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Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams Located on Karst Foundations

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was only partially successful in reducing seepage and. often highly permeable. 2. Various remedial works projects were carried out at the site over the 60 years that it was in operation until. Understand the difficulties of constructing a dam on a karstic foundation. at the Lar dam in Iran (Uromeihy. Although there are few documented structural failures attributed to sinkhole collapse in karst terrain.usbr.gov/cdams/ dams) As a result of experience gained from such dams. In pure water. For example. discontinuities which are. The difficulties involved in constructing a dam on a karstic foundation were first documented at Hales Bar dam that was built by private interests on the Tennessee River between 1905 and 1913. the reservoir remains partially filled. However. the dam was demolished. This fact means that Karst foundations are usually associated with highly deformed. geological 2 theory at the time suggested that cave formation occurred only above the water table. despite numerous remedial sealing attempts. students will: 1. complex. 2000) it was not possible to impound to full supply level due to foundation leakage that reached two-thirds of the total river flow.A. connected to the surface so that the free carbon dioxide necessary to allow the solutioning process to continue is available. Understand grouting techniques and other seepage control measures for karstic foundations. there are numerous examples of problems associated with reservoir filling. Although the existence of cavernous rock in the limestone foundation was postulated. Therefore. For this course the Kavar Dam in Iran was the example where an unusual combination of a surface membrane.powergenu. 4. In the years following the construction of the Hales bar dam the effects of solutioning have had adverse impacts on both reservoir water tightness and the structural integrity of many dams. by definition. were planned to seal a highly karstic foundation.V.Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams Located on Karst Foundations Educational Objectives On completion of this course. in the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. 1988). (www. an extensive system of sinkholes and faults have prevented any permanent storage of water. A remedial grouting program. accounting for the fact that seepage flowing from karst formations often contains up to 400 mg/L of calcium carbonate (James and Fitzpatrick.com . These measures include the use of an www. the maximum possible concentration of dissolved calcium carbonate is in the range of 14 mg/L (Fookes and Hawkins. in 1968. In the case of the Anchor Dam constructed in 1960. techniques have been developed to successfully treat even seriously karstic foundations. (T. 22. 1949). (Fig. Understand the effects of solutioning on reservoir water tightness and the structural integrity of dams. This course describes current practice for the design of dams on karst terrain as well as some unique seepage control measures that are planned to mitigate risks associated with a highly karstic limestone foundation in Iran. Technical Report No. 1). to date. Introduction Karsticity occurs as a result of a progressive disolutioning of carbonate rocks exposed to water and carbon dioxide. following construction. very little foundation treatment was performed and. 3. coupled with a gypsum surcharge and other seepage control measures. maximum concentrations increase dramatically. rock masses that have pervious windows extending directly to the foundation surface. a karstic formation implies the presence of a network of solutioned. leakage under the dam of up to 48 m3/s was measured. at 25oC. Identify methods to treat karstic foundations for the construction of a dam. performed between 1985 and 1990. 1988). Therefore. This course will provide the student with an overview of foundation treatments for dams constructed on karst foundations.

