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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Amun (also Amon, Amen, Greek Ammon, Hammon) was a local deity of Thebes. He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his spouse Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty (ca. 21st century BC), he rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu.[1] After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I, Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra. Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created[2] creator deity "par excellence", he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety.[3] His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.[3] As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt, in Ancient Libya and Nubia, and as Zeus Ammon came to be identified with Zeus in Ancient Greece.

Amun

Typical depiction of Amun during the New Kingdom, with two plumes on his head, the ankh symbol and the was sceptre. King of the Gods Name in hieroglyphs

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representing the primordial concept or element of air or invisibility (corresponding to Shu in the Ennead). Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt. pronounced Amana in ancient Egyptian [5]).s o ft w a re tr Contents 1 Early history 2 Temple at Karnak 3 New Kingdom 3. Merenptah commemorated his victories over the Sea Peoples on the walls of the Cachette Court. Temple at Karnak Main articles: Precinct of Amun-Re. Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad". the ram-headed Sphinx (Criosphinx) Amunet Wosret Mut Early history Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian pyramid texts. k w . hence Amun's later function as a wind deity. Next to this inscription is the Victory Stela. Karnak.1 Identification with Min and Ra 3. the start of the processional route to the Luxor Temple. In Thebes. As the patron of Thebes.2 Decline 5 Iron Age and Classical Antiquity 5. Construction of the Hypostyle Hall may have also began during the 18th dynasty.Amun --XWikipedia. and History of the Karnak Temple complex The history of Amun as the patron god of Thebes begins in the 20th century BC.c ww w Major cult Thebes om k lic lic .2 Levant 5. under the 11th dynasty. The city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the 11th dynasty.2 Atenist heresy 3. meaning "hidden".wikipedia.3 Theology 4 Third Intermediate Period 4. and a triple bark-shrine to the north of the processional 2 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM .1 Theban High Priests of Amun 4. though most building was undertaken under Seti I and Ramesses II. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en.s o ft w a re two vertical plumes.[6] Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period. with the construction of the Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak under Senusret I.[7] Merenptah's son Seti II added 2 small obelisks in front of the Second Pylon. Amun as father.3 Greece 6 References 7 External links center Symbol Consort ac k e r. . This Great Inscription (which has now lost about a third of its content) shows the king's campaigns and eventual return with booty and prisoners. which is largely a copy of the more famous Israel Stela found in the West Bank funerary complex of Merenptah.c C tr ac k e r.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu to om to ww bu y N O W ! C .1 Nubia and Libya 5.[4] Amun and Amaunet formed one quarter of the ancient Ogdoad of Hermopolis. and the name Amun (written imn. his spouse was Mut.

A solar deity in the form of a ram can be traced to the pre-literate Kerma culture in Nubia.You are Amun. New Kingdom Further information: High Priests of Amun Identification with Min and Ra When the army of the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty expelled the Hyksos rulers from Egypt. His breath comes back to us in mercy. Amanishakheto. This was constructed of sandstone. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as "Lord of truth. the sun god Ra. The local patron deity of Thebes. Amun. when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me. may you forgive. who comes at the voice of the poor. It shall not happen again.[3] By aiding those who traveled in his name. This identification led to another merger of identities.. the capital of a new dynasty.May your ka be kind. Arkamani.. and they lavished much of their wealth and captured spoil on the construction of temples dedicated to Amun.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en.c ww w om k lic lic k w . became the most important city in Egypt. Votive stelae from the artisans' village at Deir el-Medina record: Bas-relief depicting Amun as pharaoh "[Amun] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress. . the Lord is disposed to forgive. becoming Amun-Min. and so started to absorb the identity of Min. the victor's city of origin..Though the servant was disposed to do evil. Amun thus became associated with the ram arising from the aged appearance of the Kush ram deity. the Lord of the silent. none remains. with a chapel to Amun flanked by those of Mut and tr re re ac ac Khonsu. His wrath passes in a moment. Since rams were considered a symbol of virility. when Egypt conquered Kush. brought him to be seen as a champion of the less fortunate. The victory accomplished by pharaohs who worshipped Amun against the "foreign rulers". Amun became identified with the chief deity who was worshipped in other areas during that period. more specifically a woolly ram with curved horns.c C The last major change to the Precinct of Amun-Re's layout was the addition of the first pylon and the massive enclosure walls that surrounded the whole Precinct. This association with virility led to Amun-Min gaining the epithet Kamutef. Amanitore. This Kush deity was depicted as ram-headed. who gives breath to him who is wretched. attested in numerous personal names such as Tanwetamani. meaning Bull of his mother. ithyphallic.s o ft w a k e r. As the cult of Amun grew in importance. 3 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM . and goodness)."[8] Subsequently. The Lord of Thebes spends not a whole day in anger. Thebes..s o ft w a to om to bu y ww N O W ! C . The pharaohs of that new dynasty attributed all their successful enterprises to Amun. The later (Meroitic period) name of Nubian Amun was Amani. they identified the chief deity of the Kushites as Amun. both constructed by Nectanebo I. Natakamani. Amun also became thought of as a fertility deity. therefore became nationally important.Amun --XWikipedia. as Min was. Since he upheld Ma'at (truth.[9] in which form he was found depicted on the walls of Karnak. k e r. with Amun becoming Amun-Ra. creator of all animals. justice. he became the Protector of the road. maker of men. Lord of things that are.[3] those who prayed to Amun were required first to demonstrate that they were worthy by confessing their sins. father of the gods. . upholding the rights of justice for the poor. contemporary to the Old Kingdom of Egypt. and with a scourge.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu tr avenue in the same area.

