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSIS The piezoelectrical effect is the coupling of stress and electrical ﬁeld in a material: an electrical ﬁeld causes the material to strain. mij ' (" ) ' Ej .1–1 . and = 0@'=@ x. qi = dijk jk + Dij ' ' ( ) Ej .10. These quantities are also known by other terms that are frequently used within electrical engineering references. E Constitutive behavior: material coupling Currently the assumption of linear materials is utilized. continuous vector ﬁeld (the virtual velocity ﬁeld).

mkl ' qi = e' "jk + Dij(") Ej : ijk (2. In these equations the superscript E. at zero electrical displacement. or above a particular property indicates that the property is deﬁned at zero electrical gradient. However. Dijkl are the material stiffnesses. ' Ei = 0gijk jk + (D'( ) )01qj .PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSIS g-form: ' where Sijkl are the material compliances. mkl The constitutive equations in the g-form can also be expressed as ij and = q q ' Dijkl"kl 0 Dijklgmkl qm '( ' ' qi = Dim) gmjk jk + Dij() Ej : These equations can be convenient in interpreting and verifying the results of piezoelectrical analyses. and gijk are ijk ijk ' piezoelectric constants. ij "ij e' mij = E Dijkl d' mkl ' ( ' d' = Dmk ) gkij mij q E Dijkl 0 Dijkl = e' (D'(") )01 e' mn nkl mij ' ' Dij() 0 Dij(") = d' e' ikl jkl In ABAQUS the constitutive equations in the e-form are used: ij = E Dijkl "kl 0 e' Em . d' . the different mechanical and piezoelectrical constants can be expressed in terms of one another. The displacements and electrical potentials are approximated within the element as u = N N uN 2. Kinematics For the piezoelectric elements both displacements and electric potentials exist at the nodal locations. 1990): q ' = Sijkl kl + gmij qm .1–2 .10. and at zero stress. respectively. ". e' . at zero strain. Since all these forms describe the same constitutive relationships.1–3) These are expressed in terms of the piezoelectric stress coefﬁcient matrix e' .10. q. and Dij are the dielectric constants. The following relationships exist among the properties (Ikeda. ABAQUS mkl also allows the input of piezoelectric constants in terms of the piezoelectric strain coefﬁcient matrix d' .

The body forces and charges as well as the surface forces and charges are interpolated in a similar manner. in conjunction with the equilibrium and conservation equations. In geometrically nonlinear analyses these spatial where Bu ' With these approximate ﬁelds and the constitutive properties given above. = Z V BM D' BN dV ' ' 1 MN K'u is the piezoelectric coupling matrix. ' N and BN are the spatial derivatives of NN . System equations E = 0B N 'N . V M (2.1–5) M MN = Z N 1 NN dV is the mass matrix (no inertia terms exist for the electrical ﬂux conservation equation). MN K'' is the dielectric “stiffness” matrix.PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSIS and where N is the array of interpolating functions and uN and 'N are nodal quantities.10.10. the following system of equations is derived in terms of nodal quantities: M MN uN and MN MN + Kuu uN + K'u 'N = P M MN 0 K'' 'N = 0QM . Z MN M: N Kuu = m : u dV u V B D B 1 is the displacement stiffness matrix. = Z V BM e : BN dV ' u 1 PM = Z V NM Pv dV + NM Ps dS + PcM 1 Z S 1 2.1–4) MN K'u uN where (2.1–3 .10. "= and B N uN u Procedures derivatives are deﬁned in the current conﬁguration. is the mass density. The strains and electrical potential gradients are given as N '= N N 'N .

1–4 . and is the piezoelectrical relationship.” Section 6. surface. In these expressions the constitutive properties are speciﬁed in a matrix form where m is the mechanical relationship.6. The unknowns are the nodal displacements and potentials. and concentrated quantities. and QM = Z V NM Qv dV + NM Qs dS + QM c 1 Z S 1 is the electrical charge vector.10. The “load” vectors include the body. D D e Reference • “Piezoelectric analysis. ' is the electrical relationship. Once these are determined. the strains and potential gradients can be computed using the expressions given above.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. The stresses and electrical ﬂux densities are computed by means of constitutive relationships. as shown.PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSIS is the mechanical force vector.

For many cases it is reasonable to assume that the phase change occurs within a known temperature range. d except for latent heat effects at phase changes. For simplicity a Lagrangian description is assumed. which are given separately in terms of solidus and liquidus temperatures (the lower and upper temperature bounds of the phase change range) and the total internal energy associated with the phase change.11. When latent heat is given.1–1 . U is the material time rate of the internal energy.11. constitutive models.11.4. (2.11. and r is the heat supplied externally into the body per unit volume. using the solution-dependent state variable feature in ABAQUS.” Section 2. Constitutive deﬁnition This relationship is usually written in terms of a speciﬁc heat.UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS 2. with surface area S .3.11. ﬁnite element discretization. However. internal energy (including latent heat effects). so “volume” and “surface” mean the volume and surface in the reference conﬁguration. Heat transfer in ﬂowing materials (convection) is discussed in “Convection/diffusion. All such heat transfer mechanisms can be present in a model. called the latent heat. This section describes the basic energy balance. ﬂowing into the body. it is assumed to be in addition to the speciﬁc heat effect (see Figure 2. and quite general convection and radiation boundary conditions. where is the temperature of the material. and q and r do not depend on the strains or displacements of the body. with user subroutine HETVAL.1–1) _ where V is a volume of solid material. and time integration procedures used. boundary conditions. 2.” Section 2. is the density of the material.11. For such cases the user can model the process in considerable detail. Energy balance Procedures The basic energy balance is (Green and Naghdi) Z V _ U dV = Z S q dS + Z V r dV . Radiation heat transfer in cavities is discussed in “Cavity radiation.1–1). q is the heat ﬂux per unit area of the body. which can be speciﬁed by the user. neglecting coupling between mechanical and thermal problems: c ( ) = dU . in some cases it may be necessary to include a kinetic theory for the phase change to model the effect accurately (an example would be the prediction of crystallization in a polymer casting process).1 UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS The ABAQUS/Standard capability for uncoupled heat transfer analysis is intended to model solid body heat conduction with general. temperature-dependent conductivity. It is assumed that the thermal and mechanical problems are uncoupled in the sense that U = U ( ) only.

c (θ) Solidus Figure 2. internal energy θ.1–2 . temperature 2.11. latent heat deﬁnition. θ.UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS U.1–1 Liquidus Speciﬁc heat. temperature c(θ) = dU dθ Area = latent heat Specific heat.11.

where N are nodal temperatures. prescribed volumetric heat ﬂux. t) is the sink temperature. the variational ﬁeld. The cavity radiation formulation in ABAQUS is described in “Cavity radiation.and second-order polynomials in one. = (x.11.11. surface convection: q = h( 0 0). The body is approximated geometrically with ﬁnite elements. and since the N are arbitrarily chosen. so the temperature is interpolated as = N N (x ) N . t) per volume. N = 1 . f where k is the conductivity matrix. Surfaces can also participate in cavity radiation effects.4.1–1. The conductivity Boundary conditions can be speciﬁed as prescribed temperature. or isotropic.1–2. = A ( Procedures 0 Z ) 4 0 ( 0 0 Z ) 4 . orthotropic. Equation 2. is interpolated by the same functions: = N N N : First. t) per area. where h = h(x. Boundary conditions @ = 0k @ x . .1–3 .1–3) where is an arbitrary variational ﬁeld satisfying the essential boundary conditions. two. . t) is the ﬁlm coefﬁcient and 0 = 0 (x. The Galerkin approach assumes that .11.11.11. prescribed surface heat ﬂux. together with the Fourier law.1–3. f is the heat ﬂux. and three dimensions are used for the N N .UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS Heat conduction is assumed to be governed by the Fourier law.11. q = q(x. and k can be fully anisotropic. k = k( ). becomes N Z V _ N N U dV Z + = @N N @x ZV V N N r dV + @ 1 k 1 @ x dV Z Sq N N q dS . where A is the radiation constant (emissivity times the Spatial discretization A variational statement of the energy balance. Equation 2. t). . q = r(x.11. Equation 2. 2. (2. this gives the system of equations 2.” Section 2.1–2) x is position. With these interpolations the variational statement. and radiation: q Stefan-Boltzmann constant) and Z is the absolute zero on the temperature scale used. is obtained directly by the standard Galerkin approach as Z V _ U dV + Z @ V @x @ 1 k 1 @ x dV Z Z = V r dV + sq q dS. (2. .

For < = such operators are only conditionally stable for linear heat transfer problems. First of all.11.11. we choose from one-step operators of the form 0 1 ft+1t ft 0 ft ft+1t t = + (1 12 because of their simplicity in implementation (for example. The method is modiﬁed Newton because the tangent matrix (the Jacobian matrix)—that is. Introducing the operator.1–6 with respect to t+1t —is not formed exactly. has the highest accuracy.11. However. into the energy balance Equation 2. and so choose = . that Of these operators the central difference method.1–5) This operator is chosen for a number of reasons.1–4) This set of equations is the “continuous time description” of the geometric approximation.1–4 gives =1 2 =0 12 =1 1 Z N N (U 0 U )dV + Z @N N 1 k 1 @ dV t+1t t 1t V Z @x V @x Z 0 N N r dV 0 N N q dS = 0: V Sq (2. the rate of change of the left-hand side of N Equation 2.UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS Z V N N U dV _ + = Z @ @N N 1k1 dV @x ZV @ x Z V N N r dV + Sq N N q dS: (2. because ABAQUS is most commonly applied to problems where the solution is sought over very long time periods ). The internal energy term gives a Jacobian contribution: . we use Equation 2. (compared to the stability limit for the explicit form of the operator. form of the operator tends to produce oscillations in the early time solution that are not present in : backward difference.11.11. = .1–5. the backward difference form. Thus. The formation of the terms in this tangent matrix is now described.1–6) This nonlinear system is solved by a modiﬁed Newton method.11. We prefer to work with unconditionally stable methods. no special starting procedures are needed) and well-understood behavior. Time integration ABAQUS/Standard uses the backward difference algorithm: Ut+1t _ = (Ut+1t 0 Ut)(1=1t): )_ + _ 1 (2.

1 Z N N dU .

N M dV : .

1t V d .

and is c + L=(L 0 S ) if L > t+1t > S at the integration point.11.t+1t is the speciﬁc heat. (dU=d)jt+1t 2.1–4 . c(). where L and S are the liquidus and solidus temperatures and L is the latent heat associated with this phase change. outside the latent heat range.

The conductivity term gives a Jacobian contribution: Z V @N N @x 1 k. as the stiffness term dU=d is small outside the solidus-liquidus temperature range and is very stiff inside that rather narrow range. it affects only those problems. Since the modiﬁcation occurs only in cases involving latent heat.UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS In severe latent heat cases this term can result in numerical instabilities. To avoid such instabilities in those cases this term is modiﬁed to a secant term during the early iterations of the solution to a time step.

.

.

t +1 1 t @N M @x dV + Z V @N N @x 1 @k .

.

.

t @ +1 1 t @x @ .

.

t .

since the conductivity usually varies only slowly with temperature. and because the term is not symmetric. This term is omitted unless the unsymmetric solver is chosen. Because of this. +1 t N M dV : The second of these terms is typically small. the surface ﬂux term gives a Jacobian contribution: Z Procedures NN S @q . With ﬁlm and radiation conditions. Prescribed surface ﬂuxes and body ﬂuxes can also be temperature dependent and will then give rise to Jacobian contributions. it is usually more efﬁcient to omit it.

@ .

t .

For ﬁlm conditions. q = h()( 0 ). @ o @q @ = 4A3: . q = A ( 4 0 4 ). o +1 t N M dS: @q while for radiation. o @ = @h ( 0 ) + h.

The modiﬁed Newton method is then 1 1t Z NN V dU . M These terms are included in exactly this form in the Jacobian.

N M dV .

d t+1t .

+ + = Z V Z @N N @x N N 1 k.

in t+1t .i+1 = +1 + c N t t.1–5 .i 0 V @N N @x @ 1 k 1 @ x dV .1–7) N For purely linear systems Equation 2.11. N = iteration number.1–7 is linear in cM and. convergence is rapid. +1 1 @Nx @ t t dV Z S @h @ ( 0 ) + h + 4A3 o N Z V M dS cM N N r dV Z V + . 2.11. Since the method usually is only a minor modiﬁcation of Newton’s method. N with t+1t.11. hence.i Z N N q dS Sq 1 0 1t N N Ut+1t ( 0 U ) dV t (2. so a single equation N solution provides the t+1t .

11.1–6 . whereas the ﬁrst-order elements should be used in nonsmooth cases (with latent heat). This is based on a user-supplied tolerance on the maximum temperature change allowed in a time increment. The second-order elements use conventional Gaussian integration. second-order elements are to be preferred for problems when the solution will be smooth (without latent heat effects). The HEATCAP element is available for modeling lumped heat capacitance at a point. This means that the Jacobian term associated with the internal energy rate is diagonal. Reference 1 • “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis. The associated concentrated ﬁlm and concentrated radiation loading options are speciﬁed by the user.5.UNCOUPLED HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS ABAQUS/Standard uses an automatic (self-adaptive) time stepping algorithm to choose t. Thus. This approach is especially effective when strong latent heat effects are present. and 8-node brick) use a numerical integration rule with the integration stations located at the corners of the element for the heat capacitance terms.” Section 6.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. 4-node quadrilateral. as well as the convergence rate of Equation 2. These loading options are also allowed in coupled temperature-displacement and coupled thermalelectrical analysis. and the increment is adjusted according to this parameter. The ﬁrst-order heat transfer elements (such as 2-node link.1–7 in nonlinear cases.11.

11.” Section 3.2–1 .11. 2) + s3 n(1.1–3. The position of any point in the shell is given by Procedures ( ) 2 2 0 x = xo (1. 2. The temperature interpolation can be written as = N N (1. and are nodal temperature values (at node N .2. (2. Nodal temperature values are stored at a set of points through the thickness (points P below) at each node of the element (nodes N below).SHELL HEAT CONDUCTION 2. and let s3 measure position through the thickness of the shell so that 0h= 0 z0 s3 h= 0 z . For the purpose of numerical integration of the ﬁnite element equations. a 2 2 2 Gauss integration scheme with a 2 2 2 nodal integration scheme for the internal energy and speciﬁc heat term is used for the quadrilateral element DS4 and a 3 2 3 Gauss integration scheme is used for the quadrilateral element DS8. 2 ( ) ( ) NP Z is a piecewise parabolic interpolation. z0 is the offset of the reference surface from the midsurface as discussed in “Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface.11.6. The derivation of this form is discussed in “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis.8. respectively. The basis of the elements is a combination of piecewise quadratic interpolation of temperature through the thickness of the shell and either linear interpolation (in elements DS3 and DS4) or quadratic interpolation (in elements DS6 and DS8) on the reference surface of the shell. respectively. the details of which can be found in “Triangular. The isoparametric interpolation functions for the shell reference surface are identical in form to those used for the solid quadrilateral and triangular elements and can be found in “Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra. 2 be material coordinates of a point in the reference surface of the shell. and wedge elements. 2). point P through the thickness). where h is the thickness of the shell.6.” Section 3.4.” Section 2. with the approximate Jacobian matrix for the Newton method based on V dt+1t dU _ d dV + Z @ V @x 1k1 @d @x dV 0 Z where d is the correction to the temperature solution at time t t. Let 1 .11. and wedge elements. where xo n is the position of a point in the reference surface. tetrahedral. and “Triangular. is an interpolator in the reference surface. The form of these terms for shell heat +1 S @t+1t @q d dS.and six-point integration schemes are used for the triangular elements DS3 and DS6.11.2 SHELL HEAT CONDUCTION This section describes the formulation used in the shell heat conduction elements in ABAQUS/Standard.” Section 3. The basic heat energy balance is Equation 2.6.2.1.2–1) where M P s3 N N 1 . 2)M P (s3)NP . and is the unit normal to the reference surface of the shell. Three. tetrahedral.” Section 3.2.

SHELL HEAT CONDUCTION conduction elements is obtained by introducing the interpolator. in the reference surface @P @P . and neglecting the change in area. of surfaces parallel to the reference surface. to the residual. Z A N N Z _ dU Q M M ds3 N M dA: dt+1t 0h=2 h=2 (s of the shell. and to the Jacobian.2–1. . . s2 . Then we can interpolate to the section by 8 P > > P > @ > < @s1 > P > @ > > : @s2 where 9 > > > > = > > > > . M P is unity in the appropriate locations and zero everywhere else. The internal energy rate term (the ﬁrst term in Equation 2. at each section where integration through the thickness is performed. s3). set up according to the standard convention in ABAQUS for such local systems in shells. Equation 2. with respect to s3 . where s1 and s2 measure distance along local base vectors e1 and e2 . Z A N N Z h=2 0h=2 P M P _ U t+1t ds3 dA. 1. = 8 9 MP . Since the number of temperature values on the section is the same as the number of integration points. The term is formed by ﬁrst introducing an intermediate set of temperature values.1–3) contributes.11.11. @s1 @s2 P For the second term the temperature derivatives are taken with respect to a local orthogonal system corresponding to each temperature value point through the thickness.

8 M > N > > M > 8 M 9 < @N .M .

2–2 . = @s1 > > @N M > > : @s2 8 9 > @ > > > @s > > 1> > > > > < @ > h = P = > @s2 > > > > > @ > > > > > > : .11. @s3 9 > > > > = > > > > . 2. . : The piecewise quadratic interpolation through the thickness then gives 8 P > > P > < i > @ @s1 > P > @ > > : @s2 9 > > > > = > > > > .

SHELL HEAT CONDUCTION where h P i 2 =4 dM P =ds3 3T 2 32 0 0 MP 0 0 MP 5 : 0 3 0 The conductivity term in the Jacobian then is Z A 4 .

N 5 "Z h= 22 0 2 h= P k 3 Q # ds3 8 .

Procedures 9 MQ where [ k ] is the local conductivity matrix and the same term multiplied by t+1t appears in the residual. the external ﬂux terms contribute Z Z N A h= N 2 0 2 h= M r ds3 dA + P Z A N N I A qA + I B qB dA . Finally. M dA.

# 2 3 to the residual and Z " NN A dq .

dq .

IA .

N M dA + I B d .

d

t+1t;A t+1t;B

to the Jacobian, where

IA IA

=1 =0

at point A through the thickness at all other points through the thickness,

**and points A and B are on the top and bottom surfaces of the shell.
**

Reference

• “Three-dimensional conventional shell element library,” Section 15.6.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual

2.11.2–3

CONVECTION/DIFFUSION

2.11.3

CONVECTION/DIFFUSION

The formulation in this section describes a capability for modeling heat transfer with convection in ABAQUS/Standard. The resulting elements can be used in any general heat transfer mesh. These elements have a nonsymmetric Jacobian matrix: the nonsymmetric capability is invoked automatically if elements of this type are included in the model. Both steady-state and transient capabilities are provided. The transient capability introduces a limit on the time increment (the limit is deﬁned below): the time increment is adjusted to satisfy this limit if necessary. The steady-state versions of the elements can be used in a transient analysis, which means that transient effects in the ﬂuid are not included in the model. The formulation is based on the work of Yu and Heinrich (1986, 1987).

Thermal equilibrium equation

Procedures

The thermal equilibrium equation for a continuum in which a ﬂuid is ﬂowing with velocity v, is

Z

c

@

@t

+v

1

@ @x

0 @x 1

@

k

1 @x 0 q

@

Z

dV +

Sq

n k

1 1 @x 0 qs

@

dS = 0;

where (x; t) is the temperature at a point, (x; t) is an arbitrary variational ﬁeld, () is the ﬂuid density, c() is the speciﬁc heat of the ﬂuid, k() is the conductivity of the ﬂuid, q is the heat added per unit volume from external sources, qs is the heat ﬂowing into the volume across the surface on which temperature is not prescribed (Sq ), n is the outward normal to the surface, x is spatial position, and t is time. Although most ﬂuids will have isotropic conductivity, so that k = k I (where k() is a scalar and I is a unit matrix), we provide for anisotropic conductivity to cover such cases as that of ﬂuid ﬂowing through a set of bafﬂe plates whose conductivity is smeared into that of the ﬂuid. The boundary conditions are that (x) is prescribed over some part of the surface, S , and that the heat ﬂux per unit area entering the domain across the rest of the surface, qs (x), is prescribed or is deﬁned by convection and/or radiation conditions. For example, the boundary layer between ﬂuid convection elements and solid elements might be modeled by DINTERx-type elements. The boundary term in the thermal equilibrium equation deﬁnes

qs = @ 0n 1 k 1 @x :

This implies that qs is the ﬂux associated with conduction across the surface only—any convection of energy across the surface is not included in qs. This makes no difference if the surface is part of a solid body (where qs would be deﬁned by heat transfer into the adjacent body), since then the normal velocity into that body, v 1 n, is zero. But it does make a difference when there is ﬂuid crossing the surface, as—for example—on the upstream and downstream boundaries of the mesh. In this case the choice of qs for the natural boundary condition (instead of using the total ﬂux crossing the surface) is desirable because it avoids spurious reﬂections of energy back into the mesh as the ﬂuid ﬂows through the surface.

2.11.3–1

CONVECTION/DIFFUSION

These equations are discretized with respect to position by using ﬁrst-order isoparametric elements. The ﬂuid velocity, v, is assumed to be known. (ABAQUS actually requires that the mass ﬂow rate of the ﬂuid per unit area be deﬁned, because this is generally more convenient for the user. The velocity is computed from the mass ﬂow rate and the density of the ﬂuid.) t from the known solution at time t. The time discretization generates the solution at time t The interpolation for the temperature, , is deﬁned over an element and over a time increment as

+1

(x; t) = N N (x)An (t) (N;n) ;

where the

for

N = 1; 2; . . . ; n = t; t + 1t; An, is linear:

NN

are standard isoparametric functions and the time interpolation,

At = 1 0

where t is the time increment and t. The Petrov-Galerkin discretization proposed by Yu and Heinrich couples this linear interpolation with the weighting functions

1

0

1t

; At+1t =

1

1t ;

= W N N

=

NNA +

h

2

A +

1t dA v 1 @N N N ; 2 dt jvj @x

1 0 1t ; 1t2 v is the average ﬂuid velocity over the element; jvj is its magnitude; and h is a characteristic element length measure, deﬁned below. and

are control parameters. The term in the weighting is introduced to eliminate artiﬁcial diffusion of the solution, while the

**term is introduced to avoid
**

where

A=6

numerical dispersion. Yu and Heinrich show that the optimal choices are

2 = coth 0 2

where

and

=

C

2 0
C; 3 1t :

h

is the local Péclet number in an element and

C is the local Courant number, deﬁned as

= jv jh

c k

and

C = jv j

The above expression for

yields negative values for very small ﬂuid velocities, which may destabilize the solution; hence, for low velocities dispersion control is switched off. The characteristic element length measure, h, is deﬁned by Yu and Heinrich as follows. Let h be the isoparametric line across the element passing through its centroid. The projection of h in the direction of the ﬂuid velocity vector at the element’s centroid is

h = h 1

v jv j :

2.11.3–2

CONVECTION/DIFFUSION

Then we deﬁne

h as

h=

X jh j:

When

is nonzero, these elements require that C for numerical stability. Since the weighting functions are biased (“upwinding”), they are discontinuous from one element to the next. Some care is, therefore, required in manipulating the weak form of the thermal equilibrium equation (see Hughes and Brooks, 1982). In particular, the usual integration by parts of the conduction term

1

can be performed only for the continuous part of the weighting functions used to discretize : otherwise, continuity of heat ﬂux between elements is not assured. For convenience we write the discontinuous part of the weighting as

@ @ 1 k 1 @x @x

Procedures

PN

=h 2

A +

1t dA v 1 @N N : 2 dt jvj @x

N M

Z

The weak form of thermal equilibrium is

W N c N M

M dAn + v 1 @Nx An dt @

+ A @Nx 1 k 1 @Nx @ @

@2N M n A dV @ x@ x Z Z 0 W N q dV 0 A N N qs dS = 0: An 0 P N k :

S

This can be rewritten as

A

for the increment. We use the results

h v @N N M 2 jvj 1 @x N dV Z n c N N + h v 1 @N N v 1 @N M dV + AA 2 jv j @ x @x Z N M Z v @N N M h1t dA dAn n c v 1 @N v 1 @N dV +

4 dt dt c jvj 1 @x N dV + A jv @ x j @x Z @N N @N M h v @N N @2N M 1 k 1 @x 0 2 v 1 k: dV + AAn @x @ x@ x Z v @N N @ 2jN jM @ x 0

h1t dA An jvj 1 @ x k : @ x@ x dV Z Z4 dt Z N N + h v 1 @N N q dV 0 dA

1t v 1 @N N q dV 0 A N N qs dS = 0: 0A 2 jv j @ x dt V 2 jvj @ x V S We now integrate this equation from time t to t +1t to provide an average equilibrium statement c N N +

dAn dt

Z

Z

1t

A dt = 1;

Z dA dt = 0; dt

1t

2.11.3–3

CONVECTION/DIFFUSION

Z

1t

and

+1 A dA

t

t

dt

dt = 0

Z

Z

1t

dA A

dt

t

1 dt = ; 1t

Z

Z

1t

AA +1

t

t

dt =

Z

1t

AAt dt = ;

1 2

Z

dA dAt+1t dA dAt dt = dt = 0; 1t dt dt 1t dt dt

N N M

1 dA t+1t dA t A A dt = 0 ; dt = 0 1t 1t dt 1t dt

Z

M ;t t M;t

to give

**1 Z c N + h v 1 @N N dV 0 +1 0 1 1t Z 2 jv j @ x + 1 c N + h jvj 1 @Nx v 1 @Nx dV 0 +1 + 2 Z 2v @ @
**

N M N M;t t N M M;t t M;t N M N M

M;t

1

0 1 0

h c jv j 1 @Nx v 1 @Nx dV +1 0 4 v @ @ Z Z 2N + 1 @Nx 1 k 1 @Nx dV 0 h jvj 1 @Nx k : @@x@x dV 0 +1 + 2Z @ @ 4 v @ @2N h v @N + .

t M.t t N M M. In both transient and steadystate forms the contribution of such a convective element to the system of equations for the heat transfer model is not symmetric.t 1 0 Z h v @N N + 2 jv j 1 @ x N N q dV 0 Z S N q dS = 0: N s For the steady-state case the third term in this equation is omitted.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. requiring the use of the nonsymmetric matrix storage and solution scheme.11.5.t t M. 4 jvj 1 @x k : @x@x dV 0 +1 0 1 M.3–4 .” Section 6. Reference • “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis.

Only diffuse (nondirectional) reﬂection is considered. is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. in threedimensional cases a facet can be a face of a solid element or a surface of a shell element. Based on the cavity deﬁnition. j . j are the emissivities of facets i.4 CAVITY RADIATION The formulation described in this section provides a capability for modeling heat transfer with cavity thermal radiation (in addition to the radiation boundary conditions described in “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis. Their Jacobian matrix is nonsymmetric: the nonsymmetric solution capability is automatically invoked if cavity radiation calculations are requested in the analysis.5. n). j are the temperatures of facets i. Fij is the geometrical viewfactor matrix. i and Ai is the area of facet i (seeing all cavity facets j = 1. j .11.1). i. cavity radiation elements are created internally by ABAQUS. each facet is assumed to be isothermal and to have a uniform emissivity. Cavities are deﬁned in ABAQUS/Standard as collections of surfaces that are composed of facets. In the special case of blackbody radiation.11.11. i .” Section 2. The geometrical issues associated with the calculation of radiation viewfactors necessary in the formulation are addressed in “Viewfactor calculation. (2. Z is the absolute zero on the temperature scale used. For the purposes of the cavity radiation calculations. In axisymmetric and two-dimensional cases a facet is a side of an element. The theory on which this cavity radiation formulation is based is well-known and can be found in Holman (1990) and Siegel and Howell (1980).CAVITY RADIATION 2. Using these assumptions together with the assumption of isothermal and isoemissive cavity facets. Both steady-state and transient capabilities are provided. Attenuation of the radiation in the cavity medium is not considered.11.4–1 reduces to c qi = i Ai X j j Fij ( j 0 Z ) 4 0 ( i 0 Z )4 : (2. These elements can generate large matrices since they couple the temperature degree of freedom of every node on the cavity surface.11. we can write the radiation ﬂux per unit area into a cavity facet as qi c = i A i j X X j k Fik Ckj 01 ( j 0 Z ) 4 0 ( i 0 Z ) 4 (no summation) . This section describes the formulation of the cavity radiation ﬂux contributions and respective Jacobian for the Newton method used for the solution of the nonlinear radiation problem.4–1 .11. Thermal radiation Procedures Our formulation is based on gray body radiation theory that means that the monochromatic emissivity of the body is independent of the wavelength of propagation of the radiation. where no reﬂection takes place (emissivity equal to one).4–2) 2.” Section 2. and ij is the Kronecker delta.4–1) where Cij = ij 0 0 (1 A i) Fij . Equation 2.11.

4–3) where NiN are the interpolation functions for facet i. Since we assume that for cavity radiation purposes each facet is isothermal.4–4) ! where Rij = Rij 0 X k Rik ij : 2.11. N = 0 N 0 Z 14 .11. we ﬁrst deﬁne temperature radiation power as i = 0 i 0 Z 14 . where the subscript i refers to facet quantities and the superscript N refers to nodal quantities. and Dij = X k 0 Fik Ckj1: This can be rewritten as Qi = X j Rij j . To do so.CAVITY RADIATION Spatial interpolation The variables used to solve the discrete approximation of the heat transfer problem with cavity radiation are the temperatures of the nodes on the cavity surface. Rij = ij Dij . Then.4–2 . The radiation ﬂux into facet i can now be written as NN i Ai i dAi . it is necessary to calculate an average facet temperature radiation power. (2.11. we interpolate the average facet temperature radiation power from the facet nodal temperatures as i = X where N is the number on nodes forming the facet and PiN are nodal contribution factors calculated from area integration as Z PiN 1 =A N PiN N . (2. c Q i = qi A i = where X j Rij (j 0 i ) .

1.” Section 24. Any time variation of the coordinates during the heat transfer analysis is predeﬁned as translational and/or rotational motion and. Reference • “Cavity radiation. PiN Rij PjM : (2.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.4–6) In all practical cases the Jacobian is unsymmetric. Any variation of the emissivities as a function of temperature and predeﬁned ﬁeld variable changes with time is treated explicitly (values at the beginning of the increment are used) and. the only Jacobian contribution is provided by temperature variations.11.4–3 . provides no contribution to the Jacobian. and emissivities at the beginning of the increment. coordinates at the end of the increment. This exact unsymmetric Jacobian is always used when cavity radiation analysis is performed. The Jacobian contribution arising from the cavity radiation ﬂux is then written trivially as J NM = @QM = 4RNM @ N 0 M 0 Z 13 (no summation): (2. Procedures and the total radiation ﬂux at node N is QN = X i QN i = X i PiN Qi : Substituting Equation 2.11.11.4–5) R NM = XX i j c The radiation ﬂux qi is evaluated based on temperatures at the end of the increment.4–4 in the above equation: QN where = X M R NM M . Thus. therefore. therefore. also provides no contribution to the Jacobian.11.4–3 and Equation 2.11. The user can specify the maximum allowable emissivity change during an increment of the heat transfer analysis.CAVITY RADIATION Cavity radiation ﬂux and Jacobian contributions The nodal contributions from the radiation ﬂux on each facet can now be written as QN i = Z Ai c qi NiN dAi = PiN Qi .

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5–1) R2 Ai Aj where R is the distance between the two areas and i. for example.VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION 2.11. This formula applies when the areas Ai and Aj are small compared with the distance R.5–1 would become Z Z A i and Aj . ABAQUS. Johnson (1987). Viewfactor between elementary areas The viewfactor between two elementary areas.5–1 Heat exchange between surfaces by radiation. Procedures Figure 2. so that the Fij = integral of Equation 2. can be generally written as Fij = Ai cosi Aj cosj R2 ij 2. We compute viewfactors in an area-lumped fashion.11.11.11. cosi cosj dAi dAj .11. see.5 VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION Cavity radiation occurs when surfaces of the model can see each other and. The remainder of this section contains a general description of this technology. ABAQUS offers an automatic viewfactor calculation capability for two.5–1 (2. (2. The viewfactor calculation can also be automatically repeated a number of times throughout the analysis history (this is user-controlled) if cavity surfaces are moved in space causing the viewfactors to change.11.and three-dimensional cases as well as for axisymmetric situations. Viewfactor calculation is rather complicated for anything but the most trivial geometries. Such exchange depends on viewfactors that measure the relative interaction between the surfaces composing the cavity. is pleased to acknowledge that the viewfactor calculation technology implemented in ABAQUS was derived from technology originally developed by the Atomic Energy Authority of the United Kingdom.11.11. thus. Inc. exchange heat with each other by radiation (Figure 2..5–1).5–2). This capability can take into account general surface blocking (or shadowing) as well as the most common forms of radiation symmetry.5–2) . j are the angles between R and the normals to the surfaces of the areas (Figure 2.

one can then think of a cavity as a collection of element faces (or facets) corresponding to the ﬁnite element discretization around the cavity.5–2 .5–3) The limit of Equation 2.11. are made up of ﬁnite element faces. in turn. Thus. so it is not well behaved for general surfaces.11. This means that a pair of four-noded faces looking at each other will produce the same viewfactor as a pair of eight-noded faces with corner nodes coinciding with the nodes of the fournoded faces. However. and surfaces. In axisymmetric cases the element faces represent rings so that the viewfactors involve two ring surfaces looking at each other. we use Fij = 4 Ai Aj p 2 atan p Ai cosi atan 2Rij "p Aj cosj 2Rij # (2.and second-order element faces are treated similarly in the sense that the midside nodes of the faces in the second-order elements are ignored. 2.5–3 for large Rij is Equation 2. Equation 2.11. This requires an integration over 2 where it is important to account for “horizon” effects (Johnson.11.and three-dimensional cases the element faces composing cavities can be treated as elementary areas and.In the two.11.5–1 applies.5–2 Schematic of viewfactor calculation. Discretization Cavities are composed of surfaces. For the purpose of viewfactor calculations. ﬁrst. thus. In so far as the viewfactor calculations are concerned.11.VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION dA i φi ni R φj nj dA j Figure 2. this expression is singular in Rij .5–2. 1987).

The problem is made more complex when solid bodies are interposed between radiating surfaces blocking (or shadowing) off some but not all the possible paths along which heat can be radiated from the facets of one surface to the facets of another surface (Figure 2. It is inconceivable that the user could handle this complexity in all but the simplest situations. This is handled automatically and requires that the program calculate which part of the 2 extent of the ring is blocked. For this reason ABAQUS allows the user to guide its blocking algorithm by accepting input of which surfaces cause blocking. Cyclic symmetry creates multiple 2. Periodic symmetry can be used to create multiple images of the model by periodic repetition in twoor three-dimensional space according to a periodic distance vector. Therefore. If a ray between two facets intersects any other facet. This requires that the program check if the ray joining the centers of each pair of facets intersects any other facet. ABAQUS automatically checks if blocking takes place for every possible radiation path in a cavity.11.5–3 Blocking or shadowing example. and cyclic symmetry. In the axisymmetric case blocking is much more complicated since each element face in the ﬁnite element model represents a ring.VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION Radiation blocking Radiation within a cavity implies that every surface exchanges heat with every other surface.11.and three-dimensional cases that ray is eliminated and no radiative heat transfer takes place between the facets. Reﬂection symmetry allows one additional image of the model to be created by reﬂection through a line in two dimensions or reﬂection through a plane in three dimensions. ABAQUS provides capabilities for three different kinds of symmetries: simple reﬂection symmetry. thus signiﬁcantly reducing the computational effort required.5–3). A Procedures surfaces blocked from A Figure 2. Radiation symmetries Use of symmetry can greatly reduce the size of a problem. For cavities with a large number of facets this can be very time consuming. but—in the case of cavity radiation— it requires that special facilities for deﬁnition and handling of symmetries be available. by default. then in the two. periodic symmetry.5–3 .11.

One property that allows us to check the accuracy of the calculation is that for a completely enclosed cavity: 1 Ai X j Fij =1 . The length of ray AB is deﬁned directly in the model.5–4 Reﬂection symmetry example.5–4) indicating that any ray from surface surface in the enclosed cavity.11. where B is the mirror image of B .5–4 . consider the case of a simple reﬂection symmetry in two-dimensional space (Figure 2. To illustrate the handling of symmetries during viewfactor calculation. Viewfactor checking The viewfactor is a purely geometrical quantity.11. j B C B' i A Figure 2. Combinations of the different types of symmetry are supported. In axisymmetric cases symmetry about the axis of symmetry of the model is always implied. Similar logic can be extended to the three-dimensional case. ray AB 0 then has length AC + BC .5–4). and it has some special properties. i in whatever direction it leaves the surface will reach another 2. (2. and the only other symmetries allowed are simple reﬂection through a plane normal to the axis of symmetry or periodic repetition in the direction of the axis of symmetry. The deﬁnition of the length of ray AB 0 requires that point C on the reﬂection symmetry line be located such that AC and BC make equal angles to it. Radiation between facet i (with its centroid at point A) and facet j (with its centroid at point B ) has two contributions: one arising from the ray between points A and B and the other coming from the ray between points A and 0 0 B .11.VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION images of the model by cyclic repetition about a point in two dimensions or by cyclic repetition about an axis in three dimensions.11.

11.11. Radiation to ambient The quantity calculated in Equation 2.” Section 24.11.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Cavity radiation.11. and its value is used to provide a check to control the accuracy of viewfactor calculation. The user can deﬁne such an open cavity by giving the value of the ambient temperature in the cavity deﬁnition. Procedures References • “Thermal contact properties. In this case the difference between one and the quantity calculated in Equation 2.5–4 is calculated for every facet of each cavity.2.VIEWFACTOR CALCULATION The quantity in Equation 2.1.5–4 can deviate from unity so long as the cavity is not fully enclosed.” Section 22.5–5 .5–4 for each facet of the open cavity is considered to be the fraction radiating from that facet to the surrounding medium.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.

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J is the electrical current density (current per unit area). variational. Assuming steady-state direct current. boundary conditions.11. The thermal part of the problem includes all the heat conduction and heat storage (speciﬁc and latent heat) features described in “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis. Governing equations Procedures The electric ﬁeld in a conducting material is governed by Maxwell’s equation of conservation of charge.1 COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS Joule heating arises when the energy dissipated by an electrical current ﬂowing through a conductor is converted into thermal energy.1–1) S V where V is any control volume whose surface is S . electrical potential ﬁeld. and the internal heat generated in the thermal problem is a function of electrical current. '. this provides the pointwise differential equation @x @ 1 J 0 rc = 0 : dV The equivalent weak form is obtained by introducing an arbitrary. Using ﬁrst the chain rule and then the divergence theorem. n is the outward normal to S . The divergence theorem is used to convert the surface integral into a volume integral: J 1 n dS = Z Z V @x @ 1 J 0 rc dV = 0. the surface interaction model. and integrating over the volume: Z V ' @x @ 1 J 0 rc Z S = 0: Z V ' rc dV. the constitutive model.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS 2. (2. and rc is the internal volumetric current source per unit volume. ABAQUS/Standard provides a fully coupled thermal-electrical procedure for analyzing this type of problem.12.) The thermal-electrical elements have both temperature and electrical potential as nodal variables. the equation reduces to Z rc dV. Coupling arises from two sources: the conductivity in the electrical problem is temperature dependent. and the components of the Jacobian used. and since the volume is arbitrary.12. ﬁnite element discretization. (Forced heat convection caused by ﬂuid ﬂowing through the mesh is not considered.1–1 .” Section 2.1. This section describes the governing equilibrium equations.12. this statement can be rewritten as 0 Z V @x @' 1 J dV = ' J dS + 2.

where E (.12. 2. that is.12.12.1–3) The constitutive relation is linear. and r is the heat generated within the body. it assumes that the electrical conductivity is independent of the electrical ﬁeld. Constitutive behavior The ﬂow of electrical current is described by Ohm’s law: J = E 1 E. f ) is the electrical conductivity matrix. 2::: are any predeﬁned ﬁeld variables.1–5 describe the electrical and thermal problems.12. the governing conservation of charge equation becomes Z @' E @' 1 1 @ x dV V @x Z = V ' rc dV Z + S ' J dS: (2. is the temperature. orthotropic. is the density of the material. Equation 2. E = E (). and f .1–2) Since a potential rise occurs when a charged particle moves against the electrical ﬁeld. Ohm’s law is rewritten as J = 0 E 1 @' : @x (2. k is the thermal conductivity matrix. Coupling arises from two sources: the conductivity in the electrical problem is temperature dependent.11.12. = 1. respectively.1–4) Thermal energy balance The heat conduction behavior is described by the basic energy balance relation Z V U dV _ Z + @ @ 1 k 1 @ x dV @x V Z = V r dV Z + S q dS. E(x) is the electrical ﬁeld intensity deﬁned as E = 0 @' : @x (2. (2. with surface area S . Using this deﬁnition of the electrical ﬁeld. ﬂowing into the body.1–5) where V is a volume of solid material. The thermal problem is discussed in detail in “Uncoupled heat transfer analysis.1–4 and Equation 2. or fully anisotropic.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS where J def 0J 1 n = is the current density entering the control volume across S . the direction of the gradient is opposite to that of the electrical ﬁeld. U is the internal energy.1–2 .1.12. and the internal heat generation in the thermal problem is a function of electrical current.12. Introducing Ohm’s law.” Section 2. r = rec (J). q is the heat ﬂux per unit area of the body. The conductivity can be isotropic. as described below.

The amount of this energy released as internal heat is r E 0 E 1 E 1 1E + 1 1E 1 E 1 1E. ' J J x. where is the temperature on the surface of the body under consideration. Prescribed boundary conditions ' x. interface temperature.12. and surface convection and radiation conditions.1–3 . and qr = F B ( B 0 z ) 4 0 F ( 0 z ) 4 . 1 B is the average 2 1 f f is the average of any predeﬁned ﬁeld variables at A and B.12. z is the value of absolute zero temperature on the temperature scale being used. include the electrical potential. x. Pec. t . t . electrical current density.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS Thermal energy due to electrical current Joule’s law describes the rate of electrical energy. t . B is the temperature on the surface of the other body. heat ﬂux. kg . = ( + ) respectively.12. The surface interaction model includes heat conduction and radiation effects between the interface surfaces and electrical current ﬂowing across the interface.f 2 A B and F and FB are constants. q q x. ( ) = ( + ) 2. dissipated by current ﬂowing through a conductor as Pec = E 1 J: Using Equation 2. where v is an energy conversion factor. temperature.1–2 and Equation 2. In a transient analysis an averaged value of Pec 1Z = 1t =E 1 E 1t 1 Pec dt where E and E are values at time t + 1t. f is the gap thermal conductance.1–3. Joule’s law is rewritten as Pec =E 1 E 1 E: Procedures In a steady-state analysis Pec is evaluated at time t Pec is obtained over the increment + 1t. 3 = v Pec. Heat conduction and radiation are modeled by = ( ) = ( ) = ( ) qc = ( ) = k g ( B 0 ). t . Surface conditions The surface—S —of the body consists of parts on which boundary conditions can be prescribed—Sp — and parts that can interact with nearby surfaces of other bodies—Si .

the governing electric and thermal equations become Z V @x and @' 1 E 1 @' dV = @x Z V ' rc dV + Z Sp ' J dS + Z Si ' g ('B 0 ') dS. The virtual electrical potential ﬁeld is interpolated by ' = NN 'N . where ' is the electrical potential on the surface of the body under consideration.2. f ) is the gap electrical conductance. 'N ). Pec = J ('B 0 ' ) = g (' B 0 ' ) 2 . Introducing the surface interaction effects and electrical energy released as thermal energy. (2.1–4 . The discretized quantities represent nodal variables. The electrical energy dissipated by the current ﬂowing across the interface.1–6) Z V _ U dV + + Z Z V @x Sp @ @ 1 k 1 @ x dV Z = Z V r dV + Z V v Pec dV q dS + Si (qc + qr + qec) dS: (2.12. The summation convention is adopted for the superscripts. and is released as heat on the surfaces of the bodies: qec = f g Pec.1–7) Spatial discretization In a ﬁnite element model equilibrium is approximated as a ﬁnite set of equations by introducing interpolation functions.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS The electrical current ﬂowing between the interface surfaces is modeled as J = g (' B 0 ' ). where g is an energy conversion factor and f speciﬁes how the total heat is distributed between the interface surfaces.12. This is described in detail in “Heat generation caused by electrical current. 2. Discretized quantities are indicated by uppercase superscripts (for example. with nodes shared between adjacent elements and appropriate interpolation chosen to provide adequate continuity of the assumed variation.6.” Section 5. 'B is the electrical potential on the surface of the other body. Pec is evaluated at the end of the time increment in a steady-state analysis. and g (. and an averaged value over the time increment is used in a transient analysis. B qec = (1 0 f )g Pec.12.

12.12. Equation 2.1–8) Procedures The temperature ﬁeld in the thermal problem is approximated by the same set of interpolation functions: = NP P : @N P Using these interpolation functions and a backward difference operator to integrate the internal energy rate. and the temperature. at time t This yields +1 KN M = @'' = '' M @I N @I N Z @N N V 1 E 1 @Nx @x @ @N N M dV + Z Si N N g N M dS.12. @ 2 S @ V @x Z Z @I P 1 M KP M = @' = N P v J 0 3 1J 1 @Nx dV + 2 N P f g g ('B 0 ') N M dS.12.1–9) Jacobian contributions The Jacobian contributions are obtained by taking variations of Equation 2.12. Z E 1 @ 1 E N Q dV 0 1 N N @g ('B 0 ') N Q dS. N I' = Z V @N N @ x 1 1 @ x dV 0 E @' N N rc dV 0 Z Sp N J dS 0 Z Si N N g ' B ( 0 ') dS = 0: (2. U . the thermal energy balance relation is obtained: _ P I 0 1Z = 1t Z V V N P Ut+1t ( N P v Pec dV 0 0 Ut ) dV + Z Sp Z @ 1 k 1 @ x dV 0 N P r dV V Z @x V P P N q dS 0 N (qc + qr + qec) dS = 0: Z Si (2.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS where N ' (N Z N are the interpolation functions. '. . ' M @ V S Z Z P P Q P @ 1Z KP Q = @I = 1t N P dU N Q dV + @N 1 k 1 @Nx dV + @N 1 @ k 1 @ x N Q dV Q @ @ @ V @x V @x Z V d @ E @ E 1 1E 1 @E 1 1E N Q dV 0 N P v E 1 @ 1 E 0 E 1 @ 1 1E + 3 @ Z ZV @qr @qec @qc P @q Q P 0 N +@ N dS 0 N @ + @ + @ N Q dS: KN Q = @' = 0 ' Q Z i i Sp Si 2.1–8 and t. The discretized electrical equation is then written as @N N @ V x 1 E 1 @' @ x dV = Z V Z V N N rc dV + N Z Sp N N J dS + Z Si N N g ' B ( 0 ') dS ) : Since ' is arbitrary.1–5 .1–9 with respect to the electrical potential.

requiring the use of the nonsymmetric matrix storage and solution scheme. The Jacobian contributions give rise to an unsymmetric system of equations.12.6.2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.” Section 5.6.” Section 6. Reference K • “Coupled thermal-electrical analysis.COUPLED THERMAL-ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS The term @q=@ in the P Q component includes prescribed surface convection and radiation conditions. The surface interaction terms @qc =@. and @qec =@ are evaluated in “Heat generation caused by electrical current.1–6 . @qr =@.

to allow for nonuniform solubility of the diffusing substance in the base material.13. Sievert’s law is assumed to hold at the interface.MASS DIFFUSION 2. This statement can be rewritten as Z dc V dt + @x @ 1 ( J) 0J1 @ @x dV = 0: Using the divergence theorem again yields 2.13.1–1) V dt S where V is any volume whose surface is S . Using the divergence theorem. The governing equations are an extension of Fick’s equations. This means that when the mesh includes dissimilar materials that share nodes. = c=s.1–1 . scalar ﬁeld. where c is the mass concentration of the diffusing material and s is its solubility in the base material. and n 1 J is the ﬂux of concentration leaving S . the partial pressure is the same on both sides of the interface. such as the diffusion of hydrogen through a metal (Crank (1956). this provides the pointwise equation dc dt + @x @ 1 J = 0: The equivalent weak form is Z V dc dt + @x @ 1 J dV = 0. n is the outward normal to S . deGroot and Mazur (1962)).13. The basic solution variable (used as the degree of freedom at the nodes of the mesh) is the “normalized def concentration” (often referred to as the “activity” of the diffusing material). (2. where is an arbitrary. J is the ﬂux of concentration of the diffusing phase. Since is the square root of the partial pressure of the diffusing phase. the normalized concentration is continuous across the interface between the different materials. Z dc Z Z V dc dt + @x @ 1 J dV = 0: Because the volume is arbitrary. Governing equations Procedures The diffusion problem is deﬁned from the requirement of mass conservation for the diffusing phase: dV + n 1 J dS = 0. suitably continuous.1 MASS DIFFUSION ANALYSIS ABAQUS/Standard provides for the modeling of the transient or steady-state diffusion of one material through another.

p = 0trace( )=3. An example of a particular form of this constitutive model is the assumption made for hydrogen diffusion in a metal: @ J = 0 R(DcZ ) 1 @x . and V H is the partial molar volume of hydrogen in the solid solution.13.13. where 0 is a ﬁxed datum. providing diffusion driven by the def gradient of the equivalent pressure stress. providing diffusion because of the temperature gradient. . is the temperature. data for s and p must be calculated from the equations and p = R ( VH 0 Z ) : Changing variables (c = s) and introducing the constitutive assumption of Equation 2. s(c. which gives the general behavior @p J = 0sD 1 @ + s @@x ln( 0 Z ) + p @x . . and f are any predeﬁned ﬁeld variables. p (c.1–2 yields Z s d dt ds d d dt + V + @ 1 sD 1 @x @ @ x + ( 0 Z ) @ x s @ + p @x @p dV = Z S q dS. R is the universal gas constant. f ) is the pressure stress factor. s(.13. (2.1–2) The diffusion is assumed to be driven by the gradient of a chemical potential. deﬁned as = 0 + R ( 0 Z ) ln + pV H .13. 0 with the chemical potential.1–4) where q = def 0n 1 J 2. f ) is the “Soret effect” factor. This form is similar to that used by Sofronis and McMeeking (1989) and results in a constitutive expression of the form J = 0sD 1 @x + ln @x @ s = ln @ 0 Z1 ln( 0 ) + R ( VH 0 Z ) @ x @p : To implement this particular form. f ) is the solubility. f ) is the diffusivity.1–3 into Equation 2. .1–2 . (2. Z is the absolute zero on the temperature scale used.1–3) @x where D(c.13. .MASS DIFFUSION Z V Constitutive behavior dc dt 0 @x 1 J @ dV + Z S n 1 J dS = 0: (2.13.

Discretized quantities are indicated by uppercase superscripts (for example.1–6) Jacobian contribution The Jacobian contribution from the conservation equation is obtained from the variation of t. where NN (Si) are interpolation functions. the discretized equations are written as s d Z (2.1–5) Time integration in transient problems utilizes the backward Euler method (the modiﬁed CrankNicholson operator). These represent nodal variables. N ).13. 2.13. The summation convention is adopted for the superscripts. Adopting the convention that any quantity not explicitly associated with a point in time is taken at t+1t. The virtual normalized concentration ﬁeld is interpolated by 1 Procedures = NN N . i = .1–6 with respect to at time t @ @ s @p NN 1t d + ds d d + @@N 1 s @D 1 @x + ( 0sZ ) @x + p @x d dt x @ V @d @ NN 1 @ @s d + @p @p d dV: + @x 1 sD 1 @x + ( 0 Z ) @x @ @ x @ N dN . Discretization and time integration Equilibrium in a ﬁnite element model is approximated by a ﬁnite set of equations through the introduction of appropriate interpolation functions. we can drop the subscript t+1t and write the integrated equations as V NN Z N ds @ @p + d d + @@N sD @ + ( 0sZ ) @x + p @x dV = NN q dS: dt dt x @x S 1 1 Z V NN ( 0 t) + ds d + @ NN 1 sD 1 @ + s @ + p @p dV = Z NN q dS: s 1t d dt @x @x ( 0 Z ) @ x @x S (2. Then.1–3 .13. The interpolation is based on material coordinates Si.MASS DIFFUSION is the concentration ﬂux entering the body across S . This yields Equation 2. with nodes shared between adjacent elements and appropriate interpolation chosen to provide adequate continuity of the assumed variation.13. we obtain Rearranging and using the interpolation d = N Z s ds d N NM + d dt NN NM + @@N 1 sD 1 @ @x x V 1t Z N +1 d 2. 3.

the temperature-driven diffusion coefﬁcient. .MASS DIFFUSION @ NN @ +s x 1 @ D @ @ 1 @ x + ( 0 Z ) @ x + p @ x s @ @p + D1 ( 0 Z ) @ x @ 1 @ @ s + @p @p @ x @ M N dV: Inspecting the above equation. D Reference • “Mass diffusion analysis. s .13. p .” Section 6.1–4 . or the pressure-driven diffusion coefﬁcient. we observe that the Jacobian becomes unsymmetric whenever the diffusivity. is deﬁned as a function of concentration.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.8.

and stiffness matrices connect the retained degrees of freedom only. Thus. The substructure must be in a self-equilibriating state when it is made into a substructure (except for reaction forces at prescribed boundary conditions that are applied to internal degrees of freedom in the substructure). damping. whenever it responds as a substructure. its contribution to the virtual work equation for the model of which it is a part is [ ] [ ] fI R g = [M ]fuRg + [C ]fuRg + [K ]f1uRg: _ [ ] W = b uR uE c where f P Rg and f P E g are consistent nodal forces applied to the substructure during its loading as a substructure (they do not include the self-equilibriating preloading of the substructure) and 1 1 1P R 0 K RR 1P E K ER K RR K ER K RE K EE K RE K EE 1uR . the total value of a displacement or stress component at some point within the substructure is Procedures where bLR x c and bLR x c are linear transformations between the retained degrees of freedom of the u substructure and the component of displacement or stress under consideration. C as its reduced damping matrix. we need R to deﬁne its external load vector fP g.1–1 . is considered to be a linear perturbation about the state of the substructure at the time it is made into a substructure.1 SUBSTRUCTURING AND SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS The basic substructuring idea is to consider a “substructure” (a part of the model) separately and eliminate all but the degrees of freedom needed to connect this part to the rest of the model so that the substructure appears in the model as a “substructure”: a collection of ﬁnite elements whose response is deﬁned by the stiffness (and mass) of these retained degrees of freedom denoted by the vector. fuR g. Since the purpose of the substructuring technique is to have the substructure contribute terms only to the retained degrees of freedom. = 0 + bL u 1 We refer to M as the reduced mass matrix for the substructure. displacements u0. as a sum of linear transformations of the retained variables f uRg and their velocities and accelerations: () () = u0 + bLR cf1uR g u R cf1uR g. If the substructure has been loaded to a nonzero state with some of its retained degrees of freedom ﬁxed. fI g. This means that the contribution of the substructure to the overall equilibrium of the model is deﬁned entirely by its linear response.14. Since the response of a substructure is entirely linear. formed from the nonzero substructure load cases applied to the R substructure. and its internal force vector.SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS 2. once it has been reduced to a substructure. In ABAQUS/Standard the response within a substructure. These “reduced” mass. and other state variables h0 when it is made into a substructure. and K as its reduced stiffness.14. Then. these ﬁxities are released at the time the substructure is created and any reaction forces at them converted into concentrated loads that are part of the preload state. the substructure is in equilibrium with stresses 0 . 1 uE [K ] = 2. The reduced stiffness matrix is easily derived when only static response is considered.

Since the internal degrees of freedom in the substructure. This technique is known as Guyan reduction.1–1 is augmented to be f1uE g = [K EE ]01 f1P E g 0 [K ER ]f1uRg + fE gq . the equilibrium equations conjugate to fuE g in the contribution to the virtual work equation given above are complete within the substructure.14. The substructure’s dynamic representation may be improved by retaining additional degrees of freedom not required to connect the substructure to the rest of the model.1–2 . some of the uE can be moved into uR . so that f1P E g 0 [K ER ]f1uRg 0 [K EE ]f1uE g = 0: These equations can be rewritten to deﬁne 1uE as 1 0 f1uE g = [K EE ]01 f1P E g 0 [K ER ]f1uRg : (2. fuE g. therefore. q. W = 4uR5 0(f1P Rg 0 [K RE ][K EE ]01f1P E g) 0 ([K RR] 0 [K RE ][K EE ]01[K ER])f1uRg1: [K ] = [K RR] 0 [K RE ][K EE ]01[K ER]. and the q are the generalized displacements—the magnitudes of the response in these normal modes.1–1 may not be sufﬁcient to deﬁne the dynamic response of the substructure accurately. and generally more effective. so that Equation 2. with the variation and the time derivatives 0 1 fuE g = 0[K EE ]01[K ER ]fuRg + fE gq fuE g = 0[K EE ]01[K ER ]fuR g + fE gq_ _ _ E g = 0[K EE ]01[K ER ]fuRg + fE g q: fu The fE g are the eigenmodes of the substructure. obtained with all retained degrees of freedom constrained. 2. Thus. technique is to augment the response within the substructure by including some generalized degrees of freedom. An additional.SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS is its tangent stiffness matrix. for static analysis the substructure’s reduced stiffness is and the contribution of the substructure load cases applied to the substructure is the load vector fP R g = f1P Rg 0 [K RE ][K EE ]01f1P E g: The static modes deﬁned by Equation 2.14. appear only within the substructure. The simplest such approach is to extract some natural modes from the substructure with all retained degrees of freedom constrained.14. associated with natural modes of the substructure. that is.14.1–1) The substructure’s contribution to the static equilibrium equations is.

fqg is the vector of generalized degrees of freedom. is taken to be the normal to the plane deﬁned by the point to the ﬁrst node. The process is repeated in the current conﬁguration to compute a local system. one can use the original and current positions of two nodes in two-dimensional analyses or three nodes in three-dimensional analyses to compute two rectangular local systems and then the rotation matrix. Ej . _ q _ 1q in which E is the matrix of eigenvectors. unit matrix. i R = 2. Since the substructure exhibits only small deformations. The third direction. The ﬁrst unit direction vector. is its damping matrix. [T ] = 0[K EE ] [K ] [E ] [0] [] Large-rotation substructures Large-rotation substructures require ﬁrst the computation of an equivalent rigid body rotation matrix associated with the substructure’s motion. and R 1P fP g = 1 P E is the nodal force vector in the substructure. uR uE where [M ] = [C ] = M EE M RE C EE C RE M ER M RR C ER C RR Procedures is the substructure’s mass matrix. The rotation matrix i k can then be easily computed as Rij ek Ej . the internal degrees of freedom in this contribution ( uE and its time derivatives) can be transformed to the retained degrees of freedom and the normal mode amplitudes. For example. points from this average 3 .1–3 . in three dimensions ABAQUS/Standard computes a reference (average) point using the 1 three nodes in the original conﬁguration. With the assumed dynamic response within the substructure. is simply the cross-product of the third and ﬁrst directions.SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS The contribution of the substructure to the virtual work equation for the dynamic case is f uR uE g 1P R 0 M RR 1P E M ER M RE M EE uR uE 0 C RR ER C RR K 0 C RE C EE K ER _ _ RE 1uR K K EE 1 uE . Ej . I is a is a null matrix. reducing the system to 1 b uR where q c [T ]T fP g 0 [T ]T [M ][T ] uR q 0 [T ]T [C ][T ] uR 0 [T ]T [K ][T ] 1uR . and [ ] [I0]1 ER [0] .14. ek . Ej 2 three nodes and the second direction.

Fixed direction gravity loading When gravity loading that acts in a ﬁxed direction is deﬁned. Similarly. At the 2. In the rare case when less than three (in threedimensional analyses) valid candidate nodes are retained.1–4 . ABAQUS/Standard will create internally at the generation level a number of load cases (two in two-dimensional analyses and three in threedimensional analyses) corresponding to unit gravity loads in the substructure’s directions. The internal force in the substructure is the rigid body rotated stiffness matrix and u= u is the strain-inducing displacement-rotation vector. For rotational degrees of freedom the total rotation matrix at a node (Rtot ) is the compound rotation between the straininducing rotation matrix and the rigid body rotation hi ^ Rtot = exp R: F = Krot u. For translational degrees of freedom the strain-inducing displacements u at a node can be computed using R R u = x 0 x0 0 R(X 0 X0 ). Krot = RKRT The strain-inducing rotations can thus be written as where can then be easily extracted.SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS ABAQUS/Standard automatically picks the two or three nodes used for the computation of the from the substructure’s retained nodes.14. The second node is chosen to be the retained node farthest apart from the ﬁrst node with the provision that its nodal stiffness is high enough (at least 0. where X and x are the original and current positions of the node and X0 and x0 are the original and current coordinates of an average point (calculated as outlined above). in dynamics the reduced mass (including the coupling between nodal displacements/ rotations and eigenmode contributions) is rigid body rotated before any mass contributions are included in the virtual work associated with the substructure. In most cases only retained nodes with at rotation matrix least all translational degrees of freedom retained can be canditates. For example. To compute internal forces associated with a substructure in large rotations.01% of the stiffness of the ﬁrst node). The third node is picked to be the retained node for which the distance to the line deﬁned by the ﬁrst and second node is maximum (with the same stiffness requirement as for the second node). the matrix is computed directly from the nodal rotations of the stiffest node with all rotational degrees of freedom retained. ABAQUS/Standard computes strain-inducing displacements/rotations by “subtracting” the rigid body motion from the substructure’s nodal displacements/rotations. in three-dimensional analyses the ﬁrst node used for the equivalent rigid body calculation is chosen to be the node with the highest stiffness (largest diagonal value) in the substructure.

1–5 . Thus.SUBSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS usage level the total rotation matrix of the substructure (includes both the user-speciﬁed rotation/ mirroring and the rotation of the substructure in nonlinear geometry analyses) is ﬁrst used to rotate for the gravity load. The internally generated unit load cases are then scaled by the components of and by the appropriate magnitude and amplitude and then added to the external force in the model. the user-speciﬁed directions are back the user-speciﬁed unit direction now expressed in the local (rotating) system associated with the substructure ( = T 1 ).14. R N n n R N Reference • “Substructuring.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Procedures 2.” Section 7.

.

and the appropriate element interpolation functions are used to obtain the values of the degrees of freedom at the driven nodes. For the shell-to-solid case ABAQUS uses two kinds of tolerances to determine the relation between the submodel and the global model. is used to check whether it is valid to extrapolate values from the global model.1. The procedures do not have to be the same for both models.” which the user can specify. It contains. The only information in the global model available to the submodel analysis is the ﬁle output data written during the global model analysis. The response at the boundary of the local region is deﬁned by the solution for the global model and it. The exterior tolerance 2.15. global model onto the nodes on the appropriate parts of the boundary of the submodel. the closest point on the shell midsurface of the global model is determined.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS 2. together with any loads applied to the local region. or they can both use shell elements. A special option is available to use a submodel consisting of solid elements with a global model consisting of shell elements. based on interpolation of the solution from an initial. as shown in Figure 2. The submodel is run as a separate analysis. The method is most useful when it is necessary to obtain an accurate. Interpolation procedure and tolerance checking Procedures In the solid-to-solid case the positions of the submodel boundary nodes (the driven nodes) are determined with respect to the global model. We also check whether the driven nodes of the submodel lie sufﬁciently close to the midsurface of the shell elements in the global model. First. the closest point in the global model is approximated by measuring the distance in the direction normal to a ﬂat approximation to each shell element in the global model. The extrapolation is valid if the distance between the driven nodes and the free surface of the global model falls within the speciﬁed tolerance. Both the global model and the submodel can have nonlinear response and can be analyzed for any sequence of analysis procedures. The user must have requested nodal responses in the area where the submodel boundary is located. An “exterior tolerance. determines the solution in the submodel. To simplify the calculations.1 SUBMODELING ANALYSIS Submodeling is the technique of studying a local part of a model with a reﬁned mesh.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual).1–1. Both the global model and the submodel can use solid elements.” Section 5. This point will subsequently be referred to as the “image node” of the driven node. The material response deﬁned for the submodel may also be different from that deﬁned for the global model.1–1 . the undeformed coordinates of all global model nodes and element information for all elements in the global model (see “Results ﬁle output format. Submodeling can be applied quite generally in ABAQUS. The technique relies on the global model deﬁning this submodel boundary response with sufﬁcient accuracy. detailed solution in the local region and the detailed modeling of that local region has negligible effect on the overall solution.15. by default. The only link between the submodel and the global model is the transfer of the time-dependent values of variables to the relevant boundary nodes (the “driven nodes”) of the submodel.15. A similar check is done along the global model boundaries for the shell-to-shell submodeling case. These responses are used to prescribe boundary conditions at the driven nodes in the submodel. With a few restrictions different element types can be used in the submodel compared to those used to model the corresponding region in the global model.

parameter is used to check if the image node lies within the domain of the global model. global model shell elements t A center zone D shell midsurface shell thickness AI A . it is accepted. and in that case it will not protect 2.driven node image on the shell midsurface solid element submodel mesh Figure 2. If the node is within the half thickness plus the exterior tolerance. Then the distance between the driven node and its image is checked against half of the maximum shell thickness speciﬁed by the user (see Figure 2.15.driven node AI .1–2). This check is only approximate if the global model has varying shell thickness.15.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS interpolated position on shell midsurface global model shell midsurface plane approximation submodel's driven node Figure 2.1–2 .1–2 Center zone in shell-to-solid submodeling.1–1 Flat surface approximation in shell-to-shell submodeling.15.15.