extrusion and consolidation of clayey fillings within the sinkholes increasing strength. More recently. This. An analytical framework for assessing the solutioning potential of various forms of soluble rock minerals was first presented by James and Lupton (1978). to an inadequate understanding of the depth of karst prior to the commencement of construction. advanced karst foundations beneath the 90 to 100 m high Pueblo Viejo and Punt Dal Gall dams were successfully treated such that post-impoundment seepage has only been 25 and 50 l/sec respectively. compaction grouting has been used to treat karst features. On the other hand. Mosul. Improving Deformability Commonly applied techniques for improving the deformability and stability of karst foundation rocks include excavation/mucking of solution cavities followed by filling with a sand and gravel slurry. and resistance to seepage stresses. concrete and/or compaction grouting. at the 21 dams that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has constructed on carbonate foundations. For foundations containing gypsum. or for dams on less well developed karst. They recommended that halite. it is of note that an active brine injection system has been used to treat foundations containing halite mineral deposits (Pokrovskii. 1994).com Reducing the Potential for Dissolution of Soluble Minerals The most commonly occurring soluble rock minerals are calcium carbonate (limestone) gypsum.engineered soluble fill and a surficial shotcrete membrane to seal the foundation surface. conventional (sulphate resistant) cement curtain grouting was recommended. single or double line curtains are often used. More recently. Table 1) Median Post Impoundment Seepage (l/sec) 600 400 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 Number of Grout Lines 3 4 3 . techniques to prevent dissolution of soluble minerals that may be present in the foundation. with provisions to allow future grouting. all karstic foundations should be treated with caution. and methods to ensure that the foundation has adequate capacity to resist the post impoundment loadings without excessive settlement. traditionally. They concluded that grouting. In broad terms. in its massive form. even a highly karstic foundation can be successfully treated. are then mucked or excavated and filled with concrete. if exploration and foundation treatment measures are carried out thoroughly. mitigation of the risk of solutioning in a foundation containing such minerals requires reducing the volume of seepage and seepage gradients. In the first half of the 20th century. 1995). or the provision of an upstream impervious blanket. be avoided. and Great Falls were constructed on karstic foundations without adequate foundation explorations. Solutioned areas. Figure 1 – The Anchor Dam – Wyoming USA resistant barrier in Karst terrain for the Wujiangdu Hydroelectric Project in China.powergenu. dams such as the Hales Bar. James and Kilpatrick (1980) used these solutions to study seepage control measures for dam constructed on foundations containing the soluble rocks. Soderberg (1988) notes that foundation treatment typically includes consolidation grouting to ensure adequate bearing strength and to minimize settlements. the problems at the Lar dam are likely related. Grouting For well developed karst foundations. On the basis of median grout takes reported at a number of Figure 2 – Effect of Multiple Line Grouting on the Median Post Impoundment Seepage Reported for Some Selected Precedent Dams (ref. modern practice for the successful treatment of karstic foundations requires a means of reducing the amount of seepage. As shown on Table 1. anhydrite and halite. For lower head dams. is typically used to reduce seepage losses. in otherwise sound rock. For example. at least in part. Welsh (1988) and Zuomei and Pinshou (1988) describe the use of compaction grouting to rectify sinkholes and caves filled with clay fillings and to build a seepage www. had been accomplished on the basis of precedent practice. Current Practice The key to any successful construction on a karst foundation is a thorough understanding of the nature of the problems that must be treated. This typically results in hydraulic fracturing. All experienced either foundation leakage or piping problems. However. Wolf Creek. However. In general. a sulphate resistant multiple line grout curtain. very high seepages can be experienced for even low head dams if karstic conditions are advanced. can control the solutioning of calcium carbonate rock. For example. such as plastic concrete wall in combination with measures such as upstream blankets or other techniques designed to reduce seepage velocities. This technique involves the injection of low-slump soil/cement grout to displace and/or compress the surrounding soils for greater strength (Fischer and Fischer. Mineral deposits such as anhydrite were found to require a more efficient cutoff.