but this abrupt change was very unpopular with the priests of Amun.s o ft w e ar tr ac k e r. 4 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM . He defaced the symbols of many of the old deities. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en.s o ft w a re Atenist heresy During the latter part of the eighteenth dynasty. Worship of Aten ceased and worship of Amun-Ra was restored. besides numerous other titles and aspects.. whose name meant "the living image of Aten"—and who later would become a pharaoh—to change his name to Tutankhamun. and the capital was returned to Thebes. The pharaoh was the highest priest in the temple of the capital. Praises of Amun on stelae are strikingly similar in language to those later used. creator god and fertility god. Amun became successively identified with all other Egyptian deities. .Amun --XWikipedia.c creator of the staff of life... He also adopted the aspect of the ram from the Nubian solar god. a patient craftsmen. k w . the pharaoh being the leader of both. all faces behold thee.wikipedia. a deity whose power was manifested in the sun disk..The sole Lord. the Aten."[11] Amun-Min as Amun-Ra ka-Mut-ef from the temple at Deir el Medina. Tutankhaten. . the priests of Amun-Ra reasserted themselves. who now found themselves without any of their former power.c C tr ac k e r. who reaches the end of the lands every day. then they sleep in the manner of death . a mother of profit to gods and men. When Akhenaten died.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu C . the pharaoh Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) disliked the power of the temple of Amun and advanced the worship of the Aten. As Amun-Re he was petitioned for mercy by those who believed suffering had come about as a result of their own or others wrongdoing.. greatly wearying himself as their maker. The fashioner of that which the soil produces. The return to the previous capital and its patron deity was accomplished so swiftly that it seemed this almost monotheistic cult and its governmental reforms had never existed. the god of wind Amun came to be identified with the solar god Ra and the god of fertility and creation Min. thou are hidden from their faces . as one who sees them that tread thereon . He moved his capital away from Thebes. their refuge and the making of their living. all of his religious and governmental changes were undone.valiant herdsman. The religion of Egypt was inexorably tied to the leadership of the country. but when thou departest.. both literally and symbolically. many being administrators of the bureaucracy that ran the country. His name was struck from Egyptian records. Theology In the New Kingdom. Every land chatters at his rising every day. Amun-Ra in hieroglyphs The introduction of Atenism under Akhenaton constructed a "monotheist" worship of Aten in direct competition with that of Amun."[10] to om to ww bu y N O W ! om ww w k lic lic .. Primarily. so that Amun-Ra had the main characteristic of a solar god. and based his religious practices upon the deity.. to the point of virtual monotheism (which was then attacked by means of the "counter-monotheism" of Atenism). and the next lower level of religious leaders were important advisers to the pharaoh. in particular the Hymn to the Aten: "When thou crossest the sky. driving his cattle.. When thou settest in the western mountain. "the living image of Amun". in order to praise him. The priests of Amun even persuaded his young son..