High transverse shear stresses occur only in regions where bending moments vary rapidly. all displacement components are driven. the interpolated values of displacements. For large global models node sets can be created that contain the nodes in the regions around the submodel boundary.15.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS the user in parts of the global model that have a small thickness compared to the maximum thickness speciﬁed by the user. 2.15. For small global models responses will typically be written for all nodes. For geometrically linear analysis these prescribed displacements are obtained from the displacements and rotations of the image node as where A is the prescribed displacement of driven node A.15. see Figure 2.1–1) u For large-displacement analysis ﬁnite rotations must be taken into account. After the locations of the driven nodes (or image nodes for the shell-to-solid case) are determined.1–1 is uA = uAI + (C 0 I) 1 D = uAI + d 0 D. D D = XA 0 XAI : (2.1–2).15. All displacement degrees of freedom are driven when the driven node lies within the center zone. and it is better not to locate the submodel boundary in such regions. temperatures. These must have been written with a sufﬁciently high frequency to obtain accurate values at the driven nodes. The ﬁnite rotation equivalent of Equation 2. The procedure is described in detail below. etc. Driven variables for shell-to-solid submodeling Procedures In the shell-to-solid case the driven degrees of freedom are chosen automatically. All components of displacements. rotations. If the node lies within the center zone (speciﬁed by the user. For these nodes the user can specify the individual degrees of freedom that are driven.1–2) . AI and AI are the interpolated is the vector connecting the image node to displacement and rotation of the image node. are applied directly to the driven nodes. the prescribed values of the driven variables are interpolated from the values written to the ﬁle output for the global model. the size of the center zone is taken as 10% of the maximum shell thickness.1–3 (2. since the shear force at the submodel boundary is only transferred at the driven nodes within the center zone. For solid-to-solid and shell-to-shell submodeling. It is best to locate the submodel boundary in areas of low transverse shear stress in the global model. The center zone should be large enough so that it contains at least one layer of nodes. charges. and the driven node: u uA = uAI + AI 2 D. If the transverse shear stresses at the submodel boundary are high and the submodel is highly reﬁned in the thickness direction.15. this can result in high local stresses. temperatures. By default. only the displacement components parallel to the shell midsurface are driven. depending on the distance between the driven node and the midsurface of the shell. and— for complex steady-state dynamic analysis—the phase angles as well as the amplitudes have to be written for the global model nodes from which the values for the driven nodes will be interpolated. If the node lies outside the center zone.

” Section 1.1–3) D. where t1 and t2 are two (unit) vectors orthogonal to d.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS where is the rotation matrix as deﬁned in “Rotation variables.or large-displacement theory. is the identity tensor. ) ) (2.15. In all cases ABAQUS assumes that the global model and the submodel both use small.15. 3. 2. and is the rotated vector connecting the image node to the driven node in the current conﬁguration: d C I d = C D: 1 For driven nodes outside the center zone only the displacement components parallel to the shell midsurface are driven. and T1 1 1uA T1 1 uAI AI 2 D 0 uA . For the geometrically linear case this leads to the constraints where 1 and 2 are two (unit) vectors orthogonal to geometrically nonlinear case are = = ( ( + + T T T1 uA = T1 uAI T2 1 uA T2 1 uAI 1 1 ( ( = AI 2 D). The equivalent expressions for the t1 1 uA t1 1 uAI d 0 D .15. AI 2 D). 0 A T2 1 uAI AI 2 D 0 uA .1. and Equation 2.15.15. 0 + + ) ) (2. there are several possibilities for the evaluation of the values at driven nodes as follows. t2 1 uA t2 1 uAI d 0 D . General procedure to linear perturbation procedure for large-displacement theory: 1uA uAI d 0 D 0 uA 0 = + (2. and 2. General procedure to linear perturbation procedure for small-displacement theory: 1uA uAI = + AI 2 D 0 uA. 1. uA denotes the base state in the submodel.1–6) 4.15. T2 1 1u 0 outside the center zone.15.1–4 outside the center zone. 0 = = ( ( (2.1–3 is used outside the center zone.1–5) inside the center zone.15. and Equation 2. + + (2.1–7) inside the center zone.1–4 .1–1 is used inside the center zone.1–4) Since the submodeling capability in ABAQUS is quite general and allows the use of different procedure types in both analyses.15.15.3. General procedure to general procedure for large-displacement theory: Equation 2.1–2 is used inside the center zone. General procedure to general procedure for small-displacement theory: Equation 2. In the schemes listed below the ﬁrst procedure type applies to the global analysis and the second to the submodel analysis.

Since the base state is not available.15.15. (2. 0 T2 1 uA = T2 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA) 0 A denotes the base state in the submodel. and (2. u0 6.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS A 1uA = t1 (uAI + d 0 D 0 u0 ). and Procedures (2.15. Linear perturbation procedure to linear perturbation procedure for large-displacement theory: (2.15. Linear perturbation procedure to general procedure for small-displacement theory: uA = 1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA 0 inside the center zone. The approximation will give good results for cases with a small base state rotation ﬁeld in the global analysis.15.1–10) uA = 1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA 0 inside the center zone.15. With the above assumptions cases 5 and 6 are 1uA = 1uAI + 1AI 2 D inside the center zone. where t denotes the tangent vector. Linear perturbation procedure to linear perturbation procedure for small-displacement theory: T1 1 uA = T1 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA).1–15) .1–11) governed by the same equations.1–9) T1 1 uA = T1 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA). T2 1 1uA = T2 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D) 1uA = 1uAI + 1AI 2 D inside the center zone.15. t1 1 1 5. 8. outside the center zone.15. where D is used in place of d0 and T is used for t0 . 0 (2.1–8) A = t 1 (uAI + d 0 D 0 uA) t2 1 1u 2 0 outside the center zone. Since they are not available.1–14) outside the center zone. The exact formulation would require the use of the base state normal vector d0 and the base state tangent vector t0 .1–12) T2 1 uA = T2 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D + uA) 0 outside the center zone. 7. an approximate form is used.15. and 2.1–5 (2. Linear perturbation procedure to general procedure for large-displacement theory: (2. ABAQUS approximates them with the current normal vector d and current tangent vector t. and (2.1–13) T1 1 1uA = T1 1 (1uAI + 1AI 2 D).

The approximation will give good results for cases with a small base state rotation ﬁeld in the global analysis. T2 1uA = T2 (1uAI + 1AI D) 1 1 1 1 2 2 (2.15.SUBMODELING ANALYSIS T1 1uA = T1 (1uAI + 1AI D).1–6 . Since the base state is not available.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.” Section 7. D is used in place of 0 and in place of 0 .15.3.1–16) outside the center zone. t d T Reference • “Submodeling. With the above assumptions cases 7 and 8 are governed by the same equations.

J = 0!0 n H q d0. thus representing the strain energy in an “equivalent elastic material. Moran. it can be related to the stress intensity factors. H = W I 0 1 @u : @x n H q x2 Γ x1 q n Figure 2. ABAQUS/Standard provides a procedure for such evaluations of the J -integral. for elastic-plastic or elastic-viscoplastic material behavior W is deﬁned as the elastic strain energy density plus the plastic dissipation. 2.1–1) 0 where 0 is a contour beginning on the bottom crack surface and ending on the top surface.16. It is related to the energy release associated with crack growth and is a measure of the intensity of deformation at a notch or crack tip.1–1 Contour for evaluation of the J -integral. and Nakamura. and Shih.16.1–1 . even with rather coarse meshes. and is the outward normal to 0. lim Z For elastic material behavior W is the elastic strain energy. If the material response is linear.16.16. especially for nonlinear materials.1 J -INTEGRAL EVALUATION The J -integral is widely accepted as a fracture mechanics parameter for both linear and nonlinear material response.16. Procedures J -integral in two-dimensions In the context of quasi-static analysis the J -integral is deﬁned in two dimensions as 1 1 (2.1–1. 1977.” This implies that the J -integral calculation is suitable only for monotonic loading of elastic-plastic materials. and provides excellent accuracy. The method is particularly attractive because it is simple to use.J-INTEGRAL EVALUATION 2. is a unit vector in is given by the virtual crack extension direction. its accurate numerical evaluation is vital to the practical application of fracture mechanics in design calculations. as shown in Figure 2. 1986). the limit 0 ! 0 indicates that 0 shrinks onto the crack tip. adds little to the cost of the analysis. Because of the importance of the J -integral in the assessment of ﬂaws. based on the virtual crack extension/domain integral methods (Parks.

16. @x (2.16. " @x @x @ @ th is the thermal strain.1–2.1–2 . we rewrite Equation 2. If equilibrium is satisﬁed and W is a function of the mechanical strain—i.16. and t = m 1 is the surface traction on the crack surfaces C+ and C0 . @x (2.16.1–3) 2.e.1–2 Closed contour C + C+ + 0 + C0 encloses a domain A that includes the crack-tip region as 0 ! 0: Using the divergence theorem. Substituting the above two where f is the body force per unit volume and " equations into Equation 2.16.J-INTEGRAL EVALUATION Following Shih et al.1–2) Γ q C+ m n C− A C Figure 2. m = 0n on 0. and m is the outward normal to the domain enclosed by the closed contour. as shown in Figure 2..1–3 gives J =0 Z @ A 1 (H 1 q ) d 0 0 @x Z t 1 @ u 1 q d0 .16. It is worth noting that the domain A includes the crack-tip region as 0 ! 0.1–1 in the form J where =0 I C + C+ +0+ C0 and has the value q = q on 0 and q = 0 on C .16. W = W ("m )—we have " "th "m @W @" @ 1 + f = 0 and @W = @" m : @"x = : @ x 0 @"x . m q is a sufﬁciently smooth weighting function within the region enclosed by the closed contour C+C+ +0+C0 m 1 H 1 q d0 0 Z C+ +C0 t 1 @u 1 q d0. (1986). we convert the closed contour integral into the domain integral C+ +C0 where A is the domain enclosed by the closed contour C + C+ + 0 + C0.

The next contour consists of the ring of elements that share nodes with the elements in the the ﬁrst contour as well as the elements in the ﬁrst contour.1–3 Deﬁnition of local orthogonal Cartesian coordinates at the point s on the crack front.16. Hence. the J -integral deﬁned in this plane can be extended to represent the pointwise energy release rate along the crack front as q J (s) = lim 0!0 0 Z n 1 H 1 q d0 : (2. which is perpendicular to the crack front at s. the crack is in the x1 –x3 plane.J-INTEGRAL EVALUATION J =0 Z H : @q + @x A "th f 1 @ u 0 : @"x @x @ Z 1 q d0 0 C+ +C0 t 1 @u 1 q d0: @x (2.1–3 . Asymptotically. as r ! 0. q Procedures J -integral in three-dimensions The J -integral can be extended to three dimensions by considering a crack with a tangentially continuous front. The ﬁrst contour consists of those elements directly connected to crack-tip nodes. The local direction of virtual crack extension is again given by .16. Different “contours” (domains) are created. These midside nodes are assigned a value between zero and one according to the position of the node on the side of the element. which is perpendicular to the local crack front and lies in the crack plane. is chosen to have a magnitude of zero at the nodes on the outside of the contour and to be one (in the crack direction) at all nodes inside the contour except for the midside nodes (if they exist) in the outer ring of elements. Each subsequent contour is deﬁned by adding the next ring of elements that share nodes with the elements in the previous contour.1–4) To evaluate these integrals.1–3.16.16. the conditions for path independence apply on any contour in the x1–x2 plane. as shown in Figure 2. ABAQUS deﬁnes the domain in terms of rings of elements surrounding the crack tip.16. 2.1–5) x2 (perpendicular to plane of crack) r θ x1 (normal to crack front) x3 (tangent to crack front) s crack front Figure 2.

e. we can rewrite Equation 2.1–4 Surface A = At + Ao + Aends + Acracks encloses a domain volume V that includes the crack-front region as 0 ! 0: 2. It can be seen that A = At + Ao + Aends + Acracks encloses a volume V . This can be done in ABAQUS by deﬁning the surface normals explicitly.16. A weighting function is deﬁned such that it has a magnitude of zero on Ao and = (s) on At .1–4 .1–6) 0!0 At where L denotes the crack front under consideration. n Ao At Acracks Aends V Figure 2.. we ﬁrst convert the surface integral in Equation 2. and is the outward normal to dA.16. J can be calculated by the domain integral method similar to that used in two dimensions. t = m 1 is the surface traction on J =0 I surfaces Aends and the crack surfaces Acracks. (2. outside surface At .16.16.1–4.J-INTEGRAL EVALUATION For a virtual crack advance (s) in the plane of a three-dimensional crack.16.1–7) A Aends +Acracks @ x where m is the outward normal to A (and m = 0n on At ). dA is a surface element on a vanishingly small tubular surface enclosing the crack tip (i. and the crack faces Acracks. (2. the energy release rate is given by (s)n 1 1 dA . dA = dsd0). as shown in Figure 2. it must be made so. On the external surfaces Aends where is not tangential to the surfaces. is assumed to vary smoothly between these values within A. To do so.1–6 as J= Z L J (s)(s) ds = lim Z H q n q q q q q Z m 1 H 1 q dA 0 t 1 @u 1 q dA.16.16. Then.1–6 to a volume integral by introducing a contour surface Ao . external surfaces Aends at the ends of the crack front (the surfaces Aends vanish for the crack whose front forms a closed loop).

16.J-INTEGRAL EVALUATION Using the divergence theorem.1–9) Reference • “Contour integral evaluation. the J -integral value at each node set P along the crack front can be calculated as Procedures JP = JP = Z L N P ds: (2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. where Q = 1 at the node set P and all other Q are zero.1–8) To obtain J (s) at each node set P along the crack front line. (s) is discretized with the same interpolation functions as those used in the ﬁnite elements along the crack front: (s ) = N Q (s ) Q . Finally.1–5 . This expression for (s) is substituted into Equation 2. we obtain J =0 Z V Z "th H : @ q + f 1 @u 0 : @"x 1 q dV 0 @x @x @ Aends +Acracks t 1 @u 1 q dA: @x (2.9.16.1–8.16.16.” Section 7.

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and three dimensions.2 STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR EXTRACTION The stress intensity factors KI . and KIII play an important role in linear elastic fracture mechanics. KII . Furthermore. and shear moduli G1 = E1 =2(1 + 1) and G2 = E2 =2(1 + 2). 1972. 1988. Gao. They characterize the inﬂuence of load or deformation on the magnitude of the crack-tip stress and strain ﬁelds and measure the propensity for crack propagation or the crack driving forces. Suo. KII . isotropic materials is diagonal and the above equation simpliﬁes to K B = 81 KT B01 K. For homogeneous. 1991. J = (KI + KII ) + 2G III E 1 1 J= where 1 0 . Poisson’s ratios 1 and 2.STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR EXTRACTION 2. and Barnett. 2 2 K2 . For an interfacial crack between two dissimilar isotropic materials with Young’s moduli E1 and E2. the stress intensity can be related to the energy release rate (the J -integral) for a linear elastic material through J where = bKI .16. axisymmetry. Abbudi. 1 1 Procedures B where E = E for plane stress and E = E=(10 2) for plane strain. 1990). Barnett and Asaro. KIII cT and is called the pre-logarithmic energy factor matrix (Shih and Asaro.

and = (3 0 )=(1 + ) for plane stress. whose physical meaning can be understood from the interface traction expressions: (KI + iKII )ri" KIII p (22 + i12)=0 = . axisymmetry. .2 E3 2 2 (KI + KII ) + 1 K2 . Unlike their analogues in a homogeneous material. and three dimensions. 2r 2r where r and are polar coordinates centered at the crack tip. = + 2 E1 E2 G3 2 G1 G2 G ( 0 1) 0 G2(1 0 1) . They are simply the real and imaginary parts of a complex stress intensity factor. 2G3 III E3 1 = and = 3 0 4 for plane strain. (23 )=0 = p . KI and KII are no longer the pure Mode I and Mode II stress intensity factors for an interfacial crack. The bimaterial constant " is deﬁned as 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + .

= 1 2 G1(2 + 1) + G2(1 + 1) "= 10.

1 ln : 2 1 + .

In this section we describe an interaction integral method (Shih and Asaro.2–1 .16. 2. The method is applicable to cracks in isotropic and anisotropic linear materials. 1988) to extract the individual stress intensity factors for a crack under mixed-mode loading.

STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR EXTRACTION Interaction integral method In general. pure Mode I. the interaction integral can be k 0 0 0 I I I Jint = Jtot 0 J 0 Jaux = I (B111 KI + B121 KII + B131 KIII ): 4 If the calculations are repeated for Mode II and Mode III . III correspond to 1. 2. a linear system of equations results: k 01 Jint = B. crack-tip ﬁeld with stress intensity factor kI . 3 when indicating the components of B . We deﬁne the J -integral for an auxiliary. the J -integral for a given problem can be written as J= 1 0 0 [K B 01K + 2KI B121 KII + 2KI B131 KIII 8 I 11 I + (terms not involving KI )]: where I. as I Jaux = 1 k 1 B 01 1 k : 8 I 11 I Superimposing the auxiliary ﬁeld onto the actual ﬁeld yields I Jtot = 1 0 0 [(K + k )B 01 (K + k ) + 2(KI + kI )B121 KII + 2(KI + kI )B131 KIII 8 I I 11 I I + (terms not involving KI or kI )]: Since the terms not involving deﬁned as KI I or kI in Jtot and J are equal. II.

K.

and Mode III crack-tip ﬁelds for = I. . beginning on the bottom crack surface and ending on the top surface (see Figure 2. I II III where int = bJint. (no sum on = I. the interaction integrals Jint can be expressed as Jint = lim 0! 0 J Z with M given as 0 n 1 M 1 q d0 @u 0 1 @ u : @ x aux aux @ x M = : " I 0 1 aux aux represents three auxiliary pure Mode I. 4 If the k are assigned unit values. Jint. Mode II. II.2–1). respectively.16. III ). Jint cT . Based on the deﬁnition of the J -integral. 0 is a contour that lies in the normal plane at position s along the crack The subscript front.2–2 . III . II. The limit 0 ! 0 indicates that 0 shrinks onto the crack tip. The calculation of this integral is discussed next. 2. the solution of the above equations leads to K = 4B 1 Jint .16.

Finally. The integral Jint can be calculated by the same domain integral method as that used for calculating the J -integral. dA = dsd0). The result is substituted into the expression for Jint. To obtain Jint at each node set P along the crack front line.” Section 7.2–3 .16.STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR EXTRACTION x2 (perpendicular to plane of crack) r θ x1 (normal to crack front) x3 (tangent to crack front) s crack front Procedures Figure 2.. Following the domain integral procedure used in ABAQUS/Standard for calculating the J -integral. we deﬁne an interaction integral for a virtual crack advance (s): Jint = Z L Jint(s)(s) ds = Z A (s ) n 1 M qdA . 1 where L denotes the crack front under consideration. the interaction integral value at each node set P along the crack front Z can be calculated as P P Jint = Jint = L N P ds: Reference • “Contour integral evaluation.9.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. is the outward normal to dA.e.2–1 Deﬁnition of local orthogonal Cartesian coordinates at the point s on the crack front. and is the local direction of virtual crack propagation. the crack is in the x1 –x3 plane.16. where Q = 1 at the node set P and all other Q are zero. dA is a surface element on a vanishingly small tubular surface enclosing the crack tip (i. is discretized with the same interpolation functions as those used in the ﬁnite elements along the crack front: n q (s ) = N Q (s ) Q .

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even though the T stress is calculated from the linear elastic material properties of the same solid containing the crack.T-STRESS EXTRACTION 2. Rice and Rosengren. It was found that when the tensile stress triaxiality is high. the more negative the T -stress becomes. 1991. the crack-tip ﬁeld can be described adequately by the HRR solution (Hutchinson.” Section 2. whereas the path will be unstable and.3–1 . Thus. not only in linear elastic crack analysis but also in elastic-plastic fracture studies. 1968). 1991. a straight crack path has been shown to be stable when T < 0. and Ortiz (1994). Al-Ani and Hancock. The T -stress represents a stress parallel to the crack faces. Parks. Betegón and Hancock.16. Some recent investigations (Bilby et al. For small amounts of crack growth under Mode I loading.3 T -STRESS EXTRACTION The asymptotic expansion of the stress ﬁeld near a sharp crack in a linear elastic body with respect to r. 1980). 1991. 1986. 1968. 1992. and Wang.) The T -stress also plays an important role in elastic-plastic fracture analysis. Bower.4. In plane strain "33 = 0. is ij = pKI 2r I fij () + K KIII III II p2II fij () + p2r fij () + T 1i1j + (T + E"33)3i3j + O(r1=2) r (Williams. that is. will deviate from being straight when T > 0 (Cotterell and Rice. the distance from the crack tip.. The important feature observed in these works is that a negative T -stress can reduce the magnitude of the tensile stress triaxiality (also called the hydrostatic tensile stress) ahead of a crack tip. The T -stress usually arises in the discussions of crack stability and kinking for linear elastic materials. therefore. using the T -stress (calculated based on the load level and linear elastic material properties) to characterize the triaxiality of the crack-tip stress state and using the J -integral (calculated based on the actual elastic-plastic deformation ﬁeld) to measure the scale of the Procedures 2. and J -dominance will be lost (the asymptotic ﬁelds around the crack tip cannot be well characterized by the HRR ﬁelds). (The direction of crack initiation can be otherwise predicted using the criteria discussed in “Prediction of the direction of crack propagation. When the tensile stress triaxiality is reduced (indicated by the T -stress becoming more negative). in plane stress the term (T + "33)3i 3j vanishes. and the 3-axis lies tangential to the crack front. a positive T -stress results only in modest elevation of the stress triaxiality. "33 is the extensional strain along the crack front.16. A similar trend has been found in three-dimensional crack propagation studies by Xu. The early study of Larsson and Carlsson (1973) demonstrated that the T -stress can have a signiﬁcant effect on the plastic zone size and shape and that the small plastic zones in actual specimens can be predicted adequately by including the T -stress as a second crack-tip parameter. The local axes are deﬁned so that the 1-axis lies in the plane of the crack at the point of interest on the crack front and is perpendicular to the crack front at this point. Hutchinson and Suo (1992) also showed how the advancing crack path is inﬂuenced by the T -stress once cracking initiates under mixed-mode loading. 1957).16. Du and Hancock. 1991) further indicate that the T -stress can correlate well with the tensile stress triaxiality of elastic-plastic crack-tip ﬁelds. J -dominance will exist. where r and are the in-plane polar coordinates centered at the crack tip. the crack-tip ﬁelds will quickly deviate from the HRR solution. In contrast. the greater the reduction of tensile stress triaxiality. which is indicated by a positive T -stress. the 2-axis is normal to the plane of the crack (and thus is perpendicular to the crack front). scaled by a single parameter: the J -integral. It is a useful quantity.

” Section 7. The interaction integral used is exactly the same as that for extracting the stress intensity factors: Iint = lim Z 0!0 0 n 1 M 1 q d0 . T aux 0 L 1 @u : aux @ x i . axisymmetry. =E h 0 Iint(s) 0 "33(s) f where E = E for plane stress and E = E=(1 0 2) for plane strain. applied in the plane of crack propagation and along the crack line: L 11 f = r cos3 . Iint(s) can be calculated by means of the same domain integral method used for J -integral calculation and the stress intensity factor extraction.3–2 . To extract the T -stress.16.16. Reference • “Contour integral evaluation.T-STRESS EXTRACTION crack-tip deformation provides a two-parameter fracture mechanics theory to describe the Mode I elasticplastic crack-tip stresses and deformation in plane strain or three dimensions accurately over a wide range of crack conﬁgurations and loadings. "33 is zero for plane strain and plane stress. and “Stress intensity factor extraction. using the local asymptotic ﬁelds. with magnitude f .16.9.1.” Section 2.2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. with M as M = : "L I 0 1 aux L @u @x In the limit as r ! 0. L 22 = f r cos sin2 .” Section 2. which has been described in “J -integral evaluation. L = 23 = 0: L The term 33 = 0 for plane stress. L 33 = f r cos . and three dimensions. we use an auxiliary solution of a line load. L 13 L 12 = f r sin cos2 .

isotropic linear elastic material is given by = r = p1 p 2r 1 2r cos cos 1 2 1 2 (KI cos2 1 2 0 3 KII sin ).e. 1982). 2. and Hussain. 1973). Maximum tangential stress criterion Procedures The near-crack-tip stress ﬁeld for a homogeneous. i. In ABAQUS/Standard we provide three criteria for homogeneous. 1980). since a generally accepted 6 theory for crack propagation with KIII = 0 remains to be developed. 1978. 2 0 1)]. the maximum energy release rate criterion. Among these criteria are the maximum tangential stress criterion (Erdogan and Sih. but they all have the implication that KII = 0 at the crack tip as the crack extends (Cotterell and Rice. and the T-criterion (Theocaris. the stress intensity factors existing prior to kinking for the parent crack: k KII = c21KI + c22 KII : ^ The -dependences of the coefﬁcients cij are given by Hayashi and Nemat-Nasser (1981) and by He and Hutchinson (1989).16.4 PREDICTION OF THE DIRECTION OF CRACK PROPAGATION Various criteria have been proposed to predict the angle at which a pre-existing crack will propagate. The direction of crack propagation can be obtained using either the condition @ =@ = 0 or r = 0. as shown in Figure 2.. 1983). the stress intensity factors KI and KII at the tip of the putative crack can be expressed as linear combinations of KI and KII .16. KIII is not taken into account in what follows. II > 0. When a is inﬁnitesimally small compared with all other geometric lengths (including k k the length of the parent crack).4–1 . 1963). and the KII = 0 criterion. Pu.CRACK PROPAGATION DIRECTION 2. while II < 0. the maximum energy release rate criterion (Palaniswamy and Knauss. and Underwood.16.4–1. ^ ^ where the crack propagation angle is measured with respect to the crack plane. These criteria predict slightly different angles for the initial crack propagation. isotropic linear elastic materials: the maximum tangential stress criterion. [KI sin + KII (3 cos where r and are polar coordinates centered at the crack tip in a plane orthogonal to the crack front. the maximum principal stress criterion (Maiti and Smith. = 0 represents ^ < 0 if K ^ > 0 if K the crack propagation in the “straight-ahead” direction. Maximum energy release rate criterion ^ Consider a crack segment of length a kinking out the plane of the crack at an angle . 1974). ! p ^ = cos01 2 3KII + 2 2 KI + 9KII 4 2 2 KI + 8KI KII . the minimum elastic energy density criterion (Sih. k KI = c11KI + c12 KII .

16. It can be seen from Figure 2.4–2 . KII = 0 criterion k This criterion simply postulates that a crack will initially propagate in the direction that makes KII = 0. Reference • “Contour integral evaluation.4–1 that the maximum energy release rate criterion and the KII = 0 criterion predict nearly coincident crack propagation angles.4–1 Contour for evaluation of the J -integral.” Section 7.9.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2. By comparison.16.CRACK PROPAGATION DIRECTION KII0 MERR MTS θ a θ tan-1(Kll/Kl) Figure 2.16. the maximum tangential stress criterion predicts smaller crack propagation angles. For the crack segment we also have the relation 1 k k2 k 2 G = (KI + KII ): E The maximum energy release rate criterion postulates that the parent crack initially propagates in the direction that maximizes Gk .

17. 1973). equal to the total stress minus the membrane stress. Peak stress The portion of the normal stress that exists after the membrane and bending stresses are subtracted from the total stress. and integration is performed numerically using the extracted stress values. the computational methods used by ABAQUS are discussed here. This orientation minimizes problems with shear stresses since they will be approximately zero at the ends of the line (Kroenke. See Chapter 36.” of the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual for detailed information on how to obtain linearized stresses.1–1 . Procedures Computing the stress components Linearized stress components are computed using user-deﬁned sections traversing a ﬁnite element model structure. The capability for calculating linearized stresses is available in the Visualization module of ABAQUS/CAE.17. Three-dimensional structures The membrane values of the stress components are computed using the following equation: where m = 1 t=2 Z t 0t=2 dx. linear bending. m is the membrane value of stress. Membrane. the endpoints of the section should be chosen so that the section is normal to the interior and exterior surfaces of the model. where no peak stresses exist. and peak stress values are computed. “Calculating linearized stresses.STRESS LINEARIZATION 2. 2. bending. Stress values are extracted at regular intervals along the deﬁned section. and nonlinearly varying peak stresses.1 STRESS LINEARIZATION Stress linearization is the separation of stresses through a section into constant membrane. These stresses are deﬁned as follows: Membrane stress The constant portion of the normal stress such that a pure moment acts on a plane after the membrane stress is subtracted from the total stress. For the best results. it is most commonly used for two-dimensional axisymmetric models. Bending stress The variable portion of the normal stress equal to the equivalent linear stress or.

17. Assuming the path between point A and point B is divided uniformly into n intervals. The integration is performed numerically. the integrals are evaluated as follows: m = 1 2n X n j =1 ( j + j +1 ) 2.17. is the stress along the path.1–2 . and x is the coordinate along the path. see Figure 2. nonrecommended stress path F 2 1 Local coordinate system for AB B axis of symmetry E A ρ = 20 2 recommended stress paths ρ= C Local coordinate system for CD 1 D midplane Figure 2. t The linear bending values of the stress components are computed using the following equations: b B =0 b A = t2 6 t=2 Z 0t=2 xdx.17.STRESS LINEARIZATION is the thickness of the section.1–1). where b and b are the bending values of the stress at point A and point B (the endpoints of the A B section.1–1 Recommended stress paths.

except for the fact that the neutral axis is shifted radially outward. 2.1–3 . In ABAQUS/CAE these are represented as local directions 1.1–2 Meridional stress Stress directions. Rc 2 is the stress in the meridional direction.17. and hoop directions. Axisymmetric structures The derivation of the above equations is similar for the axisymmetric case. R is the radius of the point being integrated. The meridional stresses are computed using the following relations. 2 2.17.1–2). meridional. The meridional force per unit circumferential length is F2 = where Z2 t= 0t=2 2 R dx. respectively (see Figure 2. and Rc = 1 (RA + RB ) is the mean circumferential radius. and 3.17. where j is the stress at point j along the path. Separate expressions are obtained for the stresses in the thickness. Procedures meridional direction 2 thickness direction 1 hoop direction 3 Figure 2.STRESS LINEARIZATION and b = 0 A 3 nt j =1 X n ( j xj + j +1 xj +1 ).

12 1 Rc where is the angle between the thickness direction and the radial direction. To compute the meridional bending stresses.1–4 . That distance. I2 n b 2B = M 2 (x B 0 x 2 ) : I2 The numerical scheme used to compute the meridional bending moment is M2 = t X 2j Rj (xj 0 x2) + 2(j +1)Rj +1(xj +10x2 ) : 2nRc j =1 2.STRESS LINEARIZATION m The meridional membrane stress 2 is obtained by dividing F2 through the thickness: m 2 = F2 t = 1 t=2 Z t 0t=2 2 R dx: Rc The numerical scheme used to compute the meridional membrane stress is m 2 = 1 2nRc X n j =1 ( 2j R j + 2(j+1) Rj +1). we ﬁrst need to compute the distance from the center surface to the neutral surface for meridional bending.17. is equal to x2 = t2 1 cos . c and the moment of inertia for meridional bending is given by I2 = t= Z2 0t=2 (x 1 R 0 x2)2 R dx = 12 t3 0 x2t2 : c Hence. the meridional bending stresses at the end points A and B are obtained with b 2A = M 2 (x A 0 x 2 ) . where 2j is the meridional stress component at point j along the path and Rj is the radius at point j along the path. The meridional bending moment per unit circumferential length is deﬁned as M2 = t= Z2 0t=2 (x R 0 x2 )2 R dx. x2.

and the bending moment is computed with the summation M3 = t X 3(j )( + xj )(xj 2n 0 x3) + 3(j +1)( + xj +1)(xj +1 0x3) : 2. I3 x3 = b 3B = M 3 (x B 0 x 3 ) .STRESS LINEARIZATION Hoop stress m The hoop membrane stress 3 is obtained with m 3 = F3 t = 1 t= Z2 t 0t=2 3 1+ x dx. and I3 t= Z2 = 0t=2 (x 0 x3 ) 2 x dx = 1 3 t 12 0 x2 t 3 is the moment of inertia for circumferential bending. I3 where t2 12 is the distance from the center surface to the neutral surface for hoop bending.1–5 .17. The numerical scheme to compute the circumferential membrane stress is 3 m = 1 2n n X j =1 3(j ) ( + xj ) + 3(j+1) ( + xj +1) . t= Z2 = M3 0t=2 (x 0 x 3 ) 3 1+ 1+ x dx is the hoop bending moment per unit meridional length. The hoop bending stresses at the end points are obtained using the relations b 3A = M 3 (x A 0 x 3 ) . Procedures where 3 is the hoop stress and is the radius of curvature of the mid-surface of the section in the meridional plane.

since the thickness surface stresses are determined by the applied pressure and should not have a strong “peak” stress contribution.1–6 . This seems a reasonable assumption. Hence. we choose the thickness “membrane” stress as the average thickness stress: m 1 =t 1 t= Z2 0t=2 1dx = 1 2n X n j=1 (1(j ) + 1(j +1) ): We choose the thickness “bending” stress such that the sum of the thickness membrane and bending stresses at the end points A and B is equal to the total stress at these points: b m 1A = 1A 0 1 . The numerical scheme used to compute the membrane shear stress is shown below: 21 = m 1 2nRc n X j =1 21(j )Rj + 21(j +1)Rj +1 : Computing the local coordinate system Stress linearization requires the results to be transformed from the global coordinate system to a local coordinate system deﬁned by the stress line.STRESS LINEARIZATION Thickness stress The thickness stress does not transfer any forces or moments. Rc where 21 is the shear stress along the path. 2. and there is no obvious preferred method for determining “membrane” and “bending” stresses. Hence. the stress arises due to applied external pressures and thermal expansion effects. and interpolate the bending stress linearly between these values.17. b 1B = m 1B 0 1 . the bending shear stresses are set to 0. The shear stress distribution is assumed to be parabolic and equal to zero at the ends. Typically. Shear stress The membrane shear stress in the meridional plane is computed in the same way as the meridional membrane stress: 21 = m 1 t= Z2 t 0t=2 21 R dx.0.

The transformation matrix in this case will be 2 cos 4 0 sin 0 sin 0 3 cos 0 5 : 0 1 Procedures Three-dimensional case When performing three-dimensional stress linearization.1–7 . the above three vectors can be combined to create the transformation matrix.STRESS LINEARIZATION Axisymmetric case The computation of the local coordinate system is a trivial procedure when performed for axisymmetric stress linearization. Y2 . “Calculating linearized stresses.and z -axes are computed by a series of cross-products.17. The local y. Z2 ) is 2 1 X 3 2 X2 0 X 1 3 x = 4 1 Y 5 = 4 Y2 0 Y 1 5 : 1Z z Z2 0 Z1 Assuming the local y-axis lies in the plane of the local x-axis and the global Y -axis. Y1 . The vector between points (X1 . the local x-axis will be deﬁned by the stress line. Z1 ) and (X2 . the local z -axis is deﬁned by 3 2 1Z = 4 0 5: 01X Therefore. This procedure is shown below. Reference • Chapter 36.” of the ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual 2. the local y-axis will be y = z2x 3 2 1X 1Y = 4 01Z 1Z 0 1X 1X 5 : 1Y 1Z After normalization.

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Sensitivity of a response r with respect to design parameter hp is deﬁned as r = r uN (hp ).e. be a function of design parameters hp . respectively. DSA provides derivatives of certain response quantities with respect to speciﬁed input quantities. . The dependence uN (hp ) is only implicit.DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 2.18. At the end of each section an alternative numerical approach based on this theory is discussed. where the current state of the problem depends only on the total displacements. .” Section 2. . . The total displacement formulation is intended for historyindependent problems.1–1 (2.1–1) All but one quantity in the above equation can be determined explicitly given the equilibrium solution. Assume that we have solved an equilibrium problem deﬁned by Equation 2. p = 1.1).1–2 in the form F N (u M ) = 0 . Let each response r . R. Quantities that are functions of design parameters are referred to as being design dependent. Rewrite Equation 2. to compute it. it is implied only by the design dependence of coefﬁcients in the equilibrium equation system whose solution is uN . where the current state of the problem depends on the state at the beginning of the increment and the incremental displacements.1 DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ABAQUS/Design supports design sensitivity analysis (DSA) for static stress and frequency problems. the speciﬁed input quantities are known as design parameters. an additional system of equations has to be solved.1–2) . .1–2 at the end of an increment and that we have the converged solution uN as well as values of all responses.. DSA for static stress analysis Procedures The equations pertaining to DSA can be derived based on a total displacement formulation or an incremental displacement formulation. . The only unknown is duN =dhp. hp : 0 1 dr dhp = @r @hp + @r duN : @uN dhp (2.18. P and depend on them both explicitly and via the displacement ﬁeld represented here by the nodal displacement vector uN (see the deﬁnition of ﬁnite element interpolation in “Procedures: overview and basic equations. Total displacement DSA formulation for nonlinear equilibrium problems Let R and P be the numbers of design responses and design parameters. These derivatives are known as sensitivities.1.18. i. r = 1.1. 2. The DSA theory is presented from the perspective of computing the required derivatives analytically. ﬁrst for static stress analysis and then for frequency analysis. . The responses available for DSA are a subset of the list of ABAQUS output variables and are known as design responses. The incremental formulation is intended for history-dependent problems.1. .18.

Differentiation of the above two equations with respect to design parameters leads to the following equation: FN =0 Z .DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS where V0 All the quantities in the above equation are assumed to depend on design parameters hp explicitly or via displacement ﬁeld uN .

N : c dV 0 + Z NT 1 t dS + NT 1 f dV : S N V N M Z KMN in which duN dhp = 0 @F p @h = @F N @u M . Substituting Equation 2. The coefﬁcient matrix KMN used in the DSA computations is simply the last tangent stiffness matrix used in the equilibrium iterative algorithm. 1uN (hp ). uN : 0 1 1 F N = F N t(hp ). After the converged equilibrium solution is obtained. 1uN (hp ). The ﬁnal DSA solution is obtained by solving the system of Equation 2.1–2 . hp . however. Rather.18. This makes the DSA module a very efﬁcient add-on to the equilibrium analysis enabling sensitivity computations at a relatively low cost. we obtain KMN dr dhp r @r 01 = @p 0 @uN KNM @F p @h @h M . the discussion is not relevant to a large number of nonlinear mechanical problems.18.1–1. @F M =@hp is often called the pseudoload since it becomes the right-hand side of the DSA problem.1–4) which is the solution of the total displacement DSA problem.1–4 and @F M =@hp is an explicitly determinable quantity. .1–2 or to deﬁne design responses do not lend themselves to be expressed as functions of total displacement uN . At the stage of the DSA computations this matrix is still available in the decomposed form and can be retrieved easily to perform the back substitutions for the DSA right-hand-side vectors. @r =@uM .18. the three arrays @r =@hp . 0 1 r = r t(hp ). due to some simpliﬁcations.18. = 1 .18. 2. The main difﬁculty in such problems is that many quantities necessary to compute the residual F N in Equation 2. and @F M =@hp have to be computed in an element-by-element manner.18. especially those involving history-dependent behavior of the structure modeled.1–3 into Equation 2.P with respect to the unknown vectors of nodal displacement sensitivity duN =dhp .1–1 to compute dr =dhp . The displacement sensitivities are then substituted into Equation 2. hp . at each time increment they are functions of certain state variables at the beginning of the increment (referred to as the time instant t) and of the incremental displacements..18. (2. Incremental displacement DSA formulation for history-dependent equilibrium problems The formulation of DSA presented above provides a brief introduction to the way DSA is implemented in ABAQUS.1–3 for each p .18. The DSA algorithm used in ABAQUS is known as the direct differentiation method (DDM) and consists of the following operations. (2.1.1–3) is the tangent stiffness (Jacobian) matrix deﬁned in Equation 2..

. design responses.) as well as scalar quantities (equivalent plastic strain. Some responses may also depend directly on the displacement uN .18. r case all the scalars and tensor components of . The number of such internal responses may be signiﬁcant with obvious effects both on the computational time and memory requirement.1–3 . includes in this assembled in the element loop.1–5. and the derivatives with respect to displacements @r =@ uM are . 1 KMN d1 uN dhp = 0 DF p Dh M . This approach is difﬁcult to implement. from the point of view of the DSA solution algorithm. or internal.) deﬁned for a particular material point at time t. back stress.DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS see. The numerical approach can be further subdivided into the overall or global ﬁnite difference approach and the semi-analytic approach. following the theory described in the previous sections. etc. In such a case Equation 2.18.1–4 takes the following form: N @ dr Dr 01 = Dh 0 @ 1urM KMN DF . generally. The responses are retained for each analysis and then differenced to obtain the response sensitivities.. Computational approach The derivatives required for DSA can be computed analytically or numerically. In the global ﬁnite difference approach the response sensitivities with respect to a particular design parameter are obtained by perturbing that design parameter a number of times (depending on the ﬁnite difference technique) and performing an entire equilibrium analysis for each perturbation. In the direct differentiation method the following system of equations is solved for each design parameter hp : @( dt = @h1) + @(1) dh t p p @ denotes the explicit design derivative of a quantity (1). Kleiber et al. (1997). also enter into the set t. but it is efﬁcient and yields exact sensitivities.1–5) The fundamental difference. and the solution vectors are substituted into Equation 2. In the numerical approach some or all of the required derivatives are computed using the ﬁnite difference technique. R. between the total and incremental approach is that in the latter case all state variables effectively become additional. DF M =Dhp (the pseudoload). After the equilibrium computations are complete.18. In the analytical approach the ﬁnite element equations are differentiated exactly. D (1 ) Dhp def Procedures = 1 .18. . This approach is computationally 2. dhp Dhp p where (2. the arrays of explicit design derivatives Dr =Dhp . The notation t stands for a set of state variables that may include tensors (stress. whose sensitivities must be computed and updated at the end of each time increment to proceed with the DSA in the next increment. The DSA solution procedure is similar to that in the total displacement approach. and the beginning-of-the-increment value of uN will. for example. etc. The set of design responses r .

the derivative of A with respect to x is () dA A(x + x) 0 A(x 0 x) = . assume that the ﬁnite difference technique is central difference such that for a given function A x . 1uN (hp + hp ).DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS expensive since an entire equilibrium problem must be solved for each perturbation. The details of this method are described in the following paragraphs. after which the results are differenced to arrive at the explicit design derivative DF M =Dhp . On the other hand. hp + hp ). If the interval is too small. Once the (incremental) displacement sensitivities are found. the incremental displacement is held constant while a positive perturbation hp is applied to each design parameter hp . 1u(hp ). if the interval is too large. the response sensitivities dr =dhp can be obtained using r + r = r (t (hp + hp ). Truncation errors arise from the fact that differencing formulas are based on truncated Taylor series expansions. The semi-analytic approach is used in ABAQUS and can be viewed as a compromise between the analytic and global ﬁnite difference approaches. For generality. and the results are differenced. For simplicity. The objective of the semi-analytic approach is to compute the DSA vectors DF M =Dhp and dr =dhp numerically by ﬁnite differencing. where The process is repeated for a negative perturbation of hp .1–4 . the DSA solution is obtained by back-substitution against KMN .18. 1uN (hp + hp) = 1uN (hp) + d1u dh N h : p p 2. In this way perturbed values of F M are obtained as F M + F M = F M (t(hp + hp ). but. ABAQUS will automatically choose a perturbation size that provides the best compromise between cancellation and truncation errors. consider the history-dependent case. truncation errors may occur. The ﬁnite difference interval must be chosen carefully. In the semi-analytic approach the DSA element vectors are obtained by differencing. like the analytic approach. hp + hp ): dt t (hp + hp ) = t (hp ) + h : dhp p The change in the state corresponding to a perturbation in the design parameters is approximated by The above process is repeated for a negative perturbation (0hp ). but it is easily implemented. To approximate the explicit design derivatives of F M . dx 2x where x is the perturbation of x. round-off or cancellation errors occur due to loss of precision during the differencing operations. The advantage of the semi-analytic approach is that it is much easier to implement than the analytic approach and much more efﬁcient than the global ﬁnite difference approach.

Dhp Dhp dhp (2.18. and In addition.1–6 with respect to design parameter hp to obtain the following equation: 0 K NM 0 M NM 1 dM dhp = NM DK NM d 0 DM M 0 M NM M .1–6.1–7) N M NM M = 1 (2. making use of Equation 2.1–10) Except for the mass and stiffness derivatives.1–9) where represents a particular mode number. the eigenvectors are scaled such that either Nmax = 1 or (2.” Section 2.e..18. ﬁrst differentiate Equation 2.DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS DSA for frequency analysis This discussion will build upon the concepts and terminology described above. 2.1–5 . so it is recommended that the previous section be read ﬁrst. no repeated eigenvalues).1–6) is the mass matrix. The default is the ﬁrst scaling scheme. M NM (2.18. To obtain eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities.1): ( Procedures K N M 0 M NM )N =0 .18.18. where represents the eigenvalues.1–8) for each mode. and manipulating the result gives the eigenvalue sensitivities: d dhp = NM NM N DK p 0 DM p M Dh Dh : N M NM M (2. and the following equations for the sensitivities will be incorrect.18. Distinct eigenvalue case The theory presented below assumes that all the eigenvalues are distinct (i. If this is not the case. The discussion below is divided into two sections depending on the characteristics of the eigenvalue problem: distinct eigenvalues and repeated eigenvalues. Performing a frequency analysis means solving the following eigenvalue problem (see “Eigenvalue extraction.18.5. further manipulations are required to obtain the eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities corresponding to the repeated eigenvalues. The repeated eigenvalue case is considered in the next section. all quantities in this equation are known once the eigenvalue problem has been solved. Pre-multiplying by N .18. N represents the eigenvectors.

the repeated modes associated with the original symmetry of the section now split into distinct modes associated with the minor and major axes of the ellipse).1–12 is recognized as an R 2 R reduced eigenvalue problem whose R eigenvalues d3=dhp are the eigenvalue sensitivities associated with the repeated eigenvalue and whose eigenvectors are A. However. as outlined in the section on static DSA. zR c that are continuous and differentiable can be obtained by an orthogonal transformation: where AT A = I. a set of R eigenvectors Z = bz1 . Because of this non-uniqueness.18. . Replacing the eigenvectors with the eigenvectors z in Equation 2.1–11) B0 where 3 = I.18. the eigenvectors 8 = b1 .18. .1–9 and premultiplying by 8T yields in matrix notation: Z = 8A. R c associated with are linearly independent but not unique—any linear combination of these eigenvectors is also an eigenvector.18. The basic idea of this approach. so it is possible 2. When an eigenvalue repeats R times.1–12) 0 DM 8. and A is to be determined. B = 8T d3 C A = 0. d3=dhp is a diagonal matrix. Further information can be found in the papers by Mills-Curran (1988) and Shaw (1991).1–6 . Computational approach C = 8T M8: A semi-analytic approach is used to compute the eigenvalue sensitivities. In the context of DSA for frequency procedures this means that the derivatives of the mass and stiffness matrices are computed using ﬁnite differencing. N sensitivities are obtained for the single eigenvalue .18.1–13) and Equation 2. Dh p (2. is to compute some of the required intermediate derivatives using ﬁnite differencing. . The objective of the algorithm is to select the perturbation sizes that lead to accurately computed derivatives. The physical interpertation of this is that a perturbation in the design parameter may cause the original repeated mode to branch into as many as N distinct modes (imagine a beam with a circular cross-section perturbed into an elliptical section. (2. This is done on an element to element basis. Choosing the ﬁnite difference interval ABAQUS uses a heuristic algorithm to automatically determine the perturbation sizes to be used in the differencing scheme.DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Repeated eigenvalue case This section outlines the formulation used to obtain eigenvalue sensitivities for repeated eigenvalues.18. . the eigenvectors may not be continuous or differentiable in the design parameter. dhp DK Dhp (2.

N is taken as N . is used p p p p to measure how close a perturbation size is to optimum. and the testing continues. ha . the norm of the pseudoload is an appropriate choice for sp . For each hI . calculated as eI = jsI 0 sI 01 j=sI . To calculate the single perturbation size.18. and this system is obtained by numerical differencing (recall Equation 2. Unlike the distinct eigenvalue case. The calculation of sp is similar to the calculation of the matrix (the only term in the reduced eigenvalue system obtained by numerical differencing).18. Consequently. The p p relative change in sp between consecutive perturbation sizes. This metric must be both convenient and representative of the terms that are numerically differenced.1–7 . which vary by orders of magnitude. .1–10.. If mode has a distinct eigenvalue. . • Frequency steps. The selection of the perturbation sizes is based on the behavior of a scalar metric sp for each design parameter hp . a corresponding sI is computed. This choice is also convenient since the pseudoload has to be computed in any case. therefore. For frequency steps the scalar metric is chosen as the projection of the matrix NM DK 0 DM NM onto an eigenvector N : Dhp Dhp Procedures sp = N NM DK NM 0 DM M : Dhp Dhp The choice of N depends on whether a given mode has a distinct eigenvalue or is associated with a repeated eigenvalue. is identiﬁed as the best perturbation size. Consequently a single perturbation size (for each design parameter) must be used to obtain all sensitivities of a repeated eigenvalue. For static steps the scalar metric is chosen as the norm of the element pseudoload: M sp = jj(dFel =dhp )j1uN 6=1uN (hp ) jj: el el Since an accurate pseudoload is necessary to obtain an accurate sensitivity solution. It is important to realize that eI is not used directly in assessing p the accuracy of the numerical differentiation but rather is intended as a means for determining the 2. this choice sp is both representative of the repeated eigenvalue case and involves differencing calculations that are already being done to obtain the reduced eigenvalue system. the sensitivities of a repeated eigenvalue cannot be treated independently.18. p I = 1. sp becomes simply the numerator of Equation 2. p p If ea is not less than a speciﬁed tolerance. sp is a direct measure of the magnitude of the eigenvalue sensitivity and is also convenient since this term already must be calculated to obtain the eigenvalue sensitivity. B The basic idea of the algorithm is compute the scalar metric sp for a range of perturbation sizes hI . a single scalar metric is obtained by taking N as the sum of the eigenvectors associated with the repeated eigenvalue.1–13). the range of perturbation sizes is expanded (up to a certain p limit). denoted as ea .18.1–12 and Equation 2. Therefore.DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS for a given design parameter that the perturbation size for one element will be different from that of another element. It is chosen as follows: • Static steps. The sensitivities of a repeated eigenvalue are extracted simultaneously from the same reduced eigenvalue system. 2. . In this range of perturbation sizes the one that yields the smallest relative change.

Reference • “Design sensitivity analysis. Thus.” Section 7.1–8 .DESIGN SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS optimum perturbation size.18. a tighter tolerance on ea causes the algorithm to expend more effort p in ﬁnding an optimum perturbation size but does not guarantee more accurate sensitivities.14.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 2.

1 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.9 .2 3.Chapter 3 Elements Overview Continuum elements Inﬁnite elements Membrane and truss elements Beam elements Shell elements Rebar Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements Special-purpose elements 3.8 3.6 3.

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1. h)uN . to model part of a shell surface with solid elements and part with shell elements or to model a pipe elbow with a mixture of beam and shell elements).1. All elements use numerical integration to allow complete generality in material behavior. All of the elements in ABAQUS are formulated in a global Cartesian coordinate system except the axisymmetric elements.1.1 ELEMENT LIBRARY: OVERVIEW The ABAQUS element library provides a complete geometric modeling capability. h) = N N (g. Some special elements (such as line springs) use an approximate analytical solution to model nonlinear behavior. Hence. or each cross-section of the element can be integrated numerically. For example. the virtual work integral as described in “Nonlinear solution methods in ABAQUS/Standard. at least for linear material behavior.ELEMENT LIBRARY OVERVIEW 3. primary vector quantities (such as displacements and rotations ) are deﬁned in terms of nodal values with scalar interpolation functions. ABAQUS will use either “full” or “reduced” integration.2. For full integration the number of integration points is sufﬁcient to integrate the virtual work expression exactly. in elements with a two-dimensional topology the interpolation can be written as u where the interpolation functions N N (g. x(g. For this reason any combination of elements can be used to make up the model.1–1 . Reduced integration can be used for quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. Sometimes multi-point constraints are required for application of the necessary kinematic relations to form the model (for example. All triangular and tetrahedral elements in ABAQUS use full integration. 3. In most element types the same parametric interpolation is used for the coordinate vector : u(g. h)xN : Elements x Such isoparametric elements are guaranteed to be able to represent all rigid body modes and homogeneous deformation modes exactly. which are formulated in terms of r–z coordinates. so that nonlinear response can be tracked accurately when needed. in this procedure the number of integration points is sufﬁcient to integrate exactly the contributions of the strain ﬁeld that are one order less than the order of interpolation. h) are written in terms of the parametric coordinates g and h. where n is the number of integration points in the element and Vi is the volume associated with integration point i. In almost all elements.” Section 2. All elements in ABAQUS are integrated numerically. A composite layered section can be speciﬁed. a necessary condition for convergence to the exact solution as the mesh is reﬁned. The (incomplete) higher-order contributions to the strain ﬁeld present in these elements will not be integrated. h) = N N (g. will be replaced by a summation: Z V : D dV ! n Xi i=1 : D i Vi . with different materials at different heights through the section. Shell and beam element properties can be deﬁned as general section behaviors.

The coupling of the ﬁelds will generally occur at the integration points.” Section 13. This procedure is used in many of the solid and shell elements in ABAQUS. In these multiﬁeld elements the scalar variable (such as the temperature) is usually interpolated with different scalar functions as the displacement ﬁeld. for example. In this formulation only the inverse of the bulk modulus appears. For this case a mixed (hybrid) formulation is required. 1976). the so-called Barlow points (Barlow. and piezoelectric elements that couple electrical conduction with stress analysis. Reference • “Element library: overview. do not allow such deformations (other than purely homogeneous deformation).ELEMENT LIBRARY OVERVIEW The advantage of the reduced integration elements is that the strains and stresses are calculated at the locations that provide optimal accuracy. The hydrostatic pressure ﬁeld plays the role of a Lagrange multiplier ﬁeld enforcing the incompressibility constraints. The temperatures are interpolated with essentially the same interpolation function. M N (g. Finally. h) may differ from N N (g. ABAQUS/Standard also provides elements for multiﬁeld problems. the stiffness matrix becomes inﬁnitely large.1. in coupled temperature-displacement elements the coupling is due to temperature-dependent mechanical properties and heat generation is due to inelastic work. where M N (g.. Examples are the pore pressure elements used for the analysis of porous solids with ﬂuid diffusion. T (g. where the displacement ﬁeld is augmented with a hydrostatic pressure ﬁeld. h) T N . and in particular lowerorder element meshes. In these elements only temperatures appear as nodal degrees of freedom. These zero-energy modes make the element rank-deﬁcient and cause a phenomenon called “hourglassing. ABAQUS offers a complete set of diffusion elements to analyze conductive and convective heat transfer. Most fully integrated solid elements are unsuitable for the analysis of (approximately) incompressible material behavior. h) = M N (g. and. another complication occurs: the bulk modulus and. This problem is particularly severe in ﬁrst-order quadrilaterals and hexahedra. The disadvantage is that the reduced integration procedure can admit deformation modes that cause no straining at the integration points. For that reason ABAQUS uses “selectively reduced” integration in these elements: reduced integration is used for the volume strain and full integration for the deviatoric strains. hence.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. For fully incompressible material behavior.1. a small artiﬁcial stiffness is associated with the zero-energy deformation modes. h). The reason for this is that the material behavior forces the material to deform (approximately) without volume changes. i. leading to inaccurate solutions. A second advantage is that the reduced number of integration points decreases CPU time and storage requirements. To prevent these excessive deformations. coupled temperature-displacement elements that couple heat transfer with stress analysis. In this so-called hourglass control procedure. consequently. an additional artiﬁcial stiffness is added to the element. h).e. As a consequence the lower-order elements give an acceptable performance for approximately incompressible behavior.” where the zero energy mode starts propagating through the mesh. the contribution to the operator matrix vanishes. as used in the coupled temperature-displacement elements.1–2 . Fully integrated solid element meshes.

in different orientations. Because of these needs ABAQUS includes triangular. The two-dimensional elements allow modeling of plane and axisymmetric problems and include extensions to generalized plane strain (when the model exists between two planes that may move with respect to each other. These isoparametric elements are generally preferred for most cases because they are usually the more cost-effective of the elements that are provided in ABAQUS. and wedge elements.2. Solid elements are provided with ﬁrst-order (linear) and second-order (quadratic) interpolation. Therefore.” Section 3. These elements can represent certain important linear strain ﬁelds exactly: the most important ﬁeld is the one due to bending. The isoparametric elements can also be degenerated to make simpler shapes. but the higher-order content of the solutions they give is generally not accurate and. Thus. Some guidelines are as follows. The solid element library includes isoparametric elements: quadrilaterals in two dimensions and “bricks” (hexahedra) in three dimensions. such as elasticity.2.5. in the case of elliptic problems—problems for which the governing partial differential equations are elliptic in character. For most cases it is recommended that these elements be only used to ﬁll in awkward parts of the mesh and. for example. and the user must decide which approach is more appropriate for the application. tetrahedron. in particular.and second-order interpolation and are described in detail in “Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra. some commercial mesh generators use automatic meshing techniques that rely on triangulation to ﬁll arbitrarily shaped regions. This observation logically leads to the use of the Elements p 3. The material description of three-dimensional solid elements may include several layers of different materials. Standard ﬁrst-order elements are essentially constant strain elements: the isoparametric forms can provide more than constant strain response. are from the user’s perspective lower-order elements but have internal degrees of freedom that enable the element to represent almost all linear strain patterns. They are offered with ﬁrst. in which smoothness of the solution is assured—much higher solution accuracy per degree of freedom is usually available with the higher-order elements. Generally the elements written for those particular geometries are preferred to this method. The “incompatible mode” elements. that well-shaped isoparametric elements be used in any critical region (such as an area where the strain must be predicted accurately). of little value. heat conduction.” Section 3. thus.2. acoustics.2. For practical reasons it is sometimes not possible to use isoparametric elements throughout a model.1 SOLID ELEMENT OVERVIEW ABAQUS contains a library of solid elements for two-dimensional and three-dimensional applications. described in “Continuum elements with incompatible modes.SOLID ELEMENTS 3.4.1–1 . The second-order elements are capable of representing all possible linear strain ﬁelds. it is generally recommended that the highest-order elements available be used for such cases: in ABAQUS this means second-order elements. since the degenerate second-order isoparametric elements can provide a 1= r singularity through the use of the “quarter point” technique (placing the midside nodes 1/4 of the distance along the side from the node at the singularity instead of at the middle point of the side). and linear inﬁnite elements in two and three dimensions can be used to model unbounded domains. for the analysis of laminated composite solids. The exception to this rule occurs in cases where singularities are to be modeled (such as in fracture mechanics applications). providing thickness direction strain that may vary with position in the plane of the model but is constant with respect to thickness position). A set of nonlinear elements for asymmetric loading of axisymmetric models is also available.

The use of second-order elements is a more reliable alternative. that ABAQUS offers shell and beam elements that are speciﬁcally written for thin geometries: the use of solid elements for such cases should only be considered when beam or shell elements are not practical. When these elements are used with a hyperelastic (elastomeric) material deﬁnition. are written to include ﬁnite-strain effects. This shearing then locks the element—the response is far too stiff. that better deﬁned shear localization increases the strain magnitude and. If the ﬁnite element solution is to exhibit accuracy. and constant strain (ﬁrst-order) elements do a poor job of representing this variation. Fully integrated ﬁrst-order isoparametric elements also suffer from “shear locking” in these geometries: they cannot provide the pure bending solution because they must shear at the numerical integration points to respond with an appropriate kinematic behavior corresponding to the bending. nevertheless. true that ﬁrst-order elements tend to be preferred for such cases. In such cases the strain variation through the thickness must be at least linear. One should realize.” Section 2. hence. Another alternative is formed by the incompatible mode elements: the linear strain ﬁeld in these elements contains the modes required to solve the bending problem exactly if the elements are rectangular in shape. With a ﬁxed mesh that does not use special elements that admit discontinuities in their formulation. The incompatible mode elements can represent discontinuities particularly well. A case where both incompatible mode elements and second-order elements can be used effectively is the stress analysis of relatively thin members subjected to bending: such problems are often encountered in practical applications. When the elements are used for 3. but the rapid increase in cost per element for higher-order forms means that—even though the accuracy per degree of freedom is higher— the accuracy per computational cost may not be increasing. This argument is hardly rigorous. however. but it is. All of the solid elements in ABAQUS. quartic.2.3. For a detailed discussion of the performance of ABAQUS continuum elements in bending problems. because the second-order interpolation naturally contains the linear strain ﬁeld—one element through the thickness is enough to represent the behavior of a thin component subjected to bending loads quite accurately. because. For the isoparametric elements reduced integration provides a cure for these problems. Many problems of practical interest are not elliptic: localizations arise in one form or another.5 of the ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual. They are also able to represent strain localization such as occurs in shear bands. (It should be remembered. This allows discontinuities to occur in the solution—the slip line solutions of classical perfect plasticity theory are plots of the characteristic lines of velocity discontinuities in the hyperbolic equations of the problem. for a given number of nodes. Plasticity applications are an example—as the solution approaches the limit load. F. most plasticity models tend toward hyperbolic behavior. Practical experience suggests that—except in special cases—little is gained by going beyond the second-order elements.SOLID ELEMENTS “hierarchical” ﬁnite element technique or “p”-method—reﬁning the model by increasing the interpolation order in the elements in critical regions: this approach is as yet not available in ABAQUS. however. they provide the most locations at which some component of the gradient of the solution can be discontinuous (the element edges). except the inﬁnite elements. but at the cost of allowing spurious singular modes (“hourglassing”). so ABAQUS does not offer any higher-order forms.1–2 . these discontinuities in the gradient ﬁeld of the solution should be reasonably well modeled. this suggests that the lowest-order elements—the ﬁrst-order elements—are likely to be the most successful. the constitutive behavior is calculated directly from the deformation gradient matrix. The argument is readily extended to higher-order interpolation (cubic.) For all of these reasons the second-order elements are preferred in elliptic applications. see “Performance of continuum and shell elements for linear analysis of bending problems. etc). tends to increase the number of increments and iterations required for the analysis.

v D = sym x @ @ . Unless a local orientation is speciﬁed for an element. Reference • “General-purpose continuum elements.SOLID ELEMENTS geometrically nonlinear analysis with any other material deﬁnition (at ﬁnite strain this means the material has some inelastic behavior. In all cases the solid elements report stress as the “true” (Cauchy) stress. stress and strain components are given as physical components referred to the global spatial directions.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.” Section 14.1–3 . the stress and strain components are given in the user-deﬁned local system: this system rotates with the average material rotation calculated at each material point. When a local orientation is deﬁned for a solid element. the strains are calculated as the integral of the rate of deformation.2. with the effects of material rotation with respect to the coordinate system taken into consideration. since all of the elasticity deﬁnitions in ABAQUS except the hyperelasticity models assume that the elastic strains are small).