A. solution channels Limestone.4 72 45 36.5 21 98 41 23 30 80 80 11.com . R. solution channels Limestone. Sklope Dam Yugoslavia Globocica Dam Yugoslavia Hales Bar Dam U. clay solution cavities Limeston & dolomite. advanced karst.. to adv. Negligible Negligible Minimal ½ l/s Extreme 9 m3/s 370 l/s 1000 l/s Minimal 500 l/s 4 l/s Max. Solutioned jts.5 45. R. advanced artesian karst Dolomite limestone.S. cavities. sinkholes. Normandy Dam U. R. R. solution channels. solutioned jts. Pueblo Viejo Dam Guatemala Punt Dal Gall Switzerland La Bolera Dam Spain Sprinagarind Dam Thailand King Talal Dam Jordan La Angostura Dam Mexico Dam Type and Date Earthfill/Concrete 1963-68 Arch 1971-74 Arch 1971-74 Earthfill/Concrete 1962-64 Earth/Rockfill/ Concrete gravity 1972-76 Earthfill 1972-81 Concrete gravity/Earthfill Completed 1948 Earthfill/Concrete Completed 1968 Rockfill/Concrete Completed 1968 Rockfill Rockfill Completed 1965 Earthfill/Concrete 1905-19135 Concrete gravity Completed 1916 Concrete gravity/ Earthfill 1972-76 Rockfill 1977-83 Arch Completed 1969 Arch 1961-68 Rockfill/Concrete 1974-80 Rockfill/Concrete gravity Completed 1971-75 Rockfill/Concrete 1971-75 Head (m) 35. caverns. deep karst. Yes (see text) Yes.3 None None None Yes. Canada Lar Dam Iran Stewartville Dam Canada Francisco Zarco Dam Mexico La Amistad Mexico/U. sinkholes Cavernous limestone Cavernous limestone Dolomite limestone.S.7 17 92 100 45 113 100 89 Geology Thin-bedded limestone. solutioned jts Limestone.6 Yes. N.Table 1: Precedent Examples of Some Dams Built on Karstic Foundations Project J. caverns Limestone. calcareous sandstone.S. karst. None None 3 Asphalt grouting in 1985 reduced leakage by up to 33 l/s 4 Grout curtain extended in left abutment in 1974 5 Demolished 1960 6 Extensive in 1944 7 Cement and asphalt grouting performed 4 www. mode karst Limestone. R. None N.S.A.7 None None None None N. solution cavities Karstic limestone to 30 m below calcareous sandstone Limestone. voids 1 cm . of Grout Lines 2-4 1 1 1 3-4 1 1 3 1 1-2 3 1 1 1-2 1-2 1 1 3 1 2 Seepage N. advanced caverns Calcareous sandstone.A. voids Crystalline limestone open seams at depth Limestone. med. sinkholes Limestone. S. Percy Priest Dam Sainte Croix Dam France Quinson Dam France Grand Rapids G. solution jts. S. R.4 Yes. caverns. N. Great Falls U. advanced karst. Canada Arnprior G. solution channels. cavities Limestone with shale.1 m wide Limestone. clay seams and solutioned jts No.powergenu.A. limestone. 48 m3/s 12 m3/s Negligible 25 l/s 50 l/s 600 l/s 25 l/s 63 l/s 100 l/s Remedial Work N. caverns Limestone.

5m high Hales Bar dam. On contact with the water. The characteristics of the Razak formation vary across the site. river alluvium is present. asphalt is melted and pumped through heated pipes into open cavities. triple line grouting can be seen to reduce post impoundment risks (Figure 2) It is also clear from Table 1 that a significant factor governing the performance of grout curtains in karst foundations is whether or not the curtain is “anchored” into an impervious base. the Razak is generally undeformed and was found to be essentially impervious. coarse grained. Bedrock Geology The Asmari Limestone is highly permeable to great depths throughout the site area due to the existence of solutioned channels that formed along and across bedding planes. effectively isolating the pervious Asmari limestone formation from the future reservoir. seepage flows in the order of 1000 L/sec through the hanging curtain were measured. Existing River Dam Location www. The geologic environment has produced gypsum formations along bedding planes as well increased hydraulic conductivities in the range of 10 to 50 Lugeons.powergenu. in the Kavar valley. In the immediate area of the river channel.precedent dams reported in the literature. post construction seepage reached 48 m3 per second through the hanging curtain. Overburden Conditions In the upper reservoir. Iran. Weaker Razak marls are present. the asphalt cools and assumes a globular form that progressively blocks the solution channels. The lower reservoir is contained within a relatively steep sided canyon where the dam is located. Reservoir Rim The Kavar Reservoir The Kavar site is situated in a mountainous region about 70 km south of Shiraz. This distribution of overburden materials forms a natural impervious blanket. the project site can be characterized by two distinct regions. Slightly Karstic (grout take 0 to 50 kh/m) Highly Karstic (grout take > 400 kg/m) Karstic (grout take 50 to 400 kg/m) Grout take not reported Site Conditions As indicated on Figure 4.com 5 . At the dam