The Lord of Thebes does not spend an entire day angry.com/bible?passage=John%203:8.c ww w om k lic lic ."[15] The hidden aspect of Amun and his likely association with the wind caused Henri Frankfort to draw parallels with a passage from the Gospel of John: "The wind blows where it wishes. .) ][16] A Leiden hymn to Amun describes how he calms stormy seas for the troubled sailor: "The tempest moves aside for the sailor who remembers the name of Amon. to birds in heaven. yet the Lord is normal in being merciful.. in depiction typical of the New Kingdom. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en.&version=NASB. The storm becomes a sweet breeze for he who invokes His name.Amun --XWikipedia. Re-Horakhty was in turn identified with Amun. k w . if not more so. whom none equals. but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. Ptah. Amun.[13] "The three gods are one yet the Egyptian elsewhere insists on the separate identity of each of the three."[John 3:8 (http://www.."[17] Re-Horakhty ("Ra (who is the) Horus of the two Horizons"). He who hides his name as Amun.Beware of him! Repeat him to son and daughter. Third Intermediate Period Theban High Priests of Amun Main article: Theban High Priests of Amun While not regarded as a dynasty. As for his anger – in the completion of a moment there is no remnant.. Amon is more effective than millions for he who places Him in his heart."[14] This unity in plurality is expressed in one text: "All gods are three: Amun. [18] Consequently.c C tr ac k e r.. to great and small. who comes at the cry of the poor and distressed. repeat him to him who does not know him and to him who knows him. The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources. his body is Ptah.. By the time Herihor was proclaimed as the first ruling High Priest of Amun in 1080 BC—in the 19th Year of Ramesses XI—the Amun priesthood exercised an effective stranglehold on Egypt's economy. the fusion of Ra and Horus. while the Theban High Priest Psusennes III would take the throne as king Psusennes II—the final ruler of the 21st Dynasty.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu tr ac k e r.. Re and Ptah. 943 BC.Though it may be that the servant is normal in doing wrong. 5 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM .biblegateway. One of the sons of the High Priest Pinedjem I would eventually assume the throne and rule Egypt for almost half a decade as pharaoh Psusennes I. the Amun priests were as powerful as Pharaoh. and you hear the sound of it.wikipedia. and Re are regarded as a trinity who are distinct gods but with unity in plurality. relate him to fishes in the deep. Thanks to Him the single man becomes stronger than a crowd.s o ft w a re In the Leiden hymns.s o ft w a re Amon-Re "who hears the prayer.. the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c. he appears to the face as Re.As thy Ka endures! thou wilt be merciful!"[12] to om to ww bu y N O W ! C . relate him to generations of generations who have not yet come into being.

Tantamani (died 653 BC).s o ft w a re tr ac k e r.Amun --XWikipedia.c C tr ac k e r. the name No [21] Amown occurs twice in reference to Thebes.C.c Decline om to to ww bu y N O W ! om ww w k lic lic . however. by the KJV rendered just as No: Depiction of Amun in a relief at Karnak (15th century BC) Jeremiah 46:25:25 The Lord of hosts. still bore a theophoric name referring to Amun in the Nubian form Amani. said: “Behold. Iarbas. that was situate among the rivers. In Libya there remained a solitary oracle of Amun in the Libyan Desert at the oasis of Siwa. with his priests. In Thebes. ca. 1000 B.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu C . The Victory Stele of Piye at Gebel Barkal (8th c. In Nubia. in the 3rd century BC. at Meroe and Nobatia. that had the waters round about it.wikipedia. The sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra. k w . came to be the center of the religious ideology of the Kingdom of Kush.[20] The worship of Ammon was introduced into Greece at an early period. the overwhelming dominance of Amun over all of Egypt gradually began to decline. slew them. although this tradition stopped when Arkamane. and in the Nevi'im. which must have formed a connection with the great oracle of Ammon in the Oasis soon after its establishment. The Temple of Amun. English Standard Version: Nahum 3:8 "Art thou better than populous No. the last pharaoh of the Nubian dynasty. – Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History Levant Amun is mentioned as a deity in the Hebrew Bible. According to Diodorus Siculus. a mythological king of Libya. he remained a national deity. BC) now distinguishes between an "Amun of Napata" and an "Amun of Thebes". whose rampart was the sea. his worship continued unabated. and directing military expeditions. upon Pharaoh and those who trust in him.s o ft w a re In the 10th century. texts presumably written in the 7th century BC. these religious leaders even were able to compel kings to commit suicide. especially under the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt.[19] regulating the whole government of the country via an oracle. and Pharaoh and Egypt and her gods and her kings. the God of Israel. Iron Age and Classical Antiquity Nubia and Libya In areas outside of Egypt where the Egyptians had previously brought the cult of Amun his worship continued into Classical Antiquity. where his name was pronounced Amane or Amani. founded during the New Kingdom. . and her wall was from the sea?" 6 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM . choosing the ruler. was also considered a son of Hammon. I am bringing punishment upon Amon of Thebes. as Amun was by now seen as a national god in Nubia. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en. probably through the medium of the Greek colony in Cyrene. Jebel Barkal.