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SOLID ELEMENT FORMULATION 3. With any other material behavior it is assumed that any elastic strains are small compared to unity. When the hyperelastic or hyperfoam material deﬁnition is used with an element. particularly in the general case where the principal axes of strain rotate during the deformation. 3.2–1 . This integration algorithm deﬁnes the integration of a tensor associated with the material behavior as D v @v D = sym @x . The conjugate strain rate to Cauchy stress is the rate of deformation: u X u. therefore.2. (More precisely. deﬁned as the integral of the rate of deformation. the appropriate stress measure should be the Kirchhoff stress deﬁned with respect to the elastic reference conﬁguration but the assumption that this reference conﬁguration and the current conﬁguration are only inﬁnitesimally different makes the Kirchhoff and Cauchy stress measures almost the same: the differences are of the order of the elastic strains compared to unity). and the appropriate stress measure is. when the strain components are referred to a ﬁxed coordinate basis. and are the current spatial coordinates of the point. The strain is. the strain at the start of the increment must also be rotated to account for the rigid body rotation that occurs in the increment. “Introduction and Basic Equations.2. the Cauchy (“true”) stress. so the appropriate reference conﬁguration for the elasticity is only inﬁnitesimally different from the current conﬁguration. and. therefore. For cases where the strains and/or rotations are no longer small. As discussed in Chapter 1. This integration is nontrivial. ABAQUS internally uses the stretch values calculated directly from the deformation gradient matrix. is the increment in the tensor associated with the material’s constitutive behavior. is the velocity at a point.” this measure of strain is useful only if the strains and rotations are small (all components of the strain and rotation matrices are negligible compared to unity). deﬁned by the central difference formula as and. In ABAQUS the total strain is constructed by integrating the strain rate approximately over the increment by the central difference algorithm. two ways of measuring strain are used in the solid elements in ABAQUS. a 1 a a +1 = 1R a 1RT + 1(1D). therefore. For kinematically linear analysis the strain is deﬁned as " = sym @ @ where is the total displacement and is the spatial position of the point under consideration in the original conﬁguration. a t t 1 t 1 1D 1D = sym @x t+1t=2 @ 1u . . . dependent on the strain increment. x where is the tensor.2 SOLID ELEMENT FORMULATION All the solid elements in ABAQUS allow for ﬁnite strain and rotation in large-displacement analysis. X F Elements where is the rate of deformation. This is also done approximately. to compute the material behavior. using the Hughes-Winget (1980) method.

2. !! dV : which yields the Jacobian Z V T 1 @v D : C : dD 0 : 2D 1 D 0 1 @v 2 @x @x This Jacobian is the tangent stiffness of the rate form of the problem.2–2 . the contribution of the internal work terms to the Jacobian of the Newton method that is often used in ABAQUS/Standard is 1(1D) Z Vo (d : D + : dD) dV . it can be shown that d t+1t = d1R 1 1RT 1 (t+1t 0 C : 1D) + (t+1t 0 C :1D) 1 1R 1 d1RT + C : d1D.1. 3. rather than computing the tangent matrix for the Newton method on this basis. respectively. Experience with practical cases suggests that this approximation provides an acceptable rate of convergence in the Newton iterations in most applications with real materials. the stress is integrated by this method as t+1t = (1=2)(xt + xt+1t ).2–1) where d and are evaluated at the end of the increment. (3. where C is the Jacobian matrix of the constitutive model: @d C = @d1D : d t+1t However. we approximate this by using = d 1 t+1t + t+1t 1 d T + C : dD. 2 2 = 1R 1 t 1 1RT + 1(1D). Using the integration deﬁnition above.” Section 2. +1 where is the stress increment caused by the straining of the material during this time increment t refer to the beginning and the end and is the Kirchhoff ( Cauchy) stress.2. where For example. As shown in “Procedures: overview and basic equations.1.SOLID ELEMENT FORMULATION where xt+1t=2 as 1! is the central difference integration of the rate of spin: @ 1u 1! = asym @x : t+1t=2 A somewhat different algorithm to calculate 1R is used for the Green-Naghdi rate in ABAQUS/Explicit. deﬁned by Hughes and Winget 01 1R = I 0 1 1! 1 I + 1 1! . The subscripts t and t of the increment. and 1R is the increment in rotation.

1. if the strains at the point are small). This suggests that the formulation described above will not be suitable for applications where the strains and rotations are large and where the material exhibits some form of anisotropic behavior.SOLID ELEMENT FORMULATION The strain and rotation measures described above are approximations. Probably the most limiting . The integration methods described above are not suitable for such material models at large strains (for practical purposes with typical material parameters this means that the solutions will be quite wrong when the strains are greater than 20%–30%). as an approximate extension. see Agah-Tehrani et al. Therefore.2. the use of the kinematic hardening model in ABAQUS at such strain levels is not recommended.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3. it is clear that each of the individual material ﬁbers at a point has a different rotation (unless the material point undergoes rigid body motion only or.2–3 . 1R Reference • “Solid (continuum) elements. A common example of such cases is the induction of anisotropy through straining. for example. While this measure does give aspect of these approximations is the deﬁnition of the rotation increment a representation of the rotation of the material at a point in some average sense (both in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit). (1986). as in “kinematic hardening” plasticity models.” Section 14. There is extensive literature on this subject.

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and W is the virtual work as deﬁned by this equation. the solution to a problem cannot be obtained in terms of the displacement history only. is obtained with the constitutive equations from the deformation.5. in that a very small change in displacement produces extremely large changes in pressure. so that a purely displacement-based solution is too sensitive to be useful numerically (for example. V is the current volume. when the bulk modulus is much larger than the shear modulus or Poisson’s ratio. : (3. since a purely hydrostatic pressure can be added without changing the displacements. This independent interpolation of pressure stress is the basis of these “hybrid” elements. for a detailed discussion of the virtual work concept. We begin by writing the internal virtual work: W " where " is the virtual strain: " " Elements = Z V " " dV .e. The nearly incompressible case (that is. = 0. they are “mixed formulation” elements.4999999) exhibits behavior approaching this limit.3–2) where C is the “material stiffness matrix” and d is the rate of rotation (spin) of the material. See “Equilibrium and virtual work.. 3. More precisely. . When the material response is incompressible. We remove this singular behavior in the system by treating the pressure stress as an independently interpolated basic solution variable.” Section 3. The method is described in the context of incompressible elasticity theory. In this section we describe the augmented virtual work basis provided in ABAQUS/Standard for such cases. since most solid materials show relatively incompressible behavior under large deformations. usually in rate form: " = C : d" + d 0 1 d . with this coupling implemented by a Lagrange multiplier. ^ We modify the Cauchy stress by introducing an independent hydrostatic pressure ﬁeld p as follows: d 1 u x . In a displacement-based formulation the Cauchy stress. coupled to the displacement solution through the constitutive theory and the compatibility condition.3–1 .4. Volume strain locking occurs if the ﬁnite element mesh cannot properly represent incompressible deformations.2. is the true (Cauchy) stress. round-off on the computer may cause the method to fail). The hybrid elements also remedy the problem of volume strain “locking.2. using a mixture of displacement and stress variables with an augmented variational principle to approximate the equilibrium equations and compatibility conditions.49). as described in “Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra.3–1) = sym @ u @ where is the virtual displacement ﬁeld.1.HYBRID FORMULATION 3.” which can occur at much lower values of (i.” Section 1.3 HYBRID INCOMPRESSIBLE SOLID ELEMENT FORMULATION Many problems involve the prediction of the response of almost incompressible materials.2. Volume strain locking can be avoided in regular displacement elements by fully or selectively reduced integration. . (3.2.2. since that is where it is most likely to be used. is greater than 0. This is especially true at large strains.

For the purpose of development we regard the bulk modulus as ﬁnite. the hydrostatic component in would be identical to the independent pressure ﬁeld p. Since p is the value of the equivalent pressure stress increment computed from the kinematic solution. Therefore.3–4) where 0 is the modiﬁed Cauchy stress at the start of the increment. ^ p (3.3–6) The rate of change dW is then readily obtained as dW = Z Z V0 " " " [dJ : " + J d : " + J : d" + (dp 0 dp) + d(1p 0 1^)] dV 0: ^ p (3. The rate of the modiﬁed stress follows from Equation 3. we need to deﬁne the rate of change of W .2. If was set equal to zero.3–3) where 1 = 0 3 trace( ) ^ is the hydrostatic pressure stress and is a small number. The small nonzero value ( 09) is chosen to avoid equation solver difﬁculties.2.3–4 does not make sense if the material is fully incompressible because then p cannot be computed.3–4 and the constitutive equations: = : 3.2.3–5) with J the volume change ratio (Jacobian) and a Lagrange multiplier whose interpolation must still be determined. p will be interpolated over each element so that the constraint is satisﬁed in an integrated (average) sense. This relation is used in incremental form: 10 = 0 + 1 + (1 0 )I(1p 0 1^). ^ p dW V (3. p V (3. we rewrite the virtual work equation in terms of the reference volume V 0 : 1^ 1 1 W = Z V0 " [J : " + (1p 0 1^)] dV 0: p (3.2.3–7) We rewrite this expression in terms of the current volume: " " " " = [d : " + d" : I : " + : d" + J 01(dp 0 dp) + J 01d(1p 0 1^)] dV. p Z (3. and we will be able to show that the ﬁnal formulation approaches a usable limit as we allow the bulk modulus to approach inﬁnity.HYBRID FORMULATION = + (1 0 )I(p 0 p). corresponding to a pure “mixed” formulation.3–2 .2.2. For the formulation of the tangent stiffness (the Jacobian).2. We use the modiﬁed Cauchy stress in the virtual work expression and augment the expression with the Lagrange multiplier enforced constraint p0 p : 1 1^ = 0 W " = [ : " + J 01(1p 0 1^)] dV. Equation 3.2.3–8) " where we used the identity J 01dJ I d".2.

3–3 . we choose = (1 0 )J 1 I : C : " 0 I : " + 1 p .3–11) Elements where K (3. we ﬁnd for the virtual work expression: W = Z V 1 ^ ~ : + (1 0 )(1p 0 1^) K p dV.2. p (3. we can write for the second variation d: ^ 1 d " = (1 0 )J 31 I : C 0 I : d": K " " (3.2.2. " " ^ 3K K = 1I : C : I 9 1^ I:C (3.3–9) where part. If we assume that the volumetric moduli and ignore changes in volume.3–15) For the rate of change of virtual work we ﬁnd 3.3–10) It remains to choose .2. To get a symmetric expression for the rate of virtual work.3–12) is the (instantaneous) bulk modulus.2. is properly constrained to the and K change slowly with strain incremental pressure.3–13) Hence. Substituting these expressions into the expression for the rate of virtual work yields dW " = 0 1 trace(d ) = 0 1 I : C : d". p.HYBRID FORMULATION d " = C : d" + (1 0 )I(dp 0 dp) + d 0 1 d .2. because the (independent) term proportional to p ensures that the modiﬁed incremental pressure ﬁeld. This is a suitable choice for .2. p.3–14) where ~ = + (1 0 )(1p 0 1^) 31 I : C 0 I : p K (3. ^ 1 (3. since and differ only in the hydrostatic dp = Z V n " " " " " : C : d" + " : I : d" 0 1 (1 0 )" : I I : C : d"0 3 " " (1 0 )" : I dp 0 1 J 01 I : C : d" 0 J 01 dp + ^ 3 ^ o " " p J 01d(1p 0 1^) + : d" + " : (d 1 0 1 d ) dV: " " (3. 3 3 and we used the fact that d 1 0 1 d = d 1 0 1 d .2.

1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.” Section 14.HYBRID FORMULATION dW = Z " " " " " : C : d" 0 91 (1 0 )" : CT : I I : C : d" + " : I : d"0 K V 1 (1 0 ) 0p I : C : d" + " : CT : I dp1 0 1 (1 0 ) p dp+ " " ^ ^ ^ ^ K 3K ~ " " " : d" + : (" d 0 d 1 ") dV: " " 1 (3.2.1.2. " " @x @x so that the ﬁnal expression for the rate of virtual work becomes " " " " " : C : d" 0 91 (1 0 ) " : CT : I I : C : d" + " : I : d"0 K V 1 (1 0 ) 0p I : C : d" + " : CT : I dp1 0 1 (1 0 ) p dp+ " " ^ ^ ^ K (3.3–17) 3K T^ u u " " ~ @x 1 @dx 0 2" 1 d" dV: : @ @ " " The asymmetric term " : I : d" is only signiﬁcant if large volume changes occur. the term is ignored except for material models with volumetric plasticity. It was assumed in the expression for d that the (volumetric) moduli change only slowly with strain. For these models the constitutive matrix C is usually asymmetric anyway dW = Z " " so that the addition of this nonsymmetric term does not affect the cost of the analysis. since in lower-order elements p 0 p approaches zero at every point and the error in d has no impact.2. in which these moduli can change abruptly.3–4 . This may lead to slow convergence or even convergence failures. Hence. such as the (capped) Drucker-Prager model and the Cam-clay model. Failures usually occur only in higher-order elements.3–16) The initial stress term can be approximated by ~ : (d" + " 1 d 0 d 1 ") dV. 1 1^ Reference • “Solid (continuum) elements. " " " @ which can be written as ~: u T 1 @du 0 2" 1 d". This is not the case for material models with volumetric plasticity.

1976) at which the strains are most accurately predicted if the elements are well-shaped. and “Hyperelastic material behavior. for a detailed discussion of the formulations used).” Section 3. The three-dimensional brick elements can also be used for the analysis of laminated composite solids.4–1. In contrast.4–1. Corner nodes are numbered ﬁrst. followed by the midside nodes for second-order elements.2. These elements use the same interpolation functions as the homogeneous elements.3. They each span the range 01 to +1 in an element. The ﬁrst-order elements are the 4-node quadrilateral for plane and axisymmetric analysis and the 8-node brick for three-dimensional cases.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA 3.2.4–1 . but the integration takes the variation of material properties in the stacking direction into account.2. All these isoparametric elements are available with full or reduced integration. The interpolation functions are as follows.6. r shown in Figure 3. the 27-node (variable number of nodes) brick.2. First-order quadrilateral: u= 1 4 (1 0 g)(1 0 h)u1 + 1 (1 + g)(1 0 h)u2 + 1 (1 + g)(1 + h)u3 + 1 (1 0 g)(1 + h)u4 4 4 4 3. Gauss integration is almost always used with second-order isoparametric elements because it is efﬁcient and the Gauss points corresponding to reduced integration are the Barlow points (Barlow.or three-dimensional interpolation functions.1. Several layers of different material. which is based on corner and midside nodes only. The library of second-order isoparametric elements includes “serendipity” elements: the 8-node quadrilateral and the 20-node brick. the full Lagrange interpolation uses product forms of the one-dimensional Lagrange polynomials to provide the two. Interpolation Elements Isoparametric interpolation is deﬁned in terms of the isoparametric element coordinates g. in different orientations.” Section 4. since ABAQUS is a Lagrangian code. can be speciﬁed in each solid element. h.2.and second-order isoparametric elements.4 SOLID ISOPARAMETRIC QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA The library of solid elements in ABAQUS contains ﬁrst. These are material coordinates. The term “serendipity” refers to the interpolation.4–1). and a “full Lagrange” element. Hybrid pressure-displacement versions of these elements are provided for use with incompressible and nearly incompressible constitutive models (see “Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation. parallel to opposite faces of the master element (Figure 3. The node numbering convention used in ABAQUS for isoparametric elements is also shown in Figure 3.2. The material layers or lamina can be stacked in any of the three isoparametric coordinates.

+ 4 (1 0 r)(1 + r)(1 + g)(1 + h)u19 + 1 (1 0 r)(1 + r)(1 0 g)(1 + h)u20 4 3. + (1 0 g)(1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 0 r)u9 + (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 + g)(1 0 r)u10 4 4 amp. + amp.4–2 . + 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 1 (1 (1 (1 0 g)(1 0 h)(1 0 r)(2 + g + h + r)u1 0 1 (1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 0 r)(2 0 g + h + r)u2 8 0 1 (1 0 g)(1 0 h)(1 + r)(2 + g + h 0 r)u5 0 1 (1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 + r)(2 0 g + h 0 r)u6 8 8 0 g)(1 + g)(1 + h)(1 0 r)u11 + 1 (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 0 g)(1 0 r)u12 4 0 g)(1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 + r)u13 + 1 (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 + g)(1 + r)u14 4 0 g)(1 + g)(1 + h)(1 + r)u15 + 1 (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 0 g)(1 + r)u16 4 1 amp. + amp.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA Second-order quadrilateral: u=0 1 4 1 1 (1 0 4 (1 + g)(1 + h)(1 0 g 0 h)u3 0 1 (1 0 g)(1 + h)(1 + g 0 h)u4 4 + + 2 1 2 (1 (1 0 g)(1 0 h)(1 + g + h)u1 0 1 (1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 0 g + h)u2 4 0 g)(1 + g)(1 0 h)u5 + 1 (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 + g)u6 2 0 g)(1 + g)(1 + h)u7 + 1 (1 0 h)(1 + h)(1 0 g)u8 2 (1 First-order brick: u= + 1 8 1 8 1 1 0 r)u3 + 1 (1 0 g)(1 + h)(1 0 r)u4 8 1 + (1 0 g )(1 0 h)(1 + r )u5 + (1 + g )(1 0 h)(1 + r )u6 8 8 (1 + g )(1 + h)(1 + 8 (1 + g )(1 + h)(1 + r )u7 + 1 8 (1 0 g)(1 0 h)(1 0 r)u1 + 1 (1 + g)(1 0 h)(1 0 r)u2 8 0 g)(1 + h)(1 + r)u8 20-node brick: u=0 1 8 (1 0 1 (1 + g)(1 + h)(1 0 r)(2 0 g 0 h + r)u3 0 1 (1 0 g)(1 + h)(1 0 r)(2 + g 0 h + r)u4 8 8 0 1 (1 + g)(1 + h)(1 + r)(2 0 g 0 h 0 r)u7 0 1 (1 0 g)(1 + h)(1 + r)(2 + g 0 h 0 r)u8 8 8 1 1 amp.2. + (1 0 r)(1 + r)(1 0 g)(1 0 h)u17 + (1 0 r)(1 + r)(1 + g)(1 0 h)u18 4 4 amp.

2.4–3 .QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA 7 4 h 3 8 g 6 1 5 2 Elements 8 16 r 5 13 6 20 15 7 14 h 19 g 17 4 11 12 10 1 9 2 18 3 Figure 3. 3.4–1 Isoparametric master elements.2.

h. r) = 6I + g3I + h3I + r33 + hr0I + gr0I + gh0I + ghr0I . The last four vectors. is also available for the 8-node brick elements in ABAQUS/Explicit for improved computational efﬁciency. ensures that the ﬁrst-order reduced-integration elements pass the patch test and attain the accuracy when elements are skewed. +1. +1. 01. which are the deformation modes associated with no energy in the 1-point integration element but resulting in a nonconstant strain ﬁeld in the element. 2 3I = [01. +1. +1. 4 0I = [+1. +1. 01. +1.4–4 . +1. +1. ﬁrst published by Flanagan and Belytschko (1981). +1. 0I ( has a range of four).” which uses 1-point Gauss integration to obtain the strains at the element center. 01. For the ﬁrst-order elements the single-point reduced-integration scheme is based on the “uniform strain formulation”: the strains are not obtained at the ﬁrst-order Gauss point but are obtained as the (analytically calculated) average strain over the element volume. +1]. +1. are the hourglass base vectors. +1. h. +1. 1 6I = [+1. r)uI sum on I: The isoparametric shape functions NI can be written as 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 N I (g. 01. 01. +1. +1. 01. +1]. +1. +1. 01. +1. +1]. +1.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA Integration of homogeneous solids All the isoparametric solid elements are integrated numerically. In the uniform strain formulation the gradient matrix I is deﬁned by integrating over the element Z as B BiI = 1 N I (g. Alternatively. +1. The differences between the uniform strain formulation and the centroidal strain formulation can be shown as follows: For the 8-node brick elements the interpolation function given above can be rewritten as u = N I (g. The uniform strain method. +1. 01. 01]. Two schemes are offered: “full” integration and “reduced” integration. 01. 01. 2 and the superscript I denotes the node of the element. 01. 01. 01. 1 0I = [+1. 01]. Ve` Ve` i 3. 01. 01].2. 01]. +1. 01. +1. +1]. +1. +1. +1. the “centroidal strain formulation. 01. 01. +1. 01. 3 0I = [01. +1. 01. 4 8 4 1 4 2 4 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 where 3I = [01. 3 0I = [+1. h. 3I = [01. +1. 01. r) dVe` . For the second-order elements Gauss integration is always used because it is efﬁcient and it is especially suited to the polynomial product interpolations used in these elements.

it is also signiﬁcant when the constitutive model is nonlinear. 0. As will be discussed below. or the Elements 3. For ﬁrst-order elements the uniform strain method yields the exact average strain over the element volume. this means that opposing element sides or faces in three-dimensional elements must be parallel and. Full integration means that the Gauss scheme chosen will integrate the stiffness matrix of an element with uniform material behavior exactly if the Jacobian of the mapping from the isoparametric coordinates to the physical coordinates is constant throughout the element. This cost savings also extends to strain and element nodal force calculations because of the antisymmetric property of the gradient matrix. since the strains passed into the constitutive routines are a better representation of the actual strains. 0). but it has proved to offer signiﬁcant advantages. full integration is not exact because some of the terms in the stiffness are of higher order than those that are integrated exactly by the Gauss scheme chosen. which has the following antisymmetric property: Bi B B B 0 3 i = 0 2 i = 0 4 i = 0 1 = Bi . r) = @N @xi where Ve` is the element volume and i has a range of three. such as incompressibility. that the midside nodes must be at the middle of the element sides.” Reduced integration usually means that an integration scheme one order less than the full scheme is used to integrate the element’s internal forces and stiffness. h.4–5 . Not only is this important with respect to the values available for output. 1976): the strains are calculated from the interpolation functions with higher accuracy at these points than anywhere else in the element.2. Reduced integration decreases the number of constraints introduced by an element when there are internal constraints in the continuum theory being modeled. the centroidal strain formulation is less accurate when the elements are skewed. the reduced-integration points have the Barlow point property (Barlow. In the centroidal strain formulation the gradient matrix Bi BI is simply given as I = Ni I (0. Bi : 7 5 8 6 It can be seen from the above that the centroidal strain formulation reduces the amount of effort required to compute the gradient matrix. Bi . full integration in ABAQUS in ﬁrst-order elements includes a further approximation and is more accurately called “selectively reduced integration. For two-dimensional plane elements and hexahedron elements in a parallelepiped conﬁguration the uniform strain approach is identical to the centroidal strain approach. If the element does not satisfy these conditions.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA I . However. in the case of the secondorder elements. For second-order elements in which the isoparametric coordinate lines remain orthogonal in the physical space. Superﬁcially this appears to be a poor approximation. Such inaccuracy in the integration does not appear to be detrimental to the element’s performance. Bi . Ni I (g.

For hexahedron elements in a parallelepiped conﬁguration the hourglass shape vectors are identical to the hourglass base vectors. The hourglass control methods of Flanagan and Belytschko (1981) are generally successful for linear and mildly nonlinear problems but may break down in strongly nonlinear problems and. The reduced-integration version of the same element will often work well in such cases. This cost savings is especially signiﬁcant in cases where the element formation costs dominate the overall costs. Therefore. In such applications fully integrated elements will “lock”—they will exhibit response that is orders of magnitude too stiff. This most commonly exhibits itself in the appearance of singular modes (“hourglass modes”) in the response. a fully integrated. Hourglassing can be particularly troublesome in eigenvalue extraction problems: the low stiffness of the hourglass modes may create many unrealistic modes with low eigenfrequencies. It is essential to use the hourglass shape vectors rather than the hourglass base vectors to calculate the hourglass-resisting forces to ensure that these forces are orthogonal to the linear displacement ﬁeld and the rigid body ﬁeld (see Flanagan and Belytschko (1981) for details). costs less than 30% of the fully integrated version. The reduced-integration second-order serendipity interpolation elements in two dimensions—the 8-node quadrilaterals—have one such mode. The artiﬁcial damping method is available only for the solid and membrane elements in ABAQUS/Explicit. a point load is much more likely to trigger hourglassing than a distributed load. To control the I hourglass modes. i 3. Success in controlling hourglassing also depends on the loads applied to the structure. Finally. The second-order three-dimensional elements with reduced integration have modes that can propagate in a single stack of elements. second-order. For example.2. . therefore. using the hourglass base vectors to calculate the hourglassresisting forces may provide computational speed advantages. Because these modes rarely cause trouble in the second-order elements. the element stiffness matrix will be rank deﬁcient. The deﬁciency of reduced integration is that.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA Kirchhoff transverse shear constraints if solid elements are used to analyze bending problems. reduced integration lowers the cost of forming an element. 0I . while the reducedintegration version of the same element only uses 8 points and.4–6 . when reduced integration is used in the ﬁrst-order elements (the 4-node quadrilateral and the 8-node brick). except in one dimension and in axisymmetric geometries modeled with higher than ﬁrst-order elements. These are nonphysical response modes that can grow in an unbounded way unless they are controlled. are deﬁned: I = 0I 0 V1 which are different from the hourglass base vectors. may not yield reasonable results. therefore. for the 8-node brick elements ABAQUS/Explicit provides the option to use the hourglass base vectors in calculating the hourglassresisting forces. but it is benign because it cannot propagate in a mesh with more than one element. e` I Bi xJ 0J . However. for example. 20-node three-dimensional element requires integration at 27 points. In contrast. so the results they provide are quite unusable. such as problems with a relatively small wavefront and problems in which the constitutive models require lengthy calculations. no special techniques are used in ABAQUS to control them. the hourglass shape vectors. In ABAQUS the artiﬁcial stiffness method and the artiﬁcial damping method given in Flanagan and Belytschko (1981) are used to control the hourglass modes in these elements. hourglassing can often make the elements unusable unless it is controlled.

The approach is based on the enhanced assumed strain and physical hourglass control methods proposed in Engelmann and Whirley (1990). This is also known as the selectively reduced-integration technique. It can provide increased resistance to hourglassing for nonlinear problems and coarse mesh displacement solution accuracy for linear elastic problems at a small additional computational cost. Belytschko and Bindeman (1992). and “Hyperelastic material behavior. and Puso (2000).1).3. When large strain gradients or strain discontinuities are expected in the solution— such as in plasticity analysis at large strains. such as when the elements must exhibit bending behavior. The incompatible mode elements (“Continuum elements with incompatible modes. or analysis of severely loaded rubber components—the ﬁrst-order elements are usually recommended.2.” Section 3. Reduced integration can be used with such elements.2.5) should be used for such applications.” Section 4.6. second-order isoparametric elements are the most cost-effective elements in ABAQUS for problems in which the solution can be expected to be smooth. Elements Fully integrated ﬁrst-order isoparametric elements For fully integrated ﬁrst-order isoparametric elements (4-node elements in two dimensions and 8-node elements in three dimensions) the actual volume changes at the Gauss points are replaced by the average volume change of the element. Fully integrated ﬁrst-order elements should not be used in cases where “shear locking” can occur. such as hyperelasticity at ﬁnite strain.” Section 3. because the order of integration is reduced in selected terms. limit load analysis. Experience suggests that the reduced-integration. the mixed formulation elements with reduced integration should be used (see “Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA A reﬁnement of the Flanagan and Belytschko (1981) hourglass control method that replaces the artiﬁcial stiffness coefﬁcients with those derived from a three-ﬁeld variational principle is available in ABAQUS/Explicit. but because the hourglass controls are not always effective in severely nonlinear problems. or as the . caution should be exercised. Note that in the case of incompressible material behavior.

since the strain-displacement relation (. technique.

provides accurate solutions in incompressible or nearly incompressible cases: see Nagtegaal et al. Hence. In addition. In the three-dimensional elements the complete volumetric terms are modiﬁed. ABAQUS uses the average strain in the third (out-of-plane) direction for axisymmetric and generalized plane strain problems. J = 1 F=F J 1 n = det(F) is the Z Ve` Ve` J dVe` : 3. in the two-dimensional elements only the in-plane terms need to be modiﬁed. This technique helps to prevent mesh locking and. -matrix) is modiﬁed. In a ﬁnite-strain formulation the selectively reduced-integration procedure works as follows. (1974).4–7 . Deﬁne the modiﬁed deformation gradient . n is the dimension of the element. thus. J Jacobian at the Gauss point. J where F = @ x=@ X is the deformation gradient.2. This may cause slightly different behavior between plane strain elements and three-dimensional elements for which a plane strain condition is enforced by boundary conditions. and J is the average Jacobian over the element.

F33 dVe` . which is different from the actual element area for distorted elements with variable thickness. The modiﬁed rate of deformation tensor. the out-of-plane component of the deformation gradient is obtained by averaging over the original element volume.1. where it is used to obtain the nodal forces from the element stresses. @ @ f @ @ @ @ : = Z = 1 33 e` Z e` ve` Both of these averages are calculated analytically. The number of section points required for the integration through the thickness of each layer is speciﬁed by the user. and Simpson’s rule is used in the stacking direction.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. F V 1u + I trace 1u 0 trace 1u 1D = sym x x x In the above x = (1 2)(xt + xt+1t ) is the position of the point at the middle of the increment. for output purposes. is obtained from the modiﬁed deformation gradient as ! =2 3 F _ _ _ _ D = sym F F01 = sym F F01 + I 0 1 1 f J J J D where f = for two-dimensional elements.” respectively.4–8 .2.QUADRILATERALS AND HEXAHEDRA For three-dimensional elements n = and J (J ) are the volume change. Ve` and the out-of-plane strain increment is calculated by averaging over the current element volume.” Section 14. v 1 33 = 1 D 1 D 33 dve` : Integration of composite solids The composite solid elements are also integrated numerically to obtain the element matrices. This expression is used in the virtual work equation. I _ u D = sym x + I trace _ u= 1 Z x e` v @ @ f @ @ v @ @ e` _ _ u 0 trace u x x _ u e` x @ @ dv : . Gauss quadrature is used in the layer plane. These integration positions are referred to as “integration points” and “section points. so we can write For axisymmetric and generalized plane strain elements. In ABAQUS the central difference operator is used to deﬁne an increment of strain from the rate of deformation tensor. and is the identity matrix in two or three dimensions. Reference • “Solid (continuum) elements. f = for three-dimensional elements. This expression can also be written directly in terms of the velocities: where =1 2 =1 3 @ @ J . for two-dimensional elements n and J (J ) are the change in area. . Note that in the last case J is the change in area averaged over the element volume.

In the nonhybrid elements (except CPS4I) additional incompatible modes are added to prevent locking of the elements for approximately incompressible material behavior. 5 for CPE4I. hybrid elements must be used. The performance is considerably less if the elements have a parallelogram shape. it is not necessary to use selectively reduced integration. coupled temperature-displacement and pore pressure elements are enhanced by incompatible modes to improve the bending behavior. and 13 for C3D8I) the elements are somewhat more expensive than regular displacement elements. In regular displacement elements the linear variation of the axial stress due to bending is accompanied by a linear variation of the stress perpendicular to the bending direction.5–1 . which partially offsets the cost of the additional degrees of freedom. CAX4I. CPE4I.5 CONTINUUM ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES The lower-order quadrilateral continuum elements in ABAQUS/Standard of type CPS4I.2. The geometrically linear incompatible mode formulation used in ABAQUS is related to the work presented by Simo and Rifai (1990). (1976). (1973) and Taylor et al. For fully incompressible material behavior. and C3D8I as well as the related hybrid. the displacement gradient additional. these degrees of freedom eliminate artiﬁcial stiffening due to Poisson’s effect in bending. In addition. For trapezoidal element shapes the performance is not much better than the performance of regular displacement elements. incompatible displacement gradient ﬁeld ~ G: ~ ~ G = G+G = u +G x @ @ G = u is augmented with an x @ @ : 3. CPEG4I.2. The primary effect of these degrees of freedom is to eliminate the so-called parasitic shear stresses that are observed in regular displacement elements if they are loaded in bending. The incompatible modes prevent such a stress from occurring. Because of the internal degrees of freedom (4 for CPS4I. In this discussion we will not present this derivation but use only the key results of Simo’s work. CAX4I. In addition to the displacement degrees of freedom. In the incompatible mode formulation. In the hybrid elements the additional incompatible modes used to prevent locking are not included. which leads to incorrect stresses and an overestimation of the stiffness. However. The incompatible mode elements perform almost as well as second-order elements in many situations if the elements have an approximately rectangular shape. the additional degrees of freedom do not substantially increase the wavefront size since they can be eliminated immediately. and CPEG4I. The nonlinear formulation is based on work by Simo and Armero (1992).ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES 3. In addition. Simo’s formulation is very similar to much earlier work done by Wilson et al. In these elements pressure degrees of freedom are added to enforce a linear pressure variation inside the element. incompatible deformation modes are added internal to the elements. Geometrically linear formulation Elements As discussed in the paper by Simo. the incompatible mode formulation can be derived in a rigorous way from the general Hu-Washizu variational principle.

The ﬁeld cannot be selected arbitrarily.5–1) In addition. The last condition is used to obtain a suitable general form of the incompatible modes.2. it must be orthogonal to any constant gradient ﬁeld.ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES The incompatible displacement gradient ~ is chosen internal to an element. ~ G \ G = 0. the element does not pass the patch test. G which can also be expressed in the form ~ G 0 G 6= 0 for all G 6= 0: (3. It must be independent of the regular displacement gradient. @ =0 . We describe the incompatible ﬁeld as a transformation of a parametric gradient ﬁeld ~ ( ): g where t is the parametric transformation at the center of the element t = @x . which yields the condition Z Vel ~ G dVel = 0: If these conditions are violated.

.

.

.

5–2) j ( ) is the Jacobian of the parametric transformation at the location .2. j ( ) (3. where h is the thickness. for axisymmetric elements it is j ( ) = 2r( ) det @ @ x . and for three-dimensional elements it is j ( ) = det @ @ x : ~ g( ): Substitution of Equation 3. For planar elements the Jacobian can be written as j ( ) = h( ) det @ @ x .5–2 . ~ ~ G( ) = j(0) g( ) 1 t01.2.2. and j (0) is the Jacobian at the center of the element. where r is the radius.2.5–2 in Equation 3.5–1 allows us to create a simple condition for Z Vel ~ G dVel = Z j (0) Vel j ( ) ~ g( ) 1 t01dVel = j(0) Z Vpar ~ g( ) dVpar 1 t01 = 0: ! 3.

In two-dimensional elements 1 and 2 are vectors of the form ~ ~ g as a simple polynomial in . and 3 = 0 : :0. For approximately incompressible material behavior. 2 = 2 . ~ ~ g() d1d2d3 = 0: Z +1 Z +1 Z +1 01 01 01 This makes it possible to write written in the form i where are vectorial degrees of freedom and i are vectors and the summation i extends over the parametric coordinates.ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES For two-dimensional elements this yields Z +1 Z +1 01 01 and for three-dimensional elements. G u G G = u @N . The principal contribution to g can be ~ g ( ) = . 2 Elements 8 9 8 9 8 9 < 1 = <0= <0= 1 = 0 . :0. These patterns can be eliminated by the introduction of additional incompatible modes of the form ~ G ( ) = . : 3 . @x i i and can be treated similar to displacement degrees of freedom. parasitic shear and Poisson’s effect in bending are eliminated. ~ G ( ) = p i The principal contribution to the incompatible displacement gradient hence becomes j (0) 1 t 01 : j ( ) i With the addition of these terms. bilinear patterns in the hydrostatic stress can still be observed in all elements except CPS4I. g( ) d1d2 = 0. p i i 1 1 = 0 and in three-dimensional elements and 2 = 0 . Note that the vectors i in ~ appear in a similar form as the nodal displacement vectors i in .

j ( ) j . I j j (0) # ( ) I.

1 is where .

For two-dimensional elements a single term added with # 1 = 1 2 : 3.2.5–3 . j are additional scalar degrees of freedom.

ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES In the three-dimensional elements four additional terms .

Thus. #2 = 1 3 .j are added with #1 = 1 2 . #3 = 2 3 . the incompatible displacement gradient and # 4 = 1 2 3 : ~ G takes the ﬁnal form 1 ~ G( ) = i j (0) i t01 + .

The most obvious approach is to add the incompatible modes to the deformation gradient: ~ @x ~ F = F + F = @ X + F: (3. Satisfaction of the instantaneous patch test requires the addition of an incompatible deformation rate tensor to the standard rate of deformation: _ _ "_ " = " + ~: To obtain an approximate relation of this type.5–3) This approach has been used successfully by Simo and Armero. 32 + G23 The skew-symmetric part plays no role in the geometrically linear formulation. once the elements become distorted due to deformation.. j j (0) #j ( ) I: j ( ) j ( ) The symmetric part of the incompatible displacement gradient contributes to incompatible strains: 8" ~ >" >~ >" <~ ~ > > ~ : ~ 11 22 33 12 13 23 9 8 > > > > > > = < ~ > = >G > >G . any patch of elements will be able to represent homogeneous deformations exactly. Geometrically nonlinear formulation Since we want to use a formulation that can be used for any material model. that is. i. the patch test will no longer be satisﬁed in an incremental sense. Elements formulated on this basis satisfy the large-strain patch test.2. we write the total deformation gradient as the product of a series of incremental deformation gradients: F(n+1) = 1F(n+1) 1F(n) . This turns out to be a fatal ﬂaw in the formulation for problems involving large distortions in compression. >G :~ ~ ~ > G11 9 ~ > G22 > ~ G33 = : ~ 21 + G12 > ~ > 31 + G13 > ~ . subsequent homogeneous deformations will not be represented exactly.2. we want to express the incompatible modes as a modiﬁcation of the deformation gradient F. 1F(1): 1 1 1 3.5–4 . However.e. . .

.ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES Principal incompatible modes are then added to the incremental deformation gradient: + ~ ~ 1Fp = 1F + 1F = @xtx 1t + 1F: @ t Similar to Equation 3.2.5–2 the principal incompatible modes are described as a transformation of the parametric gradient ﬁeld g : where tt is the parametric transformation at the center of the element in the state at the start of the increment.

g t j ( ) t . 1~( ) ~ 1F( ) = j(0) 1~() t01.

.

.

.

and j (0) is the Jacobian at the centroid at the start of the increment. Note that j ( ) is evaluated based on the deformation caused by the displacement degrees of freedom only and does not include the volume change due to the incompatible modes. 1 (3.2. The incremental parametric gradient ﬁeld g has exactly the same form as in the linear formulation. x tt = @@t .5–4) j ( ) is the Jacobian of the parametric transformation at the location .

.

.

1~( ) 1~( ) = 1i i. g . =0 .

.

.

.

Elements which yields the principal incremental incompatible deformation gradient ~ 1F( ) = 1i j(0) i t01: t j ( ) t 1 Bilinear volumetric terms are added to the principal terms in a multiplicative way: ~ 1F = 1Fp 1FI = (1F + 1F) exp 1.

j j(0) #j ( ) j ( ) t .

.

.

.

@ xt j (0) ~ j (0) i t01. 1F = g( ) t01 = i ~ t t j ( ) t j ( ) t j (0) # ( ) 1FI : 1FI = .2. p h i 1 1 1 = @x . : (3.5–5) The variation in the gradient of the position with respect to the current state is obtained from the fundamental relation L = F 1 F with 01 ~ = 1F 1F01 = (1F + 1F)1FI + 1Fp1FI 1F01 ~ = (1F + 1F) 1F01 + 1FI 1FI01.

j j ( ) j 1F .

.

.

.

1 .

.

.

.

1 .

.

.

.

5–5 . t 3.2.

ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES This allows us to write for .

@ x 01 i j (0) .

1 1Fp + j( ) .

i 1 t01 1 1F01 + .

j j(0) .

#j ( ): L = t p .

@ xt j ( ) .

t t .

.

hence. equal to Z vel ~ p 1F 1 1F01 dvel = j (0) . L The integral of the principal incompatible modes over the element volume at the start of the increment is.

01 .

g ( ) 1 t01 1 1F ~ t p dvel j ( ) t vel Z .

01 ~ t = j (0).

1Fp( ) = vel ~ 1F 1 1Fp dvel = j (0) t . that is. since in that case the integral can be written as Z Note that the integral will vanish if the incremental deformation is homogeneous.t g( ) 1 t01 1 1Fp dVpar : Z Vpar 1F0.

.

h 01 Z Vpar gp ( ) dVpar ~ ! 1 t01 1F01 = 0: t 0 1 Hence. @ xt j (0) ~ d1F = j( ) d~( ) t01 = di j(0) i t01. p i 1 1 1 1 with d1F = @dx . the incremental patch test will be satisﬁed. The rate of the gradient of the position with respect to the current state is obtained similar to the variation ~ dL = dF F01 = d1F 1F01 = (d1F + d1F)1FI + 1Fp d1FI 1F01 ~ = (d1F + d1F) 1F01 + d1FI 1FI01. g t t j ( ) t t d1FI = d.

j j(0) #j ( ) 1FI : j ( ) t .

.

.

.

1 .

.

.

.

1 .

.

.

.

Further. Since the regular deformation gradient and the principal incompatible modes are purely displacement based. 2 dL = dF 1F 01 vel T : ( Lp 1 dLp 0 2 Dp 1 dDp ) dvel . For a ﬁnite-strain increment we use the midincrement approach proposed by Hughes and Winget.5–6 .2. the initial stress stiffness terms are readily Z obtained as where p 1 p is the gradient of the p p1 p is the gradient of the velocity and p T 1 p displacement variation including the primary incompatible modes. p p is 2 T the rate of deformation. This yields 1 1L 1F 1 1F0+1t=2: t The second variation is obtained in the usual way. D = (L + L ) L = F 1F01 dD = (dL + dL ) 3. and p 1 p p is the variation in the deformation.

ELEMENTS WITH INCOMPATIBLE MODES The additional bilinear modes appear in the ﬁrst variation only as variations (the values .

5–7 .1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.” Section 14.1. the contributions to the second variation can be neglected. hence. i themselves do not appear).2. Reference • “Solid (continuum) elements.

.

and three-dimensional analysis.6 TRIANGULAR.3. Corner nodes are numbered ﬁrst. with failure of the solution likely because of excessive gap chatter.2. these are also material coordinates.2. In contact problems this makes the contact condition at the corners indeterminate. and wedge elements for planar. The same argument holds true for contact on triangular faces of a wedge element. Hybrid versions of these elements are provided for use with incompressible and nearly incompressible constitutive models (see “Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation. and then the midside nodes for second-order elements.2.6–1 . AND WEDGE ELEMENTS The library of solid elements in ABAQUS includes ﬁrst.and second-order triangles. too many constraint variables may be introduced. The interpolation functions are as follows. Second-order tetrahedra are not suitable for the analysis of contact problems: a constant pressure on an element face produces zero equivalent loads at the corner nodes. and r shown in Figure 3. tetrahedra. AND WEDGES 3.2. axisymmetric.” Section 3. They each span a range from 0 to 1 in an element but satisfy the constraint that g + h 1 for triangles and wedges and g + h + r 1 for tetrahedra. otherwise. TETRAHEDRA.6–1. First-order triangle (3 nodes): u = (1 Elements 0 g 0 h) u1 + g u2 + h u3 Second-order triangle (6 nodes): u =2( 0 g 0 h)(1 0 g 0 h) u1 + 2g(g 0 1 ) u2 + 2h(h 0 1 ) u3 2 2 2 + 4g (1 0 g 0 h) u4 + 4gh u5 + 4h(1 0 g 0 h) u6 1 First-order tetrahedron (4 nodes): u = (1 0 g 0 h 0 r) u1 + g u2 + h u3 + r u4 Second-order tetrahedron (10 nodes): u =(2(1 0 g 0 h 0 r) 0 1)(1 0 g 0 h 0 r) u1 + (2g 0 1)g u2 + (2h 0 1)h u3 + (2r 0 1)r u4 + 4(1 0 g 0 h 0 r )g u5 + 4gh u6 + 4(1 0 g 0 h 0 r )h u7 + 4(1 0 g 0 h 0 r )r u8 + 4gr u9 + 4hr u10 3. However. h. The node numbering convention used in ABAQUS for these elements is also shown in Figure 3. these hybrid forms should be used only to ﬁll in regions in meshes made of brick elements.6–1. Interpolation The interpolation is deﬁned in terms of the element coordinates g. Since ABAQUS is a Lagrangian code for most applications.TRIANGLES.2. TETRAHEDRAL. for a detailed discussion of the formulation used).

2. AND WEDGES h 3 4 r 10 6 5 h 8 9 7 1 4 g 2 1 5 2 g 6 3 r 12 4 10 18 13 16 9 1 7 2 14 8 g 5 17 11 6 15 h 3 Figure 3.6–1 Isoparametric master elements.6–2 .TRIANGLES. TETRAHEDRA.2. 3.

TRIANGLES. AND WEDGES First-order wedge (6 nodes): u 1 = 2 (1 0 0 g h)(1 0 r )u 1 + 1 2 g (1 0 r )u 2 + 1 2 h(1 0 r )u 3 + 1 2 (1 0 0 g h)(1 + r )u 4 + 1 2 g (1 + r )u5 + 1 2 h(1 + r )u 6 Second-order wedge (15 nodes): u 1 g = ((1 2 1 + (g (2g 2 1 + ((1 2 1 + (g (2g 2 0 0 g h)(2(1 0 0 ) 0 1)(1 0 ) 0 (1 0 0 g h r g r g (1 h)(1 0 r 2 ))u1 h(1 0 1)(1 0 ) 0 h r 0 r 2 ))u2 + 1 2 (h(2h 0 1)(1 0 ) 0 r g h r r 0 r 2 ))u3 0 0 )(2(1 0 0 ) 0 1)(1 + ) 0 (1 0 0 )(1 0 2)) 4 0 1)(1 + ) 0 (1 0 2)) 5 + 1 ( (2 0 1)(1 + ) 0 (1 0 2)) 2 + 2(1 0 0 ) (1 0 ) 7 + 2 (1 0 ) 8 + 2 (1 0 0 )(1 0 ) 9 + 2(1 0 0 ) (1 + ) 10 + 2 (1 + ) 11 + 2 (1 0 0 )(1 + ) 12 2 2 2 + (1 0 0 )(1 0 ) 13 + (1 0 ) 14 + (1 0 ) 15 g h r u g r u h h h r g g h g h g r u gh r u h g h r u r u u gh r u h g h r u g h r g r u h r u u6 Elements Second-order variable 15–18 node wedge (assuming all 18 nodes are deﬁned): u 1 g h)(2(1 g =( ((1 2 1 1)(1 r) + ( (g (2g 2 1 1)(1 r) + ( (h(2h 2 1 g h)(2(1 + ( ((1 2 1 1)(1 + r ) + ( (g (2g 2 1 1)(1 + r ) + ( (h(2h 2 0 0 0 0 ) 0 1)(1 0 ) 0 (1 0 0 h r g g (1 h h)(1 0 r 2 )) + 1 4 (N16 + N18 ))u1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (1 0 h r 0 0 0 0 ) 0 1)(1 + ) 0 (1 0 0 g r g g (1 (N16 + N17 ))u2 4 1 2 r )) + (N17 + N18 ))u3 4 )) + h)(1 2 1 0 r 2 )) + 1 4 (N16 + N18 ))u4 (N16 + N17 ))u5 4 1 2 h(1 r )) + (N17 + N18 ))u6 4 1 1 N16 )u7 + (2gh(1 N17 )u8 + (2(1 g h)g (1 r) r) 2 2 1 1 N18 )u9 + (2(1 N16 )u10 + (2h(1 g h)(1 r) g h)g (1 + r ) + 2 2 1 1 N18 )u12 + (2gh(1 + r ) + N17 )u11 + (2h(1 g h)(1 + r ) + 2 2 1 1 2 2 (N16 + N18 ))u13 + (g (1 (N16 + N17 ))u14 + ((1 g h)(1 r ) r ) 2 2 1 2 (N17 + N18 ))u15 + +N16 u16 + N17 u17 + N18 u18 .2.6–3 . TETRAHEDRA. + (h(1 r ) 2 r 0 2 )) + 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.

with the integration points midway between the vertices and the centroid of the element.2.” Section 14.6–4 . 1973). The integration schemes used for the second-order tetrahedra and wedge elements can be found in Stroud (1971). For stress/displacement applications the second-order tetrahedron uses 4 integration points for its stiffness matrix and 15 integration points for its consistent mass matrix. The second-order wedge uses 9 integration points for its stiffness matrix but 18 integration points for its consistent mass matrix. AND WEDGES where N16 =4 g (1 0 0 g h)(1 N17 N18 = 4gh(1 = 4h(1 0 0 g 0 0 ) r 2 ) r 2 h)(1 0 r 2 ): Integration The ﬁrst-order triangle and tetrahedron are constant stress elements and use a single integration point for the stiffness calculation when used in stress/displacement applications. The heat transfer versions of the element use the six-point scheme for the conductivity and heat capacity matrices. A lumped mass matrix is used for both elements. Reference • “Solid (continuum) elements. The three-point scheme is also used for the stiffness of the second-order triangle when it is used in stress/displacement applications. The mass matrix is integrated with a six-point scheme that integrates fourth-order polynomials exactly (Cowper. with the total mass divided equally over the nodes. and a four-point integration scheme is used for the ﬁrst-order tetrahedron. Distributed loads are integrated using three points.1. respectively. For heat transfer applications the conductivity and heat capacity matrices are integrated using 15 integration points. Distributed loads are integrated with two and three points for ﬁrst-order triangles and tetrahedrons. TETRAHEDRA.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. The ﬁrst-order wedge uses 2 integration points for its stiffness matrix but 6 integration points for its lumped mass matrix. For heat transfer applications a three-point integration scheme is used for the conductivity and heat capacity matrices of the ﬁrst-order triangle.TRIANGLES.

7–1.2. so the relative motion of the two planes causes a direct strain of the thickness direction ﬁbers only. as shown in Figure 3.∆φy (x .2. which may move as rigid bodies with respect to each other. uz is the value of degree of freedom 3 at the reference node of the element.2. Y0 be a ﬁxed point in one of the bounding planes.2.Y0) . where t0 is the length of of the ﬁber between P0 and its image in the other bounding plane is t0 this ﬁber in the initial conﬁguration and uz is the change in length of this ﬁber.X0) where quantities are defined in the text.7–1 .GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS 3.7 GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS The generalized plane strain theory used in ABAQUS assumes that the model lies between two bounding planes.Y0 ) x Conventional element node Reference node Length of line through the thickness at (x.y) (X0 . Figure 3. It is assumed that the deformation of the model is independent of position with respect to this thickness direction. thus causing strain of the “thickness direction” ﬁbers of the model. The length uz . 3.7–1 Generalized plane strain element. Let P0 X0 .y) is t0 + ∆uz + ∆φx (y . ( ) 1 +1 1 Bounding planes Elements y (x. This strain and its ﬁrst and second variations are deﬁned as follows.

y in the element is ( ) t = t0 + 1uz + 1 (y 0 Y0 ) 0 1 (x 0 X0 ).” Section 13.2.1.” Section 14. "zz = t . therefore.GENERALIZED PLANE STRAIN ELEMENTS The reference node should be the same for all elements in any given connected region so that the bounding planes are the same for that region. where (1 )j0. Different regions may have different reference nodes. are the initial values of 1 . i = x.7–2 . y. the length of a ﬁber at any other point x. 1 = (1 )j0 + (1 )1. and the second variation is d"zz = dt 0 tt2dt . speciﬁed by the user. t x y x: where dt = 0x d1 + y d1 0 dx 1 + dy 1 y References • “Choosing the element’s dimensionality. The thickness direction logarithmic strain is "zz 1 = (1 )j0 + (1 )1. Since the bounding planes are rigid. t y x z where t = 01 y x + 1 x y 0 x 1 + y 1 + 1u . and (1 )j1 are the degrees where i i i = ln t t0 : The ﬁrst variation of thickness direction strain is.1.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Two-dimensional solid element library. x y x y x y x y of freedom 4 and 5 at the reference node of the element.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.

and Y -coordinates.AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS 3. z . The formulation of the torsionless axisymmetric elements is a subset of this formulation. . The order in which the coordinates and displacements are taken in these elements is based on the convention that z is the second coordinate. Kinematic description Elements The coordinate system used with both families of elements is the cylindrical system (r. the radial and circumferential base vectors e e e X = R e R + Z eZ : 3. If one allows for a circumferential component of loading (which is independent of ) and for general material anisotropy. let r .2. The motion at any point will have. . which is independent of . CGAX elements support torsion loading. whose geometry is axisymmetric (bodies of revolution) and which can be subjected to axially symmetric loading conditions. If the loading consists of radial and axial components that are independent of and the material is either isotropic or orthotropic. As a result. the body of revolution is generated by revolving a plane cross-section about an axis (the symmetry axis) and is readily described in cylindrical polar coordinates r. the geometric model is described by discretizing the reference cross-section at = 0. The reference position represented in terms of the original radius R and the axial position Z : X Likewise. in addition to the aforementioned radial and axial displacements. eZ .8–1. Consequently.8–1 . zz . nor is it the order (r. and rz . where r measures the distance of a point from the axis of the cylindrical system. and be unit vectors in the radial. In addition. the deformation of any r–z plane completely deﬁnes the state of strain and stress in the body. as shown in Figure 3. but the problem remains axisymmetric in the sense that the solution does not vary as a function of and the deformation of the reference r–z cross-section still characterizes the deformation in the entire body. the displacement at any point will only have radial (ur ) and axial (uz ) components and the only stress components that will be nonzero are rr . Let eR . In both cases. z .2. This section describes the formulation of the generalized axisymmetric elements. and .2. usually taken in cylindrical systems. This order is not the same as that used in three-dimensional elements in ABAQUS. and circumferential directions at a point in the deformed state. with being a principal material direction. At = 0. axial. z measures its position along this axis. CAX and CGAX. ). respectively. z . and circumferential directions at a point of the point can be in the undeformed state. and e2 be unit vectors in the radial. the radial and axial coordinates coincide with the global Cartesian X . displacements and stress ﬁelds become three-dimensional.8–1. Moreover. a twist (in radians) about the z -axis.2.8 AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS ABAQUS includes two libraries of solid elements. The radial and axial coordinates of a point on this cross-section are denoted by r and z . As shown in Figure 3. and measures the angle between the plane containing the point and the axis of the coordinate system and some ﬁxed reference plane that contains the coordinate system axis. and CAX elements as torsionless axisymmetric elements. z ). in which z is the third coordinate. axial. CGAX elements will be referred to as generalized axisymmetric elements.

8–1 Cylindrical coordinate system and deﬁnition of position vectors. uz . Z. Z z R. depend on the coordinate: er = er ( ) and e = e (). h)N . (R. Z ) . Z ) : r R. The current position x of the point can be represented in terms of the current radius r and the current axial position z : x = r e r + z ez : The general axisymmetric motion at a point can be described by (3.8–2 . h)uz N . but for the beneﬁt of the mathematical analysis to follow it is important that 2 be nonzero in the above expression for .8–2) The following isoparametric interpolation scheme for the motion is used: = N N (g. the degrees of freedom ur .AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS Y eθ er x eΘ eR X φ Θ e Z. = N N (g. e z θ X Figure 3. 2) = 2 + (R. ) = Z + uz (R. Z ) . and are independent of 2. Parametric interpolation and integration ) = R + ur (R.2. N uz = N (g. ur 3.2. Moreover.8–1) As the above description implies. the reference cross-section of interest is at 2 = 0. h)ur N .2. Z ( ( (3.2.

2.” Section 3.4. h are isoparametric coordinates in the reference r–z cross-section at 2 = 0. Deformation gradient For a material point in space. uz N . and ur N .2. it can be written in matrix form as F =4 1 + @ur =@R @uz =@R r@=@R 1+ @ur =@Z @uz =@Z r@=@Z r=R 0 0 3 5 . the deformation gradient is obtained as @r @r @z @z F = @R er eR + @Z er eZ + @R ez eR + @Z ez eZ + r @ r @ e eR + r @Z e eZ + R @ 2 e e2 : @R @ 2 2 3 (3. h) are those described in “Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra. Similarly.AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS where g. the partial derivatives of these base vectors with respect to are nonvanishing: @ er @ = e .8–3 . where the motion given by Equation 3. The interpolation functions N N (g.2.8–3) Alternatively. where the integration scheme of isoparametric solid elements is also discussed. @ e @ = 0er : e @ @ = @@r @Z = @Z e : Elements Thus. the inverse deformation gradient F01 is readily obtained as F01 = @R eR er + @R eR ez + @Z eZ er + @Z eZ ez + @r @z @r @z R @ @r 2 e e + R @2 e e + R @2 e e : 2 r 2 z r @ 2 @z 3.2.8–2 has been used explicitly. N are the nodal degrees of freedom. the chain rule allows us to write @ er @R e @ @ = @@r @R = @R e and @ er @Z With these results.8–1. the deformation gradient position x with respect to the original position X: @x F = @X : F is deﬁned as the gradient of the current The current position x is given by Equation 3.2. and the gradient operator can be described in terms of partial derivatives with respect to the cylindrical coordinates: @ 1 @X ( ) = @( ) e + @( ) e + 1 @( ) e : R Z 2 @R @Z R @2 1 1 1 Since the radial and circumferential base vectors depend on the original circumferential coordinate .

it is necessary to cancel out the contributions from the variations r L = F F 01 1 (3.2.2.1.2. and e at 2 = 0.8–4 does not simply follow from the linearization of Equation 3. = 4 0 0 0 0 0 with respect to the basis er .5. Therefore. the desired result for F in Equation 3. c R = 1 R .8–4) e = e and e = 0 er : To this end F can be modiﬁed according to ~ F = R1F. the formulation of equilibrium (virtual work) requires the virtual velocity gradient L.2. Namely. This tensor is given by where F is the linearized deformation gradient.8–3.8–5) .2. which is the variation in the gradient of the position with respect to the current state. where R = I instantaneously. ABAQUS formulates the ﬁnite element equations in terms of a ﬁxed spatial basis with respect to the axisymmetric twist degree of freedom. ez . or ~ L = @r er er + @r er ez + @z ez er + @z ez ez + @r @z @r @z r @ @r e er + r @z e ez + r e e : 3.” Section 1.AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS Virtual work As discussed in “Equilibrium and virtual work. 2 3 2 3 With this modiﬁcation the corotational virtual deformation gradient is given by c ~ F = R 1 F + R 1 F = 1 F + F . and the corotational virtual velocity gradient by c ~ ~ ~ L = F 1 F01 = + L . but its variation is given by c where is skew-symmetric with components 0 0 c 05 .8–4 @ r (3.

” Section 1.1. Moreover.2. ~ ~ d F 1 F01 = Reference r + dr @r e er + @ @d @z r + dr @z e ez : @ • “Axisymmetric solid element library.AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS The modiﬁed virtual rate of deformation tensor is simply ~ ~ ~ D = 1 L + LT : 2 Stiffness in the current state As shown in “Procedures: overview and basic equations. in this formulation d F is nonzero.1.3. ~ ~ ~ where dL has the same form as L in Equation 3. the contribution of the internal work terms to the Jacobian of the Newton method that is used in ABAQUS/Standard for solid element formulations is Z d 5= The second variation in ~ is obtained as D V ~ ~ (d : D + : d D) dV: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ D = dLT L 0 2dD 1 D + dF 1 F01.8–5.2.8–5 .” Section 14. that d F d 1 d c c c c c ~ c ~ ~ ~ F 1 F01 = 1 ( 1 d + d 1 ) + 1 dL + d 1 L + dF 1 F01 : 2 @d @r Elements In component form.” Section 2.1.6 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. ~ 1 F01 has the form ~ and it can be shown with the aid of “Rotation variables.1.

.

z . cases. augmented by Fourier expansions with respect to . as shown in Figure 3. = ( + ) tan(1 ) = 1 3.9–1. Let er . The geometric model is deﬁned in the r–z plane only.9–1 . This allows these elements to be used in conjunction with other elements in the library that allow only axisymmetric deformation. The distinction is of importance nonlinear (u only in geometrically nonlinear analysis with radially applied concentrated loads and/or sliding radial boundary conditions. of axial. ). The reference position the point can be represented in terms of the original radius R and the axial position Z : Elements X X = R e r + Z ez : Similarly the displacement of the point can be represented in terms of the components ur .2. uz . and u with respect to these same vectors at the original position of the point: u u = u r e r + uz e z + u e : For small radial and circumferential displacements the circumferential displacement is proportional to R ). The displacements are the usual isoparametric interpolations with respect to r and z . they cannot be used to model torsion of the structure about the original axis of symmetry.2. z . .2. Because the elements are intended for nonlinear applications. where r measures the distance of a point from the axis of the cylindrical system. Since the elements are written for bending about the plane = only.9 AXISYMMETRIC ELEMENTS ALLOWING NONLINEAR BENDING ABAQUS/Standard includes a library of solid elements whose geometry is initially axisymmetric and that allow for nonlinear analysis in which bending can occur about the plane = = in the (r. This order is not the same as that used in three-dimensional elements in ABAQUS in which z is the third coordinate. nor is it the order (r. ) cylindrical coordinate system of the model. so that z is the second coordinate. ez . independent of . z measures its position along this axis. uncoupled. the orthogonality properties associated with Fourier modes cannot be used to reduce the problem to a series of smaller. 2 = 2 Interpolation The coordinate system used with these elements is the cylindrical system (r. z ). The order in which the coordinates and displacements are taken in these elements is based on the convention used in ABAQUS for axisymmetric elements. but for large displacements this relation becomes the change in circumferential angle (u R ur ). and measures the angle between the plane containing the point and the axis of the coordinate system and some ﬁxed reference plane that contains the coordinate system axis. The original geometry of the elements is assumed to be axisymmetric with respect to the axis of the coordinate system and. For this reason these elements are signiﬁcantly more expensive to use than the corresponding axisymmetric elements intended for axisymmetric deformations. since the stiffness before projection onto the Fourier modes is not necessarily constant. thus. and circumferential directions at a point in the undeformed state.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS 3. and e be unit vectors in the radial. usually taken in cylindrical systems.

The only terms that satisfy this condition are 8 mp 9 8 91 8 9 0 8 m0 9 P M P < ur 0 = X < urc = X < 0 = < ur = X m uz . y. = =2. so that the plane = 2n. h. M is the number of terms used for c s interpolation with respect to g.2. h) u m0 + P X p=1 mp mp (cos p uc + sin p us ) ! . ) where g.9–1 Displacement and rotation in the r– plane. and ump are solution amplitude values. ( = r. We reduce the number of variables in such an element by assuming that bending is allowed only about one plane.9–2 .AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS x uθ u X ur R θ ∆θ Figure 3.2. + cos p : ump . n integer. such as slide lines. Hence.2. z. ump .A : z zc : u m=1 p=1 p=1 ump 0 0 s (3. h are isoparametric coordinates in the original R–Z plane. = H (g. Purely axisymmetric deformation results when P = 0. The r rc main reason for this is to allow the elements to be used with interface elements. A general interpolation scheme for u using Fourier terms with respect to is used: XH u = M m=1 m (g. + sin p : 0 . This deﬁnition of the degrees of freedom is equivalent to applying transformations to the global (x. 3. and um0 . h) @: um . is a plane of symmetry.9–1) For convenience we use the values of the ur and uz displacement components at speciﬁc locations around the model between = 0 and = instead of the Fourier amplitudes um0 and ump . H m are polynomial interpolation functions. z ) degrees of freedom associated with a standard continuum element. and P is the number of terms used in the Fourier interpolation with respect to . the nonlinear equations associated with these elements have the same structure as the equations for standard continuum elements.

9–1 is. The Rp interpolators at the associated positions p are taken as P = 1: R1 = 1 R2 = 2 1 2 (1 + cos ) (1 0 cos ) Elements and 1 = 0 2 = P = 2: R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 4 1 2 1 4 (1 + 2 cos + cos 2 ) (1 (1 0 cos 2) 0 2 cos + cos 2) 1 = 0 2 = 1 2 and 3 = P = 3: R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 6 1 3 1 3 1 (1 + 2 cos + 2 cos 2 + cos 3 ) (1 + cos (1 0 cos 2 0 cos 3) 0 cos 0 cos 2 + cos 3) R4 = (1 0 2 cos + 2 cos 2 0 cos 3) 6 3.2. in planes of constant . In addition.9–2) where Rp () are trigonometric interpolation functions and ump . Equation 3.2. that is.A .9–3 . + sin p : mp . h) @ R () : ump . ump are physical radial and axial r z displacement components at = (p 0 1)=P .AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS for which physical displacement values are required. therefore. we omit the subscript s in mp u . This is accurate only if it is assumed that the relative displacements in the -direction are small so that the interface conditions are considered with respect to ur and uz only. m=1 p=1 p=1 u 0 (3. z : u .2. the expression for the circumferential displacement: ump s rewritten ! 8 9 P 8 0 91 8u 9 M 0P +1 < = < r= X m r X p < ump = X uz 0 = H (g.