site. at the 11. the Razak formation is highly deformed as a result of the intense folding that was responsible for the creation of the canyon itself. a broad upper reservoir and a lower reservoir. However. there are no lacustrine deposits and Figure 4 – Kavar Reservoir and Dam Site Razak Formation Asmari Formation Fault Line Full Service Level (FSL) Lower Reservoir Upper Reservoir Asphalt Grouting When remedial grouting is required after impounding. a 60m high concrete faced rockfill dam is planned to impound the Qareh Aghaj River. On various projects. The amount of extension required can be somewhat subjective. a review of precedent would suggest that the amount of extension required to minimize risk varies logarithmically as a function of the hydraulic head (Figure 3). the TVA has adopted a “wait and see” approach to the issue of reservoir watertightness using asphalt grouting for spot treatment after impoundment often followed by a program of cement grouting to ensure the long term stability of the seal. To provide irrigation water. At the dam site. pervious. It is usually necessary to extend the grout curtain some distance along the dam axis into the abutments to reduce risks associated with end run seepage. it is completely surrounded by the relatively impervious slopewash or lacustrine materials. In the upper reservoir. moderately to highly karstic limestone known as the Asmari formation. Both the slopewash and lacustrine materials were found to be of relatively low permeability. However. despite the fact that a triple line grout curtain had been used. the TVA and others have reported good results using hot asphalt grouting. In this technique. deep deposit of lacustrine materials flanked on the margins by slopewash. locally. The elevated margins in the upper reservoir and the steeply dipping right abutment of the lower reservoir at the dam site are composed of a strong. and is dependent on geological conditions such as the existence of an impervious boundary. Similarly. overburden consists of a broad. For example. for dams founded on a moderately permeable karstic foundation. within the base of both the upper and lower reservoirs and form the relatively shallow dipping left bank of the lower reservoir. This has created an unpredictable system of interconnected flow channels and a rock mass permeability in the order of 100 Lugeons and higher. at the Francisco Zaro Dam. Figure 3 – Precedent Examples of Grout Curtain Extension into Abutments 16 Ratio of Grout Curtain Extention into Abutments to Hydraulic Head 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Maximum Normal Hydraulic Head (m) 160 180 Open symbol indicates that remedial work or excessive seepage (>300 l/s) was reported.

1640 m 4A 5 EL. 1535 m Conceptual Location of Gypsum Bed 6 www. However. or be very close to. highly pervious bedrock. were significantly more permeable than had been previously assumed. Downstream Cofferdam Rock Fill 1 Gypsum Surcharge 1 EL. This treatment will cover the entire lower reservoir area. consisting of compacted impervious and erosion protection fills is planned. In addition. it had been planned to use of a complex grouting scheme to tie the highly pervious Asmari into. in the lower reservoir area. 1671 m Undeformed Razak 10-5 materials.the river alluvium can come in contact with. as shown on Table 2. required a comprehensive treatment plan to seal the entire flooded canyon.com . it became apparent that both the upper portion of the Razak. and the problems that they presented. and the reliance on grouting to great depths to adequately seal the foundation. In the valley bottom. Therefore. Figure 5 – Conceptual Sketch of Selected Lower Reservoir Water Tightness Scheme Reinforced Shotcrete Membrane 10-8 Impervious Blanket to Maximum Reservoir Level 10-5 1660 m (Maximum Reservoir El. what was assumed to be. was developed. under a moderate head. an alternative watertightness treatment using a surficial impervious surface membrane was developed as shown conceptually in Figure 5. 1626 m Semi-Pervious Fill EL. Groundwater Conditions In the lower reservoir valley. as the exploration program evolved. Although unusual. 