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INTRODUCTION Earth dams for the storage of water for irrigation have been built since the earliest times. These dams were however, limited in height but not necessarily in extent. Earth dams are now being built to unprecedented heights. Sites which have hitherto been considered unfit for the construction of darns are now being exploited. Development of soil mechanics, study of behavior of earth dams, and the development of better construction techniques have all been helpful in creating confidence to build higher dams with improved designs and more ingenious details. The result is that the highest dam in the world today is an earth dam. The highest earth/rockfill dams in the world are Roguni U.S.S.R ( 335 m ) Nurek, U.S.S.R. ( 300 m ); (Fig. 5.1) Mica, Tehri India ( 260 m ) Canada ( 244 m ) and Oroville, U.S.A. ( 235 m ).

5.1

Fig. 5.1 Nurek dam U.S.S.R. In spite of these developments it is difficult to establish mathematical solutions to the problems of design, and many of its components are still guided by experience or judgment. For a realistic design of an earth dam it. is necessary that the foundation conditions and materials of construction are thoroughly investigated. It is also necessary that controlled methods of construction are used to achieve necessary degree of compaction at predetermined moisture. The discussion in the text is limited to design procedure for earth dams which are rolled fill type of construction. This type of construction is now being used almost entirely for the construction of earth dams to the exclusion of hydraulic and semi-hydraulic fills. In this type, the major portion of the embankment is constructed in successive mechanically compacted layers of 150 mm to 220 mm thickness.

128 5.2 Foundation for Earth Dams

The essential requirements of a foundation for an. earth dam are (i) that it provides stable support for the embankment under all conditions of saturation and loading, and (ii) that it provides sufficient resistance to seepage to prevent piping and excessive loss of water. In general foundations may be grouped into three main classes according to their predominant characteristics. 1. Rock foundations, 2. Pervious foundations, and 3. Impervious foundations. Rock Foundations These foundations, including shale generally do not present any problem of bearing strength. The principal considerations are erosive leakage, excessive loss of water through joints, fissures, crevices, permeable strata and along fault planes, etc. Grouting is usually done to treat this type of foundation. Shale may however present foundation problems specially if they contain joints, faults, seams filled with soft material and weak layers. Such defects and excess pore water pressure may control the overall strength of foundation.

FOUNDATION FOR EARTH DAMS Pervious Foundations Often the foundations for earth dams consist of recent alluvial deposits composed of relatively pervious sand and gravels overlying impervious geological formations like rock or clay. There are two basic problems with which these types of foundations are associated viz. (i) excessive amount of under seepage, and (ii) piping and boils caused by forces exerted due to seepage. The treatment which may be provided to control these problems is governed by the thickness of pervious strata viz, whether the pervious foundation extend to a moderate depth or to an infinite depth. Loose fine sand or coarse silt deposits in a foundation present one of the most difficult problems. The difficulty arises not only due to low strength or high compressibility of the loose sand, but also through a phenomenon known as liquefaction. A certain fine uniform sand in a loose condition when subjected to sudden applications of shock (as in earth quake) loses all its shear strength and behaves as though it were a heavy viscous fluid. This phenomenon is exhibited by uniform sands which are very fine and consists of rounded grains and their relative density is less than 50%. Fortunately no failures of this type have occurred. At Obra dam in U.P., the foundations were thick loose sands and its susceptibility to liquefaction was carefully evaluated by field and laboratory investigations of the foundation material and by actual blasting tests. It was concluded that the foundations were not likely to liquefy.

129 Impervious Foundations Foundations of silt and clay extending to large depths are sufficiently impermeable to preclude the necessity of providing treatment for under seepage and piping. The main problem with these, foundations may be excessive pore water pressure and significant deformations. Where the embankments are constructed on foundations consisting of brittle, highly plastic or over-consolidated clays, serious investigations are required as their presence may cause excessive deformations. The embankment design in such cases would be controlled by likely strains in the foundations. If there is silt and clay to large depths, then there is not much necessity of providing treatment for under seepage and piping. The main problem with these foundations is of stability for which generally the slopes of the embankments are made flatter or berms on either side are provided. If the structure crosses swampy or similar area where the foundation material will be of plastic nature, the matter would require serious investigations as plastic clays are very deficient in shear strength. An approximate method to determine the safety of foundation material against the shear stress is as follows : (i) Determine the total horizontal shear under the slope of dam by the formula,

2 φ h1 − h 2 2 S= γ tan 2 45 − 1 2 2

(5.1)

where, h1

=

h2 γ φ1

= = =

vertical distance from top of dam down to the rigid boundary such as rock, the strength of which is great as compared to the overlying material. vertical distance from base of dam to the rigid boundary. effective weight per cubic metre of material. equivalent angle of internal friction given by,

tan φ1 =

C + γ h 1 tan φ γ h1

(5.2)

(ii) Calculate the average unit shear by the formula Sa = S/b where Sa = average horizontal foundation shear per sq. m. b = horizontal distance along base from top shoulder of slope to the toe of dam.

Fig. 5.2 Location of maximum Shear-Definition sketch

130 (iii) The maximum unit shear may be obtained by multiplying the average unit stress by 1.4 i.e. Smax =1.4 Sa. The location of the point of maximum shear may be taken 0.4 b from upper shoulder of the slope as shown in fig. 5.2. 5.3 Causes of Failures of Earth Dams

Like most other damages to engineering structures, earth dam failures are caused by improper design frequently based on insufficient investigations, and lack of care in construction and maintenance. Failures of earth darns may be grouped into the following basic causes (a) Hydraulic failures (b) Seepage failures and (c) Structural failures Hydraulic Failures They account for about one third of the failure of dams and are produced by surface erosion of the dam by water. They include wash-outs from overtopping (Fig. l-5-3a), wave erosion of upstream face, scour from the discharge of the spillway etc. and erosion from rainfall. Seepage Failures Seepage of water through the foundation or embankment has been responsible for more than one third of earth dam failures. Seepage is inevitable in all earth dams and ordinarily it does no harm. Uncontrolled seepage; may however, cause erosion within the embankment or in the foundation which may lead to piping (Fig. 5.3 b). Piping is the progressive erosion which develops through under the dam. It begins at a point of concentrated seepage where the gradients are sufficiently high to produce erosive velocities. If forces resisting erosion i.e. cohesion, inter-locking effect, weight of soil particles, action of downstream filter etc. are less than those’ which tend to cause, the soil particles are washed away causing piping failure. Seepage failures are generally caused by (a) pervious foundations, (b) leakage through embankments, (c) conduit leakage and (d) sloughing. Pervious Foundations Presence of strata and lenses of sand or gravel of high permeability or cavities and fissures in the foundation may permit concentrated flow of water from the reservoir causing piping. Presence of buried channels under the seat of dam have also been responsible for this type of failure.