9–4 . either full or reduced Gauss integration in the isoparametric quadrilaterals). and it is assumed that.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS and 1 =0 1 3 2 3 2 = 3 = 4 = P = 4: R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 8 1 4 1 4 1 1 (1 + 2 cos + 2 cos 2 + 2 cos 3 + cos 4 ) (1 + (1 p 2 cos 0 p 2 cos 3 0 cos 4) 0 2 cos 2 + cos 4) p p R4 = (1 0 2 cos + 2 cos 3 0 cos 4) 4 R5 = 8 (1 0 2 cos + 2 cos 2 0 2 cos 3 + cos 4) 1 = 0 2 = 3 = 4 = 1 4 1 2 3 4 and 5 = P = 4 is the highest-order interpolation offered with respect to in these elements: the elements become signiﬁcantly more expensive as higher-order interpolation is used. 3. because of this. For integration with respect to the trapezoidal rule is used. full three-dimensional modeling is less expensive than using these elements with P > 4.2. Integration The integration scheme used in these elements is a product of integration with respect to element coordinates in surfaces that were originally in the R–Z plane and integration with respect to . For the former the same scheme is used as in the corresponding purely axisymmetric elements (for example. with the number of integration points set to 2(P + 1).

9–3) To be able to analyze approximately incompressible material behavior.9–5 . 2 3 Hence. and the gradient operator can be described in terms of partial derivatives with respect to the cylindrical coordinates: @X @ = @ @ er @R + ez @Z + @ e R@ : Since the radial and circumferential base vectors depend on the original circumferential coordinate : er = er (). 3. @ e @ = 0er : Elements With this result the deformation gradient is obtained as F = e r er + + 1+ ez er @uz @R e er @u @R u @ur R@ R @uz @uz + e z ez 1 + + e e z @Z R@ @u @u ur + e ez + e e 1 + + : @Z R R@ @ur @R + er ez @ur + er e @Z 0 Alternatively.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS Deformation gradient For a material point in space the deformation gradient position x with respect to the original position X: @x F = @X : F is deﬁned as the gradient of the current The current position x can be described in terms of the original position X and the displacement u. ez . e = e (). x = X + u = (R + ur )er + (Z + uz )ez + u e . e : 2 2 3 F =4 1 + @ur =@R @uz =@R @u =@R @ur =@Z 1 + @uz =@Z @u =@Z @ur =R@ u =R 5: @uz =R@ 1 + ur =R + @u =R@ 0 3 (3. the volume change in the fully integrated 4-node quadrilaterals is assumed to be independent of g and h in an R–Z plane. the partial derivatives of these base vectors with respect to are nonvanishing: @ er @ = e .2. this can be written in matrix form with components relative to the local reference basis er .2. F is modiﬁed according to 2 F 3 = J0 J 1 3 2 3 F .

which yields 2 i h 1"3 = 1 21L3 + 21L3T . since where xt+1t=2 = xt + 2 2 points that were in an R–Z plane in the undeformed shape will no longer be located in the same plane after deformation.2. In addition.9–6 .2. with 21L3 = 21L3 + 1 0tr(1L0) 0 tr(1L)12I 3. the part of the axisymmetric hoop strain that does not depend on is made independent of g and h. h) P +1 (Rp() 0 C p) ur =R = R(0. we use F det2 3 = 1 + ur =R + @u =R@. r where M X X (0. # ump . This expression is not easily evaluated directly. deﬁned t +1t=2 1 1 In matrix form this can be written as 2 1L3 = 2@1u=@X 3 2 2 3 F 0 1 @ 1u=@X 2 2 3 01 .AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS where J = F is the volume change at the integration point and J0 is the average volume change over the R–Z plane of the element. we modify the volume strain increment in the fully integrated 4-node quadrilaterals to be independent of g and h in an R–Z plane.9–4) with 1 01 1 1 +1 The strain increments are approximated as the symmetric part of 1L: i h 2 3 1" = 1 21L3 + 21L3T : 2 2 @ u=@X 1 3 = @ ur =@R 4 @ uz =@R @ u =@R 1 1 1 @ ur =@Z @ uz =@Z @ u =@Z 1 1 1 3 @ ur =R@ u =R 5: @ uz =R@ @ u =R@ ur =R (3. (3. we calculate the gradient of 1u with respect to the reference state and obtain 1L with the transformation 01 @ xt+1t=2 @X 1 @1u 01 : @ 1u @ 1u @ 1u 1L = @ X @ x = @X = @X F 0 2 @X @X 1 1L. t+1t=2 1 1u = xt+1t 0 1 1u.9–5) As was the case for the deformation gradient. Thus. 0) R(g. with C M X Hm " Strain and rotation increments Strain and rotation increments are calculated from the integrated velocity gradient matrix. 2 3 3. Experience has shown this considerably improves the solution accuracy for axisymmetric problems. h) m=1 p=1 m=1 p=1 p the leading (constant) term in Rp ( ).2. Instead. as 1L = @x@1u . 0) P +1 C p + X H m(g.

L is computed in a similar manner to L: = 1 u L = @X @ 1 @ X = @ u @x @X L 3 1 x 01 = @ u F01: @X @X @ 1 In matrix form this can be written as 2 = 2@u=@X 3 2F 301. the linearized strain-displacement relation involves taking derivatives in the deformed shape (x xt+1t).2. Hence. In addition we use the approximation tr(1 ) = 1 tr(1 ) +1 +1 1ur =R = " M X Hm m =1 M X X (0. h) p=1 m=1 p=1 # The spin increments. form becomes 1 . For fully integrated 4-node elements the volume strain modiﬁcation provides " " = 1 L + LT 2 2 . 0) R(g. @ur =@Z @uz =@Z @u =@Z @ur =R@ u =R 5: @uz =R@ @u =R@ ur =R (3.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS 2 3 where I is the unit matrix.9–6) where 2 2 @u=@X 3 = @ur =@R 4 @uz =@R @u =@R 0 3 + (3. L Lrr Lzz L is the volume strain increment at L0 is the average volume strain increment over the R–Z plane of the the integration point.2. where L = L + 1 tr( L0) 0 tr( L) I 3 3 Elements and u L = @x : @ As was the case for the strain increments.9–7 .2. h) P +1 (Rp() 0 C p) 1ump: r R(0.9–7) 3. which in matrix i h 2 1 3 = 1 21L3 0 21L3T : 2 Virtual work The formulation of equilibrium (virtual work) requires linearization of the strain-displacement relation in the current state. and element. are approximated as the antisymmetric part of 1L. which is troublesome since points that were in an R–Z plane in the undeformed shape will no longer be located in the same plane. 0) P +1 C p + X H m(g.

A : z : @uz =@ . which yields d 5= Z V " " (d : " + : d") dV: The second variation in " is obtained with the standard procedure " " d" = dLT L 0 2 d" 1 " .9–2. 2. h) m=1 p=1 m=1 p=1 M X " Hm # ump : r The displacements and. These modes are similar to the ones in regular axisymmetric elements but have some additional features. mp .2–1 to the averaged volume change formulation. the displacement variations. Hourglass control In the 4-node reduced integration element the hourglass modes must be controlled. the equations presented in “Solid element formulation. are interpolated in terms of nodal displacement variations with Equation 3.” Section 3. 1. The derivatives of the displacements with respect to R. 0) R(g.9–8 . p=1 : @uz =@R . 4-node quadrilaterals we again use the approximation M X X (0.2. 3. and are readily obtained from these expressions: ( ) : ump . h) P +1 (Rp () 0 C p) ur =R = R(0. : @u =@Z .A . + sin p : z m=1 p=1 p=1 u 0 8 mp 9 8 91 0 M P +1 P ur = X < 0 = X @H m X p < @ @uz =@Z R () ump 0 = + sin p : mp .2. m=1 @Z : z .AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS For fully integrated. Z .2. 1 where dL has the same form as L: This can be worked out in terms of nodal degrees of freedom " with the expressions for L and " obtained in the previous paragraph on virtual work. which requires application of an hourglass stiffness at multiple points around the circumference. apply. For the 4-node quadrilaterals. The hourglass pattern can vary along the circumference. hence. 0) P +1 C p + X H m (g. 8 9 < @ur =@Z = @u =@R 8 9 < @ur =@R = = M X @H m @R 0 @ P +1 X Rp 8 mp 9 < ur = P X 8 < 0 = 0 A. Hourglassing can also occur in the circumferential direction. we can adapt Equation 3. 91 Stiffness in the current state Since the elements are formulated in terms of Cartesian components of displacements. m=1 @ : p=1 u 0 .2. p=1 p=1 u 09 8 8 mp 8 91 9 0 M P +1 P < @ur =@ = X < 0 = X @Rp < ur = X m @u =@ H @ ump 0 = + p cos p : mp .2.

2.2. X = m=1 X M m Xm . where the only difference is the scaling factor required to reﬂect the fact that each point reﬂects only part of the circumference. Xm is independent of : 8 Rm 9 < = Xm = : Z m . and for u we obtain M X M X 1 F + x 1 F = u 1 F + x 1 @ u : @X 8 9 P 8 91 0P +1 < 0 = r X p < ump = X A u = m um = m @ R () ump + sin p : 0z .2.9–9 . where m is the same hourglass operator as used for the 4-node axisymmetric continuum elements and xm () and Xm are the nodal positions at angle in the deformed and undeformed states.9–7. Observe that since the initial geometry is axisymmetric.2.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS Hence.9–2 this becomes 8 Rm 9 P +1 8 9 P 8 0 9 < m = X p < ump = X < = r xm = : Z . + sin p : 0 . + R () : ump . The ﬁrst variation of q is readily obtained as q = x Here @ u=@ X follows from Equation 3. : 0 In the deformed state we write 8 R m + u m ( ) 9 < = r x m ( ) = X m + u m ( ) = : Z m + u m ( ) . we calculate the hourglass strains q ( ) = x ( ) F ( ) 0 X : 1 Here F is the deformation gradient as given by Equation 3. : m=1 m=1 p=1 3. : z p=1 p=1 ump 0 0 The hourglass “strain” transforms into an hourglass “force” with the hourglass stiffness c: Q = cq : This hourglass stiffness can be obtained with the same procedure as used for the regular axisymmetric elements. : z m u () Elements With Equation 3.9–3 and x and modes in the deformed and undeformed geometry respectively: X are the hourglass x ( ) = m=1 X M m x m ( ) . at each integration point around the circumference. p=1 : u0mp .

The equivalent nodal loads associated with surface pressure p can be obtained by considering the virtual work contribution Z A p n udA = 1 Z 2 Z +1 0 01 p @ x 2 @ x 1 x dd.9–8 can be worked out as follows: @ x = @r e + @z e + @u e .9–10 .2. and. which is assumed to change by a negligible amount.2.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS Similarly. For geometrically nonlinear problems the treatment of body forces does not change because of the ﬁxed direction of the forces and because the forces are proportional to the volume. Hence. with r = R + ur and z = Z + uz . Pressure loads and load stiffness For geometrically linear problems equivalent nodal loads due to applied surface pressures and body forces are readily calculated since the geometry is axisymmetric. However. p=1 : ump . r z @ @ @ @r @ @x = 0 u e + @z e + r + @u e @ @ r @ z @ . @ x 2 @ x = 0 @z r + @u + @u @z e + r @ @ @ @ @ @ @r 0 u + @ r + @u @r @z @z @r @ 0 @ @ + @ @ 0 u e : 0 @u @ @r @ ez + 3. we obtain for the second variation d q = x dF + d x F = u 1 1 1 @d @ where @ du=@ X and d u u X + d u 1 @ @ u X. follow with the same expressions as used in the ﬁrst variation. m=1 p=1 (3. : : u . the current position of a point can be expressed in terms of the surface interpolator hm ( ) and the standard circumferential interpolators: 8 9 8 91 8 9 0 M P +1 P < 0 = <r= X m X p < rmp = X A h ( ) @ R () z mp sin p 0 z = + : 0 . hence.2. @ @ where is the parametric surface coordinate in the R–Z plane and x = r e r + z e z + u e . for surface pressures nonaxisymmetric deformations must be taken into consideration.9–8) The terms in Equation 3.

9–11 . thus.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS Hence. nq with Z 2 Z +1 0 mpnq Kzr = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 p hm ( )Rp () hn( )Rq () dd 01 p hm ( )Rp () + mpnq Kr = Z 2 Z +1 0 @u n h ( ) @ d m 0 @r hn( )Rq () 0 @ dRq dd r+ @u @ dhn d R q ( ) 01 p h ( ) sin p @z dhn @ d R ( ) q 0 @z n dRq h ( ) @ d dd 3.2. obtain the equivalent nodal forces: mp Fr = Z 2 Z +1 0 mp Fz = Z 2 Z +1 1 Z0 2 Z0+1 0 01 0ph m m ( )R ( ) @z @ r+ @u @ 0 @u @z 0ph ( )R ( ) p @u @r F mp = 01 0 p hm ( ) sin p Z 2 Z +1 1 Z0 2 Z0+1 0 0 u 0 @ r + @ @z @r @r @z 0 @ @ 0 u dd: @ @ @ @ @r @ @ dd @u dd For geometrically linear analysis this reduces to the standard axisymmetric equivalent nodal loads Elements mp Fr = mp Fz = 0 p hm ( )Rp () @Z dRd @ p hm ( )Rp () @R @ dRd F mp = 0: 01 The load stiffness matrix follows by linearization: 8 mp 9 2 mpnq < dFr = Krr mpnq 0 : dFzmp . we obtain the virtual work contribution Z A p n 1 u dA = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 0p @z 0 @u @ ur + @ @ @ @u @r @r 0 u 0 @ r + @u uz + @ @ @ @z @r @r @z 0 @ @ 0 u u dd: @ @ @z r+ @u p With use of the interpolation functions we. = 4 Kzr mp mpnq dF K r mpnq Krr = mpnq Krz mpnq Kzz mpnq Kz Kr mpnq Kz mpnq K @z @ mpnq 3 8 nq 9 < du = nq 5 du r . : du z .

obtain the additional load stiffness contributions: 0 @ @ hn( )Rq () dd @u @u @r @r mpnq m p h ( )R ( ) 0 u 0 @ r + @ hn ( )Rq () dd = Kzz @ @ 0 Z01 dz @r @z @z @r Z 2 +1 dp mpnq hm ( ) sin p 0 @ @ 0 u hn ( )Rq () dd: = Kz dz @ @ mpnq Krz = Z 2 Z +1 dp Z0 0 01 dz 2 Z +1 dp 01 h ( )R ( ) m p @z @ r+ @u @ @u @z Mass matrix At each material point the displacement components in the three directions (radial. circumferential) are dependent only on the corresponding nodal displacement components.9–12 .AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS mpnq Krz = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 p h ( )R ( ) m p r+ @u @ dhn d R ( ) q 0 @u n dRq h ( ) @ d dd mpnq =0 Kzz mpnq = Kz Z 2 Z +1 0 mpnq = Kr mpnq Z 2 Z +1 0 01 @r n dRq h ( ) p h ( ) sin p @ d m m p 0 @r @ 0 u dhn d R () dd q Kz = 01 Z 2 Z +1 0 K mpnq = Z 2 Z +1 0 0 @ d sin q dd n @u n @r h ( ) sin q + 0 u dh sin q p hm ( )Rp () 0 @ @ d 01 @r n 0q @ h ( ) cos q dd 01 p h ( ) sin p m @z n h ( ) cos q p h ( )R ( ) q @ @z dhn @z @ h ( ) sin q dd: n In the case of hydrostatic pressure (p dependent on z ) some additional terms appear.2. These terms are readily obtained from the expression Z A dp n 1 u dA = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 0 duz dz dp @ 0 ur + @ @ @u @u @r @r 0 u 0 @ r + @ uz + @ @ @r @r @z 0 @z @ 0 u u dd: @ @ @ r+ @ @z @u @u @z With use of the interpolation functions we. axial. Hence. 3. thus.

h)H n(g.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS the mass matrix does not involve any coupling between the radial.2. and the superscripts p and mp mp q refer to a particular position along the circumference. f2 = pq 1 2 (1) : 3. The interpolation functions Nr . Nz . h) in the r –z plane and interpolation functions N are the product of interpolation functions H in the -direction: mp m p mp Nr = H (g. and mp m (g. For the r–r component of the mass matrix this yields Z 2 Z 1 mnpq Mrr = A H m (g. h) sin p: The volume integral used to form the mass matrix can be split into an integral over the r–z crosssection and an integral around the circumference. h) 2R dA: This primitive mass matrix is the same mass matrix that is used for the regular axisymmetric elements. After some calculations the following results are obtained: P = 1: f1 = pq 1 3 1 1 3 8 .9–13 . and circumferential components of the mass matrix then take the form mnpq mn mnpq Mrr = Mprim f1 = Mzz mnpq mn pq M = Mprim f2 : pq The circumferential distribution matrices can be evaluated for various values of the number of terms P in the Fourier series. h)H n(g. and circumferential degrees of freedom. h)R ( ) = Nz mp N = H m (g. mn Mprim = Z A H m (g. axial. h) 2R dA 2 0 Rp ()Rq () d: Elements This matrix can be written in a convenient form by deﬁning the primitive mass matrix. We can also deﬁne the circumferential distribution matrices f1 = f2 = pq pq 1 2 1 2 Z Z 0 0 2 2 Rp ()Rq () d sin p sin q d: and The radial. axial. and we can write the mass matrix in the form of three separate expressions: mnpq Mrr = Z ZV ZV V mp nq Nr N r d V mp nq Nz N z d V mnpq Mzz = mnpq M = N mp N dV: nq Here the superscripts m and n refer to a particular node in the r–z plane.

h) P =1 p=1 X Rp () pmp : In the nonlinear case will exhibit higher-order variations in . For approximately incompressible materials. 3. Along the circumference. In the pore pressure elements the degrees of freedom represent the hydrostatic pressure in the ﬂuid as interpolated from the pressure variables at the external. Hence. the higher-order terms in are not used for calculation of hydrostatic pressure: only the cosine terms as used in the interpolation for p are used.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS P = 2: f1 = pq 1 32 0 @ 7 2 12 2 01 2 20 2 01 2 7 1 A. h). f2 = pq 1 2 1 0 0 1 : P = 3: 0 11 1 B 2 pq f1 = @ 02 72 1 02 4 20 2 02 4 1 02 C . user-deﬁned nodes. respectively. In the hybrid formulation. In the hybrid elements these degrees of freedom are internal to the element and represent the hydrostatic pressure in the material. these higher-order terms are likely to lead to “locking” of the ﬁnite element mesh for nonaxisymmetric deformations. 128 @ 2 04 4 28 2 A 01 2 02 2 15 01 1 B0 f pq = @ 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0C A: 0 0 1 Hybrid and pore pressure elements For hybrid and pore pressure elements additional degrees of freedom p are added. we observe that in the geometrically linear formulation the volumetric strain only shows cosine dependence: = @uz ur @u @ur + + + : @R @Z R R@ Hence. we choose the hydrostatic/pore pressure to have cosine dependence only: p(R. Let the interpolation function for the (hydrostatic or pore) pressure in the r–z plane be denoted by Gm (g.9–14 . however. the hybrid elements prevent locking in the nonaxisymmetric modes as well as in the axisymmetric modes. The interpolation functions are the same as for the regular axisymmetric hybrid and pore pressure elements.2. ) = M X m =1 Gm (g. Z. A 1 2 11 f2 = pq 1 2 0 1 @0 0 0 1 0 1 0A: 0 1 P = 4: 0 15 2 02 2 01 1 B 2 28 4 04 2 C 1 B pq f1 = C B 02 4 28 4 02 C .

R ( )p mp . and the cylindrical components of the scalar gradient of the pore pressure with respect to X are readily obtained from the following expressions: @p @R @p @Z @x @p @p = @X 1 @X @x @p = @ X F 01 . asymmetric deformation. 1 = = @p = @ M +1 X m PX p m=1 =1 M +1 X m PpX p m=1 p M +1 X m PX=1 p @G @R @G @Z R ( )p mp . we do not evaluate the gradient directly but calculate it with respect to the original position X. mp : Elements m=1 G p=1 @R () p @ Reference • “Axisymmetric solid elements with nonlinear.2.AXISYMMETRIC BENDING ELEMENTS Pore pressure gradient For a material point in space in the pore pressure element.9–15 .” Section 14. with the following transformation: where F is the deformation gradient. Again. the pore pressure gradient calculation involves taking derivatives of the pore pressure with respect to the current position x.1.7 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.

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u (in stress analysis u is a displacement component) with respect to spatial distance r measured from 0 as r 1. a node that must be placed in the inﬁnite direction such that the straight line from that node through the corresponding interface node passes through the pole for that ray at a distance on the other side of the interface from the inﬁnite element equal to the distance between these nodes (Figure 3. 1=r3 as r ! 0. and u ! 1 as r ! 0. and node 2. In using inﬁnite elements for static analysis.3.and three-dimensional models of domains that reach to inﬁnity by combining this interpolation in the s-direction in a product form with standard linear or quadratic interpolation in orthogonal directions in the mapped space. when the boundary of the mesh may reﬂect energy back into the region being modeled. at r2 = 2a from the pole (the pole is at r = 0) and at s = 0 is the mapped space. on each edge that stretches to inﬁnity. such as a point load on a half-space.1–1). which model the area around the region of interest.1–1 .3. The one-dimensional concept is. The unbounded or inﬁnite medium can be approximated by extending the ﬁnite element mesh to a far distance. The far-ﬁeld behavior of many common cases. and. We obtain two. the pole must be located so as to provide a reasonable far-ﬁeld solution for the particular problem being modeled. The inﬁnite elements in ABAQUS are written with nodes on the interface between the ﬁnite and inﬁnite elements and. is thereby included.and second-order inﬁnite elements that are based on the work of Zienkiewicz et al. The static behavior of the inﬁnite elements is based on modeling the basic solution variable. where the inﬂuence of the surrounding medium on the region of interest is considered small enough to be neglected. The r(s) mapping is chosen as Elements ! ! r = 012 0 s s r1 + 1+ 1 0 s s r2 .SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS 3. (1983) for static response and of Lysmer and Kuhlemeyer (1969) for dynamic response. 1=r2 . distance r1 = a from the pole and at s = 01 in the mapped space.1 SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS The stress analyst is often faced with problems deﬁned in unbounded domains or problems in which the region of interest is small compared with the surrounding medium. so only linear behavior is provided in the inﬁnite elements. 3. so that u terms of order 1=r. where s is a mapped coordinate that is chosen such that the mapping r(s) causes r ! 1 as s ! 1. thus. based on a node (node 1) on the interface between the ﬁnite and inﬁnite elements. A better approach is to use “inﬁnite elements”: elements deﬁned over semi-inﬁnite domains with suitably chosen decay functions. The interpolation provides a “pole” of the solution. This approach calls for experimentation with mesh sizes and assumed boundary conditions at the truncated edges of the mesh and is not always reliable.3. The elements are used in conjunction with standard ﬁnite elements. with the inﬁnite elements modeling the far-ﬁeld region. when the solution variable is a stress-like variable (such as the pore liquid pressure in the analysis of ﬂow through a porous medium). ABAQUS provides ﬁrst. Static analysis The solution in the far ﬁeld is assumed to be linear. This modeling is achieved by using standard quadratic or cubic interpolation for u(s) in 01 s 1. It is particularly of concern in dynamic analysis.

which we choose to place at s = 1 : 2 u = 1 03 s (s 0 1)( 0 1 ) 1 0 2(1 0 2 s u a r s 2 )(s 0 1) 2 u2 + 8 3 s(1 0 s 2 )u 3 : The inverted geometric mapping then provides u =( 1 3 u1 04 u2 + 32 3 u3 ) +( 02 u1 + 20u2 0 32 u3 ) a 2 r +( 8 3 u1 0 16 u2 + 64 3 u3 ) a 3 r : 3. Using the inverted geometric mapping to deﬁne + 4 u2 ) a r 2 s (s 0 1) u1 + (1 0 s 2 )u 2 u (r ) then =( 0 u1 + (2u1 04 u2 ) a 2 r .3. we combine this geometric mapping with standard quadratic interpolation of u with respect to s.1–1 Pole node location for an inﬁnite element.3. when 1=r3 behavior is also required. Likewise.1–2 . we use cubic interpolation of u with respect to s. where u r ! 1). which provides the desired behavior. which inverts to give s 02 a r : When an element with 1=r and 1=r2 behavior is required.SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS r a 1 a 2 3 r0 r1 r2 r3 ∞ 1 s = -1 2 s=0 3 s = +1 Figure 3. so that r = 12 0 =1 a s . written in terms of its values at nodes 1 and 2 and at a third node. written in terms of its values at node 1 and at node 2: u = 1 (this gives gives u =0 at s = 1.

This higherorder interpolation is used for the pore liquid pressure for compatibility: since the displacement varies as 1=r2. We consider plane waves traveling along the x-axis.3. 3. " = I I : " + 2G".and three-dimensional elements for coupled stress-pore liquid pressure elements. Two body wave solutions of this form exist for this equation. @xi @xj where index notation has been used for simplicity. longitudinal (“push”) waves. and—thus—can be written as 0u + @@x 1 = 0.1–3 . therefore. Dynamic response The dynamic response of the inﬁnite elements is based on consideration of plane body waves traveling orthogonally to the boundary. is the stress. + @x @x provides the governing equation for the motion ui = G @ 2 ui @xj @xj + ( + G) @ 2 uj . Introducing this material 2(1 + G= response in the equilibrium equation. uy = uz = 0.SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS The inﬁnite elements in ABAQUS consist of two. One describes plane. The equilibrium equation is where is the material’s density. linear elastic. Elements where " is the strain and = (1 + )(1 E E 0 2 ) and ) are Lamé’s constants (E is Young’s modulus and is Poisson’s ratio). the stress) may vary as 1=r3 .and three-dimensional elements for uncoupled stress analysis that use quadratic interpolation for displacement components and two. we assume the response adjacent to the boundary is of small enough amplitude so that the medium responds in a linear elastic fashion. and assuming small strain: "= 1 2 ( T ) @u @u . which have the form u x = f (x 6 c p t). u is the material particle acceleration. Again. and x is position. in which the displacements use quadratic interpolation and the pore liquid pressure uses cubic interpolation in the inﬁnite direction. We assume the material’s response is isotropic. the strain (and.

is cp = s + 2G : ux = uz The other solution of this form is the “shear” wave solution u y = f (x 6 c s t).1–4 . by substitution in the governing equation above.3. We introduce distributed damping on this boundary. we ﬁnd that the wave speed. uy = uz = 0. superposition provides the total displacement f1 + f2. such that xx = 0dp ux _ xy = 0ds uy _ xz = 0ds uz . or =0 uz = f (x 6 c s t). with corresponding 0 0 0 0 stresses xx = ( + 2G)(f1 + f2 ). longitudinal waves. Since the problem is linear. cp . their reﬂection will travel away from the boundary in some form ux = f2 (x + cp t).SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS where. ux = u y = 0 . Now consider a boundary at x = L of a medium modeled by ﬁnite elements in x < L. Plane. G : where—again by substitution in the governing equation—we obtain s cs = In each case the solution f (x 0 ct) represents waves moving in the direction of increasing x. and velocity ux = 0cp (f1 0 f2 ). uy = uz = 0. _ where we will now choose the damping constants dp and ds to avoid reﬂection of longitudinal and shear wave energy back into the medium in x < L. For this _ solution to satisfy the damping behavior introduced on the boundary at x = L requires ( + 2 G and 0 d c )f 1 + ( + 2 G + d c )f 2 = 0 : p p 0 p p 0 We can. longitudinal waves approaching the boundary have the form ux = f1(x 0 cp t). ensure that f2 =0 0 (so that f2 = 0) = for any f1 by choosing dp = + 2G cp cp : A similar argument for shear waves provides ds = cs : 3. If they are reﬂected at all as plane. therefore. all other ij = 0. while f (x + ct) represents waves moving in the direction of decreasing x.

at free surfaces and interfaces where Rayleigh or Love waves are of concern.3. From the above discussion we see that they transmit all normally impinging plane body waves exactly (provided that the material behavior close to the boundary is linear elastic).” Section 14. During dynamic response analysis following static preload (as is common in geotechnical applications).1–5 . the traction provided by the inﬁnite elements to the boundary of the ﬁnite element mesh consists of the constant stress obtained from the static response with the quiet boundary damping stress added. 1983). As the boundaries are “quiet” rather than silent (perfect transmitters of all waveforms).1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.2. Nevertheless. Cohen and Jennings. and because the boundaries rely on the solution adjacent to them being linear elastic. Reference • “Inﬁnite elements.SOLID INFINITE ELEMENTS These values of boundary damping are built into the inﬁnite elements in ABAQUS. provided that they are arranged so that the dominant direction of wave propagation is orthogonal to the boundary or. General problems involve nonplane body waves that do not impinge on the boundary from an orthogonal direction and may also involve Rayleigh surface waves and Love waves. they allow a net rigid body motion to occur. they should be placed some reasonable distance from the region of main interest. these “quiet” boundaries work quite well even for such general cases. they are orthogonal to the surface (see. Since the elements have no stiffness during dynamic analysis. for example. which is usually not a signiﬁcant effect.

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In the inﬁnite elements the inﬁnite exterior is subdivided into elements.9. corresponding to interpolation functions in the inﬁnite direction. The acoustic inﬁnite element formulation differs from the radiation boundary condition formulation in several key respects. All of the surrounding ﬂuid may be modeled with ﬁnite elements. acoustic inﬁnite elements are provided. which allow the retained ﬁnite element ﬂuid region to be even smaller. with similar accuracy. but the harbor bottom and free surface may exert an effect at lower frequencies. However. ABAQUS provides several alternative formulations of these boundary conditions (see “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis. a submarine deep underwater may experience loads due to the ﬂuid and radiate sound into the ﬂuid.3.3.2–1 . Similarly.” Section 2. the effect of the surrounding ﬂuid on a submarine in a relatively shallow harbor may be like an inﬁnite medium at high frequencies. and “Acoustic. this is practical only if the extent of the surrounding medium is small. but the effects of the walls of the room may affect the radiation pattern of the low-frequency woofer. the accuracy of the inﬁnite elements is sufﬁciently high that the ﬁnite element region can be reduced considerably. are added to the overall matrix system. The method of weighted residuals used in ABAQUS results in nonsymmetric inﬁnite element matrices. For example.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual). and coupled acoustic-structural analysis. Transient formulation Elements The solution in the unbounded acoustic medium is assumed to be linear and governed by the same equations as the ﬁnite acoustic region: Kf 1 p+ f K f p0 _ @ @x 1 1 f @p @x = 0: is used here to denote the volumetric drag parameter.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS 3. Finally.1. These radiation boundary conditions are derived using simple models of waves passing through a boundary. At the next level of sophistication.9. These radiation conditions do not add degrees of freedom to the system and do not affect the symmetry of the matrix. The extent to which an exterior ﬂuid may be considered “unbounded” or “inﬁnite” depends on the number of wavelengths between the body or region of interest and the nearest boundary: the higher this number.” Section 6. ABAQUS provides a range of features to model exterior ﬂuid effects. the user may model a small region of ﬂuid and apply a simple radiation boundary condition to the terminating surface. Consider the inﬁnite exterior of a region of acoustic ﬂuid bounded by a convex surface and a conventional ﬁnite element mesh deﬁned on this 3. offsetting the cost in many applications.2 ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS Problems in unbounded domains. are common in acoustic analysis. so the relative cost of these elements is higher than that of a simple radiation boundary condition. clearly. the more likely that the inﬂuence of these boundaries is small enough to be neglected. and a method of weighted residuals statement is enforced on the elements in a manner entirely analogous to the usual ﬁnite element method. For example. shock. a loudspeaker in air may radiate sound from the high-frequency tweeter as if the surrounding air were inﬁnite. as if the ocean were inﬁnitely large. Degrees of freedom. or problems in which the region of interest is small compared to the surrounding medium.

1994). Inserting the shape functions into Equation 3. ~ p = pj j (g. The weights are chosen as complex conjugates of the solution ﬁeld functions times a 1=r2 factor. the damping matrix has positive eigenvalues. the choice of basis functions for the weight. Selection of these functions has been the subject of considerable experimentation and analysis (for example. see Allik. equivalently. damping.” Application of the method of weighted residuals results in a weak form of this equation over the inﬁnite element volume: Z Vf p Kf 1 p+ f K f p0 _ @ @x 1 1 @p f @x dV = 0: This equation is formally identical to that used in the ﬁnite element region (see “Coupled acousticstructural medium analysis. p. First. Finally. and the functions for the solution ﬁeld are chosen as tensor products of conventional ﬁnite element shape functions in the directions tangential to the terminating surface and polynomials in 1=r. a necessary condition for well-posedness in transient analysis. The element integrals do not contain oscillatory kernels and can be evaluated using standard Gauss quadrature methods.” Section 2.3. In ABAQUS considerations of accuracy. F (r0 =r)2. and for the solution ﬁeld. Moreover. h. 1994). Analytical investigations of the formulation demonstrate that the element captures the exact solutions for radiation impedances for modes of a sphere. time-domain well-posedness. the element can be formulated using the usual coordinate map due to Bettess (1984) so that arbitrary convex terminating surfaces can be used.9. h. numerical stability. and Burnett. ) eik(r0r0 ) . we transform the weighted residual statement into the frequency domain: Z Vf 1 @ p dV = 0: @ ~ 2 1 p 0 ~ ~ ~ K p + i K p 0 @ x 1 @ x f f f f (3. the Fourier transform is applied to the equilibrium equation. where r is a coordinate in the inﬁnite direction. in transient analysis the element results in a second-order differential equation for the pressure. ) e0ik(r0r0 ) . c2 Kf =f . h(x). and (x) are the parent element coordinates. ~ where g(x). Here. the mass.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS surface.3.2–2 . 0 and i are element shape functions with indices varying over the number of degrees of freedom of the element. and stiffness element matrices are constant as well. if the material properties are constant with respect to frequency in steady-state analysis.2–1 and integrating by parts. together with the normal vectors at the nodes. and a spatially oscillatory factor. the order of the spherical mode modeled exactly is equal to the order of the polynomial used in the inﬁnite direction. however. k =c0 . deﬁnes a subdivision of the inﬁnite exterior that will be referred to as the “inﬁnite element. This combination has shown to result in an element with several desirable properties. will be different.2–1) Now the weight and solution interpolation functions are deﬁned as p = piF i (g. 1991. and economy have led to the selection of a form proposed by Astley (Astley.3. we obtain the following element equation: 3. To continue with the derivation.1). Each facet of this surface mesh. p. The mapping and shape functions are described below.

h. Nevertheless.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS 1 @ @ 1 @F @i j j +F dV pj i @ x f @ x @ x f @ x Vf Z @ (r 0 r ) 1 @F 0 1 @ x i j dV pj 0ik @x Vf Z Ff p +ik ij dV pj Vf f K f f Z F 0ik @ (r@0 r0 ) 1 @i j 0 i @j 1 @ (r@0 r0) dV pj x @x @x x Vf f Z F @ (r 0 r ) @ (r 0 r ) 0 0 1 dV p = 0: 0k 2 10 Z 1 1 (3.3. Gradients of density inside the element volume have been ignored in the formulation. The element shape functions are deﬁned as follows: i (g. due to the fact that the weight and trial functions are not identical. if the material properties are constant as a function of frequency.2–2) Vf Kf @x @x i j j This equation is clearly nonsymmetric. r) fb B. each element matrix corresponding to the terms above is constant as well.

while the subindex . This function serves to specify the minimum rate of decay of the acoustic ﬁeld inside the inﬁnite element domain. . Elements where f in two spatial dimensions and r r0 (g. The subindex ranges over the n nodes of the inﬁnite element on the terminating surface. h) r in three. h) r f r0 (g.

one-dimensional shape functions for axisymmetric or two-dimensional elements. The functions b (g. The variation of the acoustic ﬁeld in the inﬁnite direction is given by the functions B. h) are conventional two-dimensional shape functions (in three dimensions) or. The function index i is equal to the subindex for the ﬁrst n functions. i n + for the second n functions. The role of these functions is to specify the variation of the acoustic ﬁeld in directions tangent to the terminating surface. with h 0. and so on. ranges over the number of functions used in the inﬁnite direction.

an i-th order acoustic inﬁnite element will absorb waves associated with the (i 0 1)th Legendre mode. 3. .2–3 . if inﬁnite elements are placed on a sphere and if tangential reﬁnement is adequate.h) . The ﬁrst member of this set corresponds to the value of the acoustic pressures on the terminating surface. Speciﬁcally. the other functions are generalized degrees of freedom. The members of this set are r constructed to correspond to the Legendre modes of a sphere. B 1 1.3. That is. which are members of a set of ten ninth-order polynomials in 1 0 2r0 (g.

ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS and where ^ B.

(1 + )B.

. for .

> 1. Z 1 01 ^ ^ B.

B (1 + )2 f 2 F d = 0. for .

6= : This last condition is enforced to improve conditioning of the element matrices at higher order and results in different functions in two and three spatial dimensions. All of the B.

This factor models the oscillatory nature of the solution inside the inﬁnite element volume but must also satisfy some additional properties. r where r is the distance between an arbitrary point in the inﬁnite element volume and the reference point. However. . in the usual isoparametric manner. The coordinate map is described in part by the element shape functions.3. where n is the “node ray” at the node. We use the interpolated reference distance on the terminating surface. in the deﬁnition of the parent coordinate. ) X +1 r n : b(g. except for B1 . The “node ray” at a node is the unit vector in the direction of the line between the reference point and the node.2–4 . h). h) x + 01 The inﬁnite elements are not isoparametric. h) X rb (g. The phase factor (r 0 r0) appears in the element formulation. h) . are equal to zero at the terminating surface. r0(g. corresponding to the inﬁnite direction: 10 2 0( r g. this singular mapping is convenient and invertible. Together they map the true. and in part by a singular function. since the map uses a lower-order function of the parent coordinates than the interpolation scheme does. it must be zero at the face of the inﬁnite element that connects to the ﬁnite element 3. With these deﬁnitions. To specify the map for a given element. the geometric map can be speciﬁed as x(g. we ﬁrst deﬁne distances r between each inﬁnite element node on the terminating surface and the element’s reference node. located at x0: r j x 0 x0 j: Intermediate points in the inﬁnite direction are deﬁned as offset replicas of the nodes on the terminating surface: y x + n r . h. semi-inﬁnite domain onto the parent element square or cube. First. x0.

but with the complex wave number ~ k s ~ Kf 3. it must be C 0 continuous across inﬁnite element lateral boundaries.1. Second. Third. the complex density f + ~ i is deﬁned. but it is essential for the well-posedness of a transient analysis. the deﬁnition r 0 r0(g. h) 01 . and coupled acoustic-structural analysis. In a transient analysis the element matrix equation is transformed back to the time domain.9. it should be such that the mass-like term in the inﬁnite element equation. Z Vf F Kf 10 @ (r 0 r 0 ) @ (r 0 r 0 ) 1 @ x i j dV. This last criterion is not essential for execution of a steady-state analysis. The expression for the basis and weight functions is formally identical to the preceding transient development.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual). The inclusion of the factor q is the only departure from the deﬁnition used in Astley (1994). The resulting weighted residual statement is ~ ~ 2 p dV + Z 1 @p 1 @ p dV + Z p 1 @ p 1 n0 dS = 0 0 p K ~ @x @x ~ @x ~ f Vf Vf S Z after integration by parts. where the subscript E refers to all elements at node .” Section 6. @x be positive semi-deﬁnite. Steady-state analysis Elements In steady-state analysis the formulation for the acoustic inﬁnite elements is consistent with that used for acoustic ﬁnite elements (see “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis.3.” Section 2. using constant material properties taken from the value at zero frequency. h) X rq b(g. The resulting second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure degrees of freedom is added to the overall system in the model and integrated in the usual manner. shock.2–5 .ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS mesh. Deﬁning q minE (n 1 nE ) .9. and “Acoustic. First. satisﬁes these requirements.

@x we obtain real-valued element matrices as follows: Z I @ [F ] @ i j Cfij = @ x 1 @ x dV. Z i @j @x 1 1 (3.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS used in the deﬁnition of the spatially oscillatory term in the weight and basis functions: e 6 k (r 0 r 0 ) : ~ After substitution and some simpliﬁcation.3. Z Vf R @F @ (r 0 r ) + p 2 0 @ x i 1 @ x 0 j + ZVf K f @ R2 @Fx i 1 @ xj dV. they are manipulated into real and imaginary parts. the acoustic inﬁnite element expression becomes Now so the mass matrix Mfij is the same as for the transient case. Using also 1 @p _ @p = @x . It is real-valued. The remaining terms are complex.2–3) ~ k ~ where = p " #" 2 f Kf + 2 = 2 1 #(1=4) [cos =2 + i sin =2] p " # I tan = R : i Kf [R2 + iI2] .3. as in the case for acoustic ﬁnite elements. We use f = 1= ~ 2 + 2 = 2 + i 2 + 2 = 2 R + iI f f to obtain 1 @F 1 + F @i @j dV pj @x ~ @x ~ @x Vf Z @ (r 0 r ) 1 @F ~ 0i k @ x 0 1 @ x i j dV pj ~ Vf Z F @ (r 0 r ) @ @j @ (r 0 r0 ) 0 i ~ 1 @ x j 0 i @ x 1 @ x dV pj 0i k @x Vf ~ Z ~2 0 k 1 0 @ (r@0 r0) 1 @ (r@0 r0) F ij dV pj = 0: x x Vf ~ ~ 2 k2 ~ = Kf .2–6 @j @x 1 @ (r@0 r0 ) F i x 1 dV. Kfij = @ Z Vf I @F @ (r 0 r ) 0 p 2 0 @ x i 1 @ x 0 j + Kf Vf 3. @j @x @ (r 0 r 0 ) F i dV: @x . and.

The contributing term in the transient case is Z 1 p + 1 p dS: p p+ + _ k f c1 f k1 c1 1 Slateral Applying the inﬁnite element basis and weight functions. We restrict the consideration to solid medium inﬁnite elements that share an edge with the acoustic medium inﬁnite elements and where the acoustic inﬁnite element is the slave in a tied contact condition. Lateral face terms due to impedance conditions An inﬁnite element volume may have an impedance boundary condition deﬁned on a face extending to inﬁnity.ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS These are used directly in Equation 2. Such a deﬁnition can be used to model. and stiffness matrices of the acoustic inﬁnite element: Z Slateral F i j f c1 dS pj + Z Slateral F ij Z f k1 + Slateral F ij + c1 dS p_j 1 1 dS p : k1 j Elements In steady-state and eigenvalue analysis the corresponding frequency-domain representation is used. a tributary area of the slave node is deﬁned.1–26. damping.” Section 2. As in the case of lateral-face impedance terms.1). those that extend to inﬁnity) can be coupled to each other. for example. The contributing terms in the transient case are 0 on the acoustic inﬁnite element and Z Slateral Z p 0 1 n0 1 um dS + 0 Slateral n0 1 um 1 p dS on the solid inﬁnite element. Coupling between acoustic and solid inﬁnite elements Lateral faces of acoustic and solid inﬁnite elements (that is. The derivation of the contribution of the impedance condition to the inﬁnite element matrix is straightforward and follows the derivation for ﬁnite elements (see “Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis. two inﬁnite half-spaces may interact at their interface. an inﬁnite half-space of water above a lossy seabed or under a layer of ice. and the conservation of momentum and continuity of displacement is enforced between the 3.9.2–7 . In tied contact between ﬂuid and solid medium elements. the lateral face contributes to the mass.9. For example. the derivation of the contribution of the coupling condition to the inﬁnite element matrix follows the derivation for ﬁnite elements to the greatest degree possible.3.

References is deﬁned. the “area” is unbounded.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. Alateral Z Slateral F f 2 dS .ACOUSTIC INFINITE ELEMENTS slave node and the master surface. shock.9.” Section 6. so an area measure based on the acoustic inﬁnite element formulation. This area measure is used to compute a volumetric acceleration load on the acoustic inﬁnite element: Z 0 1 0 1 0 p n0 1 um dS 7! Alateral n0 1 um : Slateral The structural displacement.2. is evaluated at the shared edge to compute this coupling condition. On a lateral face of an inﬁnite element. and coupled acoustic-structural analysis. • “Acoustic. um .” Section 14.2–8 .3.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Inﬁnite elements. For consistency the boundary traction on the solid medium inﬁnite element due to the acoustic pressure is deﬁned as Z 0 0 1 0 1 + n 1 um p dS 7! Alateral n0 1 um : Slateral In steady-state and eigenvalue analysis the corresponding frequency-domain representation is used.

1 MEMBRANE ELEMENTS Membrane elements are sheets in space that can carry membrane force but do not have any bending or transverse shear stiffness.1–1 simpliﬁes to u L L u x Elements W I = = Z ZV V . where e1 and e2 are in the surface of the membrane and e3 is normal to the membrane.MEMBRANE ELEMENTS 3.4. and Latin indices take the range 1. Greek indices are used to refer to components in the ﬁrst two directions of the local orthonormal basis (in the surface of the membrane). " = sym( ) is the virtual rate of deformation ( = @ =@ . Equilibrium The virtual work contribution from the internal forces in a membrane element is W I = Z V " : " dV. (3.4. 2.1–1) " where is the Cauchy stress. so the only nonzero stress components in the membrane are those components parallel to the middle surface of the membrane: the membrane is in a state of plane stress. The basis system is deﬁned by the standard convention used in ABAQUS for a basis on a surface in space.4. 2. and V is the current volume of the membrane. 3. At any time we use a local orthonormal basis system ei . In this section Greek indices take the range 1. Then Equation 3. We assume that only the membrane stress components in the surface of the membrane are nonzero: 3i = 0. where is the virtual velocity ﬁeld).

".

dV .

L.

where L. dV (since is symmetric).

= u e @x e.

= e @u @ @x.

The consistent Jacobian contribution from the element is dW I = Z A " t " : 0 " " " D : d" + : (LT dL 0 2" 1 d")1 dA: 1 Since we assume that 3i = 0. 1 and dV Jacobian = t dA. where t is the current thickness of the element and A is its current area. the ﬁrst term in the integrand is ".

D.

4. d" : 3.1–1 .

MEMBRANE ELEMENTS We also assume that there is no transverse shear strain of the element: "3i "i d"i.

= " d" .

the second term in the integrand is . Thus. .

@u @x @ 1 @u @x.

@u 0 1 e 1 @x 2 12 + @u e 1 @x @u e 1 @x .

+ e.

: We can write this out as 11 @ @x1 u 1 @du + @x1 @ 22 0 211e1 1 @xu e1 1 @xu 0 222e2 1 @ u e2 1 @du @x2 @x2 1 1 1 @ u @du @ u @du @ u @du @ u @du 0 2 (11 + 22) e2 1 @x e2 1 @x + e1 1 @x e1 1 @x + e1 1 @x e2 1 @x + e2 1 @x e1 1 @x 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 @ u @du1 @ u @du @ u @du @ u @du 0 12 e1 1 @x e1 1 @x + e2 1 @x e2 1 @x + e1 1 @x e1 1 @x + e2 1 @x e2 1 @x 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 @ u @du @ u @du @ u @du @ u @du + e1 1 e2 1 @x + e2 1 @x e1 1 @x + e1 1 @x e2 1 @x + e2 1 @x e1 1 @x @x 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 @x2 @d u 1 @du + @x2 @ u @x1 1 @x @d u + @ u 1 @du 2 @x2 @x1 Thickness change In geometrically nonlinear analyses the cross-section thickness changes as a function of the membrane strain with a user-deﬁned “effective section Poisson’s ratio. Total deformation The deformation gradient is F = @ x=@ X.” .1–2 . This nonlinear analogy with linear elasticity leads to the thickness change relationship: t t0 = 0 10 A A0 =0 : For = 0 :5 the material is incompressible.4. hence. 1 @x = @u 0. where A is the area on the membrane’s reference surface. In plane stress 33 = 0. linear elasticity gives 33 = 0 1 0 (11 + 22): l1 Treating these as logarithmic strains. t t0 ln = 01 0 ln + ln 0 l1 0 l2 l2 = 01 0 ln A0 A . F 3 = 3 @x e 1 @X =0 and F 3 = @x e 1 @X 3 = 0: 3. for the section thickness does not change. and. Since we take e3 normal to the current membrane surface and assume no transverse shear of the membrane.

1 : To calculate the deformation gradient at the end of the increment. the direct out-of-plane component of the deformation gradient is F33 = (F11F22 0 F12F21) 10 = @x @ @ .MEMBRANE ELEMENTS By the thickness change assumption above. ﬁrst we calculate the two tangent vectors at the end of the increment deﬁned by the derivative of the position with respect to the reference coordinates: n+1 n+1 @x where @ xn+1 =@ is obtained by interpolation with the shape function derivatives from the nodal coordinates and the change of coordinate transformation @ =@X.

The deformation gradient components are deﬁned F. is based on the reference geometry.

@X.

@X.

x = en+1 1 @@X.

deﬁned ^ 1 en+1 = cos(1 )^n+1 + sin(1 )^n+1 e1 e2 1 en+1 = 0 sin(1 )^n+1 + cos(1 )^n+1 . we do the following. e1 e2 2 F. Then ﬁnd the angle the element basis vectors en+1. n+1 : To choose the element basis directions en+1. Find any pair of in-plane such that orthonormal vectors en+1 (by the standard ABAQUS projection).

Elements satisfy the symmetry condition x = en+1 1 @@X = F.

: .

the rotation angle to be " # ^ ^ 1 = tan01 F21 0 F12 ^ ^ F11 + F22 F. n+1 Using the deﬁnitions of en+1 in terms of en+1 in the above equation.

^ 1 is found . where ^ def en+1 1 @xn+1 : = ^ @X .

The deformation gradient then follows immediately. F F.

and B33 F33 2 . For inelastic For elastomers we work directly in terms of B.

material models we need measures of incremental strain and average material rotation. where Fn is the deformation gradient at the start of the compute from F deﬁned by F current increment (at increment “n”): = =( ) 1 =1 @x (F n). which we F 1 Fn .

= (en) 1 @X.

4.1–3 . : n 3.

MEMBRANE ELEMENTS We can deﬁne the components of 1F01 by n (1F 01).

= (en) @x @x 1 .

hence. deﬁne F. and.

the normal direction (along e3) is always a principal direction. where R is a rotation matrix and V is a pure stretch: 1 1 1 1 1V = X1 3 1 1F = I =1 I aI aI (see “Deformation. so the eigenproblem is the 2 problem 1F F. We ﬁnd the the eigenproblem for 1 1 1I and the corresponding eigenvectors aI by solving 1 F 1 FT = 1 V 1 V = 2 2 2 X(1 3 I =1 I 2 ) aI aI : Since we assume no transverse shear in the membrane. The incremental strain and rotation are then deﬁned from the polar decomposition V 1 R.1). by inversion.4.” Section 1.

= The logarithmic strain increment is then X(1 ) I =1 2 aI aI : .

1".

= X ln(1 2 I =1 I a I aI . .

) and the average material rotation increment is deﬁned from the polar decomposition of the increment: 1R.

= X 2 1 aI aI 1 F : .

we can assume that 1R. I =1 1I Due to the choice of the element basis directions.

Reference .

1.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.” Section 15.4. : • “Membrane elements.1–4 .

and the only strain considered is that along the axis of the element. with 01 g 1 in the element. is deﬁned along the element.4. The quadratic interpolation version is in the library mainly for compatibility with the quadratic interpolation elements of other types. In the 3-node version node 1 is at g = 01.TRUSS ELEMENTS 3. so these elements are the simplest form of isoparametric elements. 1 2 2 where u1 . When the strains are large. The stretch ratio along the axis is = dl . and node 3 is at g = +1. g.2–1 . The elements are one-dimensional: a single material (isoparametric) coordinate. 1 2 (1 0 g)u1 + 1 (1 + g)u2 . They are pin jointed at their nodes. the formulation is simpliﬁed by assuming that the trusses are made of incompressible material.4. Strain measure These are one-dimensional elements. There are two truss elements in ABAQUS: a 2-node linear interpolation truss and a 3-node quadratic interpolation truss. In a 2-node element node 1 is at g = 01 and node 2 is at g = +1. such as shell element S8R5. 2 1 Elements u(g) = g(g 0 1)u1 + (1 0 g2 )u2 + g(g + 1)u3 . node 2 is at g = 0. and u3 are the values of a variable at the nodes and u(g) is the interpolated value of this variable. 3. dL where l measures length along the truss axis in the current conﬁguration: s dl = dx dx 1 dg. u2 .2 TRUSS ELEMENTS Truss elements are one-dimensional bars or rods that are assumed to deform by axial stretching only. Interpolation The interpolation for the 2-node element is u (g ) = and for the 3-node element. The same interpolation functions are used for both the Cartesian displacement components and for the Cartesian components of the initial position vector. dg dg and dL measures length along the axis in the original conﬁguration. and so only translational displacements and the initial position vector at each node are used in the discretization.

Second variation of strain The second variation of strain is d" = 2 dg dl d x dg 1 [I 0 2t t] 1 d dx dg : Integration Stiffness The linear truss is a constant strain element and so is integrated exactly. So.4. Mass and consistent loads A linear truss has two Gauss points. W = Z L A" dL: 3.2–2 . is the “true” (Cauchy) stress along the truss. where a is the current cross-sectional area of the truss. Since we assume the truss is incompressible. a dl = A dL. where t= dg dx dl dg is a unit tangent along the truss axis. The quadratic truss is integrated numerically using two Gauss points. where A is the original area and L the original length of the truss. " is the logarithmic strain.TRUSS ELEMENTS For geometrically nonlinear analysis we use a logarithmic strain measure: " = ln dl dL : First variation of strain The ﬁrst variation of strain is " = dg dl t1 d x dg . Virtual work contribution The virtual work contribution from the stress in a truss element is W = Z l a" dl. and l is the length of the element. A quadratic truss has three Gauss points.

2–3 .2. Mixed (hybrid) forms “Hybrid” truss elements are also available in ABAQUS/Standard. without the bending terms.TRUSS ELEMENTS This is the form in which the internal virtual work contribution is used for truss elements.” Section 3.4. with the compatibility condition introduced to deﬁne these variables.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3. The formulation is identical to that used for the hybrid beam elements (“Hybrid beam elements. In those elements the axial force at the integration points is taken as an additional variable.5.” Section 15. Reference • “Truss elements.4).

.

any r–z line) completely deﬁnes the state of stress and strain in the body. Let eR . more precisely. z measures its position along this axis. z ) that is usually taken in cylindrical systems. with being a principal material direction. The formulation of the regular axisymmetric membrane elements is a subset of this formulation. z . where r measures the distance of a point from the axis of the cylindrical system. The radial and axial coordinates of a point on this cross-section are denoted by r and z . and . ). The motion at any point will have—in addition to the aforementioned radial and axial displacements—a twist (in radians) about the z -axis. MGAX elements will be referred to as generalized axisymmetric membrane elements. If one allows for a circumferential component of loading (which is independent of ) and general material anisotropy. At = 0. In both cases the body of revolution is generated by revolving a line that represents the membrane surface (a membrane has negligible thickness) about an axis (the symmetry axis) and is described readily in cylindrical coordinates r. and measures the angle between the plane containing the point and the axis of the coordinate system and some ﬁxed reference plane that contains the coordinate system axis. z . in which z is the third coordinate. the radial and axial coordinates coincide with the global Cartesian X . . where s denotes a length measuring coordinate along the line representing the membrane surface on any r–z plane. The order in which the coordinates and displacements are taken in these elements is based on the convention that z is the second coordinate. s . Kinematic description Elements The coordinate system used with both families of elements is the cylindrical system (r.3 AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES ABAQUS includes two libraries of axisymmetric membrane elements. Therefore. as shown in Figure 3. axial. and MAX elements will be referred to as regular axisymmetric membrane elements. which is independent of . the displacement at any point will have only radial (ur ) and axial (uz ) components. the problem remains axisymmetric in the sense that the solution does not vary as a function of . However. There will also be a nonzero in-plane shear stress.and Y -coordinates. and e2 be unit vectors in the radial. This section describes the formulation of the generalized axisymmetric membrane elements. If the loading consists of radial and axial components that are independent of and the material is either isotropic or orthotropic.3–1.4.4. Consequently. the geometric model is described by discretizing the reference cross-section at = 0. displacements and stress ﬁelds become three-dimensional. The only nonzero stress components are ss and . and the deformation of the reference r–z cross-section characterizes the deformation in the entire body. eZ .4. whose geometry is axisymmetric (bodies of revolution) and that can be subjected to axially symmetric loading conditions. MAX and MGAX. The deformation of any r–z plane (or. The reference position X 3.3–1 . This order is not the same as that used in three-dimensional elements in ABAQUS.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES 3. MGAX elements support torsion loading and general material anisotropy. nor is it the order (r. In addition. as a result of the deformation. respectively. and circumferential directions at a point of the point can be in the undeformed state.

Z ) = Z + uz (R. axial. represented in terms of the original radius.3–1) 3. Z. Moreover. for the beneﬁt of the mathematical analysis to follow.3–1 Cylindrical coordinate system and deﬁnition of position vectors. Z (3. Z : X = ReR + Z eZ . of the point can be represented in terms of the current radius. As shown in Figure 3.4. let r . and are independent of 2. uz . however. z . r. the degrees of freedom ur . and be unit vectors in the radial. R.4. it is important that 2 be considered an independent variable in the above expression for . The current position. Likewise. z . Z ) . 2) = 2 + (R. ( ) = R + ur (R. and the axial position. Z ) : r R.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES Y eθ er x eΘ eR X φ Θ eZ. . and the current axial position. (R. and circumferential directions at a point in the deformed state. the reference cross-section of interest is at 2 = 0. z (R.3–2 .3–1. the radial and circumferential base vectors depend on the coordinate: r = r ( ) and = (). Z ) . ez θ X Figure 3.4. as e e e x e e e e x = r er + z ez : The general axisymmetric motion at a point on the membrane surface can be described by As this description implies.4.

3–3 .2).4. In the undeformed conﬁguration the basis vectors are deﬁned by @X Ei = @S . The interpolation functions are identical to those used for truss elements (see “Truss elements. where the si denote length measuring coordinates in the current conﬁguration along the element length and the hoop direction.4. N are the nodal degrees of freedom. X. x. E2 = R@ 2 : @S In the current conﬁguration ABAQUS formulates the equations in terms of a ﬁxed spatial basis with respect to the axisymmetric twist degree of freedom. these vectors can be deﬁned at 2 = 0 as @x ei = @s . =N ur where g is the isoparametric coordinate in the reference r–z cross-section at 2 = 0. u z = N N (g )u z N . respectively. All elements use reduced integration. However. Thus. @S @s i (3. respectively. and ur N . N (g ) N . uz N .AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES Parametric interpolation and integration The following isoparametric interpolation scheme is used for the motion: = N N (g )u r N . the basis vectors in the reference and current conﬁgurations can be written as @X @x E1 = @ X . @X E1 = @ X . e2 = r@ . e1 = @ x . E2 = R@ 2 . with respect to the original position. and is given by @x F = @X : (3. because of the axisymmetry of the model in the deformed conﬁguration. Thus.4.3–3) 3. Deformation gradient For a material point the deformation gradient F is deﬁned as the gradient of the current position.” Section 3.3–2) Elements The components of the deformation gradient require that two sets of orthonormal basis vectors be deﬁned. The basis vectors convect with the material. i where the Si denote length measuring coordinates in the reference conﬁguration along the element length and the hoop direction.4.

The components of the deformation gradient in the two sets of basis vectors may be computed as F.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES where S and s are length measuring coordinates along the element length in the reference and current conﬁgurations. respectively.

= e F E.

3–3. the desired result for F does not simply follow from the linearization of Equation 3. ~ F = R1F.4.” Section 1. but its variation is given by c R = 1 R . 1 where F represents the ﬁrst variation of the deformation gradient tensor. F12 = 0 . the components of the deformation gradient tensor are F11 F21 @ = r @S .4. To this end. 0 0 0 3. according to where F can be modiﬁed R = I instantaneously. : 1 1 Using the deﬁnitions of the basis vectors in Equation 3.4. Namely. which takes the form L = F F 01 .3–2.1. Therefore.5. the virtual velocity gradient can be written as x L = @x : @ Recall that ABAQUS formulates the ﬁnite element equations in terms of a ﬁxed spatial basis with respect to the axisymmetric twist degree of freedom. Alternatively. @s @s Virtual work As discussed in “Equilibrium and virtual work. r F22 = : R @r @z = @r @S + @z @S . c where is skew-symmetric with components 2 3 c 0 0 = 4 0 0 0 5 . the formulation of equilibrium (virtual work) requires the virtual velocity gradient.3–4 2 3 . the contributions from the variations er = e and e = 0 er arising from the spin of the coordinate system must be canceled out.

ez . = 0 : ~ L22amp. L31amp. = 0 . With this modiﬁcation. • “Axisymmetric membrane element library. there are additional contributions from d Lij . Stiffness in the current state The second variation has the usual contribution: ~ ~ ~ d Dij = sym ( LkidLkj ~ ~ 0 2 Dik dDkj ): ~ Moreover. @s @s @s @s @ ~ L21 = r . = @s @s @s @s ~ L12amp. + @r @r @z @z 0 r ~ L32amp. ~ d L21 = r ~ d L12 = 0 . = r .4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. which are given by ~ d L11 = 0 . the corotational virtual deformation gradient is given by ~ = F c R F + R F = F + F . Elements ~ The components Li3 are not determined by the kinematics.AXISYMMETRIC MEMBRANES with respect to the basis er .” Section 15.1. The remaining terms do not contribute since i3 Reference = 0. ~ d L22 = 0 : @d @s + dr @ @s . @s @z @r @r @z ~ .4. and e at = 0.3–5 . 1 1 1 and the corotational virtual velocity gradient by ~ = ~ L c ~ F F 01 = + L : 1 ~ The individual components of L are given by ~ L11 = .

.

that plane crosssections initially normal to the beam’s axis remain plane. and undistorted. The response of such open sections is strongly effected by warping. For certain important designs the beam is constructed from thin segments made up into an open section. etc. Some additional assumptions are made in the derivation of these elements: these are introduced in the detailed derivation in “Beam element formulation. For such assumptions to be reasonable. while the axial strain may be arbitrarily large. The simplest approach to beam theory is the classical Euler-Bernoulli assumption. A “beam” in this context is an element in which assumptions are made so that the problem is reduced to one dimension mathematically: the primary solution variables are functions of position along the beam axis only. and the axial strain is assumed to be small in the calculation of the torsional shear strain: thus.) are also derived.5. Beam elements that allow for warping of open sections (B31OS. 1956) and is generally considered useful for thicker beams. B22.5. and then only when the axial strain is not large.” Section 3. B33.) are based on such a formulation.5. The beam elements in ABAQUS that use cubic interpolation (element types B23. with the addition that these elements also allow “transverse shear strain”. whose shear ﬂexibility may be important. normal to the beam axis.BEAM ELEMENTS 3.” Section 3. Elements 3.” Section 3. The Euler-Bernoulli beam elements are described in “Euler-Bernoulli beam elements.5. only “moderately large” torsional strain is modeled correctly. that is. the radius of curvature of the beam is large compared to distances in the cross-section: the beam cannot fold into a tight hinge. it is intuitively clear that a beam must be a continuum in which we can deﬁne an axis such that the shortest distance from the axis to any point in the continuum is small compared to typical lengths along the axis.) all use this assumption.1–1 . and different beam elements in ABAQUS use different assumptions. when material particles move out of the plane of the section along lines parallel to the beam axis so as to minimize the shearing between lines along the wall of the section and along the beam axis. etc.5.2) includes provision for such effects. This approximation can also be used to formulate beams for large axial strains as well as large rotations. the crosssection may not necessarily remain normal to the beam axis.” Section 3.5. This idea is made more precise in the detailed derivations in “Beam element formulation.1 BEAM ELEMENT OVERVIEW The element library in ABAQUS contains several types of beam elements. throughout the motion. The particular approach used for modeling open section warping in ABAQUS is based on the assumption that the warping amplitude is never large anywhere along the beam axis because the warping will be constrained at some points along the beam— perhaps because one or both ends of the beam are built into a stiff structure or because some form of transverse stiffeners are added. There are several levels of complexity in the assumptions upon which the reduction to a one-dimensional problem can be made.3. A further assumption is that the strain in the beam’s cross-section is the same in any direction in the cross-section and throughout the section.2. B31. The beam elements in ABAQUS that use linear and quadratic interpolation (B21. B32OS etc. We assume that. The beam element formulation (“Beam element formulation. This extension leads to Timoshenko beam theory (Timoshenko. (These elements in ABAQUS are formulated so that they are efﬁcient for thin beams— where Euler-Bernoulli theory is accurate—as well as for thick beams: because of this they are the most effective beam elements in ABAQUS. but quadratic terms in the nominal torsional strain are neglected compared to unity.) The large-strain formulation in these elements allows axial strains of arbitrary magnitude. implemented in the context of arbitrarily large rotations but small strains.2. B32.