1595 m (Assumed Downstream Groundwater Level) Plastic Concrete Cutoff Wall Grout Curtain EL. extending approximately 700-800 m upstream of the dam site to the upper reservoir where it will be connected into the natural impervious materials that exist there. On the other hand. 1605 m EL. On the relatively steep right bank where the Asmari outcrops. slopewash materials were found to be significantly more permeable than in the upper reservoir area due to the fact that these materials originated as a result of the mass movement of considerably steeper rock slopes. Originally.powergenu. provided that local treatment of exposed Asmari outcrops in the upper reservoir was undertaken. leakage will occur under relatively high head through relatively pervious slopewash into the immediately adjacent pervious Razak bedrock and/ or directly into the right abutment highly pervious Asmari formation. and the overlying slopewash Figure 6 – Seepage Control Measures at the Kavar Dam Concrete Facing EL. through the impervious lacustrine materials and/or the low permeability slopewash that blanket the bedrock side slopes before reaching the pervious Asmari bedrock. therefore. In the upper reservoir area most of the leakage would be forced. To reduce concerns regarding subsurface unknowns. thereby producing a coarser material. a clear picture of the nature of the foundation conditions. and over the left bank where relatively flat slopes exist due to the presence of the Razak formation. losses would generally be minimal. an overburden blanket. Limiting seepage losses to manageable levels in this area. the use of shotcrete for sealing a dam or reservoir is not unprecedented.) Slope Wash 10-3 AS 10-2 Deformed Razak 10-3 to 10-4 30-80 m Reservoir Treatment On the basis of the explorations undertaken at the site. impervious Razak bedrock using a technique similar to one that had been successfully employed at the El Cajun project. the membrane consists of a 120 mm thick. silica fume reinforced shotcrete membrane anchored into the slope. confirming the pervious nature of the bedrock and the need to seal the reservoir. groundwater levels were found to be about 10m below the river level. 1665 m (Reservoir Level) Impervious Fill Upstream Cofferdam EL.

3. similar to a concept reported by Pokrovskii. and to further reduce the bedrock permeability. the dissolved mass of gypsum leaving the surcharge per unit area could be approximated by the product of the gypsum concentration and seepage flux per unit area of surcharge. To achieve the required contact time with a reasonable sized surcharge fill.7x10¬6cm/sec and 3x10-4 cm/sec.m/year 0 50 100 150 200 Contact Time (Days) 250 300 www.0 20.0x10-6 to 9.6 0. In this way.0 0.2 0 0.5x10-5cm/ sec.com 7 .0 50.1mm Particle Size Saturation included the density. The calculated flow rate through the gypsum surcharge was found to vary from 2. Based on an assumed porosity of 0.Table 2: Summary of Examples of Shotcrete used as for Water Tightness Treatment Project La Joie Leichhardt River Corella Hammam Grouz Tranavka Jordan River Eastside Reservoir Country Canada Australia Australia Austria Czech Canada USA Date 1955 1957 1957 1987 1988 1989 1998 Structure Timer faced rockfill dam Rockfill dam Rockfill dam Concrete gravity dam Earth dam Amberson buttres dam Blasted rock Slopes Description Gunite used to seal deteriorated timber faced dam Reinforced gunite used as sole impervious element for rockfill dam Reinforced gunite used as the sole impervious element Shotcrete and clay blanket used to seal karstic limestone reservoir slopes Shotcrete and plastic membrame used for sealing Shotcrete used for sealing Shotcrete used for sealing the reservoir Length Height (m) (m) 400 260 146 50 — — 250 60. m) 720 640 560 480 400 320 240 160 80 0 0 1 Lower Bound 2 kg/sq.. a number of alternatives were considered. seepage velocities through the gypsum bed were estimated to vary between 6.m/year 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time After Reservoir Impoundment (Years) 8 9 10 Upper Bound 70 kg/sq. and the solubility limit cs of gypsum. As a first step. the approach of James and Lupton for particulate forms of gypsum and anhydrite was used. of gypsum 2300 kg/m3.0 29. the particle area coefficient a (area= al2). reducing the hydraulic Figure 8 – Estimated Mass Removal Rates for the Gypsum Surcharge at the Kavar Dam 800 Mass of Gypsum Removed per Unit Surcharge Area (kg/sq.0 26. The purpose of the surcharge fill is to cause water seeping through the fill to become saturated with dissolved gypsum at a concentration as close as possible to the solubility limit.e.5mm Particle Size 0.5 23 36. neglecting diffusion).0 To further reduce the likelihood of any future problems associated with progressive dissolution of the gypsum beds known to exist above a depth of 50 m in the Razak formation at the dam site. This will be supplemented by a double line grout curtain to reduce seepage gradients across the cutoff. the solubility rate constant K. D. flow nets were constructed to estimate the hydraulic flux through the gypsum surcharge.powergenu.8 Concentration Ratio 0. the initial linear particle size lo. a plastic concrete cut-off wall is planned. To assess the gypsum requirements for the dam. including: increasing the surcharge thickness. =bl3). Details of the treatment measures planned at the dam site are shown on Figure 6. The size of surcharge required is based on the design life of the project and the amount of time required to ensure that the seepage water flowing through the gypsum surcharge area is fully saturated with gypsum. Key parameters in the analysis Figure 7 – The Effect of Gypsum Particle Size on the Contact Time Required for Saturation 1. the particle volume coefficient b (vol.4 0. 