131 Leakage Through Embankrnents The following are the common causes of embankment leaks which lead to piping: (i) Poor construction control which includes insufficient compaction adjacent to outlet conduits and poor bond between embankment and the foundation or between the successive layers of the embankment. (ii) Cracking in the embankment or in the conduits caused by foundation settlement (Fig. 5.3 c), (iii) Animal burrows (iv) Shrinkage and dry cracks (Fig. 5.3 d) (v) Presence of roots, pockets of gravel or boulders in the embankment. Conduit Leakage Conduits through the dam have been responsible for nearly one third of the seepage failure and more than one eighth of all failures. Failures are of two types (i) contact seepage along the outside of the conduit which develops into piping and (ii) seepage through leaks in the conduit which may also develop into piping. Contact seepage along the conduit wall is caused either by a zone of poorly compacted soil or small gap between the conduit and remainder of the embankment. Seepage through poorly compacted zones soon develops into piping. Conduit cracking is caused by differential settlement or by overloading from embankment. Sloughing Failure due to sloughing takes place where downstream portion of the dam becomes saturated either due to choking of filter toe drain, or due to the presence of highly pervious layer in the body of the dam. The process begins when a small amount of material at the downstream toe is eroded and produces a small slide. It leaves a relatively steep face which becomes saturated by seepage from the reservoir and slumps again, forming a higher and more unstable face. This process is continued until the remaining portion of the dam is too thin to withstand the water pressure and complete failure occurs. Structural Failures Structural failures of the embankment or its foundation account for about one fifth of the total number of failures. Structural failures may result in slides in foundation or embankment due to various causes as explained below. Foundation Failures (Fig. 5.3 e). Faults and seams of weathered rocks, shale, soft clay strata are responsible for the foundation failure in which the top of the embankment cracks and subsides and the lower slope moves outward and large mud waves are formed beyond the toe. Another form of foundation failure occurs because of excessive pore water pressure in confined seams of silt or sand. Pore water pressure in the confined cohesionless seams, artesian pressure in the abutments or consolidation of clays interbedded with the sands or silt, reduces

The upstream slope failure may occur due to sudden drawdown as shown in fig.4 Design Criteria of Earth Dams Based on the experience of failures. the following main design criteria may be laid down for the safety of an earth dam. Excess settlement of foundation may also cause cracking of the embankment (Fig. 5. 1.5. Failure of this type are usually due to faulty design and construction. (d) Erosion of the embankment due to wave action and surface run-off does not occur. 5. (c) The original height of structure is sufficient to maintain the minimum safe freeboard after settlement has occurred. The downstream slope is critical during steady seepage condition. The movement develops very rapidly without warning. (a) Spillway capacity is sufficient to pass the peak flow.3 f and g) An embankment is subjected to shear stresses imposed by pool fluctuations. (b) Overtopping by wave action at maximum water level is prevented. Usually the movement develops slowly and is preceded by cracks on the top or the slope near the top. (e) The crest should be wide enough to withstand wave action and earthquake shock.3 f. Fig. To prevent hydraulic failures the dam must be so designed that erosion of the embankment is prevented. In high dams slope failure may occur during dissipation of pore pressure just after construction. Embankment slides may occur when the slopes are too steep for the shear strength of the embankment material to resist the stresses imposed. 5.3 c).3 Types of failures—Earth dams Slides in Embankment (Fig 5. .132 the strength of the soil to the extent that it may not be able to resist the shear stresses induced by the embankment. seepage or earthquake forces. This implies that the following conditions are satisfied.

Freeboard for wave action The required allowance for waves is based on the effect of wind of maximum velocity blowing down the reservoir and setting up a wave splash on the dam face. Seepage water through the dam or foundation should not remove any particle or in other words cause piping.271 4 F where F< 32 km. the embankment and its foundation must be stable under all conditions. 5. where F > 32 km. (5. Various empirical formulae depending on wind velocity and reservoir fetch have been suggested for computing wave heights. FV .032 hw = 0. To prevent the seepage failures.5 Prevention of Erosion-Embankment Details Spillway Capacity It must be calculated and fixed by relevant hydrological studies and flood routing such that sufficient freeboard is available between the maximum flood level and top of the dam. The MolitorStevenson formulas are normally used which are hw = 0. To prevent structural failures.4) (5. This implies that (i) The upstream and downstream slopes of the embankment should be stable under all loading conditions to which they may be subjected including earthquake. at joints between earth and concrete sections or through holes made by aquatic animals. the flow of water through the body of the dam and its foundation must not be sufficiently large in quantity to defeat the purpose of the structure nor at a pressure sufficiently high to cause piping. This implies that (a) (b) (c) Quantity of seepage water through the dam section and foundation should be limited.032 FV + 0. (ii) The foundation shear stresses should be within the permissible limits of shear strength of the material. The seepage line should be well within the downstream face of the dam to prevent sloughing. There should not be any leakage of water from the upstream to downstream face. Such leakage may occur through conduits.763 − 0.133 2. (d) 3. The driving force depends upon the pressure gradient while the resisting force depends upon the strength characteristics of the boundary material.5) .

0 8.00 1.0 15.R. There are several empirical methods to find out the thickness of rip-rap.25 1.50 1. an extra 1% allowance is provided to account for the settlement due to earthquake. On a sloping surface the wave rides along the slope upto a vertical height of 1. Table 5. According to U.1 be increased by 50 percent if a smooth pavement is provided as protection on the upstream slope. criteria distinction is to be made between the normal and minimum freeboards.50 3. embankment slope.134 where hw = wave height in meters measured between trough and crest. These methods take into account the wave height.20 Less than It is also recommended that freeboard shown in.5 times the wave height above the reservoir level hence 1. A settlement allowance of 2% is considered adequate and is generally provided.B. in case of dams of more than 30m height.25 1. Upstream slope protection Surface protection of upstream slope is meant to prevent the destructive wave action.5 1.5 hw is provided as freeboard.1.0 1.00 Minimum freeboard in meter 1. V = wind velocity in km per hour F = fetch in kilometers.50 1. . When a thin layer is used. According to the fetch of reservoir the freeboard may be provided as given in Table 5.80 2. However. hand placed rip-rap may be more economical than dumped rip-rap.80 2. Normal freeboard is defined as the difference in elevation between the crest of the dam and normal reservoir water surface. Table 5.5 4. Usual type of surface protection for the upstream slope is stone rip-rap either dry dumped or hand placed. Settlement allowance Settlement of an embankment will be caused by consolidation in the foundation and in the fill.S. weight of average size rock and its specific gravity.1 Recommended Values of Freeboards Fetch in km Normal freeboard in meter 1.