Elbow elements are provided for that purpose. ovalization of the section implies a strong gradient of strain with respect to position through the wall of the pipe: this requires numerical integration through the pipe wall.3.1–2 . the axial yield stress will be different in tension and compression because of the interaction with this hoop stress. Since consideration of planar deformation only provides considerable simpliﬁcation in formulating beam elements. due to wind or current) will rotate with the beam. for each beam element type in ABAQUS a corresponding beam element is provided that only moves in the (X. they are described in “Elbow elements. in which the axial (and transverse) forces are treated as independent degrees of freedom. This makes the elbow elements computationally more expensive than beams. on top of that used around the pipe section.2. leading to follower force effects. Elbow elements look like beam elements to the user. Y ) plane.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.5.” Section 3. for which the length to thickness ratio is O(103 ) or more and geometrically nonlinear analysis is required (such as pipelines).5. For extremely slender beams. In some piping applications thin-walled. The hybrid beam formulation is described in “Hybrid beam elements. Reference • “Beam modeling: overview.4. convergence may become very poor. of the crosssection may be important: these effects can reduce the bending stiffness of the member by a factor of ﬁve or more in common piping designs. can be beneﬁcial. if the section yields plastically. but when nonlinear material response is a part of the problem it is necessary to model this ovalization and warping explicitly.1.” In such cases the ovalization and. warping. However. to capture the material response.BEAM ELEMENTS The regular beam elements can be used for slender and moderately thick beams. The PIPE elements allow for this effect by providing uniform radial expansion of the cross-section caused by internal pressure.9. or a section of pipe may already be curved in its initial conﬁguration—it might be an “elbow. This has the effect of creating high levels of hoop stress around the wall of the pipe section so that. Distributed pressure loads applied to beams (for example. For such cases use of the hybrid elements. circular.” Section 6. relatively straight pipes are subjected to relatively large magnitudes of internal pressure. The derivation of the load stiffness that accounts for this effect is presented in “Load stiffness for beam elements.5. the open section beams are provided only in three dimensions for reasons that are obvious.” Section 3. For materially linear analysis these effects can be incorporated by making suitable adjustments to the section’s bending stiffness (by multiplying the bending stiffness calculated from beam theory by suitable ﬂexibility factors). In other piping cases thin-walled straight pipes might be subjected to large amounts of bending so that the section collapses (“Brazier collapse”). but they incorporate displacement variables that allow ovalization and warping and so are much more complex in their formulation.” Section 15. In particular. possibly.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION 3. t(S ) is the unit vector orthogonal to n1 and n2. dS Elements . the position of a material point in the cross-section is given by the expression ^ x(S. the beam section directions are approximately orthogonal to the beam axis tangent s given by s = 01 where is the axial stretch given by dx . These quantities are functions of the beam axis coordinate S and the cross-sectional coordinates S . (S ) is the warping function of the section. w(S ) is the warping amplitude. It is assumed that at the integration points along the beam. and f (S ) is a cross-sectional scaling factor depending on the stretch of the beam. The warping function is chosen such that the value at the origin of the section vanishes: (0) = 0.5.2 BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION At a given stage in the deformation history of the beam. S ) = x(S ) + f (S )S n(S ) + w(S ) (S )t(S ): In this expression x(S ) is the position of a point on the centerline. which are assumed to be distances measured in the original (reference) conﬁguration of the beam. n(S ) are unit orthogonal direction vectors in the plane of the beam section.

.

.

d =.

.

dS .

x.

.

. In what follows. : The normality condition is enforced numerically by penalizing the transverse shear strains = s 1 n : This condition is assumed to be satisﬁed exactly in the original conﬁguration.

is the alternator 2 1 The curvature of the beam is deﬁned by = 01 = 1 . 1 = 2 = 0: 2 1 2 b = .

t1 dn .

2–1 .5. dS and the twist of the beam follows from b = n2 1 The “bicurvature” of the beam is deﬁned by dn1 dS = n 0n1 1 ddS2 : = dw : dS 3. .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION The bicurvature deﬁnes the axial strain variation in the section due to the twist of the beam. The expression for the curvature and the twist can be combined to yield dn dS = .

(0 b .

t + b n .

We assume that the undeformed state has no warping. S) = X(S) + SN(S) and the curvatures and twist are deﬁned by B = N T 1 ddS. we will consider in detail how the above quantities and their ﬁrst and second variations are obtained for a typical beam ﬁnite element. Beam element in undeformed conﬁguration In the undeformed conﬁguration. we use capital letters for all quantities. ): Before we derive strain measures from these expressions. so the position of a material point is given by ^ X(S.

. . dN 1 dN 2 B = N2 1 = 0N1 1 .

The beam S= S d d X dS d dgN d X N . dS dS In the element the position of a point on the axis is interpolated from nodal positions standard interpolation functions as T is the unit vector orthogonal to N1 and N2. typically varying between axis tangent is readily computed as 01 and 1 along the element. T = N 1 2 N2 : We assume that the section normal T coincides with the beam tangent S. i.. where XN with X = g N ( )X N .e. = where is a parametric coordinate.

.

dg M .

.

d X M .

: .

.

.

However. we create approximate normals by the interpolation N N = g N ( )N N : Then. we orthonormalize these vectors with respect to S by ~ N = ( N 0 S S 1 N ) (N 0 S S 1 N ) . The section normals are interpolated from user-deﬁned nodal normals N . we use a two-step approach. First. Hence. we cannot use a simple interpolation since this would not create integration point normals orthogonal to the beam tangent .

.

.

.

5.2–2 . (no summation) 3.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION and subsequently. with respect to each other by ~ ~ N = (N + .

N.

2 S)=j(N + .

N.

This provides T = S. ~ ~ where it has been assumed that N and S form a right-handed system. 2 S)j (no sum on ). The curvature and the twist in the initial conﬁguration are calculated directly from N as T 1 dN.

= .

B = dS d d dS 1 dN dg 1 : B = . T 1 dgN NN dS .

N .

1 = .

N .

1 N N N 2 dS 2 d d .

N N N2 1 ddS1 6= 0N1 1 ddS2 : The gradient of the normal vectors is then obtained as dN dS = . since. in general. The “average” twist is taken.

(0B.

T + B N.

). Elements dN B = .

T 1 .

which is obtained from nodal spin vectors ! N with the same interpolation functions gN ( ). therefore. the curvature and twist are also equal to We assume that the position of the beam axis and the orientation of the normals can undergo (independent) changes. This procedure is followed only for the undeformed conﬁguration. dn are obtained individually by forward integration of the For subsequent conﬁgurations n and dS kinematic equations.2–3 . dS dN 1 dN 2 = 0N1 1 : B = N2 1 dS dS dN The procedure followed above to derive N and is not unique but provides values that satisfy the dS proper orthonormality conditions. Change of position. which can be obtained from nodal velocities N with the standard interpolation functions as v ( ) = g N ( )v N : The change in orientation of the normals is described by the spin vector ! = ! ( ). _ ! ( ) = gN ( )! N : 3. as v v v n = ! ( ) 2 n . warping.5. and normal direction and. The change in position of the axis is described by the velocity vector = ( ). .

5. Finite changes in position are obtained by integration of the velocities over a ﬁnite time increment as 1 x ( ) = 1 w ( ) = 2q q = ! . 1 1 = !1t.2–4 . for the warping. We then deﬁne = n cos 2 . N def n(t): = For the entire motion the new normal directions can be formally expressed as n = q N q y . 0 sin 2 n . 1 = j1j. The rate of change of warping is also deﬁned in terms of the rate of change of nodal warping wN with the standard interpolation functions as v( ) X( ) w _ ( ) = g N ( )w N : _ Z t+1t t The velocity and spin describe the rate of change of the position and orientation. q y = cos 2 . i.e. _ y Z t+1t t v()dt = w dt gN () () vN dt = gN ()1XN : wN dt Similarly. sin 2 n .BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Rigid body motion is included since the original position is obtained by the same interpolation as . 3. n = 1=1. Z t+1t t _( ) = gN Z t+1t t _ = gN ()1wN : The spin is related to the rate of change of the rotation quaternion q by q= where is the total or Euler rotation.. sin 1 n : 2 2 and the incremental rotation quaternion follows from This allows us to update the normal directions at the nodes and at stress points with n = 1qN1qy: In this equation we use the notation that N is n at the beginning of the current increment. The relation between spin and quaternion can be integrated exactly if it is assumed that the spin is constant over the time increment t. 1q = cos 1 .

Therefore. This leads to dn dn 1 1 2 ddSq 1qy = n ddS + sin 1 dS + (1 0 cos 1)n 2 dS = 1%. From the deﬁnitions of 1 and n it follows that 1 1 d1 = 10 1 1 ddS = n 1 ddS . n Y i=1 1q i : ( ) 1q i ( ) is the rotation quaternion for that increment. From the dn dS 1 N = ddSq N1qy + 1q N d1q + 1q ddS 1qy: dS y The second term can be written as y y y 1 1 1qN d1q = ddSq Ny 1qy = 0 ddSq N1qy : dS dn dS Hence.5. dS dS 1 = 1qy).2–5 . and. For the ﬁrst term we use the relation 1 sin 1 d1 . the scalar parts of the ﬁrst two terms cancel each other. hence. Because q is a rotation quaternion. dS dn 0 d1 0 10 1 n 1 d1 = 10 d1 0 n n 1 d1 : = 1 dS dS dS dS dS 1 1 2 1 3. which is a vector. 1 cos 1 n d1 + sin 1 dn : d1 q = 0 2 2 dS 2 2 dS dS 2 dS 1 N = 2V ddSq 1qy1q N1qy + 1q ddS 1qy d1 q y = V 2 1 q n + 1 q dN 1 q y . The section normal t Change of curvature and twist The curvature and the twist involve the derivative of the normal vector with respect to update rule for . and the vector parts are the same.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION where q is deﬁned by the product rule q= Here i is an increment and is updated the same way. n S . its inverse is equal to its conjugate ( q01 we can write 1 1 N = 2V ddSq N1qy + 1q ddS 1qy: Elements dn dS where p = V(p) denotes the vector part of a quaternion.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION These results provide 1 d in terms of the curvature and twist at the beginning of the For the second term we express dS increment. which yields 1 1 cos 1 1 1% = n n ddS + sin 1 ddS 0 sin 1 n n 1 ddS + (1 0 1 1) n 2 ddS 1 1 sin 1 d1 + (1 0 cos 1) n 2 d1 + (1 0 sin 1 )n n 1 d1 : = 1 dS 1 dS 1 dS d1 We see that 1% ) if 1 ! 0. dS N N 1q ddS 1qy = 1q.

(0B.

T + BN.

)1qy = .

(0B.

t + Bn.

): n =1 n + ( t) t+ n ) Combining these terms. d % 2 .

0 B .

B .

therefore. d . : dS The current curvature and twist are.

b .

1 % 1 B .

% 1 .

2 0 .

B .

dS and d 1 %1 12 2 b 2 B %1 B: 21 1 dS Hence. the current curvature and twist are updated by a summation over all increments as given by n (n) % (i ) 1 (i ) B . b i=1 n (n ) %(i) 1 (i) B: b i=1 = t n = 1 (n =n =1 n + n = 1 (n n ) + = 1 t+ X1 X1 = = .

.

.

..

Recall that dx = s 1 n (with s = 0 dS ). dn . n + t + First variations The ﬁrst variations of the geometric quantities are readily obtained.

b = .

dS dn b =n 1 . t 1 . dS dw : = dS 1 2 1 dx = dS .

.

.

.

2–6 . 3.5.

we note that t = 2 t. Hence.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION It follows that dw . dS where in the expression for we have assumed that ' 0 and s curvature and twist. it follows that = 01 n 1 d x 0 .

n.

dS = s n + s n = 001 + 01 d x 1 n + s 1 ( 2 n ) dS 1 1 =s 1 d x . 1 . dS ' t. dn .

dS For the variations in the d 1 (n.

( ) = gN ( )N : = dn . dS dS dn 1 d n1 dn 1 dn1 d b = n2 1 + n2 1 = ( 2 n2 ) 1 + n2 1 ( 2 + 2 n1 ) dS dS dS dS dS d = 1 (n1 2 n2) = t 1 d : dS dS These terms will be used in the virtual work equation that will be discussed later. In using the above expressions the rotational quantities are obtained by interpolation from nodal variational quantities that are assumed to be valid for the velocity ﬁelds as x( ) = gN ( ) xN . w( ) = gN ( )wN . 2 t) = n 1 d .

b = .

t 1 dS .

+ t1 d n.

dS .

= ( 2 t) 1 dn .

dS + t 1 ( 2 + d 2 n.

) dS Elements Solution with Newton’s algorithm Newton’s algorithm involves linearization of the incremental equations. d = s 1 dS ddx 01 0 . At the integration points these equations simply take the form ddx . The equations must be linearized around the current (latest) state.

n.

5. 1 d.2–7 . d n 1 dS dd db = 1 n . dS ddw : d = dS 3. dS dd db = 1 t.

. j1( ) 0 1N j 1. it has been assumed that the total incremental rotation would be interpolated with gN as d dx = gN ()dxN .e.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION The corrections x and w are readily obtained from the nodal corrections with the interpolation functions g N as () d d The corrections are deﬁned with respect to the end of the increment: we call such corrections “compound” corrections. However. d gN () 1 1 1 sin 1 d1N + (1 0 cos 1) n 2 d1N + (1 0 sin 1 )n n 1 d1N : dN 1 1 1 3.5.2–8 . i. dw = gN ()dwN : 1() = gN ()1N : () 1 Linearization of this equation yields d1 are corrections in 1 in an additive sense such that 1new = 1old + d1: To relate the additive correction d1 to the compound correction d. d1. gives sin 1 d1N + (1 0 cos 1) n 2 d1N + (1 0 sin 1 )n n 1 d1N . N cos 1 N dN = sin1N d1N + (1 0 1N ) nN 2 d1N 1 N + (1 0 sin 1N )nN nN 1 d1N (no summation): 1 Now we assume that the difference in incremental rotation along a beam element is small. we use the formula obtained for 1 to ﬁnd cos d = 1qydq = sin 1 d1 + (1 0 1 1) n 2 d1 + (1 0 sin 1 )n n 1 d1: 1 1 where Similarly. at the nodes we ﬁnd d1() = gN ()d1N . which implies that either jn( ) 0 nN j 1 and j1( ) 0 1N j 1 or with the use of the interpolation functions for j1( )j 1 and j1N j 1: In the ﬁrst case we can use the approximations n( ) nN n and 1( ) 1N 1 which.

These follow from the ﬁrst variations: d x d x 01 1 I 0 ss 1 d x . dN sin d . (no summation) N N 1N = 2 jqnewj tan01(jqN j. an exact update procedure is followed. Subsequently.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION In the second case it follows directly that In either case d gN ()d1N . dqN 1qN + dqN 1qN + dqN 2 1qN 1 . 1qN 1 = cos 1 . qnew) (no summation): new new qN This approximate relationship is used only in the creation of the Jacobian. we can calculate the updated integration point normals and the incremental curvature and twist. dN d1N : d() gN ()dN : d N dN N = cos d . we also need the second variation in the generalized quantities. Once a nodal update vector N is obtained. This is achieved by a transformation into quaternions. (no summation) 2 2 ! N N N N = 01qN . and transformation of the results back into an incremental Euler rotation vector: dq N 0 dq N . Second variations new Elements For the calculation of the Jacobian. dq N 1 = ! The incremental rotation vector at the integration point is obtained by interpolation. so the approximation will at worst result in reduced speed of convergence. s1 dS dS dS 02 0 01 0 01 0 02 d x 1 n dS 01 d x 1 2 n 0 01 s 1 2 n 01 d x 1 2 n dS dS d d d ( = ) = d = d d d d d ( (d + ) d ( )+ ) 2 3 + 1 s 1 2 (d 2 n) + d 2 ( 2 n) 2 0 01( d + d ) + 1 1 (nt + t n) 1 d 2 dx 0 01. 1 sin 1 . (no summation) 1q 2 1 N 2 N 1qnew = dqN 1qN = 0dqN 1qN 0 dqN 1 1qN . use of exact quaternion update formula.

( d 1 n.

+ d 1 n.

) + 01 .

( d x 1 n.

t 1 d + ddS 1 n.

t 1 ) dS dx d 0 02 d x 1 (nt + t n) 1 ddS + 01 .

d x 1 n.

t 1 d + 1 t n.

1 ddSx dS dS 1 + 2 1 (nt + t n) 1 . 3.5. .2–9 .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION where we have again used 0. For the second variation of the curvature we ﬁnd .

db = ddn .

d n.

dd n .

dn.

+ t 1 + dt 1 +t1 d t 1 dS dS dS dS .

1 1 t dn.

+ dn.

t 1 d 0 t 1 dn.

( 1 d) = 2 dS dS dS dd n 2 n.

+ d 2 ddS.

+ (d 2 t) 1 d + ( 2 t) 1 dS 1 dd dS d dn .

1 1 1 n.

+ d 1 n.

+ 2 d 1 dS +t1 2 dS 2 dS dd dn .

1 1 1 d d 1 n.

+ 1 n.

+ 2 d 1 dS +t1 2 dS 2 dS d n 0 t 1 ( d 1 d n.

+ 1 ddS n.

+ 1 d ddS.

) : dS n 2 n.

+ 2 ddS.

Rewriting the second and third terms and combining the others yields db = .

1 1 dn dn dn t .

+ .

t 1 d 0 2 t 1 .

( 1 d) dS dS dS 1 d 1 (n.

t + t n.

) 1 d + 2 1 (n.

t + t n.

) 1 ddS n n d 0 1 n.

t 1 ddS + t 1 ddS.

( 1 d) 0 1 ddS.

t 1 d dn d n.

d .

0 d 1 n.

t 1 dS + t 1 dS (d 1 ) 0 d 1 dS t 1 d d 1 .

1 (n.

t 0 t n.

) 1 d 0 1 (n.

t 0 t n.

) 1 ddS : = 2 dS + d 2 dS The second variation of twist is dn1 ddn 1 d n1 dd n 1 + n2 1 + d n2 1 + n2 1 db =d n2 1 dS dn dn dS dS dn dS 1 1 1 = 1 n2 + n2 1 d 0 n2 1 1 ( 1 d) 2 dS dS dS dd d dn 1 2 n1 + d 2 dS + (d 2 n2) 1 dS + ( 2 n2 ) 1 dS 1 dd d 1 1 n1 + d 1 n1 + 1 d 1 dn1 + n2 1 2 dS 2 dS 2 ddS dd dn 1 1 d 1 1 d 1 n1 + 1 n1 + 2 d 1 dS + n2 1 2 dS 2 dS d dd dn 1 0 n2 1 dS 1 d n1 + 1 dS n1 + 1 d dS : 2 n1 + 2 dn 1 dS 3.2–10 .5.

db = 1 + n2 d 1 (n1 n2 + n2n1) 1 d + 1 1 (n1n2 + n2n1) 1 ddS 2 dn dd 0 1 n1n2 1 dS + n2 1 dS1 ( 1 d) 0 1 dn1 n2 1 d dS dn dn 1 dd 1 0 d 1 n1n2 1 dS + n2 1 dS (d 1 ) 0 d 1 dS n2 1 d 1 d 1 (n1n2 0 n2n1) 1 d 0 1 (n1n2 0 n2n1) 1 ddS : = 2 dS 1 2 d dS dn1 dS + dn 1 n2 dS 1 0 2 n2 1 dn 1 dS ( d ) 1 Finally. following the same procedure as for db. dS dS 02 d x 1 (n s + s n) 1 ddx d = 0 dS dS = 01 01 . we note d = 0: The resulting second variations are summarized as d ddx 1 (I 0 ss) 1 d x .BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Then.

d x 1 n.

t 1 d + 1 n.

. t 1 ddx + dS dS Elements + db = 1 2 1 1 (n t + t n) 1 . .

d d 1 (n.

t 0 t n.

) 1 d 0 1 (n.

t 0 t n.

and—hence—the second term We will keep only terms up to order . dS ` dx @x ^ n dS + fS ddS + dw t = s + fS . We also assume that w = O( ). With those approximations. Hence. ) 1 ddS . We assume that ` dS ` 1 h2 dt = O ( )—we can neglect the can be neglected. constrained. 2 dS d 1 d 1 (n1n2 0 n2n1 ) 1 d 0 1 (n1n2 0 n2n1) 1 ddS . db = 2 dS d = 0: Strains The gradient of the current position of a point in the section with respect to the coordinate S is df dt dn dw S n + fS + t+w : dS dS dS dS h df 1 . However. the warping function may vary rapidly near the ends where warping is h dw = O ( ) and should be preserved. and—since ` dS ` last term as well.

(0b.

t + bn.

5. ) + t: @S dS @x ^ @S = + dx dS 3.2–11 .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION The gradients with respect to S are @S @x ^ =f @ n + w @S t: Correspondingly. in the original conﬁguration @^ @S X = dX + S dN @S @^ X dS = dS = T + S .

( 0 B .

T + B N .

). N : The above relations are readily inverted to yield @S @^ @S @^ X = (1 = 0 S B )01 T . X N 0 (1 0 S B )01 S .

B T: .

The deformation gradient then becomes @^ @x ^ F = @S @S + @Sx @S^ ^ @X @X B ) 0 1 s T + ( 0 f S .

b + )t T + f S .

b n T =(1 0 S .

.

+ (1 d 0 S .

B.

)f nN + (1 0 S .

B.

)w dS t N .

B f n T 0 S .

Bw @ t T : 0S .

@S .

We deﬁne the initial length ratio R as R=1 0 S .

B .

terms of order h2 =`2 can again be neglected. we obtain: @ F = R01 sT + 0S . This is particularly true for thin walled open sections. the warping and twist may be large. However. hence. it is assumed that the section may have low resistance to torsion and that. : In the expression enclosed within square brackets above. Hence.

f b.

+ Bw @S .

+ tT+ .

(b 0 B )n T + w @ tN + Rf n N : fS .

.

.

.

@S .

5.2–12 . 3.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION We calculate the components of provides F in a corotational system with the approximation t s = 1. 1 1 This @ t F T = R01 0 S .

f b + Bw @S + . .

F(+1)1 = n 1 F 1 T = R01 ( + fS .

. (b 0 B )).

d F1(.

+1) = t 1 F 1 N.

= R01 w .

dS F(+1)(. .

+1) = n 1 F 1 N.

= f .

except the term involving Bw. The equations then simplify to F11 F(+1)1 F1(. : F11 = 1 We again neglect all terms of order hn =`n for n 2.

+1) F(+1)(.

+1) @ 0 S .

fb + Bw .

@S .

= + .

d =w . fS (b 0 B ). dS .

= f .

Hence. we ﬁnd for F11: F11 = @ 0 S . we slightly adapt the term involving the initial curvature B —instead of multiplying it with . since we do not properly account for the initial curvature in the volume integration anyway. : = 0 B + . Such a change does not signiﬁcantly increase the error in the curvature calculation. Elements Consistent with traditional shell and beam theories. we multiply it with f .

f (b 0 B ) + Bw .

hence. F(s +1)1 = s F1(. and. For Fs we choose Fs and a “distortion” part Fd = s F11 = . @S + : We now make a multiplicative decomposition of F into a “stretch” part such that F = Fd 1 Fs .

and F(s +1)(.+1) = 0.

+1) f .

Fd is 11 Fd F(d +1)1 1(. .

+1) d F(+1)(.

+1) 01 .

01 f (b 0 B ) + Bw @ = F11 = 1 0 S .

@S 01 F(+1)1 = + f01 S .

(b 0 B ). = 01 F1(.

+1) = f 01 w @ . =f @S .

01 F(+1)(.

+1) = .

: =f .

5. + 01 .2–13 . Fd 3.

s (+1)1 = 0. s 1(+1) = 0.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Since Fs is a diagonal tensor. the logarithmic “stretch” strains are immediately available as es 11 = ln . es+1)(.

+1) ( = .

we obtain them from Fd with the Green-Lagrange formula: Ed = 1 Fd T Fd 0 I 2 1 : For the components this yields @ d E11 =0S . ln(f ): Since the “distortional” strains are small.

.

01 f (b 0 B ) + Bw + 01 @S @ 0 S .

.

b 0 B + Bw @S 01 + .

f01 S .

(b 0 B ) @ @ 1 .

+ S S .

1 2 E(+1)1 E(+1)(. b 0 B + Bw b 0 B + Bw 2 @S @S + 1 2 02 2 1 2 + 1 2 + f 2 0 2 S S (b 0 B )2 .

+1) @ .

01 .

. + + f S (b 0 B ) @S @ @ @ 0 01 w @S b 0 B + Bw @S + f 01 w @S 01 .

1 02 2 @ @ = f w @S .

1. Since the various terms have different dependence on the crosssectional coordinates. : 2 @S = 2 f 01 w Note that these strains are small. this leads to the conditions 1. @ f 01 w + .

f01 S .

(b 0 B ) 1: @S The last condition will generally require that both w and b 0 B are small. since @ =@S will not be proportional to .

S .

we obtain in that case S . therefore. However. . for thin walled open section beams the proportionality is approximately satisﬁed and.

.

01 w @ @S 0 f 2 0 1 . f01 (b 0 B ) 1.

S .

2–14 . (b 0 B ): 3.5.

Substitution in the expression for the Green-Lagrange strain yields the (small) distortional strains: ed 11 = 0f01S .BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Note that within the desired accuracy this equation even holds for other sections: in that case both the right-hand and left-hand side are very small.

(b 0 B ) + 01 .

= + d (+1)1 d 1(+1) ed+1)(.

+1) ( e11 @ + f01 S .

. (b 0 B ) + f 01 w .

1 2 02 . @S d = (+1)1 .

The total strains are obtained simply by addition as 0 f01 S . 2 = + f S S (b 0 B ) : 2 1 2 2 f 0 2 S S (b 2 0 B 2 ).

. (b 0 B ) + 01 + f 2 02 S S (b2 0 B 2 ).

2 f01 S .

(b 0 B ) + f 01 w @ . (+1)1 = + .

@S 1(+1) = (+1)1 . 1 e(+1)(.

+1) = .

ln(f ) + f 2 02 S S .

(b 0 B )2 : = ln 1 2 We assume that there are no stresses in the ( + 1)(.

We assume that the warping function is chosen such that the free warping is related to the twist with the relation Elements w f = f 2 0 1 (b 0 B ) and . hence . + 1) directions. wp = f 2 01 (b 0 B ) 0 w: This makes it possible to write the expression for @ (+1)1 = + f01 S . It is useful to split the total warping w in two parts: a part due to “free” warping wf minus a part due to warping prevention wp : w = wf 0 wp . Hence. the strains in these directions do not contribute to virtual work and do not need to be considered any further.

+ .

we assume that the axial strain variation across the section due to the second-order term in the twist is not signiﬁcant. we consider only the average axial strain due to the secondorder twist term. Hence. we introduce the average axial strain . In addition. Therefore. @S (+1)1 as ( b 0 B ) 0 f 01 w p @ : @S It is desirable to choose the cross-sectional resultants such that they are completely uncoupled.

e = ln 0 f01 Sc (b 0 B ) + 01 .

+ 1 2 I A p + S c S c f 2 0 2 (b 2 0 B 2 ). is the average .

2–15 . and value of the warping function: Z = A A 1 dA: 3.5. where Sc are the coordinates of the centroid. Ip is the polar moment of inertia.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Similarly. we introduce the average shear strain = + f 01 .

S c .

1Z +A @ dA A @S 1Z (b 0 B ) 0 f 0 1 w p A @ dA: A @S .

which are related to the warping function by . This last expression can be simpliﬁed by the introduction of the shear center coordinates Ss .

S s .

This yields Z .

1 = Sc + A .

@ dA. A @S or .

Ss Z .

1 = Sc + A A .

@ dA: @S .

.

.

= + f01 Ss (b 0 B ) + f 01 wp (Sc 0 Ss ): .

.

for full warping prevention (wp = f 201 (b 0 B )) the average value corresponds to the value obtained at the centroid. The average value can be obtained from the classical warping function with the condition that (0) = 0: = (S ) 0 (S ) = (0) 0 (0) = 0 (0) = 0 : The expression for the average axial strain then becomes . However. Instead of the original warping function (S ) we now introduce a modiﬁed warping function ) related to by (S (S ) def (S ) 0 : = This function in fact represents the classical deﬁnition of a warping function with an area weighted average of zero. Note that the average value is in fact the value at the shear center if warping prevention is absent (wp = 0).

e = ln 0 f01 Sc (b 0 B ) 0 01 + .

. and the location of the shear center is 1 2 I p A + S c Sc f 2 0 2 (b 2 0 B 2 ).

Ss Z .

1 = Sc + A A .

be written in the form e11 (+1)1 . @ dA: @S The strains can. thus.

= e 0 f01 (S .

0 Sc ) (b 0 B ) + 01 . .

0 1 (S .

0 S .

) + @ (b 0 B ) + f 0 1 w p (S .

0 S .

) 0 @ : = + f .

s .

s c @S @S The second term in the expression for (+1)1 is proportional to the shear strain ﬁeld for pure elastic torsion: @ def t .

(S ) = (S .

0 S s ) + : .

2–16 . @S 3.5.

which (+1)1 .BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION We use this deﬁnition to eliminate the gradient of yields as ﬁnal expression for the strains e11 from the expression for the shear strain.

= e 0 f01 (S .

. 0 Sc ) (b 0 B ) + 01 .

0 1 t (b 0 B ) + f 0 1 w p 0 (S .

0 S .

) 0 t 1 : = + f .

c Virtual work Since it was assumed that there are no stresses in the Z contribution is ( + 1)(.

+ 1) directions. the virtual work 5 = = d` (11e11 + (+1)1 (+1)1 )dA: ` A The strain variations are obtained by linearization of the expressions for the strains ZV (11e11 + (+1)1 (+1)1 )dV Z e11 (+1)1 .

= e 0 f01 (S .

0 Sc )b + 01 . .

0 t .

t1 = + f01 b + f 01 (S .

0 Sc ) 0 wp . .

we obtain the average axial and shear strain variations as e . Elements where all terms of the order of the “distortional” strains have been neglected. From the expressions for the average axial strain and average shear strain.

= 01 0 01 fSc b 0 01 + f 2 02 Ip + Sc Sc b b. .

A .

.

.

= + 01 fSs b + f 01 (Sc 0 Ss )wp . .

.

We now introduce the generalized section forces as deﬁned below: Axial force Shear forces Bending moments Twisting moment Warping moment Bimoment F= Z F = Mt = A Z 11dA (+1)1dA M = Mw = W= A Z ZA 0f (S . where wp = f 2 01 b 0 w and again all terms of the order of the “distortional” strains have been neglected.

0 S .

c) 11dA .

0 t1 f (S .

0 S .

c ) 0 (+1)1 dA .

5.2–17 . A Z t f (+1)1 dA Z A A 11dA 3.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION which transforms the virtual work contribution into 5 = Z ` (F e + F + M 01 b + Mt 01b + Mw f 02wp + W 01 )d`: Z Observe that the total torque T relative to the centroid of the section is the sum of the twisting moment and the warping moment: T = A f (S .

.

.

we ﬁrst transform the integrations in the virtual work equation to the original volume such that 5 = Z ` d` Z A (11f 2 e11 + (+1)1 f 2 (+1)1 )dA : The strain variations relative to the original state are then f 2 e11 f 2 (+1)1 . 0 Sc )(+1)1 dA = Mt + Mw : The rate of change of virtual work To obtain the rate of change of virtual work.

= f 2 e 0 f 3 (S .

0 Sc ) b + f 2 . .

0 2 3 t .

t1 = f + f b + f (S .

0 Sc ) 0 wp : .

The strain variations relative to the original state are Ip .

f e = f 0 f Sc b 0 f 2 + f 401 .

A .

.

.

f 2 = f 2 + f 3 Ss b + f (Sc 0 Ss )wp : .

.

The rate of change of virtual work is then d 5 = Z + 11(2f df 0 3f S . 2 2 3 + Sc Sc b b.

df b + 2f .

+ f 2 d 0 f 3 S .

db + f 2 d) .

2 ` d` Z A f 2 (d11 e11 + d(+1)1 (+1)1 4 df + f 01 Ip + Sc Sc dbb A @ + f @S d w + (+1)1(f 2 d + 2f df @ + @S df + 3f 2 S .

b df .

@ w + f 2 d + f 3 S .

. db + f dw) dA .

2–18 . = 4 D21 : d31 D31 2 D12 D22 D32 D13 < de11 = D23 5 d 21 : : D33 d 31 .5. The changes in stress follow from the constitutive law D11 d d21 . @S 8 9 < 11 = where we have neglected terms of order b. 38 9 3.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION We approximate de11 and d 11 with the same relations as used for virtual work: .

de11 = de 0 f 01(S .

0 Sc )db + 01 d. .

0 t .

t1 d (+1)1 = d + f01 db + f 01 (S .

0 Sc ) 0 dwp . .

and for the average strain rates .

de = 01 d 0 01fSc db 0 01 d + f 202 .

.

.

.

d = d + 01 fSs db + f 01 (Sc 0 Ss )dwp : .

.

Using the previously obtained expressions for the second variations in . . b. and a change in axial strain of the cross-section. this provides d 5 = Z Z + 11(201 f 01 df + 01 d 0 01 fS . and and transforming the results into the current state. b . twist. Ip A + Sc Sc b db. We now neglect all terms that involve the product of a stress tensor. a variation in curvature. or warping.

db + f 2 02 .

+ (+1)1 (d + 01 fS .

db + f 01 @ dw) dA: .

@S The incremental moments. are deﬁned as ` d` A d11e11 + d(+1)1 (+1)1 Ip A + Sc Sc dbb) Elements dF = dF = dM = dM t = dM w = dW = Z ZA ZA ZA ZA ZA d11dA. d(+1)1dA. forces. etc. .

0f (S .

0 Sc )d11dA. .

f (S . t f d(+1)1dA.

.

0 .

dwp = f 2 01 db. we assume that the second variations of the warping function and its derivative vanish: dw = d = 0. 1 A d11dA: For the determination of the initial stress stiffness. Consequently. 3.2–19 .5. t 0 Sc ) 0 d(+1)1dA.

only the torque relative to the centroid plays a role in the initial stress contribution to the rate of change of virtual work: d 5 = (dF e + dF + dM 01b + dMt 01b + dMw f 02wp + dW 01 ` + F de + Fd + M 01 db + T 01 db)d`: The second variations of e and contain contributions of the second variation in curvature and twist.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION and. therefore. These can be separated out by deﬁning the bending moments and the torque relative to the origin of the cross-sectional coordinate system: Z Z + .

.

M =M f Sc 11dA = M + fSc F. .

.

A Z .

.

T =T+ fSc (+1)1 dA = T + fSc F: .

.

we ﬁnd Z d 5 = (dF e + dF + dM 01 b + dMt 01 b + dMw f 02 wp + dW 01 + ` 01d 0 202d + f 2 02 Ip + S S dbb)+ F ( c c A Fd + M 01 db + T 01 db)d`: [D] is symmetric.2–20 . For the thermal stretch of the section we use isotropic expansion (f = ). This expression is symmetric if the material tensor 3.5. m df = 0010 1+ d: Using this in the above expression for the rate of change of virtual work. The total cross-sectional stretch is m Z f so that = fm f = 0 = 0 1+ . A The expression for the rate of change of virtual work then takes the form d 5 = (dF e + dF + dM 01 b + dMt 01 b + dMw f 02 wp + dW 01 + ` Ip + Sc Sc dbb)+ F (01d + 201 f 01 df + f 2 02 A 01 01 db)d`: Fd + M db + T We propose to make the “cross-section size” a function of the stretch . and for the “mechanical” stretch of the section we assume an effective Poisson’s ratio (fm = 0 ).

We consider three different classes of beams: • Beams in which warping may be constrained. in the elastic range the warping is rather small. the warping can be large. We will consequently always assume elastic behavior of the section in transverse shear. Hence. thin walled section and have a torsional stiffness that is much smaller than the polar moment of inertia. • Beams in which warping is unconstrained. In this case the warping is dependent on the twist and can be eliminated as an independent variable. In the elastic range the warping is likely to be large. and it is assumed that warping prevention at the ends can be neglected. and the complete theory must be used. different classes of beams will result in different ﬁnal formulations. However. but the torsional shear stresses are relatively small. These beams generally have a solid section or a closed. but the torsional shear stresses are assumed to be of the same order of magnitude as the stresses due to axial forces and bending moments. leading to the relations Elements F = fp GA . In this case the axial stresses may be of the same order of magnitude as the stresses due to axial forces and bending moments. Hence. dF = fp GA d . • Beams in which warping constraints dominate the torsional rigidity.5. In this case both the torsional shear stresses and the axial warping stresses can be of the same order of magnitude as the stresses due to axial forces and bending moments. in the elastic range. working at the shear center. the warping can be coupled to the twist with a relatively stiff elastic constraint but cannot be eliminated because it must be possible to prevent warping at the nodes. thin walled section and have a torsional stiffness that is of the same order of magnitude as the polar moment of inertia of the section. The axial warping stresses are assumed to be negligible. and warping constraints are essential to provide torsional stiffness for the beam. which leads to a considerably simpliﬁed formulation. Hence. In ABAQUS we neglect the effect of shear stresses due to transverse shear forces at individual material points. and warping prevention at the ends can contribute signiﬁcantly to the torsional rigidity of the beam.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION Section integration The formulation presented in the previous pages is valid for all possible beam types. and fp is the “slenderness compensation factor” used to prevent the shear stiffness from becoming too big in slender beams. The slenderness compensation factor is deﬁned as 01 `2 A fp = 1 + 0:25 12I for ﬁrst-order Timoshenko beam elements and 3. Examples of cross-sections for the last two classes will be derived after the general discussion of sections with and without warping prevention. thin walled section reinforced with some relatively solid parts or some relatively small closed cells and have a torsional stiffness that is considerably smaller than the polar moment of inertia. These beams generally have an open. where F are the transverse shear forces. These beams generally have an open.2–21 .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION 01 2 04 ` A 1 + 0:25 2 10 for all other beam elements. the transverse shear terms do not need to be considered in any further detail. F M where (+1)1 and (F +1)1 are the strains and stresses due to transverse shear forces and (+1)1 and (M+1)1 are the strains and stresses due to a twisting around the shear center. (+1)1 = (F +1)1 + (M+1)1. Hence. fp = 12I where ` is the length of the element and I is the larger of the moments of inertia I11 and I22. Substitution in the expressions for the twisting and warping moments yields Mt Mw = = Z ZA t f ((F +1)1 + (M+1)1)dA = 0 f (S . The fact that the transverse shear forces are considered separately allows us to write (+1)1 = (F+1)1 + (M+1)1 .

.

1 Z Z A (S .

= .

s .

t 0 Sc ) 0 ((F +1)1 + (M+1)1 )dA A 0 f (S .

.

. A t f (M+1)1 dA.

0 Sc ) F + .

t where we used the fact that was calculated based on application of a twisting moment around the shear center and. t 0 Sc ) 0 1 M ( +1)1 dA. does not do any work on the shear stresses due to transverse shear forces. For this case the elastic energy due to twist is 1 G Z M M dA: Ut = 2 A (+1)1 (+1)1 For twist without warping constraints wp vanishes and the energy per unit length of the beam is Ut = 1 f 2 0 2 (b 0 B ) 2 G 2 J Z A Z t t dA = 1 f 2 02 (b 0 B )2 GJ. hence. 2 where we have introduced the torsion integral J given by = A t t dA: f 2 01 (b 0 B ) and the energy per unit length of the With complete warping prevention the wp beam is = Ut = 1 f 2 0 2 (b 0 B ) 2 G 2 Z A (S . The warping function is assumed to be determined based on isotropic. homogeneous elastic behavior of the section in shear.

.

.

0 Sc )(S 0 Sc )dA = 1 f 2 02 (b 0 B )2 GIp .5. 2 3.2–22 .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION where we have introduced the polar moment of inertia Ip .

.

= (S .

0 Sc )(S .

0 Sc )dA = A Z Z A (S .

.

.

Since the twisting moment must be equal to A f (S . 0 Sc ) (S 0 Sc )dA: For unconstrained warping (+1)1 Mt and since = Z t = G .

.

0 Sc )(+1)1 dA = G .

Z Z A f (S .

.

. t 0 Sc ) dA.

Mt it follows that = Z A t f (+1)1 dA = G Z A .

t (S .

0 Sc ) dA = .

In Elements e11 M (+1)1 and for the variations in the strains . Z A A t t f dA. Hence we assume wp addition we assume that axial strains due to warping can be neglected: 0. For the strains at a material point this yields = 0. t t dA = J: Beams with unconstrained warping For this beam type. warping prevention is not taken into consideration.

= e 0 (S .

0 S c ) (f 0 1 b 0 B ). .

. t = f01 (b 0 B ).

= e 0 f01 (S .

. 0 Sc ) b.

where the expressions derived earlier for F . M . and Mt apply. F . t = f01 b: e11 M (+1)1 Substitution in the virtual work statement yields 5 = Z ` (F e + F + M 01 b + Mt 01 b)d`. the warping moment Mw does not vanish. Although there is no warping prevention in the section. From the expression obtained earlier follows Mw .

.

= (S s 0 S c )F : .

This yields for the torque around the centroid T .

.

= (S s 0 S c )F + M t .

2–23 .5. 3.

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION and for the torque around the origin T .

= Ss F + Mt: .

with a constant shear modulus G: M (+1)1 t = G (M+1)1 = f01 G (b 0 B ) + f 01 G Z Z 0 0 . For the rate of change of virtual work we obtain d 5 = (dF e + dF + dM 01b + dMt 01 b+ ` Z Ip + Sc Sc dbb)+ F (01 d 0 202 d + f 2 02 A F d + M 01 db + T 01 db)d`: Beams with elastic torsion and constrained warping Consider the case that the shear stresses are deﬁned from the shear strains by linear elastic response.

.

S .

t ( 0 Sc ) 0 1 1 : This allows us to write for the twisting and warping moments: Mt t t t .

t = f 2 01 G(b 0 B ) dA + G wp (S .

0 Sc ) 0 .

A A ) = f 2 01 GJ (b 0 BZ t0 .

t1 M w = f 2 0 1 G (b 0 B ) (S .

0 Sc ) 0 dA .

.

t ( 0 Sc ) 0 + G wp A = G (I p 0 J )w p : Z 0 .

.

S dA A 10 S t ( 0 Sc ) 0 1 dA Substitution of these expressions in the part of the virtual work equation related to torsion yields 5t = (01 Mt b + f 02 Mw wp )d` = ` T Z Z Z 0 ` f 2 02 GJ (b 0 B )b + f 02 G(Ip 0 J )wp wp d`: 1 Note that the torque T around the centroid is = Mt + Mw = GJf 2 01 (b 0 B ) + G(Ip 0 J )wp : 1 Hence.5.2–24 . we can write virtual work in terms of the primary variables b and w: 5t = = 0 Z` 01 T b 0 f 02 Mw w dA f 2 02GJ (b 0 B ) + 01 G(Ip 0 J )wp b 0 f 02 G(Ip 0 J )wp w d`: 1 3 20 ` 3.

M and W are deﬁned as before. where F . F.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION The complete virtual work equation has the form 5 = Z ` (F e + F + 01M b + f 202 GJ b b + f 02 G(Ip 0 J )wp wp + 01 W )d`. For the rate of change of virtual work we obtain similarly d 5 = (dF e + dF + dM 01 b + f 2 02 GJ db b + f 02 G(Ip 0 J )dwp wp + ` dW 01 + F (01d 0 202d + f 2 02 Ip + Sc Sc dbb)+ A 01 01 db)d` F d + M db + T with Z T .

= T + f Sc F : .

@ = @S = 0: Solid noncircular sections Solid sections such as rectangles or trapezoids are included in this category. Although it is possible to determine the warping function in this manner. We introduce the function '(S . We now discuss some speciﬁc section types incorporated in ABAQUS. Following standard procedures we normalize this function so that the (elastic) shear strains can be derived directly from it. Hence. The warping function is a harmonic function and is subject to the condition that no shear stress component can act normal to the boundary of the cross-section. Circular section Elements For this type of section. warping is absent. we choose to work in terms of the Saint-Venant’s stress function because of its simplicity.

which is differentiable in the cross-section and has the property that @' t = . ).

.

where S represents the boundary of the section.2–25 . with ' = 0 on S. This boundary condition ensures that no shear stress component can act normal to the boundary. : @S The stress function is determined by solving the differential equation of the form r2' = 02 in A. 3.5.

Closed. The torsional constant of the bar is then equal to twice the volume under the normalized stress function surface.BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION For the solid noncircular sections this differential equation is solved numerically using a secondorder isoparametric ﬁnite element. thin walled cross-sections In this case we assume that the shear strain perpendicular to the section must vanish so that Since t.

@ @ = @S n = t.

S .

. @n which can be identically satisﬁed anywhere. The normalized shear strain along the section is @ = ( S .

+ @S ) t = n.

S .

. + @ .

@s = 0 n. this yields .

@ ( S .

+ @S )n = 0: .

ds = nS ds + @s where AC is the area enclosed by the section.5. the total torsional elastic strain energy is I 1 G 2tds.2–26 . where s is the distance along the section. = Gh and G I 1 ds 0 A = 0. UT = 2 where t is the wall thickness. Thin walled open sections The most important sections that exhibit substantial warping are the thin walled open sections. Minimization of the energy with the constraint enforced with a Lagrange multiplier yields I I P = (G h 0 ) ds 0 ( ds 0 2AC ) = 0: Hence. z ) = c (s) + z (s). A suitable approximation for is (s. For a single branch section we can conveniently express as a function of the coordinate s along the section and the coordinate z perpendicular to the section. With the assumption that the shear modulus is constant along the section. which combine to deﬁne C h 2 = H AC 1 h h ds : This allows calculation of at any point in the section based on the section geometry. 3. Integrating this around the circumference yields I I I @ ds = 2AC .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION where yields c (s) is the value at the centerline of the wall. .

t .

(S Minimization of the torsional elastic energy Z s2 Z h=2 s1 0h=2 .

0 Ss ) + ddsc + z ds d d c + z d + (n S .

+ ) .

ds ds dz ds = 0: .

With t = n. which is the position of the middle of the wall. We now introduce S0 .

and .

.

S .

= S0 + z n.

. and after carrying out the integration over z . the minimization condition simpliﬁes to Z s2 s1 h n.

S 0 ( .

.

0 Ss ) + ddsc d d c + h 0t (S .

0 S .

) + + 1 h3 1 + d .

the dominant terms are of order h. 0 s ds 12 ds d ds ds = 0: Clearly. This yields the equations c = 0 n (S .

0 S .

). .

0 s ds Zs 0 .

.

= t .

z ) = . z ) is (s. so that (s. (S 0 0 S s ).

.

.

.

0n.

(S0 0 Ss )ds + t.

c (s ) = Zs 0 . (S0 0 Ss )z + s. Observe that Elements where s is the value of at the start of the integration over the section.

.

0n.

it readily follows that Z send 0 h c S ds = 0. this value can be evaluated properly. 3. If the origin is not on the section (which means that the node is not connected to the section). Therefore. s must be chosen such that = Z send 0 h cds= h ds = 0. we assume that 0 = 0. which eliminates the coupling between twist and axial extension in the section for linear elasticity. Z send 0 so there is no coupling between twist and bending in the section for linear elastic material behavior. The coupling between twist and extension is governed by 0. the value of the warping function at the origin of the cross-sectional coordinate system. As was discussed before.5. If the origin is on the section. (S0 0 Ss )ds + s represents the sectorial area between two points on the midsection relative to the shear center. Note that coupling terms still exist but that they are incorporated in the generalized strain displacement relations.2–27 .

BEAM ELEMENT FORMULATION The torsion integral J J is readily obtained as n.

S = = Z s2 Z h=2 Z Z s1 s1 s2 0h=2 h=2 ( .

0h=2 (2 )2 z dz ds 2 2 .

.

0 s ) + + 0 .

( .

and the polar moment of inertia is given by the expression Ip = Z s2 s1 h S ( . 0 s ) + Z s2 1 S d ds t S S d dz dz ds = s1 3 h 3 ds.

0 Sc .

)(S .

.

” Section 15. have no inﬂuence on the results. Multibranch open sections can be transformed into single branch open sections by connecting the end of one branch with the beginning of the next branch with a section that has thickness h = 0. 0 c) S ds: The above derivations cover single branch open sections. Reference • “Beam modeling: overview.5.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.2–28 . or the torsion integral and.3. the moments of inertia. hence. Such dummy sections do not yield any contribution to the area.

h) be material coordinates such that S locates points on the beam axis and (g.5. Then the position of a point of the beam in the current conﬁguration is xf = x + g n1 + hn2 . and that this cross-sectional plane remains normal to the beam axis. h) of the beam. For this purpose we will use Green’s strain so that "f = 1 2 [( ) f 2 0 1]. n2 = n2(S ). which provides satisfactory results for slender beams. n2 be unit vectors normal to the beam axis in the current conﬁguration: n1 = n1(S ). dn1 dS where x = x(S ) is the point on the beam axis of the cross-section containing xf . we will neglect terms of second-order in g and h.5. Thus.3–1 .3–1) Strain measures The internal virtual work rate associated with axial stress is I W1 = Z Z L f A f "f dA dLf . Let (S. the distance measuring material coordinates in the cross-section. In addition. it is assumed that the cross-section does not deform in its plane or warp out of its plane. 3. These are the classical assumptions of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory.EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS 3. h) measures distance in the cross-section. g. g. Further. g. where f and "f are any material stress and strain measures associated with axial deformation at the point (S.5. since strains are assumed to be small. dx f dS = Then dx dS +g +h dn 2 dS . let n1 . and so length on the ﬁber at (S. f 2 (dl ) = dx dS 1 dx dS + 2g dx dS 1 dn 1 dS + 2h dx dS 1 dn 2 dS (dS ) : 2 (3.3 EULER-BERNOULLI BEAM ELEMENTS In these elements it is assumed that the internal virtual work rate is associated with axial strain and torsional shear only. h) is measured in the current conﬁguration as Elements d f 2 (dl ) = = xf dS dx (dS ) dS dn 1 dn 2 +g +h dS dS dS 1 dx f 2 1 dx dS +g dn 1 dS +h dn 2 dS (dS ) : 2 Now since the beam is slender.

EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS where (f )2 = (dlf )2=(dLf )2. this becomes "f dLf " + gG01 + hG 01 dx dS N 1 dn2 0 (1 + ") dX 1 ddS2 dS dS dS " 2 dl dL x 1 dn1 0 (1 + ") dX 1 dN1 dS dS dS dL. so dx 1 n 1 = dx 1 n 2 = 0 : and K 1 = 0 G 01 dx d 2 dS dS dS 3. where G= d dS X 1 dX dS and " = 1 2 ( 2 0 1) = 2 1 01 # is the Green’s strain of the beam axis. From Equation 3.5.5. This simpliﬁcation allows us to write the internal virtual work rate associated with axial stress as I W1 = where with Z Z Lf A f "f dA dLf = Z Z L A f "f dA dL. the square of the ratio of current conﬁguration length to reference conﬁguration length in the axial direction on the ﬁber. we have " dL = f f 1 2 1 dx dS d d 1 dS dS X 1 dX + 2 g dX 1 dN 1 + 2 h dX 1 dN 2 dS dS dS dS dS d x dx + 2g dX dN1 + 2h dx dN2 01 0 1 1 1 dx dS + 2g dx dS 1 d 1 d + 2h dS dS dS n x dn 2 1 dS dS dS 1 dS 1 dS 1 2 dS: Again. neglecting all but ﬁrst-order terms in g and h because of the slenderness assumption.3–2 . ~ "f = " ~ 1 0 gK2 + hK1 .3–1 and its equivalent in the reference conﬁguration. 01 dx 1 dn1 0 (1 + ") dX 1 dN1 K2 = 0G dS dS dS dS "= 2 ( 2 n 0 (1 + ") dX 1 dN2 : 1 dS dS dS Now the cross-sectional base vectors n1 and n2 are assumed to remain normal to the beam axis. 0 1) as Green’s strain of the beam axis.

” Section 3. where e1 = t and is the proportionality constant between shear strains and torsional strains (see “Beam element formulation.5. 0 1 g 1: This assumes a linear interpolation of rotation ! along the beam. the internal virtual work rate can be written W I = Z h Z L " A f dA 0 K2 Z A gf dA + K1 Z A hf dA + e1 Z A t f dA dL: i 3. the generalized strain measures for these beams are " K1 and K2 e1 axial strain. and dx 1 dn2 = 0 d2x 1 n : 1 2 dS 2 dS dS dS 2 So we have K 2 = G 01 n d2 11 dS 2 x 0 (1 + ")N 1 d2X 1 dS 2 and K1 = d2 2 0G01 n2 1 dSx 0 (1 + ")N2 1 d X : 2 dS 2 I W2 This deﬁnes the generalized strains associated with axial stretch. With these measures. dx d 1 1 dS dS n = 0 d2x 1 n . Thus. and the torsional strain.5.3–3 . (1 + g ). the beam curvature change measures. For torsional strain the internal virtual work rate is Z Z = L A t f e1 dAdL.2. For computational simplicity the form of the torsional strains is taken to be d~ 1 0 2 1 ddS1 . 1 2 1 2 and p1 p2 = = (1 0 g ). e1 = 2 1 dS N n2 1 dn1 0 N2 1 ddS1 dS n N N Elements n where ~ n 1 = C ( p 1! 1 + p 2 ! 2 ) 1 N 1 .EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS Hence. for details).

dS dS d2 K2 = G01 1 1 + 11 dS 2 d2 + 21 K1 = G01 2 1 dS 2 and d~1 d ~ 1 + 21 : e1 = 2 1 dS dS " = G01 u n n x n x n d2 dS 2 d2 dS 2 u 0 "N 1 d2X 1 dS 2 u 0 "N 1 d2X 2 dS 2 n n n n In these expressions we need 1 and 2 as well as ~ 1. d f and so 8 9 > d" > Z Z < = 5 dK1 f dA + dK1 hf dA " K1 K2 e1 [ B ] + d" > > A A : dK2 . The constitutive theory is written as f f d d" = [ H ] d f . n n another ancillary vector 1 . Equation 2. de1 dW I = Z 4 L 0dK2 Z A gf dA + de Z 1 A f f dA dL.EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS Internal virtual work rate Jacobian For the Jacobian matrix of the overall Newton method.1. the variation of this internal work rate with respect to nodal displacement variations must be formed.5. From the expression for ~ 1. for more information on section integration.1–3. is deﬁned by n n n C n N n1 = n1 0 n1 1 tt ~ ~ so that n1 = n1=jn1j: 3.5. namely 1 2 ~ 1 = (p 1! + p 2 ! ) 1 1 .” Section 3. First variations of strains Taking the variations of the above strain deﬁnitions gives directly dx d 1 . See “Beam element formulation. these are now derived.3–4 . normal to the tangent. where [ B ] is the section stiffness matrix obtained by integration over the cross-section.2.

! n1 n2 = ! t 2 n2 = n1t 0 n1 1 t n1 ~ ~ jn1j = n1 1 n1 = n1 1 n1: ~ 1 n t 1 0 n~ 111n ~ 1 1 ! ! n1 + g0 2 n2 1 1 1 du dS : Hence. it is straightforward to show that n1 = 1 1 1 du 01 t.5.3–2) jn1 j (I 0 n1n1) 1 n: 1 So n1 n2 = 1 jn1j n2 1 n1 1 ~ ~ = n jn1j n2 1 [ n1 0 ( n1 1 t)t 0 (~ 1 1 t)t] du 1 01 n 2 ~ = jn1j n2 1 n1 0 g (~ 1 1 t)n2 1 dS 1 Elements and Thus. n1 = n1 (n2n2 + tt) because n1 1 t = 0.5. 2 n1 with ! interpolated linearly. From the deﬁnition of n1.EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS In addition.3–2 ! n1 = ! tn2 1 0n ~ n1 t ~ 1 1 ! 1 n + g0 1 n 1 du n 0 g0 1 n 1 du t: 2 2 2 1 2 1n ! 1 dS dS 1 3. = n1 1 n2 n2 0 g 2 n1 1 dS = n1 n2 n2 + n1 tt (3.5. from Equation 3. t dx 2 = g0 1 dS so that t 2 = g0 1 (I 0 tt) 1 du : dS Since (t1 n1 n2) form an orthonormal triad. ~ 1 du 1 ! ~ ! 1 n1 2 n2 0 g0 2 n1 1 tn2 1 : n1 1 n2 = ~ jn1j dS ! n1 = ! ~ n1 ~ We can also write and Combining terms appropriately.3–5 .

EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS In a similar manner one can show that n2 n t ! = 0! 1 tn1 0 n~ 11 1n ~ 1 1 ! ! n1 + g 0 2 n1 1 1 1 du dS n1 2 0 g0 1 n2 1 du t: dS The ﬁrst variations of strain become " = G01 K2 = G01 dx dS n2 1 du dS ! 0 n 1 n n1 1 ! ~1 1 2 2 ~ 0 1 t 1 d x n1 + n1 1 t n2 1 d x n2 1 du 2 0g ~ d S2 d S2 dS n1 1 n1 2u 2X d 0 "N1 1 d 2 + n1 dS 2 dS t 1 d S2 d2 x n1 t ~ 1 2 K1 = G01 n1 1 and ! 0 n 1 n n1 1 ! ~1 1 2 2 ~ 0 1 t 1 d x n1 + n1 1 t n1 1 d x n2 1 du 2 +g d S2 n1 1 n1 ~ d S2 dS 2u 2X 3 0 n2 d 2 0 "N2 1 d 2 dS dS d S2 t ~ n t ! 1 n1 n~ 111n 0 dn1 t n1 1 ! ~1 dS dS 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 1 n1 1 t dn1 1 n1 0 dn1 1 t n2 1 du +g 2 ~ 1 1 n1 dS dS dS n ! d! + n 1 2 n2 1 ~ dS d2 x ~ n1 t 1 e1 = dn 1 ~ so that In addition.3–6 . 2 dS since (t1 n1 n2) form an orthonormal triad.5. n1 = n1 = n1 : t = g0 2 1 j j dx dS so that t = g 0 1 (I 0 tt) 1 du . n1 = n1 (n2n2 + tt) 1 = n1 1 n2 n2 + n1 1 tt du 01 t. = n1 1 n2 n2 0 g 2 n1 1 dS 3.

EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS because n1 1 t = 0 : Second variations of strains The second variation of the axial strain is simply d" = G01 d u dS 1 dd dS u: n n To compute the second variations of bending strain.3–7 . These are obtained by approximating ! ~ n n2t 1 ! 0 tn1 1 du dS d u ! ~ n2 0n1t 1 ! 0 tn1 1 dS ! ~ ! 1 n2 0 ! 1 n1 n2 t ! d u ! ! 0 t dn1 1 d u : d n1 = dn2t 1 ! + n2dt 1 ! 0 dtn1 1 ~ 1 dS dS from which Elements Using these expressions. d 2 . we need expressions for d 1. the second variations of bending strains are written as dK1 d2 ! ! =G01 n2 1 dSx t 1 d! t 1 ! 2 ddu d u d2 x ! ! 0 t 1 dS 2 n1 1 dS t 1 ! + n1 1 dS t 1 d! du du ! + n1 1 ddS 2 t 1 ! + t 1 ddS 2 n2 1 d u dS 2 2 2 2 2 + d"N2 1 d X dS 2 2x d ! ! ! ! ! + n1 1 dS 2 n2 1 d! n1 1 ! 0 n1 1 d! n2 1 ! + n2 1 d u n2 1 d! dS d u d2 x ! 0 n2 1 dS 2 n2 1 dS n1 1 d! ddu d u d2 x 0 t 1 dS 2 n2 1 dS n2 t 1 dS u u ! + n1 1 ddS 2 t 1 d! + t 1 d 2 n2 1 ddu dS dS 3.5.

with node 1 at g = 01 and node 2 at g = +1. a . These functions are used in ABAQUS to interpolate the components of displacement and the initial position vector .5.3–8 . For this reason continuity of rotation as well as displacement is needed so that the Hermitian polynomial interpolation functions are the minimum interpolation order needed. These are used here. 0 1 < g < 1. we approximate ! ! ! dt 1 d! = d! 2 t 1 d! : dS dS This matrix is again unsymmetric. Interpolation In the virtual work equation the strains include second derivatives of displacement. because the nodal variables are n n x u (ux uy uz dux duy duz dS dS dS a ): 3. so that the elements are basically isoparametric. In addition.EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS and dK2 d2 ! ! = G01 0n1 1 dSx t 1 ! t 1 d! 2 d u ddu d2 x ! ! 0 t 1 dS 2 n2 1 dS t 1 d! + n2 1 dS t 1 ! + 2d 2d ! n2 1 ddS2u t 1 ! 0 t 1 ddS2u n1 1 du dS d2 u d2 u ddu ! + n2 1 t 1 d! 0 t 1 dS2 n1 1 dS dS 2 2 0 d"N1 1 d X dS 2 2x d ! ! ! ! ! + n2 1 n2 1 d! n1 1 ! 0 n1 1 d! n2 1 ! + n1 1 du n1 1 d! dS 2 dS d u d2 x ! n1 1 n2 1 d! 0 n1 1 x n1 1 ddu n1 t 1 du : 0 t 1 dS 2 dS dS d2 e2 de1 ! t 1 d! dS dS 2 dS For the torsional strain contribution to the initial stress matrix. This interpolation is unsatisfactory for the user. is interpolated linearly. rotation of ( 1 2 ) about the beam axis. The Hermite cubic is written in terms of the function value and its derivative at the ends of the interval: u (g ) = N 1 (g )u 1 + N 2 (g )u 2 + N 3 (g ) du1 dg + N 4 (g ) du2 dg .

At a node the tangent to the beam axis is t so dx = dx = dS dS . the following procedure is adopted. the integration schemes are as described below. as in a frame structure or “T” junction. rather.3–9 . Thus. furthermore. !y . except for rotation of the section about the beam axis. and direction of the beam axis. ABAQUS ignores the nonsymmetric terms. where it is included to avoid singularity in perfectly straight beams. Mass and distributed loads Three Gauss points are used. uz .” Section 15.) It should be remarked that the above transformation (Equation 3. (u where ! is the rotation deﬁnition introduced above. uy . especially if the beam axis is not continuous through the node. dl C1T dS (3. dl=dS ). is known. !x.3. dl dl dx dS dl = dS t: Now suppose we store as degrees of freedom at the node.3–3) and its appropriate time derivatives. Stiffness and internal forces Three Gauss points are used. a matrix M MN = QMP MPQ QQN replaces MMN where QMP and QQN use the transformation (Equation 3. Along the beam axis. t C T dx dS = C T is deﬁned by these variables and the initial geometry. the d’Alembert forces no longer have the simple form N MMN u . !z . in ABAQUS the stretch dl=dS at the node of each such element is taken as an internal variable. and so it is not shared with neighboring elements. To avoid this difﬁculty.3–3) t Elements Integration The cross-section integration has already been discussed in the context of the shear beams—it is the same for these beams. Rotary inertia is not included in the mass. To eliminate the unwanted axial strain constraint. Furthermore.5. Two Gauss points are not sufﬁcient because the torsional strain is not independent.5.5.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.EULER-BERNOULLI BEAMS The last four of these variables are difﬁcult to work with. Since the initial geometry and hence . = 1 . local to the element (a third internal node is created for this purpose. the initial is the rotation matrix deﬁned by ! . where hence x . This leads to some complications—for example. The resulting Jacobian is nonsymmetric.3–3) is nonlinear. Reference • “Beam modeling: overview. the above set is a satisfactory set of nodal variables. making them the same in all elements sharing the same node causes excessive constraint of axial stretch in these elements. a is directly available from ! and .5.