1994 in which salt solutions are injected into the foundation of dams constructed on rocks containing water-soluble salts (halite). The Gypsum Surcharge Another unique feature of the treatment measures used at the Kavar site is a gypsum surcharge that is to be installed immediately upstream of the dam. The thickness of the gypsum bed could then be designed by assuming advective transport only (i.

115-132. The Lar Dam. References Fischer. 249-272. 25-31(7).1 to 0... vol. and E. and Fischer. no. Gypsum and anhydrite in foundations of hydraulic structures. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology.Balkema.N. 14. No. the annual mass removal rate is expected to vary between 2 kg to 70 kg per square meter of surcharge.5 mm. Grouting of the karstic caves 8 www. 1994. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. pp 10-14. However.. James A. 1979.conductivity of the impervious blanket within 100 meters of the upstream plinth and reducing the particle size of the gypsum. For example.. pp. as shown on Figure 7.. Elsevier Science . I. 7-31. Karst GeoHazards: Proc. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain. Pokrovskii. A. H. and Hawkings. Vol. with clay fillings. Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification system. G. G. and Lupton. minimum contact times reduced from 200 to 40 days.com . and Pinshou. thoroughly mixed with fine a grained soil. Uromeihy. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain. Hinchberger of Acres International. Prentice Hall Inc. an example of infrastructure development in a geologically active karstic region.. J. J. 13. pp.1 mm. R. is planned to deal with the complex foundation problems that had been identified. Upper Saddle River. 149-165. 1988.. an unusual combination of a surface membrane. 5th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No.P. the Kavar surcharge was designed as a 5 m thick mixture of 40% (by weight) ground gypsum. 2000. 1995. pp. The authors for this paper are acknowledged as C.5 mm to 0. Vol. this will result in a service life of at least 50 years. For the 3.R. 1978.powergenu. The most effective means of enhancing contact time was found to be reducing the particle size.M. and Cherry. Geotechnique. No. 1. Freeze. pp. pp. .. Karst site remediation grouting. 1988. pp. J. Portions of the original paper have been modified for this course.. pp. 14. Soderberg. 14. Mohammadian of Dezab Consulting Engineers. for treatment measures to be effective. for this design. A. as gypsum particle size is reduced from 0. Z. Donnelly and S. On this basis.. Welsh.A. Design of foundations of dams containing soluble rocks and soils. 1988. a thorough understanding of the site conditions is essential. 10. 1988. Foundation treatment of karstic features under TVA dams. Hydrotechnical Construction Vol. J. 28. Vol. 383-462. Zuomei.D. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This course is based on the presentation entitled “The Design of Foundation Treatment Measures for Dams on Karst Foundations” as presented at Waterpower 2001.A. Conclusions Techniques exist to treat even highly karstic foundations. 1988. 21.A. New Jersey. with a maximum particle size in the range of 0. Groundwater. At the Kavar Dam. Fookes.J. B. This produces an engineered fill with a dry unit mass of 1900 kg/m3 and a permeability in the desired range of 10-4 to 10-5 cm/sec. pp. 3. Roterdam. 92-104. P. 363-369.. Geotechnical Aspects of Karst Terrain. Combined methods of protecting saliferous foundation soils of hydraulic structures from dissolution.N. A. 28. ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No. 189-198. A. ASTM Geotechnical Special Publication No. and Kirkpatrick. in combination with a gypsum surcharge and other seepage control measures.800 kg Kavar surcharge.I. Sinkhole rectification by compaction grouting. As indicated in Figure 8. R. London. James. 18. pp. A. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology.