No definite rule can be given for the minimum necessary thickness of the filter layer.γ 6 Wav = (5. γw 1+ s2 .54 For rock fill or dumped rip-rap C = 0.135 Hand placed rip-rap The hand placed rip-rap for upstream protection is very common in this country. γw = unit weight of water in t/m3 γ = unit weight of stones in t/m3 s = slope of embankment. (iii) Plasticity and gradation of embankment materials If the embankment material is well graded granular soil with a tough clay hinder it needs less protection against erosion than if it is fine silty sand. hw = height of wave in metre. in the zone of maximum blow of the wave. The following factors govern the thickness of the filter layer (i) Wave action The less the wave action. Most filters are constructed with thickness ranging from 20 cm to 75 cm.80 Average size of stone required dav = dm/O. in metre.6) where dm = diameter of stone brought to form a ball.7) Filter below rip-rap A layer of filter material consisting of gravel Or crushed rock is always required under rip-rap to prevent waves from eroding the underlying embankment material.23 C. C = factor depending on the type of protection For hand placed rip-rap C = 0. The size of stones used for hand placed rip-rap may be determined with the following formula. γ − γ w s ( s + 2) dm = 2. (ii) Gradation of rip-rap If the rip-rap is well graded with plenty of quarry fines to fill the larger voids there is less stress on the filter.85 (average shape) The average weight of the stone can be found out by the formula π (d av ) 3 . the less the need for a thick filter under the rip-rap. hw (5. .

(i) Upto 5 m height of bound No pitching (ii) Between 5 m and 10 m 0. the same criterion is followed. Minimum thickness of each horizontal layer is 15 cms for sand and 30 cms for gravel.15 m graded shingle or spalls. D15 of base Design Criteria The following criteria of upstream protection is being adopted by Central Design Directorate of Irrigation Department.136 The cost of filter If the material for the filter is obtained without washing or screening as a pit run natural gravel and quarry wash.30 m stone pitching over 0.25 m stone pitching over 0. there is no reason not to use maximum filter thickness. (iii) Above l0m and upto 15m 0.S. Uttar Pradesh.75 m stone pitching over 0. (vi) Above 50 m and upto 75 0.5 m stone pitching over 0.3 m grade shingle or spalls.5 m graded shingle or spalls. If more than one filter layer is required. sieve no. and is not expensive as compared to the cost of average embankment material.75 m graded shingle.25 m graded shingle or spalls. The percentage is by weight as determined by mechanical analysis.0 m stone pitching over 0. (iv) Above 15 m and upto 25 m 0. opening of pipe drain (4) The grain size curve of filter should be roughly parallel to that of the base material. If the D of filter filter contains excessive fines or coarse material such that 15 > 4 but < 5 or D15 of base D15 of filter > 5 but < 6. The following limits are recommended to satisfy stability criteria for graded uniform filters: (iv) (1) D15 of filter = 5 to 40. (2) (3) D15 of filter D 85 of base = 5 or less D 85 of filter = 2 or more Max.15 m graded shingle or spalls. (vii) Above 75 m 1. (v) Above 25 m and upto 50m 0. Horizontal filter layers can safely be made thinner than steeply inclined or vertical filters. the finer filter is considered as the base material for selection of the coarser filter.075 mm ( I. .5 m stone pitching over 0. the thickness of filter layer may be increased by 50 percent. The entire upstream face should be pitched right upto the top of bund.-minus 75 micron ). provided that the filter does not contain more than 5 D15 of base material percent of material finer than 0. D15 or D85 is the size at which 15 percent and 85 percent (respectively) of the total soil particles are smaller.

5. 5. Its position is not influenced by the permeability of the material composing the dam so long as the material is homogeneous. The seepage or phreatic line may be defined as the line within a dam section below which there are positive hydrostatic pressures in the dam. The combined representation of two sets of lines is called a flow net (Fig. Fig. the width depends on several considerations such as (i) nature of embankment material and minimum allowable percolation distance through the embankment at normal reservoir water level (ii) height and importance of structure (iii) required width to provide embankment mass for resistance to earthquake shock and (iv) roadway requirements.6 H Seepage Through Dams Phreatic or Seepage line The two dimensional flow of fluid through porous soil can be expressed by Laplace’s equation ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂z 2 Graphically. It is also useful in analyzing stability of the dam. In area too deficient in rainfall during parts of the year to maintain a proper cover. the hydrostatic pressure is zero. Bt = 5/3. Common practice is fairly well represented by the formula.4 Flow net through earth dam The location of the phreatic line is necessary in order to draw accurately the flow net. Above the line. On the line itself. 5. berms and other erosion control be applied.137 Downstream Slope Protection The problem of erosion of downstream slopes due to surface runoff may be effectively controlled by turfing. there will be a zone of capillary situation. . It may be noted that the location of the seepage line is dependent only on the cross section of the dam. With the help of a flow net. the equation can be represented by two sets of curves that intersect at right angles. the seepage problems can be analyzed at any point within the section of the embankment. The phreatic line represents the top flow line or the boundary condition for drawing the flow net.4). Crest Width The crest or top width of an earth dam should not be less than 4 m for maintenance purposes. However.

and extends beyond the limits of the embankments. Bisect the distance FD to get the point E.7) after A.9) yo = d 2 + h 2 − d (5. Knowing Bo.5) (i) The horizontal distance between upstream toe A and the point ‘B’ where water surface meets the upstream face is calculated or measured (say L). (ii) The basic parabola has to pass through B0 and have its focus at F which is the starting point of the horizontal Fig. With these points known the basic parabola may be constructed graphically. x 2 + y 2 = x+yo Since the point B0 of coordinates d. . (iii) With centre B0 and radius B0F. With horizontal drainage filter (Fig. (5. draw an arc to meet the water line at C. The focal distance y0 can also be determined on the consideration that if (x y) is one point on the parabola. The presence of a pervious stratum below the dam does not influence the position of the phreatic line.5.5 Phreatic line with horizontal filter drainage. h lies on the equation. The point B0 is then located on the water surface at a distance 0. The actual seepage line meets the discharge face (at point G) at a distance a below the point G0. With inclined discharge face (Fig. Stepwise procedure for locating phreatic line 1. Draw the vertical line CD which is the directrix.138 According to A.10) (iv) The ingress portion of phreatic line is joined to the base parabola from point B. For graphical construction of the phreatic line the following procedure may be adopted.G and E the basic parabola can be drawn. the vertex of the parabola. keeping the starting end normal to the upstream face. 2. The value of ‘a’ can be worked out from the curve (5.3 L from B. 5. the focal distance = yo. Let FD. 5. Draw FG parallel to CD and equal to yo. Cassagrande the phreatic line for the homogeneous fill section is a basic parabola except at the ingress and egress points.6) For embankments with no drainage measures the base parabola cuts the discharge face at point G0 at a distance (a + ∆a) along the discharge face from point F.