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where is a parameter that will be deﬁned later.4 HYBRID BEAM ELEMENTS The hybrid beam elements in ABAQUS/Standard are designed to handle very slender situations.5. we can introduce an independent axial force variable. where axial force is treated as an independent unknown.4–1 .HYBRID BEAM ELEMENTS 3. N . where N = N + (1 ~ 0 )N : The tangent stiffness of the section behavior gives 8 2 ~ 9 A00 > dN > < = dM1 6 =4 sym > dM2 > : . A33 de1 38 9 3. For the shear beams mixed elements are provided where the transverse shear forces are also treated as independent unknowns. ~ = N: where is a Lagrange multiplier introduced to impose the constraint N of these expressions is WC = W1 + (1 A linear combination Elements I I 0 )W2I . and so a mixed method. This section discusses the basis of these mixed methods. A01 A11 dM3 A02 A12 A22 A03 > d" > < = A13 7 dK1 : 5 A23 > dK2 > : .5. where the axial stiffness of the beam is very large compared to the bending stiffness. Axial and bending behavior The internal virtual work of the beam can be written I W1 = Z L (N " + M1 K1 + M2 K2 + M3 e1 ) dL: ~ Alternatively. and write I W2 = Z L ~ (N " + M1 K1 + M2 K2 + M3 e1 + (N ~ 0 N )dL. i Then I WC Z = h L (N + (1 ~ ~ 0 )N )" + M1 K1 + M2 K2 + M3 e1 + (1 0 )(N 0 N ) dL: The contribution of this term to the Newton scheme is then Z h L = (dN + (1 ~ ~ 0 )dN )" + dM1 K1 + dM2 K2 + dM3 e1 + (1 0 )(dN 0 dN ) + N d" + M1 dK1 + M2 dK2 + M3 de1 dL 3 0 Z h L N " + M1 K1 + M2 K2 + M3 e1 + (1 ~ 0 )(N 0 N ) i dL. is required.

Otherwise. where 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 2 ~ A A00 A11 A01 0 (1 0 ) A01 A00 symm 2 A02 A12 A 0 (1 0 ) A010002 A A13 A23 A03 A 0 (1 0 ) A010003 A A 0 (1 0 ) A020003 A (1 (1 (1 1 0 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7: 7 7 7 7 5 A22 0 (1 0 ) A02 A00 2 0 ) A01 A00 0 ) A02 A00 A33 0 (1 0 ) A03 A00 2 0 ) A03 A00 0(1 0 ) A1 00 ~ The variable N is taken as an independent value at each integration point in the element.HYBRID BEAM ELEMENTS If L2 A00 < A11 .4–2 . With this choice. 3. the L + b"K1 K2 e1 A00c L 2 ~ A 8 9 > d" > > > > > 3 < dK1 = ~ dN dK2 dL > > de1 > > > > : . the Gaussian elimination scheme has no difﬁculty with solving the equations. we assume that an inverse of the ﬁrst equation above ~ deﬁnes d" from dN : d" = 1 A00 ~ (d N 0 A01dK1 0 A02dK2 0 A03 de1 ). Z Z " ~ (N d" + M1 dK1 + M2 dK2 + M3 de1 )dL ~ N " + M1 K1 + M2 K2 + M3 e1 + A00 (1 = 0 3 L is 0 ) N ~ 0N !# A00 dL. A22 (where L is the element length). by ensuring that the variables N are eliminated ~ ~ after the displacement variables of each element. where is a small value. then the beam is ﬂexible axially and the mixed formulation is unnecessary. We choose ~ as =A00.5. 0 A01A02 A 0A 00 and so dM1 = dM2 = dM3 = A11 A12 0 A01 A 00 2 dK1 + A12 0 A01A02 A 00 dK1 + A22 00 A2 02 dK2 + A13 dK2 + A23 0 A01 A03 A 0 A02 A03 A 00 00 de1 + de1 + A01 A00 A02 A00 A03 A00 ~ dN ~ dN A13 0 A01A03 A 00 dK1 + A23 0 A02A03 A 00 dK2 + A33 0 A03 A 00 2 de1 + ~ dN : 1 Now using the ﬁrst tangent section stiffness multiplied by and the second multiplied by Newton contribution of the element becomes Z 0 .

where is a small value compared to GA. as Z L i i TS W2 = ~ ~ fTi i + i (Ti 0 Ti )gdL. we take a linear combination of these two forms. The virtual work can also be written by introducing independent shear force variables T1 and ~ T2 . and 1 and 2 are variations of transverse shear ~ strain. so Ti = GA i . where the i are Lagrange multipliers. where will be deﬁned later. B32H). = ~ Ti + (1 0 )Ti : 9 Ti Elements The contribution of this term to the Newton scheme is Z 8 Z 8 9 ~ T i i + i (1 0 )(Ti 0 Ti ) dL: =0 L ABAQUS treats transverse shear elastically. We now deﬁne Ti ~ ~ i to give Z 8 9 1 ~ ~ dTi )Ti + T i d i dL ~ ~ d i + (1 0 =GA)dTi ) i + (1 0 =GA)(d i 0 ~ GA L Z 8 9 ~ ~ T i i + (1 0 =GA)( i 0 Ti =GA) Ti dL: ~ =0 L Reference L (dTi + (1 ~ ~ ~ 0 )dTi ) i + i (1 0 )(dTi 0 dTi ) + Ti d i 9 dL • “Choosing a beam element. This gives W TS where Z = 8 L ~ T i i + i (1 0 )(Ti 0 Ti ) dL. TS TS W TS = W1 + (1 0 )W2 . Then the Newton contribution is Z 8 9 ~ ~ (GA d i + (1 0 )dTi ) i + 1 (1 0 )(GA d i 0 dTi ) + T i d i dL L Z 8 9 T i i + i (1 0 )(Ti 0 T i ) dL: =0 L ~ = GA and choose = =GA. As in the axial case.HYBRID BEAM ELEMENTS Transverse shear In the mixed elements that allow transverse shear (B21H. B22H. The internal virtual work associated with transverse shear is Z W T S = T dL i = 1 .4–3 .3. the transverse shear constraints are imposed by treating the shear forces as independent variables. B31H. where GA is constant. 1 where T1 and T2 are shear forces on the section. 2.” Section 15.5. using the following formulation.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.

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MASS AND INERTIA FOR TIMOSHENKO BEAMS 3.5.5 MASS AND INERTIA FOR TIMOSHENKO BEAMS Mass and inertia properties for Timoshenko beams (including PIPE elements) in ABAQUS may come from two separate sources. Here.5–1 . In all expressions in this section the mass matrix m that applies to the translational degrees of freedom is lumped for 2-node beams and consistent for 3-node beams.5. the mass of the beam per length is applied to the beam’s node that is located at the origin of the cross-section axis and the offset between the beam’s node and the center of mass for the cross-section (if it is nonzero) is neglected in the mass matrix formulation. When the isotropic formulation is used. r = xC 0 x: 3. the user has the choice of requesting either an isotropic approximation or the exact rotary inertia formulation for the beam mass matrix. Let B be the beam density. any offset between the beam’s node and the center of mass for the cross-section will produce coupling between the translational degrees of freedom and rotational degrees of freedom in the mass matrix for the element. For the isotropic (approximate) formulation the mass matrix for the element takes the form m 0 I331 0 : In two dimensions I33 = I11. Mass and the rotary inertia about the center of mass in the beam’s cross-section coordinate system are deﬁned as mB I11 I22 I12 I33 = = = = Z ZV ZV B dV. x1 and x2 are measured relative to the center of mass of the cross-section. Let mA (x) deﬁne the added mass per beam length. When the exact formulation is used. B (x2 )2 dV. When the mass and inertia are given only from the ﬁrst source. B (x1 )2 dV. Elements 0 VZ = I11 + I22 : V B x1x2 dV. The second source comes from any additional mass and inertia properties per element length that may be applied at speciﬁed locations on the beam cross-section. The ﬁrst source is the beam’s own density and the cross-section geometry. The combined beam mass is deﬁned as Z m = mB + l mA dl: Let r be the vector between the center of mass C and some point with current coordinates x.

int V Z 2 3 where u is the variation of the position of a point in the body and is the variation of the rotation of the rigid body reference node. these two equilibrium equations are m dt d dt ( u + ! 2 r) = F . where ^ denotes a skew symmetric matrix and Ie = I + r2m 0 m 1 rr. Taking the time derivative of this expression. so the internal force contribution simpliﬁes to 0W 1 2 r 1 u 1 13 2 0 0 _ _ + I 1 ! + m r 2 u + r2 1 0 rr 1 ! 1 int = _ u u dV = m u + ! 2 3 V and leads to the following mass matrix for all linear and linear perturbation analyses: m m1^ r 0m 1 ^ r Ie . The variational or weak form of equilibrium is Wint + Wext = 0 : Taking the time derivative in the equilibrium equations. the acceleration is _ u = uC 0 ! 2 r 0 ! 2 (! 2 r): The local or strong form of the equilibrium equations represents the balance of linear momentum and balance of angular momentum. The external loading contribution is Wext = F u + Z 1 0 M+r2F 1 1 : For linear theory all nonlinear terms are neglected.5–2 . _ _ C _ where ! = is the angular velocity of the body. _ 3 d2 _ I 1 ! + m r 2 (u + ! 2 r ) = M + r 2 F . r 3. where F and M are external forces acting at the center of mass and external moment and I is the rotary inertia tensor.MASS AND INERTIA FOR TIMOSHENKO BEAMS For a rigid body the velocity of any point in the body is given by u = u 0 ! 2 r.5. the internal or d’Alembert force contribution is _ 0W = u 1 u dV = m u + ! 2 r + ! 2 (! 2 r) 1 u 1 13 2 0 0 2 _ _ _ + I 1 ! + ! 2 I 1 ! + m (! 2 r) 2 u + r 2 u + r 1 0 rr 1 ! 0 (! 1 r) (! 2 r) 1 .

where the following notation was used _ dU = du + d! _ ! ! 2 r + ! 2 (d 2 r) + d! 2 (! 2 r) + ! 2 (d! 2 r) + ! 2 (! 2 (d 2 r)) . Elements 3.5–3 . 2 3 _ _ r ! dK2 = ru 0 (r 1 u)1 0 (! 2 r)r + (! 1 r)^ 1 d! 2 ^ ^ _ r _ _ _ + 0(! 1 r)u 0 (r 2 u)! + ru 0 (r 1 u)1 + (r 1 ! )^ 0 rr 1 ! + (! 2 r) ! 1 ^ r 3 2 _ _ 0 (! 1 r) ((! 1 r)1 0 r! ) 1 d + (r! 0 ! r) 1 du + ^ 1 du + (r 1 0 rr) 1 d! : r _ ! dK1 =I d! + d! In the Jacobian formulation for 3-node beams. It can be written in the form 0dW = m u int 1 dU + 1 (dK1 + mdK2 ) .5. ! _ _ 1 2 I 1 ! + ! 2 I 1 d! + d 2 I 1 ! + I 1 (! 2 d ) + (! 1 I 1 !)d 0 (! 1 d )I 1 ! + ! 2 I 1 (! 2 d ).MASS AND INERTIA FOR TIMOSHENKO BEAMS When the inertia of a rigid body is used with implicit time integration. a consistent mass matrix is used for translational degrees of freedom and a lumped mass matrix is used for rotational degrees of freedom and the terms that couple translational and rotational degrees of freedom. the Jacobian contribution of Wint is required.

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integrated bending provides the stiffness and inertia statistics: integrated axial stiffness i stiffness ( i EiIi ). the cross-section has to be numerically integrated using a ﬁnite element discretization over the two-dimensional cross-section region. To perform these tasks. However. in and out-of-plane warping degrees of freedom) that allow the shear center and beam torsional rigidity to be determined.MESHED SECTIONS 3.6 MESHED BEAM CROSS-SECTIONS Overview The beam theory introduced in “Beam element formulation.5. The nodal degrees of freedom of the ﬁnite element cross-section model represent warping displacements (in general.2.5. if the beam cross-section is arbitrarily shaped and/or the beam is made of more than one material layer. applies to homogenous beams (made out of a single material) and assumes that the shear center of the beam cross-section is either known or can be easily calculated. ﬁnding the cross-section shear center and warping function are no longer trivial tasks. Numerical integration of this meshed section also EiAi .” Section 3.

. integrated shear stiffness ( i Gi Ai ).

and rotary inertia ( i i Ii ). . total mass per unit length i i Ai .

The axial warping stresses are assumed to be negligible. but the torsional shear stresses are assumed to be of the same order of magnitude as the stresses due to axial forces and bending moments. Hence.5. the theory is based on a solid cross-section with unconstrained warping. 21 = 4 : . and the angle is a user-deﬁned material orientation. In this case the warping is dependent on the twist and can be eliminated as an independent variable.2. = sym G G : 21 . and it is assumed that warping prevention at the ends can be neglected. in the elastic range the warping is small. . The stress-strain relationship for the elastic orthotropic material in the beam cross-section axis yields Elements 8 9 2 38 9 E 0 0 < e11 = < 11 = G1(cos )2 + G2(sin )2 (G1 0 G2 ) cos sin 5 21 . • Beams can be made out of linear elastic materials either with isotropic properties or orthotropic shear properties deﬁned by two shear moduli G1 and G2 given in two perpendicular directions. sym G1 (sin )2 + G2(cos )2 : 31 . The warping function and the shear center are derived for shear ﬂexible Timoshenko beams under the following assumptions: P P P P P • Cross-sections are solid or closed and thin-walled and have a torsional stiffness that is of the same order of magnitude as the polar moment of inertia of the section.6–1 . 31 where 11 represents the beam’s axial stress.” Section 3. Hence. For the isotropic material properties the above relationship becomes 8 9 2 38 9 E 0 0 < e11 = < 11 = 4 05 : 21 . : 31 31 3. which leads to a considerably simpliﬁed formulation. Using the notation from “Beam element formulation. we assume that wp = 0 and the axial strains due to warping can be neglected: 0. 21 and 31 represent two shear stresses.5.

in-plane warping can be neglected and the out-of-plane degree of freedom is the only unknown warping value. Deﬁning the shear center and warping function At a given stage in the deformation history of the beam.MESHED SECTIONS • Material ﬁbers are aligned with or perpendicular to the beam axis. the expressions for the axial and transverse shear strain components simplify to e11 (+1)1 = e 0 S . hence. This assumption can be inaccurate if the beam consists of materials with very different stiffness properties. S ) = x(S ) + f (S )S n(S ) + w(S ) (S )t(S ): ^ Applying the assumptions made for meshed sections. the position of a material point in the crosssection is given by the expression x(S.

b.

@ = + b(S . + .

+ @S ): .

as e11 (+1)1 = e c 0 (S 0 S c ) . Express these strain components relative to the centroid and the shear center strains. . respectively.

b .

+ where Sc is a section centroid. and s is the shear strain at the shear center. Ss is a section shear center. ec is the axial strain at the centroid. The elastic energy in the beam is @ .

= + b (S .

0 Ss ) + @S s .

. 1 Z Z (Ee2 + G 5= 2 .

(+1)1 (.

the elastic energy can be written as condition that requires the warping function to be orthogonal to the axial and bending energies: fE (ec 0 (S 0 Sc ).+1)1 )d`dA: 11 ` A Using the strain deﬁnitions relative to the section strains at the centroid and the shear center.

b.

+ )2 + ` A s s G.

( + b . + b(S 0 Ss ) )(.

+ b .

+ b(S 0 Ss ).

= 0).e. )gd`dA: Although we assume no warping prevention (i.. the above energy leads to the following 1Z 5= 2 Z Z A 8 E e c 0 b (S .

.

.

0 Sc ) 9 dA = 0: 3.6–2 .5.

the centroid location follows from e c b . Hence.MESHED SECTIONS The cross-section centroid is deﬁned as the point about which the coupling between axial and bending vanishes.

Z A E(S .

.

the following term is zero in the elastic energy: Z A G. and S EdA R : Sc = A A EdA R The shear center is deﬁned as the point about which the coupling between twist and transverse shear vanishes. Hence. 0 Sc )dA = 0.

b( .

+ (S 0 Ss ).

)dA = 0: s Let us express the warping function as a sum of three parts: a warping function 0 superimposed on the unknown rigid translation C0 and rigid rotation about the yet unknown shear center Ss . and minimizing the energy with respect to the warping function. using the property of the shear center. we get Z @ G. This assumption can be written as = 0 + C0 0 Ss (S 0 Sc ): Elements Substituting the above into the expression for elastic energy.

A @S @ 0 + .

S dA = 0: @S .

Recall that the warping function satisﬁes the orthogonality condition Z 8 A Substituting ec 0 b (S 0 Sc ) 9 E dA = 0: . This equation is solved numerically over the meshed section and gives the value of 0(S ). we get Z 8 A ec E( 0 + C0) 0 b (S . and using the centroid deﬁnition. grouping axial and bending terms.

.

.

0 Sc )E[ 0 0 Ss (S 0 Sc )] 9 dA = 0: This expression must be true for any value of axial strain ec and curvatures b . so we can write two separate equations that provide constant C0 and shear center components Ss : Z Z A A (S .

.

. E ( 0 + C0) dA = 0.

6–3 .5. 0 Sc )E 8 0 0 Ss (S 0 Sc ) 9 dA = 0: 3.

C0 Ss =0 Z R A E 0 dA . R A EdA .MESHED SECTIONS Hence.

.

0 S c )E 0 dA: = (EI )01 A .

Z A (EI ). the section integrated stiffness properties are deﬁned as Z (EA) = EdA. (S Finally.

= A E (S 0 Sc ).

(S 0 Sc )dA. Z (GA).

= Z A G.

(GJ ) = A G. dA.

( . + (S 0 Ss ))( Z .

.

+ (S 0 Ss ))dA: The integrated inertia properties are (A) = Z A dA. (I ).

= where Sm is the center of mass given by the equation R = A S dA : R Sm A dA We assume elastic section behavior in transverse shear and we neglect the effect at the individual material points (shear strain and stress is averaged over the section). This leads to the following relationships for transverse shear stiffness: A .

(S 0 Sm ).

K. (S 0 Sm )dA.

fp ts = f K ts . p .

(EI )av = 1=3((EI )11 + (EI )22 + (EI )12 ): K. l2 (EA) = 1=(1 + 12(EI )av ).

ts = k(GA) . .

6–4 .0 for meshed cross-sections and depends on the ﬁnite element interpolation. 3. where k equals 1.5.

Thin shell elements may provide enhanced performance for large problems where reducing the number of degrees of freedom through the use of ﬁve degree of freedom shells is desirable. nor do they have any unconstrained hourglass modes. S3R. for speciﬁc applications it may be possible to obtain enhanced performance by choosing one of the thin or thick shell elements. These elements use simpliﬁed methods for strain calculation and hourglass control and offer signiﬁcant advantages in computational speed. While ABAQUS/Standard provides shell elements in all three categories. Elements 3. Thin shell elements provide solutions to shell problems that are adequately described by classical (Kirchhoff) shell theory. S4RS. nor in the bending and membrane response of the fully integrated element S4. and SAX2T and threedimensional elements S3. For most applications the general-purpose shell elements should be the user’s ﬁrst choice from the element library. and S4RSW. and thick shell elements. SAX2. while SAXA is a ﬁnite-strain.1 SHELL ELEMENT OVERVIEW The ABAQUS shell element library provides elements that allow the modeling of curved. SAXA elements very effectively model axisymmetric structures undergoing asymmetric deformation when only a few circumferential Fourier modes describe the circumferential variation of the deformation accurately. It should also be noted that not all ABAQUS shell elements are formulated for large-strain analysis. they should be used only for the modeling of thin structures that exhibit at most weak nonlinearities in problems where rotation degree of freedom output is not required and for situations where the shell surface and the displacement ﬁeld are smooth so that higher accuracy can be achieved with the use of second-order shells. thin. Thin shell elements are available only in ABAQUS/Standard. They do not suffer from transverse shear locking. However. Thickness change as a function of in-plane deformation is allowed in their formulation. thin shell element suitable for modeling axisymmetric geometries subjected to arbitrary loadings. and S9R5 comprise the quadrilateral small-strain. and general-purpose shell elements can provide solutions to both thin and thick shell problems. The membrane kinematics of S4 are based on an assumed-strain formulation that provides accurate solutions for in-plane bending behavior. With the exception of the small-strain elements. thin shell elements. The ABAQUS/Explicit elements S3RS. S4R. S3RS.1–1 . The general-purpose elements provide robust and accurate solutions in all loading conditions for thin and thick shell problems. intersecting shells that can exhibit nonlinear material response and undergo large overall motions (translations and rotations). and S4RSW are small-strain elements that are available only in ABAQUS/Explicit. S4RS. No hourglass control is required for the axisymmetric general-purpose shells. including structures undergoing large-scale buckling behavior. All shell elements use bending strain measures that are approximations to those of KoiterSanders shell theory (Budiansky and Sanders. The general-purpose shell elements are axisymmetric elements SAX1. S4R5. thick shell elements yield solutions for structures that are best modeled by shear ﬂexible (Mindlin) shell theory. ABAQUS shell elements can also model the bending behavior of composites. 1963). The library is divided into three categories consisting of general-purpose.6. thin shell elements. However. and S4RSW are well-suited for many impact dynamics problems. STRI3 and STRI65 are triangular small-strain. which involve small-strains but large rotations and severe bending. ABAQUS/Explicit provides only general-purpose shell elements. where S4RS. S8R5.6. S4. S3RS. all of these elements consider ﬁnite membrane strains.SHELL ELEMENTS 3.

Nonnegligible transverse shear ﬂexibility is required for this element to function properly. this element is recommended for use in regular mesh geometries for thick shell applications. For element types STRI65. S4R5. hence. S9R5. which refers to the satisfaction of the Kirchhoff constraint at discrete points on the shell surface. In plane stress 33 = 0. therefore. where A is the area on the shell’s reference surface. This nonlinear analogy with linear elasticity leads to the thickness change relationship: t t0 = A 0 10 A0 = 0 :0 : For = 0 :5 the material is incompressible. linear elasticity gives 33 = 0 1 0 (11 + 22): Treating these as logarithmic strains. Thickness change In geometrically nonlinear analyses in ABAQUS/Standard the cross-section thickness of ﬁnite-strain shell elements changes as a function of the membrane strain based on a user-deﬁned “effective section Poisson’s ratio. In ABAQUS/Explicit the thickness change is based on the “effective section Poisson’s ratio” for all shell elements in large-deformation analyses. Irregular meshes of S8R elements converge very poorly because of severe transverse shear locking.6.SHELL ELEMENTS The Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) constraint. S8R5. for the section thickness does not change. is imposed in all thin shell elements in ABAQUS.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. and SAXA the discrete Kirchhoff constraint is imposed numerically where the transverse shear stiffness acts as a penalty that enforces the constraint.” . the element is suitable for the analysis of composite and sandwich shells. Solutions obtained with these elements converge to those corresponding to classical shell theory. For element type STRI3 the constraint is imposed analytically and involves no transverse shear strain energy calculation. unless the user has speciﬁed that the thickness change should be based on the element material deﬁnition. Reference • “Shell elements: overview. The thickness change based on the “effective section Poisson’s ratio” is calculated as follows.6. Shell behavior that can be properly described with shear ﬂexible shell theory and results in smooth displacement ﬁelds can be analyzed accurately with the second-order ABAQUS/Standard thick shell element S8R. ln t t0 = 01 0 ln l1 0 l1 + ln l2 0 l2 = 01 0 ln A0 A .1–2 .” Section 15.

they are also simple extensions of the two-dimensional beam elements B21 and B22.2 AXISYMMETRIC SHELL ELEMENTS These two shell elements are axisymmetric versions of the shells described in the previous section and use the “reduced-integration penalty” method of Hughes et al. (1977). All integrations use the Gauss method. Distance along the shell reference surface in such a plane is measured by the material coordinate S (see Figure 3. Interpolation and integration The 2-node element (SAX1) uses one-point integration of the linear interpolation function for the distribution of loads.2–1 Axisymmetric shell.2–1 . 3.6.6.AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS 3. These elements are thus one-dimensional.2–1). While these are shell elements. deforming in a radial plane.6. The mass matrix is lumped. The 3-node element (SAX2) uses two-point integration of a quadratic interpolation function for the stiffness and three-point integration of a quadratic interpolation function for the distribution of loads. The Cartesian coordinates in this plane are r (radius) and z (axial position). SAX2 uses a consistent mass matrix. z S Shell middle surface n Shell normal Elements r Figure 3. The integration through the thickness follows the usual numerical or exact scheme used in ABAQUS. The extension is the inclusion of the hoop terms.6.

The thinning of the shell is assumed to occur smoothly—that is to say. only terms up to ﬁrst order with respect to the thickness direction coordinate are included. Transverse shears are assumed to be small. for example). In these elements position on the reference surface and rotation of lines initially orthogonal to the reference surface are interpolated independently: the transverse shear stiffness is then viewed as a penalty term imposing the necessary constraint at selected (reduced integration) points. As with (c) above. b. such as the failure of pipes and vessels subjected to overpressurization. This means that localization effects. The strain measure used is chosen to give a close approximation (accurate to second-order terms) to log strain. The position of a material point in the shell is given by 3. f.AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS Theory This shell theory allows for ﬁnite strains and rotations of the shell. (1977). The concepts are taken from various sources. Plane sections remain plane. are only modeled in a very coarse way. penalty” type (see Hughes et al. most especially Budiansky and Sanders (1963) and Rodal and Witmer (1979). Obviously this is a relatively coarse approximation. for the nonnegligible stresses. but the approximations are not rigorously justiﬁed: they are introduced for simplicity and seem reasonable. such as necking of the shell. for most material models. Transverse shear is introduced because the elements used are of the “reduced integration. The thinning of the shell caused by stretching parallel to its reference surface is assumed to be uniform through the thickness and deﬁned by an incompressibility condition on the reference surface of the shell. It is adopted because it is simple and models the effect of thinning associated with membrane straining: this is considered to be of primary importance in the type of applications envisioned. d. These approximations are as follows: a. This transverse shear stiffness is the actual elastic value for relatively thick shells. This means that. A “thinness” assumption is made. especially in the case where a shell is subjected to pure bending. Again. this precludes detailed localization studies.6. plane stress theory is assumed. The theory is now described in detail.. e. Here it is simply assumed without further justiﬁcation. For thinner cases the penalty must be reduced for numerical reasons—this is done in ABAQUS in the manner described in Hughes et al. the reason for adopting this approximation is simplicity—details of localization effects are not important to the type of application for which the elements are designed.2–2 . and. c. The theory is approximate. 1977. gradients of the thinning with respect to position on the reference surface are assumed to be negligible. such as metal plasticity. All stresses except those parallel to the reference surface are neglected. and the material response to such deformation is assumed to be linear elastic. Thus. the theory is intended for direct application to cases involving inelastic or hypoelastic deformation where the stress-strain behavior is given in terms of Kirchhoff stress (“true” stress in the usual engineering literature) and log strain. This has been shown to be consistent with the thinness assumption. at all times. but introduces considerable simpliﬁcation into the formulation. (a) above.

and at the start of an increment the same equation is written as X1 = X + o N : t The metric at the end of an increment is (3. is a unit vector in the “thickness” direction.2–2) @ @ @ @ 1 @ 1 @ 1 @ . The assumptions listed above imply that t = t (1 .AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS x1 = x + t n. in the reference conﬁguration.2–1 is written at the end of an increment. 2 ) t ( 1 .2–1) x ( 1 . 2 ) is the position of a point on the reference surface of the shell. and are material coordinates in the reference surface. is the stretch of the shell in the thickness direction. @t =@2 are small quantities.6. 2 ) n ( 1 . this direction being initially orthogonal to the reference surface. 2 ) only and that @t =@1 . where (3. Equation 3.6.6. measures position with respect to the thickness direction.

= @ + t @ 1 @.

+ tn @.

@ @ @ @ @ @ @ 1 + t 1 + 1 @ @.

@ @.

@ @.

=g.

+ t b.

x x x n x n n (3.2–3) Elements x x x n x where g. . say.6.

and = @ @ x 1 @ is the metric of the reference surface. @.

= x @ @ @ @ 1 @.

+ @ 1 @.

@ is an approximation to the curvature tensor (second fundamental form) of the reference surface. b.

would be precisely the curvature tensor as it is usually deﬁned if b.

because a small transverse shear is allowed. @ n @x = 0: 1 x n n x This is only approximately true for these elements. At the start of the increment the same quantities are @ 1 @ 1 o 1 = G.

+ t B.

2–4) @ @. : (3.6.

by assuming that 1 and 2 are oriented in these principal X X 3.6. Thus. Axisymmetric shells undergoing axisymmetric deformations have the great simpliﬁcation that principal directions do not rotate.2–3 .

@ @ @ @ where from this point onward the summation convention has been dropped for indexes and . the stretch ratios that occur within the increment in these directions are written as 1 = 1 1 @ x1 @ x1 @ X1 @ X 1 0 2 1 = 1 .AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS directions ( 1 is meridional and 2 is circumferential).

it can be thought of as a central difference approximation for the rate of deformation. the error is very much less. Then 1 1 = 1+ 41 (1 + 1)2 : 41 = 1 + e = (1 + e)(1 0 e + 3 e2 0 1 e3 + 1 1 1) (1 + 1)2 (1 + e=2)2 4 2 1 e2 + 1 e3 0 1 1 1): = (1 0 4 4 3. Now consider the term Write e. where " is the incremental strain of the reference surface—the membrane strain. we obtain 41 1"1 1" + (1 + 1 )2 1k.2–3 and Equation 3.2–4 . Using Equation 3. 1 . .2–4 and truncating to ﬁrst order in then gives 11 1(1 + t1k). . is deﬁned as "1 1 b 1k = t g 0 1t B : G t o 1" = 2 1 + 1 1 1 1 0 1 : Because this expression approximates the increment of log strain correctly to second-order terms. At lower—and probably more typical—values of strain increment.6.6. This expression is used because we anticipate that strain increments of a maximum of 20 percent per increment will be used: at that magnitude the difference between this deﬁnition of incremental strain and the increment of log strain is about 1%.2–5) The incremental strain. where e represents the change in length per unit length that occurs within the increment (the “nominal strain” with respect to the conﬁguration at the beginning of the increment).6. which seems to be acceptable (4 % of the increment). where and 2 1 = (g = G) 1 (3. Again expanding to ﬁrst order in the thickness direction coordinate.6.

6. the theory in Rodal and Witmer (1979) appears to violate this requirement. a modiﬁed incremental curvature change measure is deﬁned as ~ 1k. if e 20 percent.6. t From the deﬁnition of k. This completes the statement of the incremental strain deﬁnitions.2–8) This simple form is used because these strains are always assumed to be small. 1 b 1B 1k = g 0 G : t Elements (3. This is essential if the theory is to be suitable for many practical cases. Interestingly. and so—together with a virtual work statement to represent equilibrium—a theory is available.AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS Again. t where th is the thickness stretch ratio caused by thermal expansion.2–6) The stretch ratio in the thickness direction is assumed to be deﬁned by the following relation on the reference surface: t = (1 2 )0=10 th .2–7) The transverse shear strains are written as @ @X 1 = @x 1 n 0 @ 1 N: (3. this means that 41 3 (1 + 1)2 1 0 :01 + 0(e ). and so once again using the argument that practical applications will involve strain increments of no more than a few percent. most especially those involving thermal loading.6. To achieve this. we approximate 41 (1 + 1)2 1: This then gives 1 1" 1" + t1k: (3. it is necessary to satisfy the minimum requirement that the theory provide constant strain under appropriate motions. However.

= 1k.

+ sym( 1" .

. ).

2–5 . We know that the radii of curvature of the -line at the end and at the beginning of an increment are given by where 1 = b r g at the end of an increment.6. is a tensor. 3. deﬁned as follows.

2–11) The formulation is completed by the assumption that the virtual work equation can be written Z Z o t 1 .2–10) satisﬁes the requirement.6.2–9) and assuming ~ 1"1 = 1" + t1k b ~ 1k = g 0 11 (3.2–9 may be simpliﬁed by substituting in the deﬁnition of in Equation 3.6. If the -line is stretched uniformly by during the increment. as in the following development. Equation 3.6.6. we require that and.2–7 to give 1k B . no summation is implied by a repeated index . In this motion ~ 1k = 0 10 1 = 1 1 0 1 1k = r 1 R R 1 1 t t 1 1 0 1 : = R 1 1 t Deﬁning ~ 1k = 1k + 11 0 11 to B G t (3.AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS and R 1 = B at the beginning of the increment. G and so ~ 1k = g 1 (b 0 1B): (3. G 1 r = 1 R . we need under such circumstances. further.2 where h . In these expressions.6. such uniform stretch of the shell must give constant strain so that since we assume 1 ~ 1" = 1" + t1k.

"1 d + T (G11G22) 2 d1 d2 = W E . .

1 (3.6.2–12) .

6. 3. are the Kirchhoff stresses at a point.2–6 .

2 ) "1 .AXISYMMETRIC SHELLS ( 1 .

where h kG are the transverse shear strains from Equation 3. are the transverse shear forces per unit area.9 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.” Section 15. This completes the statement of the formulation. T in the shell.2–8. deﬁned by T = kGh . (1977) if the shell is too thin. W E and is the virtual external work rate. to avoid numerical problems). are the variations of the strain increments in Equation 3.6.2–10 to deﬁne the strain at this point.2–7 .6. deﬁned by plane stress theory using the summation of the strain increments in Equation 3. is the original thickness of the shell.2–10.6. is the elastic transverse shear stiffness (reduced according to the suggestions of Hughes et al.6. Reference • “Axisymmetric shell element library.6.

.

3–1 Shell reference surface. 1963). the strain measures that are used for this purpose are approximations to Koiter-Sanders theory strains (Budiansky and Sanders. 3.SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS 3. n Elements S 2 θ2 S 1 θ1 z y x Figure 3. and the change in the shell’s thickness caused by deformation is neglected.3–1 .6. The kinematics of the shell theory then consist of measuring membrane strain on the reference surface from the derivatives of x with respect to position on the surface and bending strain from the derivatives of n. S9R5. which are quadrilaterals (S4R5.6.6. The transverse shear strains are measured as the changes in the projections of n onto tangents to the shell’s reference surface.6.3 SHEAR FLEXIBLE SMALL-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENTS This section discusses the formulation of the small-strain shear ﬂexible elements in ABAQUS/Standard. except for the 6-node triangle STRI65. and S8R). Notation A typical piece of shell surface is shown in Figure 3. S8R5. For these element types the strain measures are suitable for large rotations but small strains.3–1. The essential idea of these elements is that the position of a point in the shell reference surface—x—and the components of a vector n—which is approximately normal to the reference surface—are interpolated independently.

x(1 . In the rest of this section Greek indices will be used to indicate values associated with the (twodimensional) reference surface and so will sum over the range 1.SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS Let (1 . otherwise. i T2 = N i i N p 2 2 where k is a unit vector in the global Z -direction. These will be local material directions. The unit vector X N N N @ = @1 X 2 @ @2 X . 2 under the summation convention. Then deﬁne T1 = T2 N: 2 T2 = N kk . and (1 . Since these coordinates are only needed locally at an integration point. N p 2 2 Let dS . will be made approximately normal to the reference surface in to the current conﬁguration by imposing the Kirchhoff constraint discretely. we use the element’s isoparametric coordinates as these coordinates. Deﬁne n so long as N1 < cos 0:1 . This vector gives a “sidedness” to the surface—one surface of the shell is the “top” surface (in the positive direction along from the shell’s reference surface) and the other is the bottom surface. where is a unit vector in the global X -direction. 2 ) is the initial position of the same point. . we establish convenient directions for stress and strain output. 2 ) is the current position of a point on the interpolated reference surface. It is most convenient to choose orthogonal directions. The standard convention used throughout ABAQUS for such local directions on a surface is as follows.r @ @1 X 2 @ @2 X is the unit normal to the interpolated reference surface in the initial conﬁguration. indistinguishable (to the order of approximation) from corotational directions. First. since we assume strains are small. The vector corresponding in the current conﬁguration. 2) be a set of Gaussian surface coordinates on the shell reference surface.

The transformation . = so that the dS are locally deﬁned distance measuring coordinates at each material point.

@S @ @ = @X T.

@ d. 1 @S @.

@ @ transforms locally with respect to surface coordinates. Here = @S .

6.3–2 . T1 @X=@1 T1 @X=@2 01 : T2 @X=@1 T2 @X=@2 1 1 1 1 3.

SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS Stress and strain components are formed in the (dS 1. Surface measures dS 2) directions. The following surface measures are deﬁned. The metric of the deformed surface is g.

@S @S . = @x @x 1 .

and an approximation to the curvature tensor (the second fundamental form) is 1 @ n 1 @x + @n 1 @x b.

= 0 2 @S @S .

@S .

The corresponding measures associated with the original reference surface are the metric n G. @S (this is only an approximation because is not exactly normal to the surface in the current conﬁguration).

= and the approximation to the curvature @ X @X 1 @S @S .

Elements B.

= 0 The vectors @ =@S are deﬁned from the derivatives of the interpolation functions and the “normals” at the nodes. ABAQUS determines if the surface is intended to be smooth at the node (the criterion is that the angle between the normals at the node should be less than 20). These nodal normals are calculated as average values of the normals to the surfaces of all elements abutting the node. Thus. separate normals are set up in the different surface branches at the node. B. If the surface is not calculated as smooth.

should be a reasonable approximation to the second fundamental form of the original reference surface. Displacements N 1 @ N 1 @X + @N 1 @X : 2 @S @S .

@S .

only two independent values are needed to deﬁne . ABAQUS stores the usual rotation triplet. = 0 . Since is deﬁned to be a unit vector. ! . @S The nodal variables for shell elements are the displacements of the shell’s reference surface. This latter method leaves a redundant degree of freedom if the node is on a smooth surface. Otherwise.3–3 . In ABAQUS this issue is addressed in two ways. n n n u x X n n 3. .6. at the node. ABAQUS stores the values of the projections of the change in projected onto two orthogonal directions in the shell surface at the start of the increment to deﬁne . At nodes in a smooth shell surface in those elements that naturally have ﬁve degrees of freedom per node. so that this type of shell element needs only ﬁve degrees of freedom per node. A small stiffness is introduced locally at the node to constrain this extra degree of freedom to a measure of the same rotation of the shell’s reference surface. and the normal direction.

and . Strains XN n The reference surface membrane strains are . .SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS Interpolation The same bipolynomial interpolation functions are used for all components of u. The shear ﬂexible shell elements in the library use bilinear interpolation (four nodes). and “serendipity” quadratics (eight nodes). fully biquadratic interpolation (nine nodes). .

= The curvature change is 1 2 ( g.

0 G.

): .

= B.

0 b.

+ The transverse shears are where 1 2 ( B .

+ B.

r @ x 3 = n 1 t . Notice that these will be different in each element at the node. deﬁne 1 . @S @ 1 @Sx (no sum on ) is a unit vector. as follows. t = C 1 T t = @x @S is the rotated tangent direction. 2 . since the interpolated surface is not generally continuous. and dS 2 in the element as above.r @ x 1 @x @S @S (no sum on ) is the rotated tangent direction deﬁned by the motion of the interpolated reference surface at the node. as deﬁned by the rotation values at the node. 1 . the extra rotation degree of freedom is constrained with a penalty.3–4 .6. when six degrees of freedom are used at the nodes of the elements. ): t = @x @S . 3. tangent to the dS line in the current surface. When such a node is the corner node of an element. Then the strain to be penalized is deﬁned as T T N SRC = where 1 2 ( 1 t 1 t 2 0 t2 1 t 1 ). and . dS 1 . In addition to these strains.

3–5 . to be large enough to avoid singularities yet small enough to avoid adding signiﬁcantly to the stiffness of the model. as deﬁned by the rotation values at the node. Penalties The transverse shear strains are calculated at a set of reduced integration points and have the following stiffness associated with them: K3 = G3h1(area)=(1 + q1(area)=h2). Then deﬁne N T t = C T and n = C N 1 1 as rotated values of T and N. the penalty used is K kGh = q =h2 : 1(area) to the node and the factor k is introduced. 1 4 10 where the G3 are the elastic moduli associated with transverse shear. The strain to be penalized at these midside nodes is then deﬁned as n SRM where t= x @ @S . 1 1 @ @S x Elements is the tangent to the edge of the element in the current position of the reference surface. using the membrane and bending strains to deﬁne the strain on the surface parallel to the shell’s reference surface at each integration point through the shell’s thickness.) Transverse shears are always treated elastically: nonlinear material calculations in shells are based on plane stress theory. When rotation constraints are required at nodes that use six degrees of freedom. 1977. except that 1(area) is here an area “assigned” = 3.r x @ @S = t p. h is the shell is the value of reference surface area associated with this integration point in the thickness. for a discussion of such factors. q is a numerical factor. 1(area) (1 + 1(area) ) This is the same as the transverse shear constraint. The vector p=t n 2 is then normal to and to the edge.6. currently set to = 2 04 . (See Hughes et al.SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS At each midside node in the original conﬁguration. The G3 are deﬁned directly by the user or are computed from the elastic moduli given for the layers of the shell. deﬁne as the average surface normal for the elements of this surface branch at the nodes (there will be at most two such elements) and as the tangent to the edge.. numerical integration scheme. This (small) factor has been chosen based on numerical experiments.

First variations of strain The ﬁrst variations of the strains are .SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS These strain measures. and X1 are constant. give zero strain for any general rigid body motion where 1. with the interpolation speciﬁed above. u C1. x = X + u 1 + ( C 1 0 I ) 1 (X 0 X 1 ) n = C1 1 N.

= g.

.

= 0b.

+ (B .

+ B.

) 2 3 = n 1 t + n 1 t 1 1 2 1 SRC amp. where g. = ( t1 1 t2 0 t2 1 t1 + t1 1 t2 0 t2 1 t1 ) 2 SRM amp. = t1 1 p + p 1 t.

= @ u @ x @ x @ u 1 @S .

+ @S 1 @S .

@S @ n @ x @ n @ x @ n @ u @ n @ u 1 b.

= 0 1 @S .

+ @S .

1 @S + S @S .

+ @S .

this does not signiﬁcantly affect the convergence rate. = [ I 0 t t ] 1 (no sum on) 1 @S @S @S ! p = ! 2 p: and at the midside nodes Second variations of strains In forming the initial stress matrix we approximate by neglecting d . = ! 2 n ! t amp. etc. Numerical experiments have suggested that. 1 @S 2 @S ! namp. = ! 2 t 1 @x @x 0 2 @ u tamp. to simplify the expressions and reduce the cost of forming the matrix. d . With this approximation. n t @ u @du @ u @du d. at least for the problems tested.

= 1 + 1 2 @S @S .

@S .

6. @S 1 3.3–6 .

SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS d.

= @d @ @d ! 2 n 1 @Su + ! 2 @Sn 1 @Su .

.

@S ! @! @du @ n @du ! amp. + .

2 n 1 + ! 2 .

+ 2 n 1 . 1 @S @S @S @S ! @! @ u ! @ n @ u amp.

+ d! 2 1 .

+ 2 n 1 @S + d! 2 @S . @S @S @S @S @! ! @ u ! @ n @ u amp.

1 @S @S .

1 amp. + (B d .

+ B.

+g1 2 d! 2 t1 1 (I 0 t2 t2 ) 1 @S 2 1 @ u 0 ! amp. 0g2 2 d! 2 t2 1 (I 0 t1 t1) 1 @S 1 + 01 ! =g 2 ! 2 n 1 (I 0 t 1 t ) 1 0 ! g 2 d! 2 n 1 (I 0 t t ) 1 @du @S Elements and ! d SRM =g0 2 d! 2 p 1 (I 0 t t) 1 1 + ! g0 2 ! 2 p 1 (I 0 t t) 1 1 @ u @S 2 @du : @S 1 Internal virtual work rate For these shell elements the internal virtual work rate is assumed to be W I = + + + Z Z A X r X nc X n m ( ( ( KI r) 3r) 3r) (n (n ) (n ) KII ) SRC SRC (n ) (n ) (n ) KIII SRM SRM . h . d ) 1 2 2 @! ! d 3 @u (no sum on ) @S @du 01 ! d SRC =g1 2 ! 2 t1 1 (I 0 t2 t2 ) 1 2 @S 0 1 ! 2 t 1 (I 0 t t ) 1 @du 2 ! 0 g2 2 1 1 @S 1 1 @ u 0 ! amp.

"f dzdA .

6. nc indicates corner nodes ( ) ( ) ( ) r n n 3. KII .3–7 . where KI . and KIII are the transverse shear stiffness and the penalties deﬁned above and r indicates the integration points at which transverse shears are calculated.

SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS at which six degrees of freedom are used. and nm indicates midside nodes at which six degrees of freedom are used. Here "f and .

are the strain and stress in the (dS . dS .

) material directions .

The usual Kirchhoff assumption is adopted: ". in a surface offset by a distance z from the reference surface.

f = .

+ z.

Z . .

h so that the ﬁrst term above is Z A Z .

h .

dz + z.

In ABAQUS/Standard the pressure load stiffness is implemented as a symmetric form. x. p dA = p Z A p @ 1 @x @x @ 2 @x2 d1 d2 : Thus. The integration scheme is a Simpson’s rule. p. Neglecting free edge effects. thus assuming that the pressure magnitude is constant over the surface and neglecting free edge effects. results in the symmetric form Z dW e 1 p @ x 1 @du 2 u + @ u 2 du @2 @2 A 2 @1 @du @ u @x 0 @2 1 @1 2 u + @1 2 du d1 d2 : = 3. especially in eigenvalue buckling estimates on elastic shells. dz dA: The thickness direction integrations are performed numerically in ABAQUS.6. since we assume that pressure magnitude. Pressure load stiffness The load stiffness associated with pressure loading is often important in shells. as A p 1 u dA. of user-chosen order. with different properties at each layer and a different integration scheme assigned (by the user) to each layer. W e = @ 2 @x 1 u d1d2 : 1 @1 The change in this term caused by change of displacement of the shell (the “load stiffness”) is dW e = Z A p u 1 @ 2 @du 0 @x2 2 @du @1 @2 @1 @x d1 d2 . given in terms of the (externally prescribed) pressure magnitude. and assuming the magnitude p is uniform. p. See Hibbitt (1979) and Mang (1980) for details.3–8 . The load stiffness is obtained in such a form as follows. The shell can also be considered layered. is externally prescribed and has no dependence on position. The external virtual work associated with pressure is Z W e = where p is the pressure load per unit area.

6.3–9 .6.SHEAR FLEXIBLE SHELLS This is the pressure load stiffness provided in ABAQUS. Reference • “Shell elements: overview.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.” Section 15.

.

using Batoz’s interpolation functions (Batoz et al. S 1 and S 2 measure distance along T1 and T2 in the reference conﬁguration. using the standard ABAQUS convention. 3 Elements T2 N 1 T1 3 2 2 1 Figure 3. T1 and T2.. However. Arbitrary rigid body rotations are accounted for exactly by formulating the deformation of the element in a local coordinate system that rotates with the element. In addition.TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL 3. each with six degrees of freedom.4 TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL ELEMENTS Element type STRI3 in ABAQUS/Standard is a facet shell—a plate element used to approximate a shell. using a small-strain approximation.4–1 . the membrane strains are assumed constant within the element. This formulation satisﬁes the Kirchhoff constraints all around the boundary of the triangle and provides linear variation of curvature throughout the element. 3. The element has three nodes.6. a curved shell is approximated by this element as a set of facets formed by the planes deﬁned by the three nodes of each element.6. For these reasons it is necessary to use a reasonably well reﬁned mesh in most applications.6. is deﬁned in the plane of each element in the reference conﬁguration.4–1 Triangular facet shell in the reference conﬁguration. Kinematics A local orthonormal basis system. The bending of the element is based on a discrete Kirchhoff approach to plate bending. so that it will produce reliable results with appropriate meshes. The element also satisﬁes the patch test. The strains are based on thin plate theory. 1980).

TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL The membrane strains are then deﬁned as ".

= where 1 (g.

0 G.

2 g.).

= G.

= and .

2 @x @x 1 @S @S . = 1.

@ X @X 1 @S @S .

are deﬁned as N 1 = n N 1 t . 1 P is the array P 1 !2 = H 2 1 P .4–2 . Curvature changes are deﬁned incrementally. x X t = x t = x 1 t 1 t t t 1 1 1 01!2 + @@Sw = 0 1 and deﬁned independently along each of the three sides of the element as a cubic function. Here and respectively. and the incremental rotation components at the nodes. Since the membrane strains are assumed to be small. To account for large rigid body rotations we use a local coordinate system that rotates with the plane deﬁned by the three nodes of the element. 4 3. is the metric in the current conﬁguration. 1 1 . approximately. are the spatial coordinates of a point in the current and reference conﬁgurations. these vectors will be approximately orthonormal. h) are interpolation functions that are deﬁned by N Batoz (1980). 1 2 . (Note that w will be zero at the nodes at all times because the plane containing 1 and 2 always passes through the nodes. 1 . 1 2 5 : P P In the above expressions H1 (g.6. The components of incremental rotation of the normal to the plate are deﬁned as !1 about 1 and !2 about 2 . The basis vectors chosen for this local system are 1 @ =@S 1 and 2 @ =@S 2 .) The Kirchhoff constraints are. 1 1 . The Kirchhoff constraints are then imposed at the corners and at the middle of each element edge along the direction of the edge to give 1 1!1 + @@Sw = 0: 2 Batoz (1980) assumes that 1!1 and 1!2 vary quadratically over the element and that 1w is P 1 !1 = H 1 1 P and where 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 . h) and H2 (g. The incremental displacement of the reference surface of the plate along the normal to the plane of its nodes is deﬁned as w. and is the metric in the reference conﬁguration. 1 2 .

@S 2 ". and j . the incremental curvature change measures are deﬁned as @ !2 k11 @S 1 @ !1 k22 0 @S 2 and @ !1 @ !2 k12 0 : @S 1 @S 2 The three membrane strains and three curvature strains complete the basic kinematic description of the element.TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL where and N are the increments of the rotational degrees of freedom at the node N . and i the increment. except that the use of six degrees of freedom per node introduces a spurious rotation at each node (only two incremental rotations at each node appear in the above equations—the rotation about the normal to the plane of the element’s nodes does not enter). To deal with this problem. First variations of strain a1 = C 1 A 1 a2 = C 1 A 2 A1 = N 2 A1 A2 = A2 2 N A 1 = ( X j 0 X i )= j X j 0 X i j A 2 = ( X k 0 X i )= j X k 0 X i j b 1 = ( x j 0 x i )= j x j 0 x i j b 2 = ( x k 0 x i )= j x k 0 x i j @x Elements The ﬁrst variations of strain are K11 ! = @(11 2) @S @ ( 1 ! 1 ) K22 = 0 @S 2 @ ( 1 ! ) @ ( 1 ! ) 2 K12 = 0 @S 1 1 . 1 N C 1 = 1 1 = 1 1 = 1 + 1 i where = b 1 1 a 1 0 b2 1 a 2 . k are the node numbers in cyclic order forming the two sides of the triangle at the node i. is the rotation i is the normal to the plane of the element’s nodes at the beginning of matrix deﬁned by N . we deﬁne a generalized strain to be penalized with a small stiffness at each node as 1 N nN = C(1i ) 1 N. Finally.

=1 2 @ x @ x @ x 1 @ S.

+ @S .

4–3 . 1 @S @S 3.6.

P 1 = H1 1 P 1 = H P 1 P . i ! ! = b 1 a 0 b 1 a + b 1 ! 2 a 0 b 1 ! 2 a : 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 Second variations of strain The second variations of strain are d". for the “strain” used to introduce the extra stiffness at the nodes to avoid singularity caused by the component of rotation about the normal.TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL where and in 1 !1 !2 P . 2 N 1 = N 2 nN 1 t + nN 1 t: Also.

= @d! @S @ (d! ) amp. @S 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 =1 2 @ x @dx @ x @dx 1 @S . = 0 @S . dK11amp dK22 dK12 where . = 0 @S @d! @d! amp.

+ @S .

1). normalized so that the nodes of the element are at (0.0) and (0. 1 @S @S N d 1 ! ! ! n ! = 0!N 1 d!N N 1 t + ! N 1 nN d!N 1 t @g @g ! + ! N 1 nN 2 @S (dx 0 dx ) + @S (dx 0 dx ) 2 0 and 1 1 3 1 @g1 x 2 0 x1 @S 1 ( )+ @g2 x 3 0 x1 @S 1 ( ! ) 2 nN 1 d!N d i ! ! = bi 1 da1 0 b2 1 da2 + db1 1 ! 2 a1 + b1 1 ! 2 da1 ! ! 0 db2 1 ! 2 a2 0 b2 1 ! 2 da2: Here g1 and g2 are coordinates in the plane of the element. Internal virtual work rate The internal virtual work rate is deﬁned as W I = Z Z A h .0). (1.

"f dz dA .

+ X nodes(i) K i i i .4–4 .6. 3.

TRIANGULAR FACET SHELL where "f = ".

+ zk.

is the strain at a point. away from the reference surface. f . .

are the .

and K i is the penalty stiffness used to constrain the spurious rotation.” Section 15. stress components at f .” Section 3.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.6.6. The formulation now proceeds as for the shell elements described in “Shear ﬂexible small-strain shell elements.3. Reference • “Shell elements: overview.4–5 . h is the shell thickness. using a 3-point integration scheme in the plane of the element.6.

.

the position of a material point in the shell is deﬁned by x(Si ) = x(S ) + f 33(S )t3(S )S3 . The gradient of the position is @x @S. and the fully integrated ﬁnitemembrane-strain element S4. the triangular element S3R and S3 obtained through degeneration of S4R.6. Geometric description At a given stage in the deformation history of the shell. where the subscript i and other Roman subscripts range from 1 to 3.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION 3. In the above equation t3 is the normal to the reference surface of the shell. Subscripts and other lowercase Greek subscripts which describe the quantities in the reference surface of the shell range from 1 to 2.5 FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION This section describes the formulation of the quadrilateral ﬁnite-membrane-strain element S4R.

= @x @S.

@S. + f 33 @ t3 S.

Elements where we have neglected derivatives of f 33 with respect to S. 3 @x @S3 = f 33 t3.

t i t i = I. S3 is the coordinate in the thickness direction. . where ij is the Kronecker delta and I is the identity tensor of rank 2. distance measuring and orthogonal to S in the reference state. The thickness increase factor f 33 is assumed to be independent of S3 . In the deformed state we deﬁne local. Summation convention is used for repeated subscripts. orthonormal shell directions ti such that ti 1 tj = ij . The in-plane components of the gradient of the position are obtained as f. Note that in the above S are local surface coordinates that are assumed to be orthogonal and distance measuring in the reference state.

= t 1 @x @S.

= f .

+ B.

f 33S3 . where we have introduced the reference surface deformation gradient f .

def = @x .

@x .

t 1 = t 1 .

@S.

S3 =0 @S.

@ t3 : @S.

.

and the reference surface normal gradient B.

5–1 . def t 1 = 3.6.

which yields X (X for the reference surface) X (S ) = X (S ) + T 3 (S )S 3 : i The gradient of the position is @ @S.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION In the original (reference) conﬁguration we denote the position by and the direction vectors by Ti .

X = @ @S.

X + @ 3 S3 . @S.

T @ @S3 X =T . 3 and the in-plane components of the gradient are obtained as f.

= T 1 @ @S.

X = .

+ B.

where we have assumed that the in-plane direction vectors follow from the surface coordinates with T. S3 .

= @S @ .

X.

.

.

.

S3 =0 = @ @S.

B. X and deﬁned the original reference surface normal gradient.

= def T @ T3 : @S 1 .

The original reference surface normal gradient is obtained in the ﬁnite element formulation from the interpolation of the nodal normals with the shape functions. The functions are C continuous. obtains x ( ) = N I ( ) x I . In the deformed conﬁguration it is not derived from the nodal normals but is updated independently based on the gradient of the incremental rotations. For the reference surface positions one. @ X ( ) = N I ( ) X I : @ The gradients of the position with respect to . nondistance measuring parametric coordinates. Parametric interpolation The position of the points in the shell reference surface is described in terms of discrete nodal positions with parametric interpolation functions N I ( ). and are nonorthogonal. thus.

are @.

x = @N I @.

xI . @.

X = @N I XI : @.

5–2 .6. Note that uppercase Roman superscripts such as I denote nodes of an element and that repeated superscripts imply summation over all nodes of an element. 3.

The unit normal to the shell reference surface is readily obtained as .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Now consider the original conﬁguration.

.

.

@X @X @X @X .

T3 = Subsequently. The derivatives of these coordinates with respect to . we deﬁne two orthonormal tangent vectors T and distance measuring coordinates S along these vectors.

follow from @S @.

@1 2 @2 .

.

@ 1 2 @2 .

.

: I @X = T @ = T XI @N : @ 1 .

1 .

The gradient of with respect to S.

is readily obtained by inversion: @S.

@ = @S @.

which makes it possible to obtain the gradient operator @N I @S. 01 .

= @N @ I @ : @S.

The original reference surface normal gradient is obtained from the nodal normals B.

TI with 3 Elements = T TI @N 3 @S 1 I .

: Since the original reference surface normal gradient is obtained by taking derivatives with respect to orthogonal distance measuring coordinates. we will call B.

= b the original curvature of the .

reference surface. Membrane deformation and curvature It is convenient to deﬁne the inverse of the reference surface deformation gradient h.

= 2 f .

3 01 : With this expression we can deﬁne the gradient operator in the current state: @ @s.

def @ = h.

@S . or inverted @ @S.

@ = f .

since t 1 x =t @s @ . @s : The gradient operator in the current state can also be deﬁned as the derivative with respect to distance measuring coordinates s along the base vectors t.

1 x h =f h = .

.

.

5–3 . @S @ 3.6.

it is possible to write for the h.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION and. hence. t @ = @sx : Hence.

: h.

= T 1 @ @s.

X since f h .

= t 1 x T T @X t = t @ x @X t = t t = : .

.

.

.

@x @X @X @ x @ 1 1 1 1 1 1 In an incremental analysis we can also deﬁne the incremental deformation tensor t+1t t 1f .

= t+1t @x t @s 1 .

and its inverse 1h.

= tt def t = 1 @ @s.

the current gradient of the normal can be transformed into the curvature of the surface: b. t+1t : xt With a local coordinate system deﬁned in the current state.

1 t3 = B h : .

@s @ .

we outline the way in which the in-plane coordinates are made corotational. we construct orthogonal vectors t tangential to the surface (following ABAQUS conventions). The t vectors at the beginning of the analysis are determined following the standard ABAQUS conventions. we follow a two-step approach. In this section. To obtain the updated version of t. First. we calculate ^ f. Subsequently. Orientation update The equations given in the earlier sections are valid for any local coordinate system deﬁned in the current state.

^ = ^ @ xt+1t : t @S 1 .

We then apply an in-plane rotation 1R.

3. to the vectors: ^: t 1R11 = 1R22 = cos 1 .5–4 . 1R21 = 01R12 = sin 1 .6.

as f.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION where 1 is to be determined such that the resulting deformation tensor is symmetric.

= 1R f^ .

= f^ 1R.

= f.

Hence. The gradient of the updated shell normal can be obtained by differentiation: t @ t3+1t @S. The incremental nodal rotation is represented by the rotation quaternion q . depending upon the amount of transverse shear deformation. we can calculate the updated local material directions as Curvature change We assume that the nodal spin will be interpolated with the interpolation functions N I . the value of the spin at each material point will be constant. which will again be chosen perpendicular to the reference surface. The updated normal used here will be approximately orthogonal to the reference surface. we use quaternion algebra. During an increment the nodal spin is assumed to be constant. It is not equal to the shell normal used at the start of t the next increment t3+1t. with 1 def j1j and p = 1=1: = To rotate the shell normal. we can use the same interpolation functions for the incremental ﬁnite rotation vector : ( ) 1 1 = !1t = N I ()!I 1t = N I ()1I : The ﬁnite rotation vector can be split in a rotation amplitude 1 and a rotation axis p: 1 = 1 p. consequently.: ^ ^ tan 1 = (f^12 0 f^21) : f11 + f22 t+1t = 1R ^ : t t From this follows Thus. sin 1 p : = 2 2 An updated shell normal is then obtained according to ~3+1t = 1q tt31qy: tt This updated shell normal does not actually have to be calculated: it is used only for the derivation of the expression for the curvature change. which is deﬁned by Elements 1 1q def cos 1 .

~ q @ tt 1y = @1.

tt31qy + 1q tt3 @@Sq + 1q @S3 1qy: @S .

.

3.5–5 .6.

FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION The second term on the right-hand side can be written in the form 1y 1q t3 @@Sq .

t = @ 1 q 0 t 1y y 1q t @S.

3 y =0 @ 1q t y y t 1q : @S.

3 1 t = 2V @S tt31qy + 1q @S3 1qy: @S.

.

.

we can write @~3+1t tt = 2V @1q 1qy1q tt 1qy + 1q @tt3 1qy @S. Hence. The inverse of a rotation quaternion such as 1q is equal to its conjugate (1q01 = 1q y).

leading to @ q @ tt+1t @ t ~3 3 @S. the scalar parts of the ﬁrst two terms cancel each other and the vector parts reinforce each other. Hence.

@S.

@ 1q y~t+1t @ tt = V 2 @S 1q t3 + 1q @S3 1qy .

.

t t+1t + 1q @ t3 1q y. = 1R.

2 ~3 t @S.

where we have formally deﬁned the incremental gradient update vectors 1R.

def V = 2 @ 1q 1q y @S .

for 1R. . From the deﬁnition of the incremental quaternion q follows thus. which must be expressed in terms of the gradient of the incremental rotation.

again with use of the incremental quaternion deﬁnition 1R..

= p @1 + sin 1 @p + (1 0 cos 1) p 2 @p : @S.

@S.

@S.

1 @ 1 @ 1q = 1 sin 1 @1 . 2 cos 1 p @1 + sin 1 @Sp . @S.

2 2 @S.

2 @S.

2 .

From the deﬁnition of After substitution in the expression for 1R.

and some algebra one obtains sin 1 @1 + 1 0 cos 1 p 2 @1 + 1 0 sin 1 pp 1 @1 : 1R.

= 1 @S.

1 @S.

1 @S.

3. @S.5–6 1 and p follows 1 @ 1 = 1 1 1 @1 .6.

@S.

1 @1 0 1 1 1 1 @1 = 1 @1 0 pp 1 @1 : @p = 1 @S 13 @S @S 1 @S @S .

.

.

.

.

.

FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Note that For the gradient B.

of the updated shell normal we obtain 1R.

@S . ! @1 when 1 ! 0.

t+ B.

1t ~t+1t t t t t = t+1t 1 @t3 = t+1t 21R.

2 ~3+1t + 1q t B.

1qy3 tt @S.

t t t t t t tt = 1R.

1 0~3+1t 2 t+1t1 + t+1t 1 t +1tB .

= t +1t 1 1R.

+ B.

1 1 where we have introduced the two-dimensional alternator . .

2 2 1 = 0 1 = 1 : 2 t Note that the change in B. : = 2 = 0 .

is independent of B.

Calculation of B. .

It is more convenient to use the reference surface curvature tensor b. involves taking the gradient with respect to the reference conﬁguration.

def B = h .

@t = t 1 @s3 : .

We then introduce the incremental curvature update vectors 1 1 1 cos 1r.

def 1R h .

= sin 1 @@s + 1 0 1 1 p 2 @@s + 1 0 sin 1 pp 1 @@s . = 1 1 Elements .

.

.

which makes it possible to write the update equation as t+1 b.

t t = t +1t 1 1r.

+ bt 1h .

Deformation gradient We already have obtained an expression for the deformation gradient in the reference surface. : This expression makes it feasible to calculate the update in the reference surface curvature by taking gradients in the latest updated state only. and we have assumed that the thickness change is constant: F .

= f .

F 33 = f 33: At other points in the shell we obtain for the in-plane component x T. .

1 @X 01 = (f + f S3B )( .

+ S3B )01: F.

= t 1 .

which yields the simpliﬁed relation F. 33 @S @S @ We neglect terms of order S3 2 .

( ) = F .

+ S3(f 33B.

0 f B .

5–7 . ): 3.6.

FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION We can write this as the product of a ﬁnite-membrane deformation and a bending perturbation: F.

+ S3(f 33B h 0 f B"3h" )3 f .