""An Introduction to Egyptian Literature". 1914. due to the horned appearance of the dark and light bands of cellular layers. 443 BC).google.c Greece om to to ww bu y N O W ! om ww w k lic lic . At Megalopolis the god was represented with the head of a ram (Paus.[23] consulted the oracle of Ammon in Libya from early times more than the other Greeks. ^ Hart.A. Born in heaven. viii. The regions of the hippocampus in the brain are called the cornu ammonis – literally "Amun's Horns". 123 (http://books. ^ Egypt and the Egyptians pg. 211. and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon. 184 (fn.wikipedia. where he was declared "the son of Amun" by the oracle.com /books?id=GG3qfiUY3xQC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21) . 1976. . 5.uchicago. 2. ISBN 0-415-36116-8. from the time of Lysander (d. Eisenbrauns.s o ft w a re tr ac k e r.164 8. http://books. p. ISBN 0-520-03615-8 9. p. ISBN 0-486-29502-8 11. Milton identifies Ammon with the biblical Ham (Cham) and states that the gentiles called him the Libyan Jove. Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology. ^ John A. p. References 1. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en. 1999 ISBN 1575060248. ^ Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom. first pub. at Thebes. Chalcidice. identified by these Greeks as a form of Zeus. 21. the inhabitants of which.google. Such was its reputation among the Classical Greeks that Alexander the Great journeyed there after the battle of Issus and during his occupation of Egypt. Dover edition 1997.32 § 1). such as ammonia and ammonite. University of Chicago Press.[22] and another at Sparta. Wilson. no 446 (http://www. horns. p105-106. "The Burden of Egypt". Both these foraminiferans (shelled Protozoa) and ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopods) bear spiral shells resembling a ram's. ^ Blyth. Amun.[25] Ammonia. ^ Stewert. ^ Michael Brennan Dick.lib. University of California Press. The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses (http://books. pp. 4th imp 1963. Several words derive from Amun via the Greek form.[24] continued to be the principal local deity of Thebes. and Ammon's. k w .214. Republished as 7 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM . p. as zealously as in Ammonium.ca/books?id=Lo8BI6vUv18C&pg=PA123& dq=amun+amana+egyptian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hU7eULGLMenB0QHdnoCoBQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=amana%20&f=false) 6. ^ Budge.A1_1908_cop3&object=242) . Wallis. the gift of Pindar (d. Routledge.google.pl?DPI=100&callnum=PJ1553. 10. 60–62 7.Amun --XWikipedia. Redford. Pindar the poet honoured the god with a hymn. Ammon. as Pausanias says.com /books?id=GG3qfiUY3xQC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu C . E. Edited by Donald B.uk/books?id=VP3o2908v10C& pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=Amun+religious+self-creation+definition&source=bl&ots=KZRcLTyiix& sig=c1YxVb8j2eAplPGPweBDAZVnjHQ&hl=en&ei=vN3nTr3WLpLb8QOx_o2bCg&sa=X&oi=book_result& ct=result&resnum=8&sqi=2&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Amun%20religious%20selfcreation%20definition&f=false) 3. Desmond and editors of the Newsweek Book Division "The Pyramids and Sphinx" 1971 pp. George (2005). ^ Warburton (2012:211). ^ Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums (1908). 1951.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_page. is a genus name in the foraminifera.c C tr ac k e r.google. Berkley books. made on earth: the making of the cult image in the ancient Near East.s o ft w a re Ammon had a temple and a statue. 80) (http://books. ISBN 0-425-19096-X 4. In Paradise Lost. Alexander thereafter considered himself divine.co. The Romans called the ammonium chloride they collected from deposits near the Temple of Jupiter Amun in ancient Libya sal ammoniacus (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple. as well as being the chemical. 2007. Miriam Lichtheim. 20. At Aphytis. Even during this occupation. ^ a b c d Vincent Arieh Tobin. Ammon was worshipped. p. 395 BC).