For a rock toe. yo (5. 5. . measured clockwise from the horizontal base ∆a should be taken and the value of a+∆ a is corrected at the egress point. if it is less than 30°. However. With rock toe (Fig.7 Fig.11) a + ∆a = 1 . the distance ‘a’ measured along the slope from the toe may be determined as explained above. (For a horizontal filter α = 180°). 5.8 For values of α between 30° to 180°. 5.8) The basic parabola may be drawn in a similar way taking F Fig. 5.139 ∆a Cassagrande giving the value of a+∆ a for different angles (α) of discharging face.6 Phreatic line with inclined discharge face as focus. As already shown this parabola it self is the seepage line for a horizontal filter.cos α 3. The value of (a+ ∆a) can either be measured directly on the face when the parabola has been drawn or its value determined from the equation. 5. an appropriate value of α. the distance ‘a’ or the point of emergence of the phreatic line at the downstream slope may be determined with the help of Schaffernak’s equation. read from the curve given in fig.7. The parabola Fig.

. 5.5 Quantity of Seepage Consider earth embankment of homogeneous material given in fig.y dx dy d 2 = 2 xy 0 + y 0 dx dx [ ] 1/ 2 2 = y 0 / 2 xy 0 + y 0 Since discharge passing through any vertical plane is the same.4) the potential drop ∆h = h Consider a field of length l.x.l = K∆h = K l Nd If Nf is the total number of flow channels ( Nf = 3 in fig. the field being an approximate square its width is also equal Nd to l. 5.140 a= d d2 h − − 2 cosα cos sin 2 α (5.12) or a = d 2 + h 2 − d 2 − h 2 cot 2 α (5.13) where d and h are the coordinates of the initial point B.9. . l The discharge through the field is given by h ∆h ∆q = K . If h is the total hydraulic head and Nd is the number of potential drops (9 in fig. y 0 + y 0 For a unit length. . dy q = K . y represents the area of flow.4.4 ) the seepage per unit width of embankment is q = Kh Nf Nd (5. 5.14) The discharge through a homogeneous embankment with horizontal filter may also be calculated with the help of equation 5. 5. dy = 1 and dx ∴q = K y0 (5. The equation of base parabola under steady seepage condition may be written as y= 2 2. the hydraulic gradient across the field ∆h .15) The equation although is applicable to embankments with horizontal filters but hold good for determining approximate discharge in all other cases. as explained in fig. at x = 0 we have y = y0. Flow net through the dam section has been drawn by trial and error method.

draw the pheratic line if a horizontal filter of length 10 m is provided. the pheratic line can be drawn.2 — Dam section h = 22. 5.9 Design example 15.5 x 22 -10 = 57. 0.5) 3 + 6 + 1.5 + (2.5m d = l6. ∆a = 0. 5.5 m.5 2 + 22 2 − 57. .9.06 Equation of the parabola is x 2 + y 2 = x + 4. 5. Equation 5. L = 22 x 2.5 = 55. Solution The angle α of discharge face = tan-1/1.69' From Fig.5 = 33.10 y0 = d 2 + h 2 − d = 57.37 Discharge per metre length q = K yo ∴ q = 4.5 = 4. y = 13. y = 9.88 at x = 20.35 a + ∆a Fig. For example at x = 10.5 + 1.7.06 x 10-5 m2 / sec.141 Example 5.1 For the homogeneous dam section shown in fig.3 L = 16. Also determined discharge per m length of dam if K 10-5 m / sec.06 with the help of this equation.

Cut off trenches. Such stratifications display much higher horizontal permeability (Kh) than vertical permeability (Kv).10 Transformation of section having different permeability in horizontal and vertical directions.Fig.10 in case when the horizontal permeability is 4 times the vertical permeability.15. Kh After drawing the flow net in the transformed section. The discharges. When the horizontal and vertical permeability differ in a dam section.16) Control of Seepage Through Foundations Different methods to control seepage of water through foundations are described below. Fig 5. The higher the ratio between the horizontal and vertical permeability the more would be the distortion in the flow net. Grouting and grout curtain 2. the flow net is restored back in the original section.7 Kv Kh (5. 5. The suitability of the method of treatment depends primarily on the nature of foundation. pore water pressure can be determined with help of the flow net in the original section. the flow net may be drawn in the usual manner in a transformed section. The flow lines tend to come near the downstream face of the dam. The quantity of seepage in an anisotropic section can also be determined by using an effective permeability coefficient (K') in equation 5. The procedure is illustrated in . It may be noted that while the fields are approximate squares in the transformed section.142 Flow net in Anisotropic Soil Natural deposits made by flowing water and rolled earth dam sections are horizontally stratified. 1. and for a certain ratio the flow lines may even intersect the section making it unsafe. seepage force. 3. Partial cut-off . they get distorted when restored back in the original section. To make a transformed section the horizontal dimensions are multiplied by Kv while vertical dimensions remain unchanged. K' is given by K' = 5.