2 = + S3(f 33b 0 f b h" ) f .

whose components follow from the incremental deformation gradient f . S3 f 33b ( 0 f b h" ) 1: " Membrane strain increment The membrane strain increment follows from the incremental stretch tensor . therefore. : " = 2 It will be assumed that the deformation (strain and rotation) due to bending is small and.

by the polar decomposition f .

V R .

t t+1t Let f . .

and f .

be the deformation gradient at the beginning and the end of the increment. 1 1 1 1V 1 = respectively. By deﬁnition f .

t+1t = 1f f t.

. The incremental deformation gradient follows as t+1 1f .

= f t f t01 Since R .

the square of the incremental stretch tensor can be obtained by 1 . are the components of an orthogonal matrix.

: 1f 1f .

= 1V 1V .

= 1.

= 1R.

= 2 X I =1 2 X I =1 (1I )2aI aI .

” Section 1.1). The logarithmic strain increment is then ln(1I )aI aI .4. (see “Deformation.

and the average material rotation increment is deﬁned from the polar decomposition: 2 X 1 I I 1I aa 1f .

it follows that 1R. : I =1 Due to the choice of the element basis directions.

.

and compensating for the rotation of the base vectors relative to the material. we deﬁne the physical curvature increment . : Curvature increment Following Koiter-Sanders shell theory.

as 1.

= sym h b.

t+1t 0 bt 1R .

+ bt 1R 1".

i 1 h i t+1 = sym b.

t 0 bt 1R (.

0 1".

5–8 .6. ) : 3.

FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Neglecting terms of the order (1".

)2 relative to 1".

. this expression can be rewritten as i h i h t+1 t+1 t 1.

= sym b.

t 0 bt 1R 1V 01 = sym b.

t 0 bt 1h .

= sym 2 t +1t 1 1r.

. 3 .

=0 F.

= f .

+ S3f 33b f .

: where use was made of the curvature update formula. does not appear in this equation. there is no need to calculate the initial . Hence. Observe that the curvature at the beginning of the increment. bt .

also be simpliﬁed curvature b . The deformation gradient can. hence. . and we can assume b .

.

to For the material strain increment at a point through the shell thickness Koiter-Sanders theory thus yields t+1 1".

= 1".

+ f 33 tS31.

: Virtual work The virtual work contribution of the stresses is 5= Z V .

".

dV: Elements We assume that the variations in the strain can be expressed in terms of variation in membrane strain and curvature with the same relations as apply to the increment in strain: ".

Z t+1 = ".

+ f 33 tS3.

which transforms the virtual work equation into 5= V . .

".

( + f 33S3.

)dV: M.

We introduce the membrane forces N.

and the bending moments M.

: N.

def = Z h .

f 33 dS3. Z def = Z h .

f 33S3 S3 . 2 d which allows us to write 5 = (N.

".

+ M.

.

) dA: A The membrane strain variation follows with the usual expression ".

= sym(f h .

) = sym(t 1 t.

@s. + t 1 @x ) = sym(t 1 @ x ).

@s.

sym(t 1 t.

) = (t 1 t.

3. ) = 0.5–9 where we have used the identity .6.

which yields = sym( 1 1 h.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION The variation in the curvature is obtained by taking variations in the incremental curvature.

+ 1 1 h.

+ 1 1 h.

): We neglect the terms of order 1.

and also terms of order 3 1 1 . which yields .

= sym( 1 1 h.

): We evaluate .

= sym( t 1r.

+ t 1r.

) t 1 R 1 t R 1 r t r t r t R with respect to the current state (at the end of the increment). Hence for the evaluation we can assume are proportional to 1 Moreover. we neglect terms of the order 1 since they @S.

.

we obtain 1 = 0 . Hence. which substituted in the expression for . t @ 1 t 1 r t 1 @ @S . .

yields .

= sym t 1 @ @S h.

= sym t 1 @ @s.

we ﬁrst write the virtual work equation in terms of the reference volume 5= Z V . : The rate of virtual work To obtain an expression for the rate of virtual work.

".

dV = Z Z A h .

".

dS3 dA . where .

is the Kirchhoff stress tensor. related to the Cauchy or true stress tensor via .

= J .

: The rate of change then becomes d 5 = d Z Z A h (dr.

".

+ .

dr".

The terms involving stress rates are related to the material behavior. corotational coordinate system. this yields (". )dS3dA: Here r indicates that the rates are taken in a material. We assume constitutive equations of the form Substituted in the expression d d 5 = Z Z 5 and transformed back to the current conﬁguration.

C.

d" + .

dr".

)f 33dS3dA: 3.6.5–10 dr.

= J C.

d" : A h .

we neglect terms of the order df 33S3 .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Consistent with the derivation of the virtual work equation itself.

. the rate of virtual work can be written as d 5 = (". Hence.

+ f 33S3 .

)C.

(d" + f 33S3 d )f 33dS3 + i N.

dr".

+ M.

dr .

dA: A h Z hZ Second variation of the membrane strain It remains to determine dr ".

and dr .

From the ﬁrst variation ". .

follows dr ".

= sym(dr f h .

+ f drh .

): Since h.

is the inverse of f .

it follows that dr h. .

= 0h dr f h.

: Substitution in the expression for the second variation yields dr ".

= sym dr t 1 @ x 0 t 1 @ x dr t 1 .

dr x 0 t 1 @s t 1 @s @s.

@s @s.

.

@ x @ x @ dr x @ x r t 1 r t 1 t.

t 1 0d 0 @s 1 t t 1 @s : = sym d @s @s @x @ x @ Elements .

The corotational rate of the base vectors follows from @x dr t.

= @ dx + @S dr h .

= @ dx 0 dr t 1 t.

t 0 @ dx 1 t t : @s @s @s .

.

.

Substituted in the ﬁrst term of the previous expression yields dr ".

=sym @ dx 1 @ x 0 dr t 1 tt 1 @ x 0 dr t 1 t.

t 1 @ x 0 d 1 t t 1 @ x 0 @ dx 1 t t 1 @ x @s.

@s @s.

@ dx @ dx @ x 1 0 2 dr t 1 t + 1 t " : =sym @ x @s @s @s.

@s @s.

@s.

@s @s .

The in-plane components of the corotational rate of the base vectors can also be expressed in terms of the in-plane material spin in the reference surface: dr t = d .

t.

= 1 d 0 t 1 @ dx t : 2 t.

1 @s @s.

.

5–11 .6. @ x 3.

FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Substitution in the last obtained expression for d ".

= sym r d " .

1 r yields @ dx @s @ x @s.

0 2d" " .

Second variation of the curvature We need to calculate the second variation of the curvature to calculate the initial stress contribution from the curvature: m. : This expression is identical to the one obtained with “standard” continuum elements.

dr.

we rely on the intrinsic deﬁnition of curvature and express the curvature in derivatives with respect to the isoparametric coordinates. Accordingly. : To simplify the computation. m.

dr .

where the bending resultant components mab are the components expressed in the orthonormal coordinate system (m. ab r = m d ab ab r =m d @ x @ a 1 @ b + @ a 1 @t3 @x @t3 @ b .

This scheme derives from that by MacNeal (1978).b 1 (t3 1 x.b 1 [^3] 1 dx. We summarize below the assumed strain method used with fully integrated 3.a r r t 1 [0^3] 1 . . Denoting derivatives with respect to the isoparametric coordinates as @=@ a . the second variation of the curvature is 1 dr t3.a ) 1 . Computational aspects of the nonlinear theory are investigated in Simo.a ) 1 + 1 (t3 x.b 1 x. subsequently extended and reformulated in Hughes and Tezduyar (1981) and MacNeal (1982) and revisited in Bathe and Dvorkin (1984).b + x. we ﬁnd that .b x.5–12 . this assumed strain method needs to be modiﬁed. ) transformed by @ a =@s .a t t t . . d ab = x. .b 0 . . + . Here [^3] indicates the skew-symmetric tensor with axial vector t3.6. t Transverse shear treatment Several interpolation schemes have been proposed to avoid shear-locking.a 1 t3.b] 1 + .b : Using the fact that t3 = 2 t3 and dr t3 = 2 t3.a 1 (dr t3). .a I) 1 .a .b 1 (t3 x.b 0 1 (t3. Fox.a ) 1 + 1 (t3. and Rifai (1989) for fully integrated quadrilateral shell elements. For reduced integration quadrilateral and triangular shell elements that can be used for both implicit and explicit integration.b + x.a 1 [0^3. Here we employ an assumed strain method based on the Hu-Washizu principle.a d ab = x. .b] 1 dx.a I) 1 : .a I) 1 0 1 (t3 1 x. which typically arises as the thickness of a plate or shell goes to zero.b + dx.a + 1 [^3.

as depicted in Figure 3. η 4 D 3 A C ξ Elements 1 B 2 Figure 3.6.5–13 . t 1x1 0T 1X1 D D .6. B 1 D 1 = = t 1x10T 1X1. D D . followed by the modiﬁcations required for the one-point integration plus stabilization used in ABAQUS. B B .5–1 Notation for the assumed strain ﬁeld on the standard isoparametric element. the use of uppercase letters indicates quantities in the 3.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION elements.6. B t 1x 20T 1X2. A . Construction of the assumed strain ﬁeld Consider a typical isoparametric ﬁnite element. A A .5–1. = tA = C 1x2 0T 1X2. C . D the set of midpoints of the element boundaries. The following assumed transverse shear strain ﬁeld is used: 1 2 where A 2 C 2 =1 2 = 2 2 (1 (1 0 ) 1 0 ) 2 B + (1 + ) 1 + (1 + ) 2 D 3 12 A C 3 . In the above transverse shear strain deﬁnitions. B . C. B. and denote by A. C C . are the covariant transverse shear strains evaluated at the midpoints of the element boundaries.

the assumed covariant transverse shear ﬁeld can be written concisely in matrix notation. For readability we have omitted the subscript 3 from the director ﬁeld. =t 2x1: D D . C = 1 (2 + 1) 2 t 2 = 1 (3 + 4) 2 t 2 B .5–14 . = t 2x2. = 1 0(1 0 )t B 4 0(1 0 )t sm BT AT (1 0 )t 0(1 + )t A . are the reference surface position vectors of the element nodes. . . : x4 8 9 > 1 > < = 2 = : > 3 > : . . BT CT (1 + )t (1 + )t B 1 D 1 B DT CT 0(1 + )t (1 0 )t B . . DT CT Then the rotation or bending part of the strain/displacement operator is written = 1 (1 0 )1 B 4 (1 0 )2 sb (1 0 ) 1 (1 + )2 BT CT (1 + )1 (1 + )2 (1 + ) 1 (1 0 )2 DT AT : 3. 9 8 > x1 > = < x2 x = . . A C C . . for I . Making use of the bilinear element interpolation.2 2 where xI . the linearized transverse shear strain is where 1 2 =B sm x +B sb . 2 ^ = exp[1] 1 t A t ) tB tD t = 2 t : It follows from the element interpolation that tA tC = 1 (4 + 1) 2 t 2 = 1 (3 + 2) 2 t 2 . . : D Deﬁne the following vectors: = 1 2 .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION reference conﬁguration and the use of lowercase letters indicates the deformed conﬁguration.1 = 1 ( x3 0 x4 ) . DT : AT Deﬁne the four vectors: A 2 C 2 = t 2x2. Recall the director ﬁeld update equation and the corresponding linearized director ﬁeld: tt+1t =1 2 3 4 x C = 1 (x 3 0 x 2 ) . 4 Then. > x3 > . BT AT =t 2x1. it follows that x A = 1 (x 4 0 x 1 ) . By making use of the assumed strain ﬁeld along with the update formulae for the director ﬁeld.1 2 xD .2 2 x B = 1 (x 2 0 x 1 ) .6.

Cs = 5 Gs h 6 A11 A21 A12 A22 : The matrix A. Venant-Kirchhoff constitutive model for the Kirchhoff curvilinear components of the resultant transverse shear force is written in terms of the transverse shear strains as Q1 Q2 = Cs 1 2 . For a single isotropic layer.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Constitutive relations A St. where Cs is the transverse shear stiffness in curvilinear coordinates.

is the inverse of the metric A.

where metric components in the reference conﬁguration A. .

are deﬁned by the inner product [ ] [ ] A.

X. = X.

Deﬁne vectors of variations of the nodal displacement quantities: 8 9 > x1 > > > > 1 > > > > > > > x2 > > > > > > < = 2 u = .6.5–15 . q g q= Initial stress stiffness q1 q2 =A a 1 f1 2 f1 1 f2 2 f2 the shell orthonormal coordinate system a f @sa =@ as = Elements Q1 Q2 . : 1 The Cauchy or true transverse shear force components in 1 2 T are calculated with the coordinate transformation fq . 1 1 3. 4 Then the initial stress contribution is written 9 8 > d x1 > > d > > 1> > > > > > > > dx2 > > > > > < d2 = : du = > dx3 > > > > > > d3 > > > > > > > > dx4 > > > : d4 . Z q d = 1 u Ks 1u da . This calculation can be summarized in matrix notation as follows. > x3 > > > > > > 3 > > > > > > > x4 > > > > : . where A is the element’s reference area and a is the current area. The calculation of the initial stress stiffness matrix requires the second variation of the assumed transverse strain ﬁeld.

2 . .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION where da is the area measure in the current conﬁguration and s is the (symmetric) transverse shear contribution to the initial stress. ^ b = Q1 (1 0 )^B . let 0 be the 2 3 2 3 zero matrix. deﬁned as follows. p where J = A11A22 0 (A12 )2 and A.1 C D C = Q2 (1 + ) symftC (xC )T g 0 2 I . then deﬁne the symmetric matrices K A B A = Q2(1 0 ) symftA (xA )T g 0 2 I . Consider s the transverse shear contribution to the internal energy: s = 1 2 Z 1 Cs 1 dA : The reference area measure dA is written in terms of the isoparametric coordinates as dA = Jdd.1 Also deﬁne the skew-symmetric matrices ^ t a = Q2 (1 0 )^A . Let I be the 3 2 3 identity matrix. D = Q1(1 + ) symftD (xD )T g 0 1 I : .2 . Then Ks is written a ^ a ^ A 7 7 0 0 7 7 0 0 7: 7 ^ 0 0d 7 7 ^ 0d D 7 7 ^ 0 d0a 5 ^ ^ 0d + a D + A ^ 3 Ks = ^ ^ 0 a+b ^ 0 b 0 0 6 0a 0 b A + B ^ ^ ^ b B 0 0 6 6 ^ ^ 0 0b 0 0b + ^ 0 c c ^ 6 ^ ^ 0^ B+C 1 6 0b ^ B b c c C 6 0 0 0 0^ c 0 0^ 0 d c ^ 86 6 6 ^ C+D ^+d 0 0 0^ c C c 6 ^ 4 0 0a ^ 0 0 0 d ^ 0a ^ A 0 0 d D One point integration plus stabilization For reduced-integration elements the transverse shear force components need to be evaluated at the center of the elements. B = Q1 (1 0 ) symftB (xB )T g 0 1 I . t ^ d = Q1(1 + )^D : t 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 c = Q2(1 + )^C . ^ t Also.

the element should not lock). which should be insensitive to the node numbering during collapse. For an entire mesh of triangular elements. It is important that this treatment yield accurate representation of transverse shear deformation in thick shell problems and provide robust performance for skewed elements. are the components of the reference surface metric in the undeformed conﬁguration.6. Furthermore. the triangle’s response should not depend on the nodal connectivity. the high frequency response of the transverse shear treatment should be controlled so that transverse shear response does not dominate the stable time 3.5–16 . the treatment should give convergent results (that is. that is. The treatment should collapse smoothly to a triangle. This transverse shear energy can be approximated in many ways to produce a one point integration at the center of the element plus hourglass stabilization.

consider a square.6. The components of the hourglass strain vector hg are deﬁned in terms of the edge strains as bf A B C D = 0 0A 2 + 0 B 1 + 0 C 2 0 0 D 1 and cc A B C D = 0 2 + 1 + 2 0 1 : The coefﬁcients 0A . Second.6. For rectangular elements 0A = 1 . that is. That is. Deﬁne the transverse shear strain at the center of the element (the homogeneous part) and the “hourglass” transverse shear strain vectors as 0 =1 2 B D 1 + 1 A + C 2 2 c + cc c and hg = bf cc : The element distortion coefﬁcients c and c are constants determined by the element reference geometry. when a side of a quadrilateral element is collapsed to form a triangle. The crop circle pattern has zero vertical deﬂection at the nodes and a nodal rotation vector pattern as illustrated in Figure 3. 0D = 0 1 . and 0D are constants determined from the reference geometry of the element. for explicit dynamic analyses the coefﬁcients c and c are chosen to minimize the highest frequencies associated with the homogeneous part of the transverse shear response. 3. First. To illustrate the crop circle and butterﬂy transverse shear patterns. 0B = 0 1 . The inclusion of the crop circle strain cc in the homogeneous part of the transverse shear strain 0 has two important consequences. 0C = 1 . initially ﬂat element.6. We call cc the “crop circle” mode strain since it corresponds to a deformation pattern that resembles the sweeping over the element normals in a circular pattern. 0C . and bf can be identiﬁed 2 2 2 2 as the strain associated with the rotational “butterﬂy” deformation pattern. two rotations and a vertical deﬂection at the nodes. For geometries with constant Jacobian transformation. the element’s response is independent of the choice of node numbering on the element. 0B .5–17 . Furthermore. Elements y x Figure 3. it makes the transverse shear response insensitive to the nodal connectivity for a triangular element.5–2 Crop circle pattern: zero deﬂection and circularly symmetric rotations.5–2. consider plate theory kinematics.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION increment for explicit dynamic analysis (including for skewed triangular or quadrilateral geometries). All of these requirements are embodied in the following transverse shear treatment. c = c = 0.

C s0 = ( C s0 s0 The formulation of the homogeneous part of the transverse shear has two contributions: the average edge strain across the element. with equal and opposite deﬂections at the remaining two nodes.5–3 Butterﬂy pattern: vertical deﬂection and rotation vectors.6. where s 0 is the transverse shear stiffness evaluated at the center of the element and the hourglass is the diagonal matrix stiffness C H H= eff C s0 12 1 0 0:001 0 : eff The effective stiffness Cs0 is the average direct component of the transverse shear stiffness. Let the reference element area be A0 = 4J0.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION The butterﬂy pattern has vertical deﬂections that correspond to cross-diagonal bending. The average strain treatment is essentially the same as that for the assumed strain formulation of MacNeal and others presented earlier. The butterﬂy mode’s nodal vertical deﬂection and rotation vector pattern are illustrated in Figure 3. with expressions evaluated at the center of the element ( = 0 and = 0).6.5–18 . eff 11 + C 22)=2.6. that is. −ω +ω +ω y −ω x Figure 3. The transverse shear energy can be approximated as a center point value plus a stabilization term: s = 1 2 A0 0 1 Cs 0 1 0 + A0 hg 1 2 1 H 1 hg . plus the element distortion term. The details of 3. two equal deﬂections at two nodes across a diagonal.5–3. the rotations are opposite the rotations that would develop for this displacement pattern to produce pure bending. The nodal rotations develop in a way that opposes the bending motion of the reference surface. that is.

It is important to apply this constraint with a high stiffness to prevent overly ﬂexible response for quadrilateral elements. only the element distortion term is presented in detail. The variation of the hourglass strain is = Bd x + Br . it is rarely problematic and is often prevented with boundary conditions. in the case of a triangular element.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION this part are omitted. The variation of the homogeneous transverse shear strain can be written 0 Bccd and = Bsm0 x + Bsb0 + Bccd x + Bccr .5–19 . For a reference geometry with constant Jacobian. the two hourglass constraints converge into a single constraint: the crop circle constraint. the (strong) butterﬂy mode stabilization is not applied. However. Therefore. as is well-known. = 1 c (tA 0 tB )T c (tB 0 tC )T c (tC 0 tD )T c (tD 0 tA)T 2 c (t A 0 t B ) T c (t B 0 t C ) T c (t C 0 tD ) T c (t D 0 t A ) T Bccr = 1 c ( B 0 A )T c ( B + C )T c ( C 0 D )T c (0 A 0 D )T 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 : 2 c ( B 0 A )T c ( B + C )T c ( C 0 D )T c (0 A 0 D )T 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 hg The stabilization term has a similar formulation. the butterﬂy stabilization term can be derived from an exact integration of the assumed strain formulation of the transverse shear energy. 3. The crop circle mode is applied with a “small” or weak stiffness. where Bsm0 and Bsb0 are Bsm and Bsb evaluated at the center of the element. Elements where 1 (0A tA 0 0B tB )T (0B tB 0 0C tC )T (0C tC 0 0D tD )T (0D tD 0 0A tA )T Bd = (t A 0 tB ) T (t B 0 t C ) T (t C 0 tD ) T (t D 0 t A ) T 2 and 1 (0B B 0 0A A )T (0B B + 0C C )T (0C C 0 0D D )T (00A A 0 0D D )T 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 : Br = ( C 0 D )T (0 A 0 D )T ( B 0 A )T ( B + C )T 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 The hourglass force components h1 and h2 are given by the constitutive relations eff Cs0 eff Cs0 h1 = 12 bf and h2 = 0:001 12 cc : Comments on stabilization (1) The butterﬂy mode bf is applied with a “large” or physical hourglass stiffness. for a constant strain triangle the element will lock for certain meshes with three transverse shear constraints per element. Although this mode can propagate. (2) As the quadrilateral element is degenerated to a triangle.6.

HD = (h1 0D + h2) symftD (xD )T g 0 1 I : . HB = (h10B + h2) symftB (xB )T g 0 1 I . 0 0 ^ bh 0 ^ ^ 0 ah + b h 0HA + HB ^ 0 bh 0 0 ^ dh 0HD ^ h + ah 0d ^ 0HD 0 HA The initial stress contribution from the homogeneous part consists of two terms. yet avoids locking in most situations. A 0 q j0 1 d 0 = A0 u 1 Ks j0 1 du + A0 (q1 c + q2c )d cc .1 3 2 3 where Kh is the (symmetric) transverse shear stabilization contribution to the initial stress. in addition to the two homogeneous transverse shear strains. In-plane displacement hourglass control The in-plane displacement hourglass control is applied in the same way as in the ABAQUS membrane elements.1 Also deﬁne the skew-symmetric matrices ^ t ah = (h1 0A + h2)^A . The initial stress contribution from the stabilization terms takes the following form: A0 (h1 d bf + h2 d cc ) = A0 u 2 2 3 1 K h 1 du .2 . The hourglass strains are deﬁned by z = @x 1 xI I @S @X @ 0 @S 1 XI I = @Sx 1 xI I 0 T 1 XI I . 2 3 A B HA = (h1 0A + h2) symftA (xA )T g 0 2 I . t ^ dh = (h10D + h2 )^D : t ^ 0 ah 0HA 3 7 7 7 7 7 7: 7 7 7 7 5 Then Kh is written ^ bh 0 0 0 6a 0 b ^h ^ HB 0 0 0 ah 6 ^h 6 ^ ^ ^h 0 0bh + ch 0 c 0 6 ^ ^ c 1 6 0bh c ^h HC 0 HB b h 0 ^h H B + H C 6 6 ^ 0 0 0 ^h c 0 0 ^h + d h c 0 46 0 6 ^ ^ ^h 0 d h H C 0 H D dh 0 0 0 ^h c HC c 6 ^ 4 ^ 0 ah 0 0 0 0 dh 0 A ^h ^ ^ ^h 0H 0 0 0d 0HD dh 0 ah a Note that once the matrix entries in Kh are deﬁned. These two terms can be written where qj0 and Ks j0 are the shear force and matrix Ks evaluated at the element center. The matrix expression for (q1 c + q2c )d cc is analogous to Kh from the stabilization terms. the triangle has a weak constraint to prevent spurious zero energy modes. 3.2 . and the other from the crop circle mode addition. Kh is ﬁlled just as Ks . one from the assumed strain formulation (evaluated at = = 0) as detailed earlier. t Kh = 2 ^ bh = (h1 0B + h2 )^B .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Only the (weak) crop circle mode stabilization is applied. Thus.5–20 . c ^h = (h1 0C + h2)^C . Deﬁne the symmetric matrices C D HC = (h1 0C + h2) symftC (xC )T g 0 2 I . .6.

This last condition can be written as I Observe that = 0 I 0 0J XJ 1 T.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION where I is the hourglass mode. This mode is obtained by making the “regular” hourglass mode 0I = f1. 01g orthogonal to the homogeneous deformation mode in the undeformed shape of the element. 1. 01.

@N I : @S.

@X T 1 XI I = T 1 XI 0I 0 0J XJ 1 T.

@S 1 T = T 1 XI 0I 0 0J XJ 1 T = 0. .

We deﬁne the projected nodal coordinates z = I S and the projected element area def = T 1 XI Elements A= 12 3 1 4 2 2 4 3 1 3 (S1 0 S1 )(S2 0 S2 ) + (S1 0 S1 )(S2 0 S2 ) : 2 12 12 12 12 4 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 2 S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) . @S. 3 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) : 3 3 3 3 The hourglass mode can then be written in the form 1 2 3 = = = = A A A A 4 The hourglass stiffness is chosen equal to Kh = ( rF G ) @N I @N I hA. 2 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 4 S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) . 1 4 3 3 1 4 4 3 1 S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) + S 1 (S 2 0 S 2 ) . and consequently @x 1 xI I : @S This expression can be worked out further.

@S.

When the hourglass control is based on assumed enhanced strain. The hourglass force Z conjugate to z is then equal to Z = K h z : 3.005 in ABAQUS/Standard and 0.5–21 . the artiﬁcial stiffness factor is replaced by coefﬁcients derived from a three-ﬁeld variational principle.05 in ABAQUS/Explicit. where G is the shear modulus and rF is a small number chosen to be 0.6.

These modes correspond to zero rotation at the midedges and zero gradient at the centroid. we use the same approach as for the calculation of the curvature change. the transverse shear constraints. 01. From the expression for the strain follows immediately @x I I @ x 1 xI I : z = 1 x + @S @S X = 0. 1. From the ﬁrst variation follows right away For virtual work we need the ﬁrst variation of the hourglass strain. We now formally deﬁne the hourglass strain tensor as @2 j #ij = i 1 : @1 @2 t t Observe that @2( i 1 j ) @1 @2 t t = ti 1 @2 j @1 @2 t + @2 i @1 @2 t 1 tj + @ ti 1 @ tj + @ ti 1 @ tj = 0 : @1 @2 @2 @1 t + @2 i @1 @2 For the purpose of hourglass strain calculation we assume that all products of ﬁrst-order derivatives with respect to 1 and 2 can be neglected. they correspond to the familiar 0I = f1. it is necessary to use orthogonalized hourglass patterns as derived for in-plane hourglass control. For the purpose of the calculation we deﬁne the updated shell direction vectors ~t+1t = 1q tt 1qy : ti i The updated shell direction vectors do not actually have to be stored: they are used only for the derivation of the expression for the hourglass strain.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION I I Note that the second term vanishes in the initial conﬁguration since is needed for the Jacobian. and the drilling mode constraints still leave three nonhomogeneous rotational modes unconstrained. The expressions for the curvature change. Consequently. This last aspect implies that the rotational hourglass mode corresponds to the mixed derivative of the rotation at the centroid: @ 2 1 I 1I = 4 2 : @1@2 We cannot use the above formulation directly in a formulation suitable for multiple ﬁnite rotation increments.6. Hence. 3. Hence. The second variation dz = @d I I 1 @S x x + @ @S x dxI I : 1 The second variation does not contribute in the initial conﬁguration since initially Z Rotational hourglass control = 0. To pass curvature patch tests exactly.5–22 . @2( i 1 j ) @1 @2 t t = ti 1 @2 j @1 @2 t 1 tj = 0. 01g hourglass pattern.

we assume that # = 0. the above expression simpliﬁes to @2 @ qy = @11q2 t 1qy + 1q t @1@2 + 1q @@1t@2 1qy: @1 @2 @ 1 @ ti t t t i t i t i ~ +1 Elements The second term on the right-hand side can be written in the form 1q y = @ 1q 1q @ @ @ @ tt i @ 1 2 1 2 0 t 1y ti 1q y y 1 q t 1 q y y : = 0 @ @ @ 1 2 t i 1 t 1q + 1 q t 1q : @1 @2 The inverse of a rotation quaternion such as 1q is equal to its conjugate (1q01 = 1q y).5–23 . @1 @2 t i t i t i t t i @1 @2 t i t t i 1q 1q y . the scalar parts of the ﬁrst two terms cancel each other and the vector parts reinforce each other. leading to t+1t @ ti @ q t @ t y y i ~ = 2V @1 @2 i t i t @1 @2 @1 @2 where we have formally deﬁned the incremental hourglass update vector @ = V 2 @1q 1qy~ +1 + 1q @@t@ 1qy t 1 @2 1 2 @t = 1R0 2 ~ +1 + 1q t 1q y . #ij = 0# j ji is skew-symmetric. Hence. we can write @~ t +1 = 2V @1q 1qy1q t 1qy + 1q @t 1qy @1 @2 Hence. hence. 1R0 = V 2 @ @ def @ 1 2 3. From the expression for tt+1t we obtain i @ 2 ti = @ @ : 1 2 In the undeformed conﬁguration. hence. Observe that the mixed derivative of ti can be expressed in terms of the hourglass strain tensor with @2t @2t incrementally.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION and.6. Subsequent values of # ti #ij i i 1 j =tt @1 @2 ~ +1 t ~ ij ij are obtained t @1 @2 @2 @ qy = @ 1q t 1qy + 1q t @1@ + 1q @@t@ 1qy+ 1 @2 1 2 1 2 @ 1q @ 1q y @ 1q @ t @ 1q @ 1q y t + t + 1q y + t i t i t i @1 @ @2 @1 1q t i @ tt i @2 1 1y 1qy + 1q @ @@q + 1q @ @q : @ tt i y @2 t i t i @1 @1 @2 @ tt @ i 1 2 2 1 In this expression we also ignore all terms with products of derivatives with respect to 1 and 2 .

5–24 . @1 @2 @p 1 @1 0 1 1 1 1 @1 = 1 @1 0 pp 1 @1 : = 1 @ @ 13 @1 @2 @1 @2 1 @1@2 @1 @2 1 2 After substitution in the expression for 1R0 and some algebra one obtains @ @ @ cos 1R0 = sin 1 @1 + 1 0 1 1 p 2 @1 + 1 0 sin 1 pp 1 @1 : 1 1@2 1 1 @2 1 @2 @ 1 Note that 1R ! when 1 ! 0. 1 cos 1 p @1 + sin 1 @p . For the updated hourglass tensor one readily obtains From the deﬁnition of 0 @1 @2 +1t # t ij =~ t t = 1R (~ = 1R (~ t t i 2 t+1t +1t 1 @ j @1 @2 0 0 1 it+1t 2 0 0 1 it+1t 2 ~ t t =~ t 1R0 2 ~ + 1q @ @ 1qy t 1 2 +1 ) + ~ +1 1 01q t # 1q y1 ~ t t +1 ) + ~ +1 1 ~ +1 # = 01R 1 (~ +1 2 ~ +1 ) + # ~ t t t t 0 t t i +1t 1 t t " t j +1t @2 t j # t j t j t i t i t t t k t kj t k t t kj t i t t j t t ij : This expression simpliﬁes further with the introduction of the hourglass vector #i = 01e 2 ijk #jk . @1 @2 2 2 @1@2 2 2 @1@2 2 @1@2 thus. for 1R0 again with use of the incremental quaternion deﬁnition 1R0 = p @1 + sin1 @p + (1 0 cos 1) p 2 @p : @ @1 @2 @1 @2 @1 @2 1 1 and p follows. which yields the update formula t #i+1t = 1R0 1 ~ +1 + # : t t i t t i The ﬁrst and second variation are obtained in entirely the same way as the ﬁrst and second variation of the curvature change. From the deﬁnition of the incremental quaternion q follows.6. For the ﬁrst variation we neglect terms of order 0 and obtain 1R 2 : #i @ = 1R0 1 t + 1R0 1 t = 1R0 1 t = t 1 @ @ i i i i 2 1 3. while neglecting the products of 1 and 2 derivatives: 1q = 1 sin 1 @1 .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION which must be expressed in terms of the incremental rotation hourglass mode. again neglecting the products of ﬁrst derivatives @ 1 1 @ 1 = 1 1 1 @1@2 .

6. Recall that for a onedimensional spring-mass oscillator. In explicit dynamic analyses the stable time increment is proportional to the inverse of the highest frequency of the element. the transverse shear frequencies remain below the membrane ones. For this case the calculation of the membrane strains and the curvature changes proceeds along the same lines as before. the mass associated with membrane deformation.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION For the second variation we ignore in addition the terms of order d 0 and 0 with as ﬁnal result R R d#i = 0: Degenerate elements In general meshes it will be desirable to collapse at least some of the quadrilateral elements to triangles or to use the triangular element S3 or S3R. we must ensure that the highest frequency associated with the transverse shear response does not exceed the highest frequency associated with the membrane response. The transverse shears will now be zero at the degenerate edges. the true rotary inertia is used. calculation of all hourglass constraints will be omitted. For this reason scaling of the rotary inertia based on the element’s reference geometry is included in ABAQUS/Explicit. Rotary inertia scaling For thin elements the rotary inertia is small (negligible) relative to the rotational inertia of the mass at the nodes rotating about an axis through the element center. Consider a lumped mass matrix for a 4-node element. Rotary inertia scaling for explicit dynamics For numerical efﬁciency in explicit dynamic analysis. Therefore. the frequencies associated with transverse shear go to inﬁnity proportional to the inverse of the thickness. which is in fact an internally collapsed S4R element. Finally. For thick elements (that is. we choose a scaling on the rotary inertia such that it never becomes smaller than a ﬁxed (small) percentage of the rotational inertia of the mass at the nodes rotating about an axis through the center of the element. plays the role of the mass of the system. and the transverse shear stiffness—are proportional to the thickness. The primary consideration in choosing appropriate scalings is that in the limit as the element’s thickness goes to zero. while the membrane frequencies remain constant. Hence as the thickness of the element goes to zero. Let R be the nondimensional rotary inertia scaling. which is proportional to the cube of the thickness. the natural frequency ! can be written in terms of the stiffness K and the mass M as != Elements rK M : For the transverse shear response the rotary inertia. the stable time increment would go to zero as the thickness becomes small. for elements whose thickness is order unity relative to a characteristic length in the element). When R = 1.5–25 . Therefore. Without scaling. it is desirable to have the stable time increment determined by the membrane response of the structure. the membrane frequencies are dominant. where R 1. All other quantities—the membrane stiffness. and let the element be ﬂat and 3.

we can safely bound the frequencies by an appropriate choice of L in the following scaling: " R= 16 + 4 3L2 4 # 1 4 h2 .FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION square. where = 1=4. For rotations about an axis in the plane of the element. and is the mass density.5–26 . k) 2 The factor 16 in the deﬁnition of R is used to protect against bending frequencies determining the stable time increment in very ﬁne meshes subjected to loads that cause an increase in thickness of the shell. the contribution to the rotational inertia of the mass at the nodes is 1 4 2 AhL . is the minimum element edge length. 3. R ! hL2 3 2 : For planar geometries with element directors along the normal direction. To handle arbitrarily shaped curved elements. bulk viscosity introduces damping associated with volumetric straining.6. where A is the area of the element. passing through the center. Linear bulk viscosity or truncation frequency damping is used to damp the high frequency ringing that leads to unwanted noise in the solution or spurious overshoot in the response amplitude. and for quadrilateral elements. In such cases the length parameter L is interpreted as a characteristic element length that depends on the element distortion. exact calculation of the element frequencies becomes difﬁcult. Rotational bulk viscosity for explicit dynamics For the displacement degrees of freedom. For triangular elements the characteristic length. L= kx. asymptotically R must be proportional to L2=h2 . 2 x. However. The sum of the rotary inertia at the four nodes is RA h3 12 : The ratio of the in-plane contribution to the rotary contribution is Rh2 3L 2 : For the rotary inertia to remain a ﬁxed fraction—say —of the mass contribution as the thickness goes to zero. L is the edge length. closed-form expressions are possible for the highest membrane and transverse shear frequencies. k. L. k : max(kx. that is. kx. parallel to an element edge.

since the transverse shear treatment is elastic based on the initial elastic modulus of the material) is constant over the element. which is linear in the mean curvature strain rate: m=b h2 0 12 cd L 1 . S4 uses a standard displacement formulation for the element’s bending stiffness. . 1t where b is a damping coefﬁcient (default = 0. This damping generates a bulk viscosity “pressure moment.” m. 11 22 is twice the increment in mean curvature. Hence. cd is the current dilatational wave speed. as D ~ D D where ~ D is deﬁned subsequently. This formulation is the topic of the following discussion. the discussion below details the formulation from the point of view that the membrane response is governed by the equilibrium for a three-dimensional body in a state of plane stress. no spurious membrane or bending zero energy modes exist and no membrane or bending mode hourglass stabilization is used. in shells we need to damp the high frequency ringing in the rotational degrees of freedom with linear bulk viscosity acting on the mean curvature strain rate.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION For the same reason. is required. Fully integrated ﬁnite-membrane-strain shell formulation Elements Element S4 is a fully integrated ﬁnite-membrane-strain shell element.5–27 . however. is added to the direct components of the moment resultant. The dilatational wave speed is and given in terms of the effective Lamé’s constants as 1 = 1 +1 cd = s ( + 2 ) : The resultant pressure moment mh. h0 is the original thickness. The primary difference between the element formulations for S4 and S4R is the treatment of the membrane strain ﬁeld. 3. However. L is the characteristic length used for rotary inertia scaling. and transverse shear stress distribution. ~ = D def D + D . to the rate of deformation tensor . Element S4 uses the same drill stiffness formulation as used for element S4R. Drill rotation control. is the mass density. The membrane formulation used for S4 does not rely on the fact that S4 is a shell element. The transverse shear treatment for S4 is identical to that for S4R. element S4 assumes that the transverse shear strain (and force. a standard displacement formulation for the out-of-plane bending stiffness is not subject to similar locking response. transverse shear section force. and the theory presented above for the rotation kinematics and bending strain measures applies to S4. It is well known that a standard displacement formulation will exhibit shear locking for applications dominated by in-plane bending deformation. We introduce the enhanced Consider an enhancement rate of deformation tensor. Therefore. all four stiffness integration locations will have the same transverse shear strain. Hence.6. Similarly. where h is the current thickness. Since the element’s stiffness is fully integrated.06).

the direct strain ﬁeld is enhanced to approximate the strains caused by Poisson’s effect in bending. In addition. over the element domain Ve we require Z Ve ~ D dV = Z Ve ~ D dV = 0: ~ ~ The enhancements D and D are chosen such that they eliminate the shear locking for in-plane bending. Hence. the constraint equations can be rewritten as D = D and D = D : Substituting these two relations in the modiﬁed virtual work equation yields Z : D dV + Z V V b 1 x dV 0 Z ST t 1 x dST = 0 where we have used the constitutive equation = (D). If is arbitrary. D.5–28 . is an arbitrary stress ﬁeld. x. and the reference conﬁguration.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Admissible variations in the rate of deformation are also introduced as where ~ = D def D + D . and D) are known functions of x. 3. We recognize this variational statement as the usual virtual work equation. In the modiﬁed virtual work statement all kinematic quantities and corresponding variations (D.6. D. @ x @x D def sym = Z : ~ We now introduce constraints on the enhancements D and D: Z 0 V Z 3 D 0 D : dV = 1 0 V D 0 D 0 Z 1 : dV = 0 3 so that the modiﬁed virtual work statement can be written in the form V (D) : D dV + Z V b 1 x dV ST t 1 x dST = 0. and the constitutive equation = (D) is enforced pointwise. In the actual implementation we choose to satisfy the constraints only for piecewise constant 3 stress ﬁelds . and a straightforward application of the divergence theorem leads to the standard equilibrium equations. 3 where t is the speciﬁed traction on ST and x = 0 on Su . A fundamental requirement for the validity of the formulation is that the modiﬁed virtual work statement leads to the 3 proper equilibrium equations.

~ The volume integral condition on D implies that the expression is independent of the enhancement and leads to the standard displacement formulation.6.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.6. it can be moved outside the volume integral in the modiﬁed virtual work statement. A sufﬁcient condition or for the satisfaction of the patch test is that for homogeneous deformations we have = ~ = 0 pointwise.6.” Section 15.5–29 . which is known to satisfy the patch test. D D D D References • “Shell elements: overview. In that case (D) = (D) and the stress is homogeneous. Since the stress is homogeneous.” Section 15.1 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual • “Shell section behavior. the choice of enhancements ~ cannot be arbitrary.FINITE-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENT FORMULATION Patch test To pass the patch test.

.

I I = N I ( ) I . Elements Velocity strain formulation The velocity of any point in the shell reference surface is given in terms of the discrete nodal velocity with the bilinear isoparametric shape functions N I () as vm = N ( )v . (1984.6. 1992). Corotational coordinate system The geometry of the shell is deﬁned by its reference surface. ^ For notational purposes the corotational coordinate system is deﬁned by a triad ei . The embedded element corotational coordinate system. where vI and I are the nodal translation and rotation velocity. A corotational ﬁnite element formulation reduces the complexities of nonlinear mechanics by embedding a local coordinate system in each element at the sampling point of that element. where element computations can dominate during the overall solution process. For the triangular element the local coordinate x1 is coincident with the side connecting nodes 1 ^ ^ and 2 as shown in Figure 3.6.6. For the quadrilateral element the local coordinate x1 is coincident with the line connecting the ^ ^ midpoints of sides. respectively. the corotational velocity-strain formulation provides signiﬁcant speed advantages in explicit time integration software.6 SMALL-STRAIN SHELL ELEMENTS IN ABAQUS/Explicit The small-strain shell elements in ABAQUS/Explicit use a Mindlin-Reissner type of ﬂexural theory that includes transverse shear and are based on a corotational velocity-strain formulation described by Belytschko et al.6–1. ^ 2.5.6–1. as shown in Figure 3. and uppercase Roman superscripts denote the nodes of an element. x. and are nonorthogonal. 3. strains. All reported stresses. By expressing the element kinematics in a local coordinate frame.6. The x1–x2 plane coincides with the plane of the element. and any vector or tensor whose components are expressed in this system will bear a superposed “hat. Here Greek subscripts range from 1 to 2.” Section 3.SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit 3.” Although the corotational coordinate system described here is used in the actual element computations. which is determined by the nodal ^ coordinates of the element. The x1 –x2 plane is deﬁned to pass through this line normal to the cross product rac 2 rbd . Therefore. nondistance measuring parametric coordinates. and other tensorial quantities for these shell elements are deﬁned with respect to the coordinate system described in “Finite-strain shell element formulation. this system is transparent to the user. is tangent to the reference surface and rotates with the element. the number of computations is reduced substantially. The functions N I ( ) are C continuous.6–1 .6. rac . This embedded corotational coordinate system serves as a local coordinate system and is constructed as follows: ^ 1.

^ ^ ^^ ^ where 2 denotes the vector cross product and x3 is the distance in the normal direction through the ^ thickness of the shell element.6. A standard summation convention is used for repeated superscripts and subscripts except where noted otherwise. the velocity of any point in the shell is deﬁned ^ ^ by the velocity of the reference surface. In the Mindlin-Reissner theory of plates and shells.6.6–2 .SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit ^ x3 ^ e2 ^ e3 4 a 1 ^ x3 ^ e3 ^ e2 ^ x2 3 d ^ e1 c ^ x1 b ^ x2 3 2 1 2 ^ e1 ^ x1 Figure 3. and the angular velocity vector. as v = v m 0 x 3 e3 2 . . vm . @ x1 ^ @ x1 ^ m 3.6–1 Local coordinate system for small-strain quadrilateral and triangular shell elements. which allows us to write each velocity strain component in terms of the nodal translational and rotational velocities: ^ ^ ^ ^ = @ v 1 + x3 @ 1 . The corotational components of the velocity strain (rate of deformation) are given by dij ^ =1 2 d1 @ vi @ x1 j ^ ^ @v ^ + @ x1 i ^ j .

6. . 4 where S I = [1. 1.e. ^ 1 ^ ^ 0 1 . I^ I^ ^I f2 = A B2 f2 + B1 f12 . I^ I^ mI = A B2 m2 + B1 m12 ^1 mI = ^2 0A 0 S I f^23 4 I^ I^ B1 m1 + B2 m12 0 S I f^13 4 . ^ 1 4 I I I ^I 0 B 1 1 ). (1984). ^I 0 1 S I 1 .. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 2d12 = B2 v1 + B1 v2 + x3 (B2 2 ^ 2d13 = B1 v3 + ^ ^ ^ 2d23 = B2 v3 Elements I I I ^I ^ d 2 = B 2 v2 I I I ^I 0 x 3 B 2 1 . I I I I ^I S I 2 .6–3 .SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit @ v2 ^m @ vm ^ @ x1 ^ 2 ^ d2 = ^ d12 = @ vm ^ @ x2 ^ 1 @ x2 ^ @ 0 x3 @ x2 . ^ + 2 : Small-strain element S4RS The S4RS element is based on Belytschko et al. ^ ^ 2 + x3 ( ^ ^ @ ^ + 2 ^ d23 = ^ d13 = @ vm ^ @ v3 ^m @ x1 ^ @ x2 ^ 3 @ x2 ^ @ 0 @ x1 ). at =0—we obtain the gradient operator I B 1 I B2 = 1 2A y2 ^ x4 ^ 0 y4 ^ 0 x2 ^ y3 ^ x1 ^ 0 y1 ^ 0 x3 ^ y4 ^ x2 ^ 0 y2 ^ 0 x4 ^ y1 ^ x3 ^ 0 y3 ^ 0 x1 ^ : The velocity strain can then be expressed as I ^I ^ I ^I ^ d 1 = B 1 v1 + x 3 B 1 2 . By using one-point quadrature at the center of the element—i. 1]: The local nodal forces and moments are computed in terms of the section force and moment resultants by I^ I^ ^I f1 = A B1 f1 + B2 f12 . I^ I^ ^I f3 = A B1 f13 + B2 f23 . 1. 3.

SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit mI ^3 = 0: The section force and moment resultants are given by ^ f.

Z = m.

^ = 0 h Z .

^ ^ z . dz .

and . ^^ ^ where A is the area of the element. h is the thickness. dz.

+1. B2 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ where z I hI = 1 4 = I xI . Because of the emphasis on speed. ^ ^ _ cI I I I I ^I ^ cI ^I I_ B 2 v 2 + x 3 (B 2 v 2 + B 2 p I ). are the Cauchy stresses computed in ^ the corotational system from the velocity strain and the applicable constitutive model. Small-strain element S4RSW h The major objective in the development of the S4RS element was to obtain a convergent. it does not solve the twisted beam problem correctly. It can perform poorly when warped. and a shear projection is used in the calculation of the transverse shear to address the second shortcoming. Although the S4RS element performs very well in most practical applications. and in particular. (1992) as ^ d1 ^ d2 = = I ^I B 1 v1 + x 3 (B 1 v 1 + B 1 p 1 ). 2d12 ^3 2 ^1 1 _2 2 _1 2 ^1 1 ^2 1 ^2 cI where pI is the pseudonormal at node I and B is given by cI 2z x1 0 x3 x4 0 x2 x3 0 x1 x2 0 x4 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ B1 ^ cI = A2 y1 0 y3 y4 0 y2 y3 0 y1 y2 0 y4 .6. 2. it is used here as a penalty parameter to enforce the Kirchhoff normality condition as the shell becomes thin. The components of velocity strain in the S4RSW element are given in Belytschko et al. 01. it has two known shortcomings: 1. ^3 [h I 0 B I x J hJ ].6–4 . a few simpliﬁcations were made in formulating the equations for the S4RS element. Although is the shear factor in classical Mindlin-Reissner plate theory. It does not pass the bending patch test in the thin plate limit. 01]: 3. stable element with the minimum number of computations. ^ = [+1. 2 ^ = B I v I + B I v I + x (B cI v I + B cI v I + B I pI + B I pI ). In the S4RSW element additional terms are added to the strain-displacement equations to eliminate the ﬁrst shortcoming.

The components of the transverse shear velocity strain are given by I 13 = N I ( )2 . 3. and J as shown in Figure 3.SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit The pseudonormal pI represents a nodal normal local to a particular element found by taking the vector cross product of the adjacent element sides. no sum on I. In addition. ^I I J where nI is the rotational velocity at node I about eI . I 23 = 0N I ( )1 .6.6–2 Vector and edge deﬁnition for shear projection in the element S4RSW. I The angular velocity n about outward facing vector eI is then given by a nodal projection n I n = 1 I 1 J J ( + nI ) + I (^3 v 2 nI L 0 v3 ) . Outward facing vectors eK and eI are constructed perpendicular to element sides KI and IJ . they n n are tangent to the reference surface at the midsides. Finally. ^ ^ x2 K LK LI K en I en Elements J I side I ^ x1 side K Figure 3.6.6–5 . nI is the rotational velocity at node J about n I I eI . Consider three adjacent local element nodes K . and LI is the length of side I . n ^ n ^ I K I 2 = (eI 1 e2 )n + (eK 1 e2 )n : n ^ n ^ Evaluating the resulting forms for the transverse shear at the centroidal quadrature point gives sI ^I sI ^I sI ^I ^ 2d13 = B11 v3 + B12 1 + B13 2 . I .6–2. the nodal rotational components 1 and 2 required for n the transverse shear velocity strain are given by the transformation I K I 1 = (eI 1 e1 )n + (eK 1 e1 )n . respectively. ^ I I where nodal rotational components 1 and 2 are based on a projection and a transformation.6.

and K. The velocity strain is computed as in the S4RS element except that the gradient operator is given by I 1 B1 ^ 0 y3 y3 0 : ^ = I B2 ^ ^ ^ ^ 2A x 3 0 x 2 0 x3 x 2 The local nodal forces and moments for the triangular shell can be expressed in terms of section resultant forces and moments as I^ I^ ^I f1 = A B1 f1 + B2 f12 . sI B 1i sI B 2i where = 1 2(JI x1 x2 4 2(JI 0 xIK ) 1 0 xIK ) 2 xJI xJI + xIK xIK ^ 1 2 ^ 1 2 xJI xJI + xIK xIK ^ 2 2 ^ 2 2 0(^JI xJI + xIK xIK ) x 1 1 ^ 1 1 0(^JI xJI + xIK xIK ) x 1 2 ^ 1 2 0 xI ^ no sum on I. This element is not subject to zero energy modes inherent in quadrilateral element formulations. 0A sI ^ I^ I^ sI ^ B1 m1 + B2 m12 + (B13 f13 + B23 f23) .6–6 . no sum on I: The local nodal forces and moments are then given in terms of the section resultant forces and moments by I^ I^ cI ^ cI ^ ^I f1 = A B1 f1 + B2 f12 + B1 m1 + B2 m12 .SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit sI ^I sI ^I sI ^I ^ 2d13 = B21 v3 + B22 1 + B23 2 . I^ I^ mI = A B2 m2 + B1 m12 ^1 0 f^23 3 . x = xJ ^JI ^ and xJI = (L I ) xJI ^ 2. J. I^ I^ ^I f2 = A B2 f2 + B1 f12 .6. I^ I^ cI ^ cI ^ ^I f2 = A B2 f2 + B1 f12 + B2 m2 + B1 m12 . (1986). 3. I^ I^ sI ^ sI ^ mI = A B2 m2 + B1 m12 + (B12 f13 + B22 f23) . mI = 0 : ^3 Small-strain element S3RS The triangular shell element formulation is similar to that of the S4RS element and is based on Kennedy et al. ^1 mI = ^2 sI ^ sI ^ ^I f3 = A B11 f13 + B21 f23 .

= I v3 . ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ ^3 m 1 + m 2 + m 3 0 x 3 f3 0 x 2 f3 ^ 2 ^ 2 ^ 2 ^ ^3 ^ ^2 which represent the equations of moment equilibrium about the x1-axis. (1984) is used. and force equilibrium in the x3-direction. To suppress the hourglass modes. often known as hourglass modes. moment equilibrium about ^ ^ ^ the x2-axis. are possible for the quadrilateral elements. The corresponding generalized hourglass stresses for the element S4RS are given by h3EA I I B _ Q B = r sr B .SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit mI ^2 = 0A I I B1 m1 + B2 m12 0 ^ ^ mI ^3 = 0: 3 ^ f13 . a consistent spurious mode control as described by Belytschko et al. _M where the superscripts B and M denote hourglass modes associated with bending and in-plane (membrane) response. respectively. The x3 -components of the nodal forces are obtained by successively solving the following ^ equations: m 1 + m 2 + m 3 + x 3 f3 = 0 . The hourglass shape vector I is deﬁned as I I = hI 0 B xJ hJ : ^ Elements The hourglass strain rates are obtained by q _B q3 _B ^I = I . several spurious modes. = 0. ^I ^I q = I v . Since the one-point quadrature is used. Hourglass control ^1 ^2 ^3 f3 + f3 + f3 = 0.

B .

_ 192 3 _3 QB GA I I B = w sw h12 B. q .

B.

and sw (by default sr =sr =sw =1) are used to change the corresponding default hourglass control I I M = sss hEA B. respectively. The scaling factors sr .050 and w =0.005. q_3 . _ QM where h is the thickness of the shell and E and G are Young’s modulus and shear modulus. The default hourglass control parameters are s = r =0. sr .

B.

8 3.6.6–7 . q_ .

For the S4RSW element the generalized hourglass stresses QB and QM are _ the same as those in the element S4RS. but the generalized hourglass stress QB is modiﬁed to 3 I I M _ B = r sr h EA 1 + 2A B.SMALL-STRAIN SHELLS IN ABAQUS/Explicit _3 _ parameters by the user.

B.

= I QB . 3 hI ^ = I QM : f These hourglass forces and moments are added directly to the local nodal forces and moments described previously.6.6–8 .” Section 15.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. Reference ^hI f3 • “Choosing a shell element.6. q_ : Q 192 3h2 mhI ^ The nodal hourglass forces and moments corresponding to the generalized hourglass stresses are = I QB .

z ) has been changed. This section provides their theoretical formulation.6.” Section 3. X 3 (S. ) = : X 2 (S. . which is consistent with the axisymmetric shell elements and the axisymmetric elements allowing nonlinear bending.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT 3. k = r[(r )2 + (z )2 ] 2 .” Section 3. this formulation is the shell counterpart to the continuum axisymmetric bending elements described in “Axisymmetric elements allowing nonlinear bending. while deformations such as torsion about the axis of symmetry are precluded. (For a detailed account of the geometric description of the ﬁnite-strain shell formulation. 0 0 1 3. the restriction is made that a plane of symmetry exists in the r–z plane at = 0. The symmetries of the undeformed conﬁguration and of the deformation are exploited through the assumption of particular displacement and rotation interpolations around the circumference of the shell. ) are the cylindrical coordinates. ) 9 8 r(S) cos 9 < = < = X(S.7 AXISYMMETRIC SHELL ELEMENT ALLOWING ASYMMETRIC LOADING The ABAQUS/Standard element library includes a family of nonlinear thin shell elements with axisymmetric reference geometry that allow asymmetric loading and deformation (SAXA1N and SAXA2N).) Then points in the reference or undeformed conﬁguration are identiﬁed by the normal coordinates mapping [ Elements where X is the three-dimensional position of a material point. The fact that T3 is a unit vector assumes that the reference conﬁguration is (locally) of constant thickness. z (S ) is the axial position. Owing to the axisymmetric reference conﬁguration.6. X is the shell reference surface mapping. and T3 is the unit normal to the shell reference surface. ) . Furthermore. (Note that the usual convention for cylindrical coordinates (r. where h is the shell’s initial thickness.7–1 .5. The theoretical formulation of these elements is similar to the general ﬁnite-strain shell element described in “Finitestrain shell element formulation. =kX.) By deﬁnition the normal ﬁeld to the shell reference surface is T3 = X. ) . Geometric description Let (S. ) + S3T3(S. . X can be given relative to a global Cartesian coordinate system as X(S.S 2 X. ) z (S ) where r(S ) is the radius.2. As with the continuum axisymmetric bending formulation. ) be coordinate functions parametrizing the reference surface of the shell and let S3 2 0h=2. Speciﬁcally.6.S 2 X. z. 8 X 1(S. see “Finite-strain shell element formulation.” Section 3. = : r(S ) sin .S 2 X. . h=2] be the coordinate function in the thickness direction.6. k. These elements encompass a broad range of practical applications from the bending/ovalization of variable diameter pipes to the bending of circular plates. r [(r )2 + (z )2 ] 2 0 0 0 0 0 with kX. which by direct computation yields 8 0z cos 9 < = 1 T3 = 1 : 0z sin . S3) = X(S.5. Hence in-plane bending of the model is permitted. Fourier series expansions are used in the or circumferential direction that preserve the plane of symmetry.9. and (r.

) .e. ) + S3 f 33(S. the deformed director ﬁeld t3 and the thickness parameter f 33. is a unit vector ﬁeld that is not a member of a linear vector space.7–1) where x is the deformed position of the material point. the position of a point in the body can be identiﬁed by 0 = @z=@S . Relative to the cylindrical coordinate system. (3. deﬁned by the properties ^ = 1 0 and ^ 1 v = 2 v for all vectors v and ^ exp[] is an orthogonal transformation given by the closed-form expression ^ exp[ ] = cos k ^ k kI + sink k + (1 0kcos2kk) : k k Alternatively. ) 0 X(S. that is. quaternion algebra can be used to specify the orientation of the deformed director ﬁeld ^ t3.7–2 .. = @r=@S and z 0 The basic kinematic assumption is that for any deformed conﬁguration. ) = exp[(S. )t3(S. We deﬁne the following displacement quantities. In this case the orthogonal matrix exp[] is replaced by the quaternion parameter q = (q0 .6. The geometric description and the incremental update procedure for the director ﬁeld are given in detail below. u(S. ) : The director ﬁeld. S3 ) = x(S. we can deﬁne the reference surface displacement vector u by the difference between the deformed reference surface and the undeformed reference surface. .6. t3 is the deformed unit director ﬁeld. q). ) = x(S. Since x is an element of a (linear) vector space. the deformed conﬁguration of the shell is completely determined by the reference surface mapping x. Of critical importance for any shell formulation is the treatment of the rotation ﬁeld. )] 1 T3 (S. T3 = x(S. and f 33 is the thickness change parameter. ) : ^ Here is the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector . x is the deformed shell reference surface mapping. Under the kinematic assumption above. i.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where r0 0 01 [(r )2 + (z 0 )2 ] 2 ( z 0 er + r 0 ez ). where sin k=2k q0 = cos k=2k and q = : kk The orientation of the unit director ﬁeld then follows as 2 t3 = (2q0 0 1)T3 + 2q0q 2 T3 + 2(q 1 T3)q : 3. the treatment of the director ﬁeld t3. The orientation of the director ﬁeld is deﬁned in terms of a rotation vector as ^ t3(S. however.

ump . A general interpolation scheme for u = ur er + uz ez + u e and = r er + z ez + e using a Fourier expansion in the variable is ui (S. . M is the number of terms used in the interpolation along the generator lines. Therefore. a negative sign is introduced rc zc c in the interpolation for for the following reason: The ABAQUS convention for axisymmetric shell elements is that the axial tangent direction is drawn between nodes in ascending node number (the shell local 1-direction). ) = X M H (S ) H m (S ) m m=1 M X m=1 !9 > > > = p=1 !> P X mp mp > m0 + (cos(p )ic + sin(p )is ) > i . Note that an axisymmetric deformation is obtained for the choice P = 0. and mp are r z used instead of the Fourier coefﬁcients ump . ) = X m A uz (S. However. ) H (S ) @ u m 0 + cos(p ) ump + sin(p ) 0 = : z . The symmetry requirement in the r–z plane at = 2n. ) = X m < 0 = X < 0 = X < rs = mp A z (S. displacement and rotation components ump . the orthogonal transformation ^ exp[] can be extracted from the quaternion parameter as ^ exp[ ] = (2q0 2 0 1)I + 2q0q + 2qq : ^ Interpolations Displacement and rotation components are given relative to the cylindrical coordinate system (r. . For the displacement vector the only admissible terms are Elements 8 mp 9 8 91 8 9 0 8 m0 9 P M P < ur = X < urc = X < 0 = < ur (S.6. and P is the number of Fourier interpolation terms used around the circumference of the reference shell. ump . Furthermore. 1. symmetry requirements switch the role of the r and z components with the components: 8 8 9 8 mp 91 9 08 9 P M P < r (S. mp are the solution amplitude values (Fourier i i ic is ic is coefﬁcients). : : u (S. p=1 : zs . : 0 c For practical reasons the values of ur .AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT Similarly. p=1 : ump . a positive rotation of the normal ﬁeld (about 3.7–3 . ) : Here H m (S ) are the polynomial interpolation functions along the generator lines of the axisymmetric reference conﬁguration. m=1 : m0 . um0 . n = 0. z. uz . p=1 : zc . ) . m0 . p=1 : mp . ez . The normal to the shell is then obtained by a 90 counter-clockwise rotation of the tangent (the shell local 3-direction). ump . ) = i (S. eliminates many of the above Fourier coefﬁcients. mp . p=1 u m0 + i P X mp mp (cos(p )uic + sin(p )uis ) (i = r. ) = H (S ) @ 0 cos(p ) 0 sin(p ) + + : (S.. e g that are ﬁxed in the reference or undeformed conﬁguration. and are often required at speciﬁc locations around the circumference of the shell. and mp . ) . z. m=1 0 0 s For the rotation components. ump . . ) with orthonormal basis vectors fer .

) H m (S ) @ R () ump + sin(p ) 0 = z : 0 . ) = X m X p < 0 = X mp A z (S. p=1 : z . This convention implies a left-handed shell local coordinate system. ) .6. R 1 ( ) = R 2 ( ) = R 3 ( ) = 1 4 1 2 1 4 (1 + 2 cos + cos 2 ) (1 (1 0 cos 2) 0 2 cos + cos 2) P = 3: 1 = 0. p = q ump .6. the interpolation for the rotation rs zs r z components becomes 8 8 mp 91 8 9 9 0 M P +1 P < r = < r (S. ump . ) = X r X p < ump = X A uz (S. p = q 0.7–3) In the above interpolations. ) . 2 = =3. thus. 3 = 2=3. : : (S. 4 = . r z Rp () are and are physical displacement and rotation components trigonometric interpolation functions with the property that mp P = 1: 1 = 0. Rearranging the Fourier series expansions and making the substitution ump 7! ump . a right-handed shell local coordinate system is required at the integration points. the direction of positive rotation is reversed there. 2 = . p=1 : ump .6. 6 deﬁned by: R 1 ( ) = R 2 ( ) = 1 2 1 2 (1 + cos ) (1 0 cos ) P = 2: 1 = 0. R 1 ( ) = R 2 ( ) = R 3 ( ) = 1 6 1 3 1 3 1 (1 + 2 cos + 2 cos 2 + cos 3 ) (1 + cos (1 0 cos 2 0 cos 3) 0 cos 0 cos 2 + cos 3) R4() = (1 0 2 cos + 2 cos 2 0 cos 3) 6 3. ) = H (S ) @ R ( ) 0 sin(p ) + : 0mp .7–2) Similarly. the s interpolations for the displacement components are 8 9 8 91 8 9 0 M P +1 P < 0 = < ur (S. : : u (S. For the axisymmetric shell bending elements.7–4 .AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT the shell local 2-direction) is counterclockwise. 3 = . m=1 p=1 0 (3. m=1 p=1 (3. 2 = =2. replacing mp and mp with mp and mp respectively. at p = (p 0 1)=P and R p ( q ) = 1.

and Eij are the variational or linearized strain measure components.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT with respect to . Virtual work = 4: 1 = 0. where V is the current volume of the deformed body. 2. 4 = 3=4.6. 3 = =2. By deﬁnition the Lagrange strain tensor components are given by Eij def 1 2 = @ i @x @ @X 1 @xj 0 @ X 1 @ j @ i : Note that in the statement of virtual work. 3). no choice has thus far been made regarding the curvilinear coordinate functions i (i = 1. 1 R1 ( ) = (1 + 2 cos + 2 cos 2 + 2 cos 3 + cos 4) 8 1 (1 + p2 cos 0 p2 cos 3 0 cos 4) 2 R ( ) = 4 1 (1 0 2 cos 2 + cos 4) 3 R ( ) = 4 1 (1 0 p2 cos + p2 cos 3 0 cos 4) 4 R ( ) = 4 1 (1 0 2 cos + 2 cos 2 0 2 cos 3 + cos 4) 5 R ( ) = 8 As with the continuum axisymmetric bending element. Eij are the components of the Lagrange strain tensor.7–1 into the deﬁnition of Eij to ﬁnd E. and it is assumed that the general-purpose ﬁnite-strain shell is less expensive than using this element with P > 4. P = 4 is the highest-order interpolation offered P The virtual work expression from the three-dimensional theory is 5= Z V Elements ij Eij dV . The element becomes signiﬁcantly more expensive as higher-order interpolations are used. ij are the curvilinear components of the Cauchy stress tensor. 2 = =4. Furthermore. where j def @ @ @ = det[rx] = @x1 2 @x2 1 @x3 : We now introduce the kinematic assumption Equation 3. the current volume measure dV is given by the parametric relationship dV = jd 1 d 2d 3 . 5 = .