13 § 3 ^ Strong's Concordance / Gesenius' Lexicon (http://cf. ISBN 0-671-02219-9 ^ Peter Clayton. Description of Greece iii. 2012. article "Ammon" in W. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. 1332–1292 BC. the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en. 1951 ^ The Living Wisdom of Ancient Egypt. p. 1951.c ww w om k lic lic k w . http://www.co. Ed. Cornell University Press. Hugh.).bbc. Handbook of Egyptian Religion (London. Description of Greece ix. . ISBN 9783643902351. Amun and Karnak in Context. 143. Wilson. 1951 ^ "Of God and Gods". Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (New Haven. Republished as "The Culture of Ancient Egypt". The Histories ii.25 ^ "Ammonia" (http://www. Meyer. xlvi.co. ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7 Uchicago. Marc Mateos. 20. Penn Museum) Retrieved from "http://en. 4th imp 1963. 1999.edu (http://www. 15. Realencyclopädie. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.s o ft w e ar 12. 25. Retrieved 2007-11-08.karnak3d.press.. 2007 Amun with features of Tutankhamun (http://www.epl?mode=synopsis&bookkey=67334) ^ Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz. 1994.bbc. Tutankhamen: Amenism. Simon & Schuster.co. ed.175 ^ Herodotus. Leiden Hymns to Amun (http://www.uchicago. "The Culture of Ancient Egypt". articles "Ammon" and "Ammoneion" in Pauly-Wissowa. p. Inc. p. 2006) David Warburton. John A. Cambridge University Press.bbc. 19.. ca. Pelican. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. and Religion: Hatshepsut. Keep. 2008.CO. Atenism. ISBN 029922554 ^ "Before Philosophy". (1911).uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A632990) from the original on 2 November 2007. E. 2003-01-11. Wilson.144-145. p. 18. h2g2 Eponyms.org/amun. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A632990) . a non-profit organization. to ww to om bu y N O W ! C .wikipedia. . Translated by Ann E. Description of Greece x. ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7 Uchicago.s o ft w a ^ "The Burden of Egypt".php?title=Amun&oldid=535007691" Categories: Amun Egyptian gods This page was last modified on 26 January 2013 at 17:03. 18. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.Amun --XWikipedia. University of Chicago Press.htm) (1923).org/web/20071102023049/http://www.archive. Penguin. p.cfm?Strongs=0528& version=NIV) ^ Pausanias. 64.blueletterbible.uchicago.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A632990.edu/presssite /metadata. See Terms of Use for details. BBB.c C Adolf Erman. 21.net) .sofiatopia. Jan Assmann. 17. additional terms may apply. A.edu (http://www. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 22.press.edu/presssite tr /metadata.com /egy/tut/tut00. Henri Frankfort.ISBN 0-8014-8029-9 ^ "Before Philosophy".htm) (Spanish) Karnak 3D :: Detailed 3D-reconstruction of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak (http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu tr ac k e r. 1992. 13. Power. W.maat. and Egyptian Monotheism (http://sacred-texts. Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie Pietschmann.com/photos/schumata/3478852986/) (statue. Thorkild Jacobsen.flickr. 8 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM . Henri Frankfort (contributor). 16. Thames & Hudson Ltd.UK.org/w/index. Architecture. Budge. p300.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.epl?mode=synopsis&bookkey=67334) re ac k e r. 1907) David Klotz. 24.16 § 1 ^ Pausanias. 14. External links Wim van den Dungen.18 § 2 ^ Jerem. Archived (http://web. Christian Jacq. John A. 23.29 ^ Pausanias. H. 75.

s o ft w a re 9 of 9 1/29/2013 1:07 PM .c ww w om k lic lic . the free encyclopedia Chan PD F ge http://en.wikipedia.c C tr ac k e r.s o ft w a re tr ac k e r.Amun --XWikipedia.org/wiki/Amun -X C h a n PD F ge O W ! N y bu to om to ww bu y N O W ! C . . k w .

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