pattern.4 0. Cement. Table 5. Cut off trenches (Fig.11 a) The cut-off trenches with side sloping or vertical are excavated below the dams and filled with well compacted impervious material.2 Cement Clay-cement bentomite Clay-chemical.3 0. Cement grouting is extensively’ used in rock foundations. The trench should be provided up to bed rock or other impervious strata.2 0.4 0. A single line of grout holes has been adopted in a number of dams.2. 6. Table 5. depth and sequence of grouting are related to the foundation conditions. clay and various chemicals are used as grouting materials. The number of lines and spacing of holes depends upon the nature of foundation and width of grout curtain which is usually 1/3 to 1/5 of the water head. indicates approximate range of grain sizes that can normally be grouted by different types of grout materials and mixtures. thus reducing the permeability and increasing its stability.5 0. The bottom width of the . The pervious zones should be grouted first with coarse grouts with holes spaced apart followed by finer grouts in further stages with holes spaced closely. Sheet piling cutoff Cement bound curtain cutoff Cast in situ concrete diaphragm Upstream blanket Pressure relief wells. Grouting and grout curtain Certain materials when infected as grout in the foundation strata acts as a binder and fills the voids. 8. type and height of the dam and objective desired. Curtain grouting is done to much greater depth to reduce seepage through foundation. The choice of grouting material. These trenches are located well upstream of the centre line of the dam but within a point where the cover of the impervious embankment above the trenches is sufficient to resist the percolation at least to the extent offered by the trench itself. 5. bentomite-chemical Chemical Blanket grouting is done to a depth of 5 to 10 m through holes spaced 3 to 5 m to prevent piping. 7. 5.1 to to to to 1. It is however desirable to have two lines of holes. The centre line of the trench is kept parallel to the centre line of the dam. In pervious foundations the choice of a suitable grout depends primarily upon the grain size of the material and its permeability.143 4.5 0. asphalt.2 Type of grout Diameter of the material that can be grouted mm 0.

The cut-off may be (i) sheet pile (ii) cement bound curtain. partial cut-off along with upstream blanket is provided to reduce the discharge and seepage pressures. Partial cut-off trench (Fig. In a uniform pervious strata the role of partial cut off in reducing percolation is very limited. Therefore for treatment of deep pervious foundation where it is not economically possible to provide a positive cut-off.144 trench is governed by the space required for treatment of foundation and type of equipment used for rolling.11 c) A partial cut off trench is effective in stratified foundation by intersecting more impervious layer in the foundation and by increasing the vertical path of seepage. (iii) concrete diaphragm. Usually minimum 5 m width is adopted. For moderate pervious foundations positive cut-off up to hard stratum is provided. A cut off going to 80% of the total depth of pervious strata reduces the seepage discharge by only 50%. . Thus with a partial cut off the reliance is primarily on the length of the seepage path. The maximum depth of trench is governed by economical considerations. 5. Other method of cut-off may be economical as compared to deep cutoff trenches.

. The grout is forced down with vanes provided for in the mixing head which results in the formation of cylindrical elements of cement impregnated sand and gravel. If the foundation strata contains boulders the sheet piles will not easily penetrate. sandy and fine Fig 5. These disadvantages and limitations of sheet pile cut off have been overcome by use of cellular sheet pile wall back filled with concrete.11 b ) Steel sheet piling cut off can be used in silty. Cement bound curtain cut off This type of cut off is used in pervious foundations which do not contain large cobbles and boulders. The grout is pumped through hollow rotating drill rod which is fixed with a mixing head on the end. There are always chances of leakage through the joints and at contact with bed rock.145 Sheet piling cut-off ( Fig. 5.11 Typical foundation treatment and trenches details gravel foundations. Another method of sealing the interlocks is to drill arrow of boles and fill them with bentonite before driving the sheet pipe line across the holes. A continuous curtain is formed by successive over lapping of such cylinders. It is very difficult to make sheet pile cut off water tight.

13 Upstream blanket Upstream Blanket (i) Advantages An impervious clay blanket placed upstream of a dam and connected to the impervious section is a convenient way of effecting moderate reduction in the amount of seepage (Fig. it is backfilled by tremic concrete. . After excavating the trench to the full depth.12) Fig. 5. This drilling mud is then led into large tanks where the excavated material settles down. The quantity of seepage is some what less than inversely proportional to the total length of impervious material. A blanket is advantageous only when an appreciable length of the path of flow can be affected by a blanket of reasonable length.146 Cast in-situ concrete diaphragm In this process a trench 5 to 10 m long and up to 1. The effectiveness of a blanket depends upon the proportionate increase in number of equipotential drop that results from its addition to the dam. 5. The mud retains the walls of the trench by hydrostatic pressure as . and the intervening panels are subsequently excavated and backfilled with concrete.13).well as by forming a cake of bentonite along the side of the trench. The excavating tool and the pipes travel horizontally to and fro over the length of the panels.2 m wide is made by a percussion tool of the required diameter connected to a rigid tube through which drilling mud is circulated from the bottom to the top. Alternate panels are first completed. The mud is replanished with bentonite and is returned to the trench.P.12 Cross section of Obra Dam U. Fig. This process is suitable for making of cut-offs in sand material and it is for the first time that this process has been adopted in Obra dam in India (Fig. The vertical percussion motion of the tool along with the horizontal movement of the assembly excavates a trench equal in length to the horizontal movement and the excavated material is sucked out through the rigid tube along with the drilling mud. 5. 5.

17) pq in which length of upstream blanket in metres. gross head in metres on impervious upstream blanket. per metre of dam K.25. t = ( K2/K1 ) x b x ( B/d ) (5. (iii) Pressure Relief Wells The primary purpose of relief wells is to reduce artesian pressures which otherwise would cause formation of sand boils and piping. B = length of blanket from upstream toe to impervious section d = depth of pervious stratum in meter. then p = 0.147 (ii) Length of blanket Usually the material of the blanket is so tight in relation to pervious stratum that it is not necessary to consider flow through the blanket in determining the blanket length. is greater than the combined weight of soil and water . to which it is desired to reduce the seepage by means of the blanket.18) where t = thickness of blanket at point under consideration. K2 = permeability of blanket. K1 = average permeability of stratum.13). 5. without a blanket.0 m and length about 10 times the head of ponded water. Theoretically. Theoretically it should vary in thickness from zero at its upper edge to the maximum where it joins the impervious section of the dam. depth of pervious stratum in metres percentage (stated as a decimal) of flow under the dam without a blanket.q. b = length of impervious portion of base of dam in metres. the length of blanket is kept 15 times the head.5 to 3. In case of fine sand or silty foundations. (h/b). The length of the blanket is given by (Fig. Relief wells also intercept and provide controlled outlets for seepage which otherwise would emerge uncontrolled downstream of the dam. K . piping occurs when the uplift pressure at a point at some level in the foundation near downstream toe reaches. if the seepage is required to be reduced to 25% of its original value. The thickness of blanket ‘t’ at distance ‘h’ from upstream toe of blanket may be determined from the equation.h.d − p. For example. q = flow under dam. permeability of the foundation material and its depth. L = K= h = d = p = Thickness of blanket The thickness of the blanket is a function of the relative permeability of the blanket. mean horizontal permeability coefficient of the pervious stratum. b = distance from point under consideration to upstream toe of blanket. For normal condition the thickness of upstream blanket is kept between 1.b L= (5. d.