a. on economic impacts 3. b. a. methods to ensure that the foundation has adequate capacity to resist the post impoundment loadings without excessive settlement d. Hail’s Box Hills Barn Hales Bar Hanes Bar & Grill 9. c. False c. False 8. the proposed reservoir treatment included an impervious surface membrane. a. a reinforced concrete shotcrete membrane. to an inadequate understanding of the _____ of karst prior to the commencement of construction. True b. c. and halite requires reducing the volume of a. An immediate grade report will be provided and upon receiving a passing grade (70%) your “Certificate of Completion” will be provided immediately for viewing and/or printing. False 10. True b. The Median Post Impoundment Seepage of approximately 50 l/sec would require a. c. True b. True b. Karsticity occurs as a result of a progressive disolutioning of carbonate rocks exposed to water and carbon dioxide.com 9 . by definition. In the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. False 4.com. halite e. connected to the surface so that the free carbon dioxide necessary to allow the solutioning process to continue is available. c.Online Completion Use this page to review the questions and choose your answers. calcium carbonate (limestone) anhydrite b. depth type color strength All of the above 15. sign in and return to your User History Page. Successful treatment of karstic foundations requires a. e. A karstic formation implies the presence of a network of solutioned. discontinuities which are. maximum concentrations increase dramatically. a. An active brine injection system has been used to treat foundations containing halite mineral deposits. d. gypsum d. complete all the program questions and submit your answers. The most commonly occurring soluble rock mineral(s) are a. True b. Certificates of Completion can be viewed and/or printed anytime in the future by returning to www. The problems at dams that have severe seepage or leakage are likely related. Compaction grouting typically results in hydraulic fracturing. False 14. subsurface groundwater d. anhydrite.powergenu. minimize settlements d. All of the above 11. It is usually necessary to extend the grout curtain along the dam axis into the abutments to reduce risks associated with end run seepage. the asphalt cools and assumes a globular form that progressively blocks the solution channels. often highly permeable. gypsum. 2 lines of grout d. d. The difficulties involved in constructing a dam on a karstic foundation were first documented at ________ dam that was built by private interests on the Tennessee River between 1905 and 1913. Click on the “Take Exam” link. Questions 1. karstic voids seepage and seepage gradients b. 4 lines of grout 7. a. Return to www. At the Kavar Project.powergenu.powergenu. All of the above 5. c. c. c. increase adequate bearing strength reduce subsurface water flows b. a. and resistance to seepage stresses. accounting for the fact that seepage flowing from karst formations often contains up to _____ mg/L of calcium carbonate. at least in part. techniques to prevent dissolution of soluble minerals that may be present in the foundation c. e. consisting of compacted impervious and erosion protection fill. b. on the schedule of remediation b. on geological conditions on difficulty of installing the grout curtain d. The amount of extension is dependent a. seal void areas 13. Foundation treatment for karstic formations typically includes consolidation grouting to a. c. d. True b . On contact with the water. extrusion and consolidation of clayey fillings within the sinkholes increasing strength. a. I don’t know what Karsticity is 6. an overburden blanket. Once purchased the exam will be added to your User History page where a Take Exam link will be provided. If you have not previously purchased the program select it from the “Online Courses” listing and complete the online purchase. hydraulic gradient www. False 2. and a gypsum surcharge. 1 line of grout 3 lines of grout b. a. Mitigation of the risk of solutioning in a foundation containing such minerals as calcium carbonate. b. a. a means of reducing the amount of seepage b. Hot asphalt grouting is a technique where asphalt is melted and pumped through heated pipes into open cavities. 200 300 400 600 800 12.com and sign in.