1 x. = 1 (x.

0 X. 1 X.

1 (f 33t3). ) + 1 S3 [x.

+ x.

2 2 0 X. 1 T3. 1 (f 33t3).

0 X.

] + 1 (S3 )2 [(f 33t3). 1 T3. 1 (f 33t3).

1 T3. 0 T3.

] .7–5 . 2 E3 = 1 (f 33x.) . 1 t3 + S3 f 33f 33. 2 E33 = 1 [(f 33)2 0 1] . 2 3.6.

. so that .AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where differentiation is now with respect to the parametric coordinates.

g and 3 = S3. Deﬁne the following shell strain measure components and kinematic relationships: . 2 fS.

def 1 (x. 1 x.

1 X. 0 X.

) =2 def 1 .

1 t3. = 2 (x.

+ x.

) 0 b0 . 1 t3.

1 t3 def ln(f 33) = def membrane strain. bending strain. def = x. 1 T3. transverse shear. b0 = X. logarithmic stretch: In the above.

= b0 are the components of the second fundamental form of the .

.

1 2 x. Substituting the above deﬁnitions into the virtual work expression.2k. undeformed reference surface. the (S3 )2 term in E. In the above virtual work expression. we ﬁnd (after some manipulation) that the volume integral reduces to the following integral over the deformed reference surface 5 = Z 2 where = f 33=f 33 and the current reference surface Jacobian determinant is j = kx.

7–1. The shell stress resultant components are deﬁned by the following integrals through the thickness of the shell: A N .6. This term is O(h2=R2)— where h is the thickness and R is some characteristic radius of curvature—and is negligible in light of the kinematic assumption Equation 3. has been neglected.

.

+ M .

.

3 1 Z . jdSd . + Q + L3 + M 3().

3 j hZ 1 S . jdS .

jdS . M .

= f 33 3 j Zh 3 1 03 + S .

1 jdS . Q = f 33 3 .

3 j Zh 1 233f + 3 + 2S 3f L3 = f N .

= 1 Z S 03 f + .

1 jdS : M 3 = f 33 3 .

+ S3 . 3 33 j h 33 j h 33 3 33.

(.

+ .

= 0 : We can now summarize the virtual work expression for thin (Kirchhoff-Love) shells: 3.6. Consistent with these approximations. is introduced along with the = 0 . = . 3 plane stress assumption 33 = 0. we neglect all O(h=R) terms and terms proportional to the gradient of the thickness parameter. ) jdS3 . which states that the deformed director ﬁeld f 33. we set t3 is (approximately) the normal ﬁeld to the deformed reference surface.7–6 . Accordingly. j = f 33 j and For thin shells the Kirchhoff-Love approximation.

AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT 5 = Z A 2 N .

.

+ M .

.

(3.6. + Q 3 jdSd .7–4) where the shell resultant components are deﬁned in terms of the Cauchy stress tensor components by the integrals N .

= f 33 Z h .

dS3 R and M .

= (f 33 )2 Z h S3 .

Two other contributions to the virtual R work expression M . dS3 : In the expression for 5. Q = (f 33 )2 h 3 dS3 is interpreted as a constraint stress that enforces that the director ﬁeld remain normal to the reference surface.

.

relative to the basis fn1. Orthonormal surface coordinate system and coordinate transformation It is desirable to deﬁne stress resultant quantities relative to an orthonormal basis in the deformed conﬁguration. and M 3(). n2. neglected. To do this. a Deﬁne the following notation. n2g. that is Elements @x @ = f a na : a and ha f . Let f (a = 1. thus.. 2) be the components of x. n3g. where M 3 = (f 33 )2 h S3 3 dS3 are O(h=R) and. we deﬁne a normal coordinate system fn1 . where n1 and n2 are tangent to the deformed reference surface and n3 is the unit normal ﬁeld.

such that a f hb a = b a = . (3. let the inverse of the matrix of components [f ] be given by [ha ].7–5) Furthermore.6.

let N ab = N ba and M ab = M ba be the membrane and bending stress resultant components relative to this local orthonormal basis. n2g. Accordingly. = @x : @sa For the material calculations. it is important to express both the strain and stress quantities relative to the local orthonormal frame fn1. Thus.6.7–5 that the orthonormal tangent vectors are given by na = ha x. : Note that the basis vectors n1 and n2 induce distance measuring coordinates s1 and s2 such that a f @s = @ a and ha = @ a : @s It follows from Equation 3. we can write .

.

N .

= N abha hb and M .

6.7–7 . = M ab ha hb . 3.

First. Then the stress resultant contributions to the virtual work expression can be transformed as follows.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where we recall that ha = @ =@sa . the membrane contribution: def N .

.

= N .

1 ( x). x.

.

1 ( x). ab = N ha hb x.

that by the deﬁnition of the coordinates sa . however. @ x=@sa N . ab @ x 1 @ ( x) : =N @sa @sb Recall.

.

na 1 @ ( x ) 3 @sb : Similarly. = N ab sym 2 = na. Thus. the bending contribution is: M .

.

= M .

1 ( t3 ). x.

Then . 2 ab n 1 @ ( 2 t3) + @ t3 1 @ ( x) 3 : =M a b b a @s @s @s 2 = e2 = 0 2 3 c 1 Let ea be the two-dimensional alternator. + t3 1 ( x). such that e1 c nc and t3 2 n a = e a M and e2 1 3 = 0 e1 2 = 1.

.

=M ab 2ec n 1 @ () a c @sb + @ t3 @sb ( 1 ( @@sx) 0 2 na ) a : Since the second term in the brackets is proportional to the bending curvature. yielding c M . we neglect this term relative to the ﬁrst.

.

Deﬁne the following stress resultant component vectors: N def 8 9 11 <N = = N 22 : 12 .6.7–4 in matrix operator notation. M 12 Deﬁne the matrix strain displacement operators as follows: @ . = M ab sym ea nc Strain displacement operators 2 ( 1 @@s) b 3 : We now write the virtual work expression Equation 3. N and M def 8 9 11 <M = = M 22 : : .

0 nT @s1 1 .

12 3 T @ .

0 5 BN = 4 n2 @s2 .

12 3 T @ + n T @ .

0 12 3 n1 @s2 2 @s1 2 .

3 @ nT @s1 0 12 3 .

2 .

T @ and BM = 4 0123 .

. 0n1 @s2 5 .

@ @ 0123 .

6.7–8 2 . nT @s2 0 nT @s1 2 1 3.

3 .

We can uniquely choose these two vectors by requiring the matrix components of the incremental a reference surface deformation gradient f b . where [1 ] ( ( 1f a def @s@s(t)b = f .6. Then the virtual work expression Equation 3.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where 0123 is the column of zeros f is equivalently stated 0 0 0 gT .7–4 x 5= Z A N 1 BN + M 1 BM x jdSd : Corotational coordinate system Thus far n1 and n2 are any two orthonormal vectors in the tangent plane to the reference surface.

t+1t)ahbt).

we deﬁne where (t+1t)a 1 1=1 2 (t+1t)a =1 a (t)b ^ 1 1 =1 t n1+1t = cos(1 )^1 + sin(1 )^2 .7–6) It follows by deﬁnition that Therefore. Obtain the ABAQUS convention pair of orthonormal surface vectors ta. f 2 f 1. n2+1tg are then determined by Equation 3. vectors in the tangent plane to the reference surface about the normal vector n3+1t by the angle 1 2 is determined by the symmetry condition f 2 f 1. This orthonormal basis is calculated as follows.6. . t t t+1t = 0 sin(1 )^ + cos(1 )^ : t1 t2 n2 ( 1f a = nat+1t) 1 @x (t)b b @s (t+1t) : 1 Elements (3. We then rotate these t . Thus. This symmetry condition deﬁnes a corotational orthonormal basis in the deformed conﬁguration. 1f^11 + 1f^22 t t and fn1+1t. i.. Note that by deﬁnition f f b f . 3.e.7–6.6.7–9 .6. deﬁne the quantity 1f^ab def ^a 1 @x (t)b = t @s t+1t (t+1t) : The symmetry condition requires that x x (cos(1 )^1 + sin(1 )^2) 1 @@s(t)2 = (0 sin(1 )^1 + cos(1 )^2) 1 @@s(t)1 t t t t From this it can be determined that t+1t : 1 = tan01 " # 1f^21 0 1f^12 . b = to be symmetric.

b 2 f . where J j=j 0 . The second variation of the strain measure components are calculated in “Finitestrain shell element formulation. g. the variation of the virtual work expression yields d(5) = Z hZ j0 A + f 33S3ab1C abcd0dcd + f 33S3dcd1 dS3 hj i + N abd(ab) + M abd(ab) jdSd : ab The ﬁrst term in the integrand forms the material stiffness.7–10 . Returning to Equation 3. while the second two terms form the geometric stiffness. First the incremental deformation gradient components and the Jacobian matrix components: 1f a 1f ab = n(at+1t) 1 @ x (t)b b @s 1 =1 ha (t+1t) and f (t+1t)a ( = 1f af t)b : b Note that due to the symmetry of the incremental deformation gradient components. This stiffness has two parts.e.6. j 0 is the Jacobian determinant of the reference conﬁguration parametrization given r .7–4.5.” Section 3. one resulting from the material model and the other resulting from the changing geometry. We assume by j 0 constitutive behavior such that = = det[ X] 12 d(J ab) = J C abcd dEcd : Thus. We denote the second variational quantities with . d(ab) = 0 : 3. we can calculate the quantities required for coordinate transformation. the virtual work expression can be written as d 5= Z V J ab Eab dV 0 = Z Z A h J ab Eab j 0 dS3dSd .6. there is no a f ab .. We can now calculate the inverse components ambiguity in writing f b (t+1t) = h f (t+1t)a i01 = @s(@ t)a : t+1 Consistent linearization The iterative solution procedure requires the calculation of the consistent tangent stiffness. i.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT t Having determined the updated vectors na+1t . and components are relative to the corotated frame with a.6. The second variation of the membrane strain is h ( i (d d(ab) = sym @@sx) 1 @@sx) 0 2acdcb : a b The second variation of the bending strain is zero.

denoted xk . Rotation ﬁeld update: The incremental rotation ﬁeld is updated with the same interpolation scheme as the total rotation ﬁeld in Equation 3. ) + 1u(S. 1q) tk. 1mp.A : z p=1 p=1 1u(S. 1uz . 3 3 3 3. = H (S) @ R () : 1ump . 1mp) : r r z We use these incremental ﬁelds to update the conﬁguration to iteration k . ) = : 1z (S. q).6. 3 . ) .A : z p=1 p=1 1(S. ) m=1 01 0 1 = cos 1 2 1 1q = sink1k 2 1 This incremental rotation vector corresponds to a ﬁnite rotation. ) : The reference surface position map is updated from the displacement increment by Elements 2. 1.6. 1q) tk : = 3 3 3 3 3 Here we have used the notation (q0.7–2: ( t) +1 8 8 8 91 9 M 9 P 0 < 1ur (S.7–3: 8 1 (S. 1mp. Reference surface update: The displacement increments are interpolated using the same interpolation scheme as the total displacement vector in Equation 3. + sin(p) : 1mp . characterized by quaternion parameters as k = k : q0 k = k and The total rotation quaternion parameter can be updated by the update formula k qk+1 = ( 0 +1. ) = xk (S. + sin(p) : 0mp . q) v to denote the rotation of the vector v by the quaternion (q0. ) = : 1uz(S.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT Incremental degrees of freedom: interpolations and conﬁguration updates k At the beginning of an increment we have the conﬁguration at iteration k. the deformed unit director ﬁeld can be updated from the incremental rotation ﬁeld as tk+1 = (2(1q0)2 0 1)tk + 21q01q 2 tk + 2(1q 1 tk)1q def (1q0. = (1q0.7–11 .6. ) 9 M 8 8 1mp 91 9 P < r = X m 0P +1 p < 0 = X < r = X 1(S. 1u . The curvatures are calculated from the gradient of the director ﬁeld. = H (S) @ R () : 0 mp . 1q0qk + q0k1q + 1q 2 qk) : Similarly. ) m=1 1u 0 xk+1(S. which is updated by +1 tk. qk+1) = ( q 1q0q0k 0 1q 1 qk . ) = X m P +1 p < 1ump = X < 0 = r X 1u(S. ) . + 1R 2 tk+1 . In the incremental solution procedure we solve for the incremental displacement ﬁeld and the incremental rotation ﬁeld in components relative to the reference cylindrical coordinate system: mp mp (1ump.

z . 0 r . = : 0 . sin k1k I + 1 1 0 sin k1k 11 + (1 0 cos k1k) 1 : c H(1) = k1k k1k2 k1k k1k2 1 For completeness. + p cos(p) : 1mp . + H m (S) @ Rp () : 0 mp .7–12 . we record the values of 1. z .” Section 3. + sin(p) : 1mp .A . = 1f a(t)cd1f b + 1f a1f b C (t)efgh 1f c 1f d 1Ecd . a where 1 rb = h 1 R : b (t+1t)ab As an example of the stress update procedure. and 1 and 1r are given by the interpolation for the incremental rotation ﬁeld as given in the M X 0 8 < 01 = 9 P +1 X 9 Rotation Field Update. direction: r. In this case. and .6. Strain increment and stress resultant update Following the formulation of the ﬁnite-strain shell element formulation in “Finite-strain shell element formulation. along the generator lines we have 8 8 9 0 mp 91 M P +1 P 0 = X < < 0 1 r = X X m 1. Hence. consider the simple case of a Saint Venant-Kirchhoff material model. Introducing the interpolation function.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where 1R = H(1) 1.6. 0 r z. r . First. .S (S) @ Rp () : 0mp . c d e f g h 3.A : z m=1 p=1 p=1 1 0 For the circumferential derivative we must account for the derivative of the basis vectors in the r.5. we have e =e e = e 1 = (1 8 < 1 )e +1 e +(1 +1 )e 8 9 mp 1 P 0 = X < 1 r = 1. and the increment in the bending strain components 1ab is given by the expression t 1ab = sym2ec nc+1t 1 1rb3 .S = H. m=1 p=1 p=1 1 r 01 0 where Rp () are computed from the deﬁnitions of the interpolation functions Rp () as given above . .. the three-dimensional (ﬁnite) strain increment is calculated as order approximation to the logarithmic membrane strain increment t+1 1Eab = 1ab + S3f 33 t1ab : Here the increment in the membrane strain components 1ab is given by the Hughes-Winget second- 1ab = 2(1f ac 0 ac)(1f cb + cb)01 .

7–7 can be worked out as follows: @x @ @x @S = = 0 u @ er + @z @S @u @S @r er + ez + @z @r @S @z @S @ @u @S ez + r + e . and the components (t+1t)ab are relative to the current t t orthonormal basis f1+1t . @u @ e . f. with r = R + ur and z = Z + uz . 2g. m =1 p=1 p=1 u 0 M X 0 P X +1 8 9 < rmp = P X 8 91 < 0 = A: sin p 0 : mp . hence. u (3. The equivalent nodal loads associated with surface pressure p can be obtained by considering the virtual work contribution to the external loading 0 Z A pn xdA = 1 Z 2 Z +1 01 p 0 @x @x 2 @S 1 x dSd. d. b. h 2 f1.7–13 .6.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where C (0)ef gh are the plane stress elastic coefﬁcients given by C (0)efgh = (1 0 2) E ef gh + (1 0 ) 0 eg fh + eh fg 1 : 2 Note that a.7–7) The terms in Equation 3. Pressure loads and load stiffness For geometrically linear problems.6. e. @ where S is the parametric surface coordinate in the R–Z plane and the reference surface position is Elements x = r e r + z e z + u e . asymmetric deformations must be taken into consideration. equivalent nodal loads due to applied surface pressure are readily calculated since the geometry is axisymmetric. and. @x @x 2 @S = @ + + r+ @u @ @r 0 u 0 @S @ @r 0 @u @z @S @ er @u @ r+ @z 0 @S @S @ @r @z @r @ 0 u ez e : 3.6. Recall that the current position of a point can be expressed in terms of the axial interpolator H m (S ) and the circumferential interpolators Rp () by 8 9 < r = : H m (S ) @ Rp () z mp z = + : . For geometrically nonlinear problems. n2+1tg. . however. c.

= Kzr mpnq dF K r mpnq Krz mpnq Kzz mpnq Kz Kr mpnq Kz mpnq K mpnq with mpnq Krr = mpnq = Kzr Z 2 Z +1 Z0 0 01 2 Z +1 01 p H m (S )R p ( ) p H m (S )R p ( ) + @z @u @S H n (S ) @r 0 @S H n(S )Rq () 0 dRq d dSd @S H n (S )Rq () dSd r+ @u @ dH n dS R q ( ) 3.6. the virtual work contribution becomes 0 Z A p n x dA = 1 Z 2 Z +1 0 01 p 0 xr @S @ @u @r @r 0 u 0 @S r + @u xz + @S @ @ @z @r @r @z 0 @S @ 0 u u dSd: + @S @ @S r+ @ @z @u @u @z With the introduction of the interpolation functions.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT The variations x are written x = xr er + xz ez + u e .7–14 . where the components have interpolations similar to those in Equation 3. the equivalent nodal forces reduce to the standard axisymmetric expressions Z Z mp Fr = mp Fz = 2 +1 Z0 0 01 2 Z +1 01 p H m (S )R p ( ) @Z @S R dSd F mp 0 p H m (S )Rp () @R R dSd @S 3 8 nq 9 < dxr = 5 dxnq . Therefore. we obtain the equivalent nodal forces: 0 @u @z dSd @S @ @S @ 1 @u @r @r @u Z0 2 Z0+1 mp x 0 u 0 @S r + @ dSd p H m (S )R p ( ) Fz = @S @ 1 Z0 2 Z0+1 @z @r @r @z mp 0 @S @ 0 u dSd: p H m (S ) sin p F = @S @ mp Fr = Z 2 Z +1 p H m (S )R p ( ) @z r+ @u 0 01 For geometrically linear analysis. nq = 0: The linearization of the pressure loading term leads to the following pressure load stiffness matrix: 8 mp 9 2 mpnq < dFr = Krr mp 4 mpnq : dFzmp . : duz .6.7–7.

we obtain the additional load stiffness contributions: 0 @S @ H n(S )Rq () dSd dp @u @r @r mpnq 0 u 0 @S r + @u H n (S )Rq () dSd K zz = H m (S )R p ( ) dz @S @ @ 1 @r Z0 2 Z0+1 @z dp @r @z mpnq 0 @S @ 0 u H n (S )Rq () dSd: K z = H m (S ) sin p dz @S @ mpnq K rz = Z 2 Z +1 Z0 0 01 2 Z +1 H (S )R ( ) m p dp dz @z @S r+ @u @z 01 Penalty constraints: transverse shear and drill rotation It is necessary to enforce rotation constraints at selected points on the element surface to prevent singular modes of deformation. One axial transverse shear constraint is enforced on the rotation 3.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT mpnq Kr = Z 2 Z +1 mpnq = Krz 1 Z02 Z0+1 0 p H (S ) sin p p H (S )R ( ) m p m @z dH n @ dS r+ R ( ) q mpnq =0 Kzz mpnq = Kz 01 @u @ 0 @S H q @z n (S ) dRq d dSd n dH n dS R ( ) 0 @u @S H (S ) dRq d dSd Z 2 Z +1 1 Z02 Z0+1 0 p H (S ) sin p m @r @S H (S ) n dRq d 0 @r @ 0 u dH n dS Kr mpnq = Kz mpnq = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 p H m (S )R p ( ) q p H m (S )R p ( ) @z @S H n (S ) cos q 01 K mpnq = Z 2 Z +1 0 @r 0q @S H n (S ) cos q p H m (S ) sin p @z @S 0 @u H n (S ) sin q + @S dSd 0 @z dH @ dS @r n R () dSd q sin q dSd 0 u @ dH n dS sin q 01 H n(S ) sin q dSd: In the case of hydrostatic pressure (p dependent on z ). additional terms must be included in the pressure load stiffness.7–15 . These terms appear due to the variation of the pressure magnitude and are readily obtained from the expression Elements 0 Z A dp n 1 u dA = Z 2 Z +1 0 01 du z dp dz @z 0 @u @z xr + @S @r @ @S @ @u @u @r 0 u 0 @S r + @ xz + @S @r @z @ @z @r 0 @S @ 0 u u dSd: @S @ r+ @u @u @ With use of the interpolation functions and denoting the additional contributions with an over-bar.6.

for element SAXAMN: • Axial transverse shear: M (N + 1) • Circumferential transverse shear: (M • Drill rotation: (M + 1)N + 1)N constraints are enforced. Recall that 1 = S and 2 = . 2g is the order of integration in the axial direction and N 2 f1. the deﬁnition of tc can be used to write tc = kx. 3.c k3 x. In each instance the rotation ﬁeld is constrained to follow the nodal displacements.c )tc 3 : The linearized transverse shear strain is calculated as t 3 1 t c + t3 1 t c : Since by deﬁnition t3 = 2 t3 . Note that tc is a unit vector tangent to the shell surface deﬁned by the displacement ﬁeld along a parametric coordinate line.c = x. 2.c 0 (tc 1 x. 1 where tc = x. We deﬁne the transverse shear strain as 3c def = t3 tc .c .AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT ﬁeld between each pair of nodes within each nodal plane.7–16 . 31 is the axial transverse shear strain and 32 is the circumferential transverse shear strain.c + x. For convenience. the second variation of the transverse shear strain is d( 3c ) = + 2 1 1 [t3tc + tc t3] 1 d 0 x.c 0 kx.c t 0 (t3 2 tc )tc] 1 dx.c k x. 1 with no sum on c.c 1 x.c 1 kx1 c k [0^3 0 tc (t3 2 tc )] 1 d . with no sum on c. To summarize. One circumferential transverse shear constraint and one drill rotation constraint on the rotation ﬁelds r and z are enforced between each pair of nodes on a circumferential line of nodes.c k (t3 0 3c tc) 1 x. Hence. 4g is the number of Fourier modes.c k 3c = 1 2 x. k . it follows that = 3c 1 (t3 2 tc ) + kx.c . def k k with no sum on c and force this quantity to be zero with a penalty constraint. Equivalently. [^3 t 1 kx 1c k2 [t3tc + tc t3 ] 1 dx.c kx.c . record the variation of the unit vector tc : tc = 1 x. For completeness. 3.c 1 k 1 x.6. where M 2 f1.c . Transverse shear The transverse shear strain is the measure of the amount the director ﬁeld t3 has rotated relative to the normal to the shell surface.

all of the offset nodes collapse to the same point and the edge constraints along that circumferential edge become redundant.7–17 . kx. . k ^ where terms proportional to d have been neglected and the coupling between and 1 has been Zero radius: collapsed edge For the case when the reference radius of any point on the shell surface goes to zero.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT where terms proportional to 3c have been neglected and the coupling between and symmetrized. a rotation of the director ﬁeld with axis of rotation parallel to the director. k a . 2 d( d ) = 1 1 [ab + ba] 1 d 0 x. the second variation of the drill strain symmetrized. + 1 kx. The drill rotation constraint then requires that the component of rotation about the normal to the surface match the in-plane rotation of the surface as measured by the displacement ﬁeld. It is necessary then to assign a kinematic deﬁnition to this rotation. The edge constraints are broken into two parts: First.6. . the equations governing the deformation of the shell are invariant with respect to drill rotations. A A = (X b is the deformed (unit) circumferential b = kx. is the rotated reference axial tangent vector and tangent vector. Accordingly. therefore. we deﬁne the drill strain by d = a b: 1 Here. where K and N are the position vectors to two given by 1 adjacent nodes in an axial plane. Without repeating the calculation. 1 kx1 k2 [ab + ba] 1 dx. Similarly. The linearized drill strain calculation is similar to the transverse shear linearized strain calculation. that is. : . a = = 3. 1 [^ 0 (a 2 b)b] 1 dx + x 1 1 [0a 0 b(a 2 b)] 1 d . For the zero radius case all redundant degrees of freedom are constrained to follow the average motion of the nodes at 0 and 180. X X X ) X Elements d = 1 (a 2 b) + kx1 k (a 0 d b) 1 x. k : x. necessary to treat the zero radius case separately. Drill rotation 1 has been Mathematically. We deﬁne the drill strain as the difference between the rotation of the circumferential tangent vector as measured by the displacement ﬁeld and that measured by the rotation ﬁeld. It is. deﬁned by and a a = exp[^]A X In the above is a linear approximation to the axial tangent vector in the reference conﬁguration K 0 N =k K 0 N k.

axial. Hence. axial. the linearized strain is 0 32 = X P p=1 1 sin ( + P +1 ) : 2 0 Note that d( 32 ) = 0. and circumferential degrees of freedom. circumferential) are dependent only on the corresponding nodal displacement components. Second. the mass matrix does not involve any coupling between the radial. we can write the terms associated with the rotational degrees of freedom as: mnpq M r mnpq M z = = mnpq M = Z Z Z z z z z 2 dz z 2 dz z 2 dz Z Z Z A A A mp nq N N dA mp nq N N dA mp nq Nr Nr dA: 3. a drill rotation strain is deﬁned that requires that the rotation about the Z -axis be zero: 0 d = z : This leads to a linearized strain given by 0 d Note that Mass matrix = X P p=1 p sin pz : 0 d( d ) = 0.7–18 .6.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT circumferential transverse shear strain is deﬁned that requires that the rotation in the radial direction follow the circumferential rotations at the ﬁrst and last nodal plane: 0 32 = r + 1 (1 + P +1 ) sin : 2 p sin pr + Introducing the interpolations. and we can write the mass matrix in the form of three separate expressions: mnpq M ur = mnpq M uz mnpq M u = = Z Z Z Z Z Z z z z dz dz dz A A A mp nq N r N r dA mp nq N z N z dA mp nq N N dA: Similarly. At each material point the displacement components in the three directions (radial.

Nz . The interpolation functions Nr . and mp m ( S ) in the r –z plane and interpolation functions N are the product of interpolation functions H in the -direction: mp m p mp Nr = H (S ) R ( ) = N z mp N = H m (S ) sin p: The area integral used to form the mass matrix can be split then into an integral along the length of the element in the r–z plane and an integral around the circumference. and the superscripts p and mp mp q refer to a particular position along the circumference. and for the r component of the mass matrix this yields: mnpq M r = Z z z dz 2 Z S H (S )H (S ) 2R dS m n 1 2 Z 0 2 Rp ()Rq () d: The matrix can be written in a convenient form by deﬁning the primitive mass matrix as mn Mprim = Z Z z dz S H m (S )H n (S ) 2R dS.7–19 . Elements or for the rotational components as mn M prim = Z z z dz 2 Z S H m (S )H n (S ) 2R dS: These primitive mass matrices are the same mass matrices that are used for the regular axisymmetric shell elements.6.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT Here the superscripts m and n refer to a particular node in the r–z plane. For the r–r component of the mass matrix this yields mnpq Mur = Z z Z dz S H m (S )H n (S ) 2R dS 1 2 Z 0 2 Rp ()Rq () d. We can also deﬁne the circumferential distribution matrices f1 = f2 = pq pq 1 2 1 2 Z Z 2 0 0 2 Rp ()Rq () d sin p sin q d: and The various components of the mass matrix then take the form mnpq mn M ur = Mprim f1 mnpq mn pq Muz = Mprim f1 mnpq mn Mu = Mprim f2 pq mn mnpq pq M r = M prim f2 mn mnpq pq M z = M prim f2 mn mnpq pq M = M prim f1 : pq 3.

1 pq f2 = 1 0 0 1 : 2 = 3: f 0 11 1 B 2 pq @ 02 1 = 72 1 02 4 20 2 02 4 1 02 C A 1 2 11 . asymmetric deformation.6.10 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. f2 pq = 1 2 (1) : = 2: pq f1 = P 1 32 0 @ 7 2 12 2 01 2 20 2 01 2 7 1 A .6.7–20 . f2 pq = 1 2 0 1 @0 0 0 1 0 1 0A 0 1 : P = 4: f 0 15 2 02 2 01 1 B 2 28 4 04 2 C 1 B pq C B 02 4 28 4 02 C 1 = 128 @ 2 04 4 28 2 A 01 2 02 2 15 .” Section 15. f2 01 1 B0 pq = @ 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0C A 0 0 1 : Reference • “Axisymmetric shell elements with nonlinear.AXISYMMETRIC SHELL BENDING ELEMENT The circumferential distribution matrices can be evaluated for various values of the number of terms P in the Fourier series. After some calculations the following results are obtained: P = 1: f1 P pq = 1 3 1 1 3 8 .

y ) plane. (3. S4R. These elements are based on ﬁrst-order transverse shear ﬂexible theory in which the transverse shear strain is assumed to be constant through the thickness of the shell.6. is equated to the strain energy of this distribution of transverse shear stresses.8–1 . and S8R for the analysis of laminated composite shells. S4R. Assume only bending and shear in the x-direction. We want to establish the equivalent factors for laminated plates and sandwich constructions.8–2) where Vx is the transverse shear force per unit width in the plate and Mxx is the bending moment per unit width for bending about the y-axis. The development of these factors also provides a basis for estimating interlaminar shear stresses in a composite section.TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS AND OFFSETS 3.6. expressed in terms of section forces and strains. S3RS. For composite shells with orthotropic layers that are not symmetric about the shell midsurface. the shell section directions may not be the principal bending directions. Consider a plate in the (x. In this case equilibrium within the section in the x-direction is Elements @xx @x + @xz @z = 0: (3. This method.6.8–1) Moment equilibrium about the y-axis gives Vx + @Mxx @x = 0. Then the membrane forces in the shell are zero: Nxx = Nyy = Nxy = 0. for the case of unidirectional bending and assuming linear elastic response.8 TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS IN COMPOSITE SHELLS AND OFFSETS FROM THE MIDSURFACE Transverse shear stiffness ABAQUS supports element types S3R. without gradients in the y-direction. Finite-strain shells The transverse shear stiffness correction factors are easily shown to be 5=6 for isotropic plates. S4RS. 3. This assumption necessitates the use of shear correction factors. and @=@y = 0 for all response variables. provides an approximate method for calculating interlaminar shear stresses and supplies reasonable estimates of transverse shear stiffness. outlined below. S4RSW. and S8R. In such cases the transverse shear stiffness and interlaminar shear stresses are less accurate approximations and will change if different shell section directions are used. In this calculation ABAQUS assumes that the shell section directions are the principal bending directions (bending about one principal direction does not require a restraining moment about the other direction). For this purpose we calculate the distribution of transverse shear stress through the thickness of the shell.6. This section describes the development of the transverse shear stiffness for element types S3R. Then the shear strain energy.

TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS AND OFFSETS For the bending behavior we assume the strain varies linearly across the section: .

= .

0 (z 0 z0 ).

. where .

is the membrane strain of the reference surface z = z0 and .

is the curvature of that surface. If the response of the shell is linear elastic. any in-plane component of stress at a point through the shell section is given by .

= D.

6. ( 0 (z 0 z0 ) ).8–3) where the plane stress elastic stiffness. D. (3.

. [H ]: . Greek subscripts take the range (1. Integrating through the thickness and inverting the resultant section stiffness provides the 6 2 6 section ﬂexibility matrix. is deﬁned from the elasticity and orientation of the material at the particular layer of the shell. 2).

.

= [H ] N.

M.

: We have already assumed that Nxx = Nyy = Nxy . that is. Thus. We now also assume that Myy = Mxy = 0. but we still use it as a simplifying assumption to obtain the shear correction factors. Combining this result with the elastic stiffness at a point through the shell thickness provides the in-plane stress components in terms of Mxx as xx = (Bx1 . that it is possible to have no bending in the y-direction without any restraining moments associated with the y-direction. where fHi4g is the fourth column of [H ]. This is clearly not the case for an unbalanced composite section.

.

= fHi4 g Mxx . (3. (3.6.8–2 .6.8–4) 0 (z 0 z0)Bx2 ) Mxx .8–5) where Bx1 = DxxxxH14 + Dxxyy H24 + Dxxxy H34 and Bx2 = Dxxxx H44 + Dxxyy H54 + Dxxxy H64: Combining the gradient of this equation in the x-direction with the equilibrium equations Equation 3.6.6.6.8–2 yields a description of the variation of the transverse shear stress through the thickness of the plate: @xz @z = ( B x1 0 ( z 0 z 0 ) B x2 ) V x : (3.8–1 and Equation 3. 3.8–6) In calculating @xx =@x we have assumed that the elasticity and thickness of the composite section do not vary (or vary slowly) with position along the shell.6.

6.TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS AND OFFSETS A laminated composite shell section consists of N layers 1. Integrating Equation 3. The variation of yz through the shell thickness is obtained using a similar procedure.Bx2 ) at layer N . 2.Bx2 ) at layer 2. xz = xz at z = zi+1 and xz = 0 at z = zN +1 . (Bx1 . . (3. Layer i extends from zi to zi+1 and its thickness is ti = zi+1 0 zi . This is usually the case for shell constructions.8–3 i t 4 (B y 2 ) 2 i 20 . . with different values of 1 1 2 2 N N (Bx1 . . using the boundary i i+1 conditions xz = 0 at z = 0. 3. gives the transverse shear stress in layer i as i xz = where i B x1 ( z 0 z i ) 0 i B x0 = 10 2 1 z 2 0 z i 2 0 z x0 ( z 0 z i ) i i B x2 + B x0 B x2 Vx .8–6 through the shell.6. i i Substituting the relations for xz and yz into the above equation and integrating deﬁnes the shear ﬂexibility of the section as N s = X F i t i ( B i ) 2 + t i B i 0 B i 0 ( z i 0 z x0 ) B i 1 + 1 t 2 0 B i 0 ( z i 0 z x0 ) B i 1 2 0 Fxx xx x0 x0 x1 x2 3 i x1 x2 i=1 1 1 i 0 i 1 i 0 4 t3 Bx2 Bx1 0 (zi 0 zx0 )Bx2 2 + 20 t4 (Bx2 )2 i i i=1 zi b xz yz c F i 3 2 yz xz dz. based on pure bending in the y-direction.6.Bx2 ) at layer 1. Here we introduce the assumption that the transverse shear ﬂexibility within a layer is not coupled to the in-plane ﬂexibility. . (Bx1 . These results provide the estimates of interlaminar shear stresses. . s Fyy = N X i=1 i i i i Fyy ti (By0 )2 + ti By0 By1 0 i 0 (z i 0 zy 0 )B y 2 1 + 1 3 i t2 B y 1 i 1 0 i 0 (z i 0 zy 0 )B y 2 2 0 1 0 1 i i t 3 B y 2 (B y 1 0 (z i 0 zy 0 )B y 2 ) 2 + i 4 3. . We deﬁne the shear ﬂexibility of the section by matching the shear strain energy obtained by integrating the elastic strain energy density associated with transverse shear stress distribution obtained above: N Z zi+1 2 3 1 1X V 2 01 i i 1 i=1 ti 2 (zi+1 + zi )Bx2 0 Bx1 : z x0 = PN i i=1 ti Bx2 used instead of z0 in this case because the PN Elements b Vx Vy [F s ] c Vy x = 2 where [F s ] is the shear ﬂexibility of the section and F i is the continuum transverse shear ﬂexibility within layer i.8–7) i01 X j=1 t j B x1 j 0 1 2 (z j +1 +z ) j 0 z x0 j and The subscript zx0 is result is associated with pure bending in the x-direction.

TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS AND OFFSETS s Fxy = XF N i=1 i xy ti i i i i i B x0 B y 0 + t i B x0 B y 1 0 ( z i 0 z y 0 ) B y 2 2 1 + 1 2 i( 3 1 32 i 8 1 4 20 2 0 1 + i i B y 0 ( B x1 0 ( z i 0 z x0 ) B x2 3 + i i i i t Bx1 0 (zi 0 zx0 )Bx2 )(By1 0 (zi 0 zy0 )By2 )0 3 + i i i i i i 0 t B x2 ( B y 1 0 ( z 0 0 z y 0 ) B y 2 ) + B y 2 ( B x1 0 ( z 0 0 z x0 ) B x2 ) + i i t i B x2 B y 2 : h i01 s s The transverse shear stiffness of the section is then available as F.

many situations arise in which it is more convenient to deﬁne the reference surface as offset from the midsurface. where the transverse shear stress distribution is assumed piecewise constant. . For single or multilayer isotropic sections and single layer orthotropic sections. The default reference surface is the shell midsurface. In this case we assume that the in-plane strain at any material point varies linearly across the section: . S4RS. Offset: reference surface versus midsurface In ABAQUS the geometry of the shell is deﬁned by kinematic variables that exist at the nodes on the shell reference surface. The kinematics of the shell theory consist of measuring membrane strain on the reference surface and bending strain from the derivatives of the unit normal vector on the reference surface. For numerically integrated sections the transverse shear behavior is based on a simpliﬁed stiffness for improved computational performance. the transverse shear forces for small-strain shell elements S3RS. The transverse shear stiffness is approximate for multilayer orthotropic sections. Convergence to the proper transverse shear behavior for this case may not be obtained as shells become thick and principal material directions deviate from the principal section directions. and S4RSW are computed using the transverse shear stiffness derived for ﬁnite-strain shells. However. Small-strain shells When the shell resultant forces at each increment are computed for pre-integrated sections. Notice that F12 will be i nonzero if any layer is anisotropic or orthotropic in a local system (since then Fxy will be nonzero). the transverse shear force converges to the proper thin and thick shell transverse shear solution and the transverse shear stress is assumed to have a constant distribution.

= .

0 (z 0 z0 ).

where and . .

represent the two orthogonal axes on the reference surface. .

z0 is the distance to the reference surface measured from the midsurface. is the membrane strain of the reference surface. and .

When z0 = 0.8–4 . 3. The bottom surface of the shell becomes the reference surface when z0 = 0t=2. where t is the shell thickness. The positive values of z0 are in the positive normal direction.6. the midsurface represents the reference surface. the top surface of the shell is the reference surface. When z0 = t=2. is the curvature of that surface.

TRANSVERSE SHEAR STIFFNESS AND OFFSETS If the response of the shell is linear elastic. any in-plane component of stress at a point through the shell section. .

is given by D. .

( 0 (z 0 z0 ) ). D. where the plane stress elastic stiffness.

. Greek subscripts take the range (1. The section force and moment resultants per unit length can then be deﬁned as N. 2). is deﬁned from the elasticity and orientation of the material at the particular layer of the shell.

= M.

= Z 0z0 +t=2 0z0 0t=2 Z 0z0 +t=2 0z0 0t=2 .

dz. .

zdz: Integrating the above equations through the thickness leads to the resultant section stiffness. [A]: N.

M.

= [ A] .

.

6. : Elements Reference • “Shell section behavior.6.8–5 .4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3.” Section 15.

.

2 1 1 2 @ p nN = @ p N eN . during an increment.9 ROTARY INERTIA FOR 5 DEGREE OF FREEDOM SHELL ELEMENTS Some of the shell elements in ABAQUS/Standard (S4R5. i i Elements M NN N N . nodes nodes M =1 N =1 X XM NM N M eN 1 eM . based on the argument that we are not attempting to model the rotary inertia accurately. At some nodes in these elements and in other elements we use the three components of the rotation triplet as the rotation degrees of freedom. and STRI65) use two variables at a node to deﬁne the change in the shell normal at the node. at a node N with two “rotation” variables we deﬁne where @ p denotes any time derivative or variation of the following quantity and the eN are the basis vectors used to deﬁne the rotational variables at the node during this increment. This deﬁnition is artiﬁcial and serves simply to associate a reasonable measure of inertia with the rotational degrees of freedom. In this case M NM is diagonal. At a node at which we use the three global rotation components we deﬁne where in this case the ei are the global Cartesian basis vectors. S8R5. This expression neglects any rotation of the basis system that occurs during the increment.6. so that the rotary inertia contribution at node N is where sums over the number of rotation components used at the node (2 or 3). To provide inertia for all of these nodal variables. nN . S9R5.5 DOF SHELL ROTARY INERTIA 3. The ﬁrst-order elements in ABAQUS use a lumped mass matrix. This is an approximation in large-displacement analysis: it is adopted for the sake of simplicity. Barred superscripts are not summed. . For a consistent mass element the rotary inertia contribution is @ p nN = @ p N eN 0 @ p N eN .

.

where and .

sum over the number of rotation components used at each node (2 or 3). At a node where three global rotation components are used. The justiﬁcations for this approximation are that it is simple. and we are not trying to model the rotary inertia effect with high accuracy. these initial values are directly available from the solution to the previous increment. we convert variables from the basis of one increment to that of the next through the approximation where j0 indicates a variable associated with the previous increment and j+ indicates a variable associated with the current increment. uj0 and uj0. the incremental rotation will not be large anyway. Reference @ p j+ = @ p . The time integration algorithms require initial conditions for each increment. At a node where only two variables deﬁne the rotation. For implicit integration _ these are the velocities and accelerations of the variables at the start of the increment.

j0 e j+ 1 e.

” Section 15.6.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. j0 .6.9–1 . • “Choosing a shell element.

.

1–1 . be the element’s usual isoparametric coordinates. 12 1 1 t r g2 Elements g1 2 3 1 r Figure 3. and ﬁrst and second variations of elements. rebar strain " . Let r be an isoparametric coordinate along the line where the face of the element intersects the plane of reinforcement.2-D REBAR MODELING 3. i = .1 REBAR MODELING IN TWO DIMENSIONS Let gi . depending on the order of interpolation in underlying V . two-dimensional element. with 0 r in an element (see Figure 3. The rebar will be integrated at one or two points.1–1).7.7. The volume of integration (1 ) () 3.7.1–1 Rebar in a solid.7. The plane of reinforcement is always perpendicular to the element face. position.

2 = r @ x @ x @ xo @ xo 1 = 1 @r @r @r @r is the squared stretch ratio in the r-direction. t = t=to for generalized plane strain. and for axisymmetric elements. is position. and 2 =( ) () Strain is where dl and dlo measure length along the rebar in the current and initial conﬁgurations. For the deformations allowed in these elements. where t is given in “Generalized plane strain elements. respectively. 3.7. the radius where the spacing Sr is the Gauss weight associated with the integration point along the r line. where t0 Ar Sr WN x = x (g i ) is the original thickness for plane elements and x1 for axisymmetric elements. r t where is the orientation of the rebar from the plane of the model.1–2 . and t is the stretch ratio in the thickness direction: t = 1 for plane stress or plane strain. where x0 is 1 1 0 is given). "= 2 2 dlo @x @r @x = @gi @gi : @r dl dlo 2 = cos2 2 + sin2 2.2.” t = x1=x1o Section 3.2-D REBAR MODELING rebar strain (" and d") at each point are calculated as 1V = Ar @ x @ x 1 Sr @r @r 1 2 t0 W N . From these results the ﬁrst variation of strain is " = where dl 2 o dl (cos2 @x @r 1 @ x @ xo @ xo = 1 @r @r @r + pt). is the rebar cross-sectional area. 1 ln dl2 .7. pt = 0 for plane stress and plane strain. 0 is the spacing of rebar (for axisymmetric elements Sr x1=x0 Sr .

7. and for axisymmetric cases.2. + o cos2 @dx 1 @ x = @@ro 1 @@ro + dpt : dl @r @r Reference • “Deﬁning rebar as an element property.” Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3.2-D REBAR MODELING pt = sin2 t t=t2 o pt = sin2 x1x1 =x2o 1 The second variation of strain is then for generalized plane strain. x x dl 2 d" = 02 o cos2 @ x 1 @ x = @@ro 1 @@ro + pt dl @r @r x x 1 cos2 @ x 1 @dx = @@ro 1 @@ro + dpt @r @r dl 2 x x amp.1–3 .

.

The rebar is integrated using 2 or 2 Gauss points. .3-D REBAR MODELING 3. See Figure 3. i = .2 REBAR MODELING IN THREE DIMENSIONS Let gi . depending on the order of the underlying element. with 0 r . be isoparametric coordinates on the surface of reinforcement. 123 =1 2 1 1 r2 r1 t g3 g2 g1 Elements 3 + 5 r2 r1 4 + + 1 + 2 Figure 3. . three-dimensional element.2–1. .7.2–1 Rebar in a solid. . be the isoparametric coordinates of the basic ﬁnite element in which the rebar are placed.7.7. Let t Let r. be a material coordinate along the rebar direction. The volume of integration at a Gauss point is 2 2 1 1 1V = Ar .

@ X @ X .

.

2 .

W . Sr .

@r1 @r2 .

N .

.

3.2–1 .7.

For convenience we deﬁne s. g= @t @t @t @ri @t and G is the value of g in the original conﬁguration. and so ABAQUS ignores changes in rebar cross-sectional area due to straining of the rebar and changes in the rebar spacing due to straining of the ﬁnite element in which the rebar is placed.” Section 2.2–2 .2. Sr is the rebar spacing.3-D REBAR MODELING where Ar is the cross-sectional area of each rebar. X @ @r X = @X @gi : @gi @r In these expressions all quantities are taken in the reference conﬁguration.4 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual 3. and associated with the integration point. a material coordinate that is distance measuring along the rebar in the current conﬁguration: p ds = g dt: The ﬁrst variation of strain is " = @x 1 @ u . " = ln 2 G where @x @ x @ri @ x @x 1 and = . The strain in the rebar is 1 g .7. WN is the Gauss weighting is the position of the Gauss point. @s @s and the second variation of strain is d" = @ u @s 1 @du 0 2 @ u 1 @ x @ x 1 @du : @s @s @s @s @s Reference • “Deﬁning rebar as an element property.

or surface elements is based on three geometric properties: the cross-sectional area of each individual rebar. For shell elements the rebar deﬁnition also requires the distance from the midsurface to the rebar. Let the unit vector T deﬁne the rebar direction at a point in the element. and the isoparametric direction. and the user-selected isoparametric direction. @ where is the reference midsurface position. the spacing between the rebars. Following from this assumption. AND SURFACE ELEMENTS 3. The reference or initial rebar angle. 2 = cos01 < TAA > . The in-plane unit vector perpendicular to the rebar direction. For membrane and surface elements this layer coincides with the plane of the element. In geometrically linear analyses the geometric properties of the equivalent rebar layer remain constant. the rebar stretch r is F r = kF 1 T k = ktk . The equivalent rebar layer lies parallel to the midsurface of the element. The normal direction.7. AND SURFACE ELEMENTS The deﬁnition of rebar in shell. MEMBRANE. . . . k k X A no sum on . where is speciﬁed by the user. . The smeared rebar layer assumption implies that the deformation of the rebar layer is determined from the deformation gradient of the underlying element. . and the orientation of the rebar with respect to the local coordinate system of the element. membrane.7. 3. lie in a tangent plane parallel to the midsurface. is found as T A T N = A1 A2 A1 A2 2 2 k N P N k : As the rebar-reinforced element deforms. measured positive with the axis of rotation along the normal to the element. is calculated from the inner product between the rebar unit vector. . is deﬁned by rotating through 90 around the normal to the midsurface. . Both the rebar direction. In each case an angle 2 is determined between the reinforcement and one of the element’s isoparametric coordinate directions (selected by the user).3–1 . The isoparametric directions are given by the tangent vectors deﬁned A A @ A = @X = @N XA . A are the element’s shape functions. are the isoparametric coordinate functions ( = 1 or 2). In ABAQUS an equivalent “smeared” orthotropic layer is created based on these geometric properties and the elastic modulus of the rebar material. in geometrically nonlinear analyses each of these properties can change as a result of ﬁnite-strain effects. MEMBRANE.3 REBAR MODELING IN SHELL. and for shell elements this layer can be offset by an amount up to half of the shell’s thickness. and N A are the element’s reference nodal positions. However. The user has many options for deﬁning which direction the rebar acts in the element. 2. Elements X T .REBAR IN SHELL. the rebars change in length and spacing.

"r . The rebar logarithmic strain.7. F 1 T > = kF 0T 1 P k < P . is "r = ln r = ln ktk : The rebar spacing stretch p is the stretch in the plane of the rebar in the direction perpendicular to the rebar. ABAQUS assumes that the volume of the rebar remains constant throughout the analysis. = cos01 The rebar rotation or change in rebar angle. Since the deformation gradient maps material lines that are etched into the reference body into the deformed conﬁguration. use the fact that the unit normal. To determine the spacing stretch p . T > = 0 : 1 < P. and the change in the rebar angle. MEMBRANE. 3. in the plane of the rebar is 0T p = kF0T 11 Pk : F P It is easily veriﬁed that p is a unit vector. AND SURFACE ELEMENTS where t = F 1 T is the deformed rebar material ﬁber. is the difference between the ﬁnal angle and the original 1 = 0 2 : ABAQUS reports the current angle. The equivalent thickness of the smeared layer is equal to the area of the rebar divided by the rebar’s spacing. The rebar’s area and spacing in the deformed conﬁguration are deﬁned as follows: 1. the length change of these material lines deﬁnes the stretch. A0 Ar = r r and 0 Sr = S r p . for each rebar deﬁnition at ktkkak no sum on . F 1 P > = kF 0T 1 P k : kF p = The spacing stretch.3–2 . Since the deformation of P is F 1 P. P > 0T 0T 1 P k < F 1 P . a > . take the inner product: < p. the spacing stretch follows from p = < p.REBAR IN SHELL. p . perpendicular to the deformed rebar direction. This assumption implies that the area and spacing of the rebar may change as a result of ﬁnite-strain effects. t. angle: each integration location of the element. F 1 P > = Since P is a unit vector. 1. can be deﬁned as the component along p of the deformation of the direction P perpendicular to the reference rebar direction. t >= 1 1 0T kF 0T 1 P k < F 1 P . p. . To see that it is perpendicular to t. The ﬁnal angle that the rebar direction makes with respect to the user-selected isoparametric direction is kF 0T 1 P k : 1 < t.

In ABAQUS/Explicit this behavior is based on the actual material properties through the shell’s thickness. the rebar layer’s distance from the midsurface is scaled by the thickness stretch. the shell’s thickness can change as a function of the in-plane deformation.3 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual Elements 3. In shell elements that permit ﬁnite strain.” Section 2. In ABAQUS/Standard the thickness change is deﬁned by the section Poisson’s ratio. In shell elements the rebar layer can be deﬁned initially at a distance above or below the midsurface. Reference • “Deﬁning reinforcement.REBAR IN SHELL.3–3 .2.7. which can be speciﬁed by the user. To account for the change in the shell’s thickness. AND SURFACE ELEMENTS where A0 = r 0 Sr = original rebar cross-sectional area and original spacing of rebar. MEMBRANE.

.

In ABAQUS/Standard the ﬂuid inside the cavity can be compressible or incompressible. the augmented virtual work expression can be written as the sum of the expressions for the individual elements: 3 5 = 5 0 p = Xh e X e e e V e 0 p e X e Ve e 0 X e e V e 5 0 pV 0 p(V 0 V ) = V e (p. V . The negative signs imply that an increase in the cavity volume releases energy from the ﬂuid. m): We refer to the incompressible case as a “hydraulic” ﬂuid and to the compressible case as a “pneumatic” ﬂuid.1 HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS ABAQUS includes a family of elements that can be used to represent ﬂuid-ﬁlled cavities under hydrostatic conditions. 0pdV represents the pressure load stiffness. . and dV =dp is the volume-pressure compliance of the ﬂuid.8.8. The rate of the augmented virtual work expression is obtained as d 3 5 = 5 0 pV 0 p(V 0 V ).1–1 i : Moreover. with the ﬂuid volume given as a function of the ﬂuid pressure. the ﬂuid temperature. the ﬂuid volume can be calculated for each element individually: V . These elements provide the coupling between the deformation of the ﬂuid-ﬁlled structure and the pressure exerted by the contained ﬂuid on the boundary of the cavity. . and the ﬂuid mass. in the cavity: V = V (p. p. The volume. . 3. In ABAQUS/Standard this is achieved by augmenting the virtual work expression for the structure with the constraint equation V 0V = 0 and the virtual work contribution due to the cavity pressure: without the cavity. Since the pressure is the same for all elements in the cavity. In ABAQUS/Explicit the ﬂuid must be compressible and the pressure is calculated from the cavity volume. m. V . since the temperature is the same for all elements in the cavity. derived from the ﬂuid pressure and temperature should equal the actual volume. This represents a mixed formulation in which the structural displacements and ﬂuid pressure are primary variables. me ).HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS 3. of the cavity. where 53 is the augmented virtual work expression and 5 is the virtual work expression for the structure 3 Elements 5 = d 5 0 pdV 0 dpV 0 (dV 0 dV )p = d 5 0 pdV 0 dpV 0 dV p + dV dpp: dp Here.

R : (pI . K R where K is the ﬂuid bulk modulus and R is the reference ﬂuid density at zero pressure and the initial temperature. is calculated from the initial ﬂuid density.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS where me is the element mass. ) = R 1 + 3()( 0 0 ) 0 3(I )(I 0 0 ) 0 p=K 01.1–2 . the actual volume of the element may be different from the element volume: V e 0 V e = 0: 6 The total ﬂuid volume will match the volume of the cavity.8. (pI . Hydraulic ﬂuid with thermal expansion In ABAQUS/Standard the ﬂuid is incompressible by default and the ﬂuid volume. I ) = (1 0 pI =K ) : R The ﬂuid density at the current pressure and temperature. Thus. the ﬂuid volume depends upon both the temperature and pressure: V = V (p. and the initial element volume. me = (pI . = 0 m . The total ﬂuid mass in the cavity is the sum of the ﬂuid masses of the elements making up the cavity: m= m Xm : e e The mass of a ﬂuid element in the cavity. dV dp dV dp =0 : If compressibility is introduced. upon temperature but independent of the ﬂuid pressure: V. Note that in the solution. The initial ﬂuid density follows from the user-deﬁned reference density. m). is obtained as 3 2 (p. . VIe : e . is dependent V = V (. and it is assumed that j=R 0 1j << 1. () is the mean where 0 is the reference temperature for the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion and (secant) coefﬁcient of thermal expansion. where pI is the initial ﬂuid pressure and I is the initial temperature. I ) VIe. ): 3. (p. however. m). ) = m=(p. I ). the ﬂuid volume at the current pressure and temperature is V (p. ).

A is the temperature at absolute zero. the total ﬂuid mass in the cavity is the sum of the masses of the elements in the cavity. The current ﬂuid volume can again be calculated on an element by element basis: V p. Consequently. ( )= 1 X e V e (p. Consequently. ): Volume calculation The hydrostatic ﬂuid elements appear as surface elements that cover the cavity boundary. ): Fluid can be added to or removed from the cavity. Figure 3. and the volume is a function of the pressure and the temperature in the cavity: V = V (p. m).8. but they are actually volume elements when the cavity reference node is accounted for. The amount of ﬂuid added is given as the change in (ﬂuid) mass m. ( ) = m=(p. the change of the ﬂuid volume at the current cavity temperature is 1V (p. 3. ) = 1m=(p. ) = X e me = p. ): The corresponding volume-pressure compliance is m m A )(pR + A = 0 2 d = 0 R ((R0 A )(p + ppA))2 : dp 0 Fluid can be added to or removed from the cavity. ( + ( ) = R (R 0 A)(p + pA) . ( ) = m=(p. and pA is the ambient pressure. hence.1–1 depicts the 4-node hydrostatic ﬂuid volume element. ) = X e me = p. the density of the ﬂuid in the cavity can be calculated as p. The dashed lines indicate that the element is actually pyramidal in shape.8. The ﬂuid is assumed to behave like an ideal gas. . ( )= dV dp X e V (p. the change of the ﬂuid volume at the current cavity temperature is 1V (p. 0 )(p p ) A R A e Elements where R and pR are the temperature and pressure at the reference density R . The amount of ﬂuid added is again given as the change in (ﬂuid) mass. as before.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS This volume can be calculated on an element by element basis: V p. F3D4. ) = 1m=(p. where.1–3 . ): Ideal gas In this case the ﬂuid is compressible.

4).” Section 3.8. of each element must be calculated. dV @ x @g 2 x @ @h . n dA = The inﬁnitesimal volume. where N N are the interpolation functions for the base of the pyramid (“Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra. obtained as N face. For threeh. expressed in terms of parametric coordinates g and N are the nodal coordinates. The coordinates of any point on the base of the pyramid element can be found by x= X N N N (g.2.1–1 F3D4 hydrostatic ﬂuid element. The volume. and the summation extends over all nodes on the base. associated with this inﬁnitesimal area is dV = 1 3 ( xR 0 x) 1 n dA. n. h)xN .HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS cavity reference node 4 3 1 2 Figure 3. of the element face is. V e .1–4 . x dimensional elements the Jacobian on the surface is calculated as @ x @g The normal to the element hence. 3. dg dh: . @ x @h = X N @N N @h xN : dA multiplied by an inﬁnitesimal area.8. = X @N N @g xN .

” Section 6. is then obtained by integration. The pressure on the sides will be balanced by the pressure on the side of the adjacent pyramid element.1–5 . Introducing the relative position. we only need to calculate the contribution from the pressure on the “base” of the pyramid. this becomes Ve = Z +1 Z +1 01 01 1 03 x 1 @x 2 @x @g @h @ x @g dg dh: The variation in the element volume is readily obtained as V e = Z +1 Z +1 01 01 1 03 x 1 @x 2 @x @g @h + x1 2 @ x + @ x 2 @ x @h @g @h dg dh: This expression includes contributions to the volume change due to variation in the “sides” of the pyramid element. This can be done by separating the contributions by using partial integration. For a quadrilateral base this yields Ve = Z Ve dV = Z +1 Z +1 1 3 01 01 (x R 0 x) 1 @x @g 2 @h @x dg dh: The integration boundaries will be different for a triangular base. The second variation of the expression for the volume is dVbe = Z +1 Z +1 01 01 03 1 " x 1 @dx 2 @ x + @ x 2 @dx + dx 1 @ x 2 @ x + @ x 2 @ x + @g @h @g @h @g @h @g @h # @ x 2 @dx + @dx 2 @ x dg dh: x1 @g @h @g @h Z +1 01 Similar expressions can be obtained for planar and axisymmetric ﬂuid elements. hence. 3. which yields Vbe = Z +1 Z +1 01 01 0 x 1 @x @g 2 @h @x g=1 Z +1 @x @ x dg dh0 +x2 x 1 x 2 dh @h @h 01 g=01 h=1 Z +1 @ x @x 0 2 x + @g 2 x x1 dg: @g 01 h=01 Elements The last two integrals represent the contributions on the sides of the pyramid. Hence. The volume of the element. V e .8. the equivalent forces will also include the effect of the pressure on these sides.5.1). hence. x = x 0 xR .HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS where xR is the position of the cavity reference node. the resulting expression is Z Z Vbe = +1 +1 01 01 0 x 1 @x @g 2 @x @h dg dh: This equation can readily be obtained directly (see “Pressure load stiffness. For a planar element the volume is readily obtained as 1 e V = 0 e3 1 2 x2 @x @g dg.

for element type F3D4 the above expressions yield. We assume that the dependence on the average pressure. m )1t: 3. For the temperature we choose to be the average of at the start and end of the increment. p p1 0 p2 . In 1 2 = — addition.8. because this is likely to be the most accurate. it is assumed that the ﬂow rate may depend on the average temperature— p1 p 2 = : and. ): 1 (3. q. on the average pressure—p =( + ) 2 1 = =( + ) 2 q = q(1p. for axisymmetric elements Z +1 Ve = 0 2 e 3 1 01 x2 @x @g (x 1 er ) dg: The ﬁrst and second variations are obtained in the same way as for three-dimensional elements. p0. after some manipulation. Ve where xN .8. for a compressible ﬂuid. p. Hence. For instance. 4 denote the relative nodal coordinates. 1h = 12 ( x2 2 dx1 0 x1 2 dx2) 1 (x3 + x4) + (x3 2 dx2 0 x2 2 dx3) 1 (x4 + x1)+ ( x4 2 dx3 0 x3 2 dx4) 1 (x1 + x2) + (x1 2 dx4 0 x4 2 dx1) 1 (x2 + x3)+ i ( x1 2 dx3 0 x3 2 dx1) 1 (x2 0 x4) + (x2 2 dx4 0 x4 2 dx2) 1 (x3 0 x1) : and the second variation of the volume is dV e Fluid link element In addition to the ﬂuid cavity elements ABAQUS also offers a 2-node ﬂuid link element that can be used to model ﬂuid ﬂow between two cavities or between a cavity and the outside world. Similarly. through the link is a homogeneous function of the pressure difference. N only) is equal to Vb e = 1. p. 1 = 12 2(x3 0 x1) 1 (x2 2 x4) + (x4 0 x2) 1 (x3 2 x1)3. we obtain the mass ﬂow through the link: 1m = q(1p.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS where e3 is the unit vector in the direction perpendicular to the plane.1–1) The ﬂow rate needs to be integrated over a ﬁnite increment. It is assumed that the mass ﬂow rate. we use a semi-implicit method: we use p at the end of the m increment and p0 at the start of the increment. The ﬁrst variation (involving the base 1h = 12 x1 1 [(x2 0 x4) 2 (2x1 0 x2 0 x3)] + x2 1 [(x3 0 x1) 2 (2x2 0 x3 0 x4)]+ i x3 1 [(x4 0 x2 ) 2 (2x3 0 x4 0 x1 )] + x4 1 [(x1 0 x3 ) 2 (2x4 0 x1 0 x2 )] . Hence. The integrations can be carried out analytically. is weak.1–6 . This is typically used when the ﬂuid has to ﬂow through a narrow oriﬁce.

p.1–1 to give Elements (1p. and @ V1 @p1 1 = 0 1 @1m + 1m @1 . except for isothermal incompressible ﬂuids. the nonsymmetric terms can have a signiﬁcant effect if the drop in pressure is large. the resulting matrix is nonsymmetric. but the pressures (and possibly the temperatures) may be different. @@pV 2 = 0 1 @@1m 0 1m @2 : @p1 2 @p2 2 1p 2 2 1p 2 (3. the nonsymmetric contribution is small and the equations can be symmetrized without signiﬁcant degradation in convergence rate. For small vibrations about a prepressurized state we linearize Equation 3. With use of the pressure and temperature-dependent density i p. the relations become ( ) 1V 1 = 01m=1. In most problems of this class the ﬂuids on either side of the ﬂuid link are ﬁrst pressurized statically.HYDROSTATIC FLUID ELEMENTS This mass change needs to be converted to a volume change in each cavity.8.8. In the implementation in ABAQUS/Standard. 1V 2 = 1m=2. For an incompressible ﬂuid with thermal expansion. @1V 1 = 1 @1m . For an ideal gas. and often in such cases the dissipative losses in the ﬂuid link must be modeled to obtain useful results. 1 @ 1 p 2 @p1 @p2 1 @ 1 p 1 1 @ 1V 2 = 1 @@1m . ) 1p: q= @ 1p 0 @q . Many applications of ﬂuid ﬂow through a ﬂuid link involve dynamic loading in the form of steady-state vibration. for each cavity i. It is assumed that the ﬂuid in both cavities is the same.1–2) Observe that. it is assumed that the vibration amplitude is sufﬁciently small that the ﬂuid link response in the dynamic phase of the problem can be treated as linear perturbations about the prepressurized state.

.

.

.

therefore. be derived as follows: 1m = = Zt 01 Zt qdt = Zt 01 @q . The mass ﬂow through the link can.

.

@ p .

0 1 1pdt i @q .

.

.

.

.

@q = 0 ! @1p 1p: 0 i @q 01 @ p 0 .

.

.

.

p p 1 1 exp(i!t)dt = 0 ! @1p 0 1exp(i!t) .

.

.

.

Substituting the above expression for mass ﬂow into Equation 3.1–2 and noting that yields .8.

.

.

.

@ V 1.

.

@p1 .

0 @ V 2.

.

@p1 .

0 1 m j0 = 0 1 1 .

i = !1 @@qp . 1 0 i = 0 ! @@qp 1 .

.

.

2 .

.

.

.

@ V1.