The wells must offer little resistance to infiltrator of seepage and discharge there of. . Vertical slotting is preferable to horizontal slotting. Thus. pressure relief wells are required.2 slotwidth MinD85 filter ≥ 1.75 mm to 6 mm by 50 mm size opening covering about 10 percent of the circumferential area of the pipe. D85 filter ≥ 1. there is no danger against piping. if the thickness of the top impervious structure is equal to the reservoir head. h1. In this situation no further treatment of foundation is required. Where no control measures are present. Generally depths of wells equal to the height of the dam is satisfactory. h.0 ( Min) D85 sand and ( Min) D15 filter ≤ 4.6 to 0. Wells should be spaced sufficiently close together (generally 15 metre apart) to intercept seepage and reduce uplift pressures between wells. If the thickness of impervious layer is equal to the reservoir head. because the saturated weight of soils equals approximately twice of water. the uplift pressure beneath the layer cannot exceed the weight of layer.6. The slots in the well screen must have adequate area and at the same time be of such size as to prevent movement of filter through the screen after development of the well and shall satisfy the following criteria. The wells must be so designed that they do not become ineffective due to clogging or corrosion.0 ( Max) D15 sand The well screen consists of G.I.14.7. A type design of pressure relief well is illustrated in fig.0 or Holediameter The gradation of the filter must also comply with the following criteria ( Max) D85 filter ≤ 5. Where downstream berms are provided pressure gradient between wells should not exceed 0. especially where the foundation is stratified. If the thickness of the top impervious stratum is less than reservoir head. The pipe should be coated with anticorrosive paint or regularized after slotting. 5. pipe 10 cm to 15 cm diameter slotted with 4. but is too thick for treatment by drainage trenches or if the pervious foundation is stratified. at least 0. Relief wells should be designed to penetrate into the principal pervious strata to obtain efficient pressure relief.50 percent penetration should be ensured into thicker aquifers. Whereas full penetration is desirable in case of shallow depth of pervious aquifers (6 m to 9 meter thickness).148 above it. relief wells should be so designed that pressure gradients between wells or downstream from the wells do not exceed 0.5 to 0.

2.15 and short description of each follows. availability of pervious material. 4. Design of drainage arrangement is governed mainly by the height of the dam. . Pervious foundation for shallow depth. A proper drainage system also helps in avoiding heaving and piping by arresting the soil particles. 1. 5.149 Fig. Different types of arrangements are shown in fig.8 Drainage In Earth Dams Drainage in earth dams is primarily provided to bring the phreatic line well within the downstream face.14 Type design of relief well In fig. Impervious layer of thickness greater than 3 m and less than the height of the dam. 5. 3. which may otherwise move by seepage discharge.11 appropriate treatments for the following foundation conditions are illustrated. The drainage system also reduces the pore water pressure in the downstream portion of the dam and thus the stability of the downstream face is increased. Pervious foundation extending to great depth. pervious foundation extending to a moderate depth. Thin impervious layer underlain by pervious foundation. 5. and the permeability of the foundation. 5. 5.

15 a).150 Horizontal drainage blanket The horizontal blanket is provided over that portion of the foundation downstream from the impervious zone of the dam where high upward seepage forces exist. 5. The horizontal blanket is generally combined with a rock toe (Fig. The filter usually comprises . A number of dams with chimney arrangements have recently been constructed in this country. Transition filter is required to be provided between the homogeneous fill and the rock toe. 5.5. The blanket must be pervious to drain off effectively and its design should fulfill the usual filter criteria. They may be provided on homogeneous pervious foundations overlain by thin impervious layers. provided the horizontal and vertical permeability of the foundation are known.( Fig. Chimney Drains The main disadvantage of the horizontal drainage blankets is to make the earth dam embankment stratified and consequently more pervious in the horizontal direction. The inclined or vertical chimney drains are thus provided in many homogeneous dams to intercept seepage water before it reaches the downstream slope.16 ). in order to stabilize the foundation and relieve pressures that may break through the impervious layer. in order to prevent the movement of particles of the foundation or embankment by seepage discharge.15 Types of drainage arrangements Rock Toe The rock toe consists of sizes usually varying from 15 cm to 20 cm ( Fig. Generally a length three times the height of dam is sufficient. 5. The requirement of the length of blanket may be determined theoretically by means of flow net.15) Fig.

16 Rock toe and filter The capacity of the filter should as a rule be kept twice the discharge calculated by the Darcy’s formula. Drainage trenches can be used to control seepage where the top stratum is thin and pervious foundation is shallow so that the trench can be built to penetrate the aquifer substantially. A minimum cover of 1 m between the seepage line and downstream slope is considered adequate. Generally the discharge face (inward face) of rock toe is kept at slope of 1:1 and the outer face is a continuation of the downstream slope.F.17 ) may be of vitrified clay or perforated asphalt dipped corrugated metal pipe. In case of high dams.L. In such cases stone pitching extending to a minimum vertical height of 1.81 mm) 60 cm thick layer of gravel (15% size = 7. Sometimes it may not be economical to raise the level of rock toe for this purpose.09 mm) 45 cm thick layer of coarse sand (15% size 0. (b) Downstream water level. considerable economy can be affected by providing a berm 3 m to 6 m wide at top of the rock toe and reducing its outer slope to 1. Where the pervious foundation is deep.3 mm). The minimum required height of rock toe is governed by two factors (a) The minimum allowable cover on the phreatic line.5 m above the downstream-H. a drainage trench of any reasonable depth would attract only a small portion of under . 5. Toe Drains and Drainage Trenches The purpose of these drains is to collect the seepage from the horizontal blanket which discharges into the spillway stilling basin or into the river channel below the dam.5:1 to 2:1. The top of rock toe must be sufficiently higher than the tail water level to prevent any wave splashes on the downstream face. The toe drains ( Fig. Fig.151 30 cm thick layer of fine sand (15% size = 0. The height of rock toe is generally kept between 1/3 to 1/4 the height of the dam. 5. Toe drains are also used on impervious foundations to ensure that any seepage that may come through the foundation or the embankment is collected and the ground water is kept below the surface to avoid the creation of boggy areas below the dam. is provided in continuation of the rock toe.

) The well known method of investigating stability of slope is Swedish method. 5. (The stability of slopes of earth-structures thus depends on the shear resistance or strength of the soil. the portion of soil mass between the slope and the critical internal surface will slide down along this surface. near the slope.152 seepage. that circle along which the . the shearing resistance of the soil is greater than the shearing stress induced along the most severely stressed or critical internal surface. is more commonly used. devised by Swedish Engineers in 1922 which is simple.18 Details of drainage trench The filter comprising the drainage layers should ‘be designed in accordance with the filter criteria. adjoining the slope. at any time after the construction of the slope becomes less than the induced shearing stress. the slope will remain stable.17 Typical toe drain Fig. If.e. 5. until. the new slope formed by the sliding mass makes the shearing stress less than the shearing strength of the soil. A typical design of drainage trench is shown in fig. This is due to the force of gravity which tries to pull down the portions of’ the soil mass. It is necessary to pick up the most dangerous of critical slip circle i. and if on the other hand the shearing resistance of the soil. and therefore. 5. the curved slip surface is taken to be an arc of circle with a certain centre. however. its effect would be local and detrimental because the under seepage would bypass the trench.18 Fig 5.9 Stability of Slopes Methods of Investigating Stability of Slopes Every soil mass which has slope at its end is subjected to shear stresses on internal surfaces in the soil mass. In this method. There will be a number of such likely slip circles’ with their respective centres.

. The maximum resisting moment mobilized by the soil to prevent the likely Occurrence of a slip.e. x is the distance of the centroid G of area DVHP from the centre O1. The centre of this circle is located by trial and error. The position of G can be obtained in the same manner as the centroid of an irregular plane area. it consists of one type of soil only. For cohesive soil φ = 0 and. 5.x kg metres cause a slip along surface PHV (i) Fig. Below are shown methods of locating the critical slip circle in the case of various types of soils.5. = cohesive shear resistance developed along VHP = (L x 1) x c x R kg metres = cLR kg metres where L = length of arc VHP in meters c = unit cohesion in kg/m2 R = radius of likely slip circle in metres But. i. its shearing resistance depends on cohesion only and is the same along the entire surface VHP.19 Slip circle method where. Cohesive soil Let PHV ( Fig. W = weight of soil mass of area DVHP and length one metre. assuming that the soil slope is of homogeneous structure.19 ) be any one slip circle with center O1. L = R α where α is the angle of arc VHP. Actuating moment which may = W.153 soil has the least shear resistance. in radians ∴ Maximum resisting moment = c R α R kg metre = c R2 α kg metre .

SH2V. kg/m2 where. meeting the top of soil mass at a point say Z. etc. (ii) Fig. Taking one running metre of the strip. are drawn to scale and the factor of safety is found. The slip circle giving the minimum factor of safety is the critical slip circle. 5. its weight W5 and its shearing strength S5 along the curved surface of length l5 in at the bottom of the strip.20 Swedish method for c . TH3V.20 (ii). for each such slip circle. c is constant along the slip circle but pn which is the pressure normal to the slip circle due to weight of soil varies from point to point along the slip circle.20 (i). 5.g.154 Factor of safety against slipping = along surface VHP Maximum resisting moment actuating moment cR 2α W . and a curve is drawn passing through the tops of the ordinates representing the four values of the factors of safety corresponding to four slip circles. S = c + pn tan φ. This critical slip circle is located as shown below. The equation for shear strength of this soil is.φ soil . The fifth strip from the left in the figure it taken for the study and is shown on a bigger scale in fig. 5. QH1V.19. because. The weight W5 is equivalent to two forces.x Various other slip circles like the above said one. = c. The lowest point on this curve is noted and a vertical line is drawn through it. if it occurs. is divided into vertical strips or slices as shown in fig. slip circle. The method of locating the critical slip circle is as follows: The whole soil mass adjoining the slope. Fig. will occur along this. the failure. The values of the factor of safety worked out for various slip circles say four. e. are plotted as shown in fig.φ Soil The shear strength of such a soil due to cohesion and internal friction varies from point to point along the slip circle. V and Z then mark the two points through which the required critical slip circle will pass. as shown above. 5. its equilibrium is practically due to two forces only viz.

. S5. 5.L. be taken with their proper sign. is generally adopted.15 + Wn5 tan φ ) = Σ R ( ct5 + W n5 tan φ ) = Σ R (c. Various circles with center on this line are tried until the one with minimum factor of safety is found. S5 = ( c. L = length of the whole slip surface VHP. Wt5 kg metres ∴ The actuating moment along the entire slip surface PHV = Σ R Wt5 kg metres The factor of safety. Wn5 which is normal to the curved surface and. along slip surface PHV actuating moment c. the position of the line on which the centre of the critical circle lies depends only .m where. is proportional to its area and this latter can be found approximately by the trapezoidal formula. the tangential force Wt5 which is tangential to the curved surface as shown in fig. or. To save time in locating the centre of critical slip circle for homogeneous sections. therefore have the equation.20 (i). Fellenius construction.20. Wn and Wt of each strip can be found graphically by drawing the triangle of forces for each strip as shown in fig. l5 + Wn5 tan φ ) kg where. for locating the line on which the centre of the critical circle is most likely to lie. The actuating moment along slip surface at bottom of the strip R. against shear = resisting moment failure. c. the factor of safety = ∑ Wt The weight of each strip one metre long. kg metres = R ( c. We will. in general. 5. the tangential components of the weights of the first few strips near the toe of the slope.l5 = cohesive strength per metre length of the strip and Wn5 tan φ = frictional strength per metre length of the strip.+ tan φ Wn5) kg.15 + Wn5 tan φ ) kg metres and the moment of shear strength along the entire slip surface VHP = Σ R ( c. According to the Fellenius construction. accurately by a planimeter. It should be carefully noted. will resist the slipping tendency and these components must therefore.L + tan φ ∑ Wn or. Location of critical slip surface The location of critical slip surface by trial and error entails much loss of time. The moment of this shear strength is = R.155 namely. The factor of safety is found for each of other slip circles and the critical circle is located as usual. that.

the values of α . and β are taken from Table 5. part of the load causes the soil grains to deform elastically or to undergo non-elastic rearrangement but without significant change in their solid volume. Referring to fig.21. The remaining portion of the load is carried by stress in the air and water contained in the voids and is known as pore-water pressure.3 for the embankment slope. 5. Table 5.5° 25° 25° 25° 25° β 37° 32° 35° 36° 37° Pore Water Pressure When moist soil mass is loaded without permitting air/or water to escape. starting directly below point A.3 Recommended values of α and β. From point A and B these angles are drawn to meet at point 01.21 Fellenius method of locating line of center for critical slip circle on the height and slopes of the embankment.156 Fig . The pore-water pressures below the phreatic line reduces the shearing strength of the soil mass in accordance with Coulomb’s equation. 3:1 4:1 5:1 α 27.5 H. This part of the load is carried on the soil skeleton as effective stress. The line joining 01 and 02 points is the line on which the centre of the critical circle lies. the height of the embankment. S = c + ( pn – u ) tan φ . 5. and at a depth equal to H. Point 02 is then located at horizontal distance of 4.Fellenius construction Slope hor: vertical 1:1 2:1. The maximum depth to which the rupture can occur is limited by the presence of hard stratum underneath.

.w x arc length = h x w x d sec θ. In the absence of a reliable test it is reasonable to adopt a value of pore pressures equal to 1. Pore Pressure just after construction In this condition the pore pressures are maximum and hence their correct evaluation from proper consolidation test is advisable.b.157 The practice of accounting for pore pressures in drawdown and steady-seepage conditions is different from that of end of construction conditions.1 H to 1. The effect of pore pressures estimated on above principle is calculated separately as u tan φ u being 1. Consider a slice ( Fig. 5. the contribution of pore pressure becomes (h. and is deducted from the value of pn tan φ.22 ) below phreatic line and above dead storage level or tail water level.25 H. = ( h d. weigh of soil below phreatic line and above dead storage level is taken as submerged for calculating resisting forces and saturated for actuating forces. u = h. 5. This would mean that submerged weight may he taken for saturated weight of soil while calculating the resisting component. be reduced to u tan φ.) tan φ With the above approximation the effect of pore pressures will amount in reducing the saturated weight W of the soil by the weight of water of the same volume. The resisting force due to pore pressure will.w.w. If h is the average height and d its width.25 H.22 Pore water pressure If are length for a small slice be taken approximately equal to the width of the slice. It has been found that the pore pressure generally varies from 1. Pore Pressures in drawdown and steady conditions: Pore pressures on any slice of a failure are taken to act normally on the arc surface and are equivalent to the weight of water transmitted by that slice. Hence a_steady seepage an drawdown conditions.25 H sec θ . sec θ ) tan φ = (h x arc length) x w tan φ Fig. force due to pore pressure.

It has been observed for homogeneous section that drawdown to an intermediate pool level usually presents a more critical case than complete draw down. Since the drainage is not as rapid as the drawdown. It is recommended that applicable values of seismic coefficient may be taken into account in stability computation for steady seepage conditions. Earthquake There is little experience on the performance of earth dams shaken by earthquakes in seismically active regions. Practice to account the horizontal acceleration caused by earthquake is. This represents the worst condition for assumed failure arc. ‘End of Construction’ Condition Stability at the end of construction is most critical for homogeneous embankments constructed of plastic materials. For each slip circle. this means that the resisting forces are reduced in comparison to actuating forces. while half of its values be adopted in case of sudden drawdown and end of construction conditions. This condition is critical for the downstream slope only. To take account of this fact in stability computations. For the analysis of this condition.158 Critical cases for analysis Reservoir drawdown The upstream slope of the dam is subjected to most adverse condition during sudden drawdown. the water pressure acting on the upstream slope is removed above the drawdown level while the saturation line remains higher. There would be no water loads. Immediately on completion of embankment there would be construction pore pressure due to consolidation of fill under the embankment load. the intermediate surface of the pool is assumed to intersect the embankment slope directly below the centre of the circle. The upstream slope will be subjected to water pressure from the reservoir while the rest of darn will be subjected to pore pressure from the established flow net. All materials below drawdown level are submerged. and therefore. such a condition should be tested. however. reservoir is assumed to be at the normal storage level in which case the phreatic line is assu1’riecl to have fully developed. When sudden drawdown takes place. therefore. In all upstream slope stability analysis. a common practice in stability computations for darns lying in seismic active regions. and the actuating forces are calculated for the saturated weight of the material below water surface. the resisting forces are calculated for submerged weight of the material below water surface. . resisting and actuating force below the drawdown level are calculated on the basis of the submerged weight of the materials. Steady Seepage Condition The effect of seepage through the embankment is to reduce embankment stability by increasing the actuating forces and decreasing the resisting forces.

S. There are several reasons for the apparent lowness of the acceptable factor of safety in earth dam designs. factor of safety of unity is considered adequate.S.159 Factor of Safety Factor of safety in the present context is known as the ratio of forces resisting movement to these tending to produce movement.5 is adopted for all conditions.B. Tentative section For fixing tentative section of earth dams the upstream and downstream slopes may be taken from table 5. are on higher side. slope h:v 2½ : 1 3:1 2½:1 3:1 3:1 2½:1 D. High dams have recently been designed with lower factor of safety up to 1. (b) Usually the factor of safety increases with the passage of time owing to consolidation etc.5.S.25 for reservoir drawdown and end of construction conditions. core wall U. The factor of safety as recommended by U. so that a factor of safety which was originally 1. which may seem to be quite a low figure. (a) The figures used for the strength of earth materials are necessarily taken quite close to the minimum values obtained. When under earthquake condition.4 given by Terzaghi. Table 5.4 Recommended Dam Slopes-Terzaghi Type of material Homogeneous well graded material Homogeneous coarse silt Homogeneous silt clay or clay Height less than l5m or so Height more than 15m or so Sand or sand and gravel with clay core With R. According to the U. practice a factor of safety of 1.S.R.B. and the strength which would be mobilized before disastrous failure could occur would usually be much greater.R. slope h:v 2:1 2½:1 2:1 2½:1 2½:1 2:1 . (c) In most cases the forces tending to produce movement are taken at the upper possible limit but may actually be materially less than the assumed values. The minimum required factor of safety in earth dams never exceeds 1.5 may eventually become 2.C.

limiting the imported material like clay or silt fore providing impervious member to the minimum. Thus. Since the action of seepage is not favourable in such a purely homogeneous section.10 Selection of Type of Earth Dams The selection of type of dam i. it is inevitable that seepage emergence will occur in the downstream slope approximately at about one third the water depth regardless of permeability of material or slope flatness. When a particular site favours an earth dam. concrete. a further decision must be made as to the type of earth dam. concrete arch. The type of earth dam would be dictated essentially by the materials available at or near the site as also the foundations. Homogeneous type 2. Fig . if nothing but sand is available the design should utilize the sand in the natural state for the bulk of the dam.e. earth. Though formerly very common. Zoned type and 3. Diaphragm type Homogeneous Type A purely homogeneous type of dam is composed entirely of a single type of material as shown in fig.23 Homogenous type earth dams . concrete gravity. 5.23 b) in which small ‘amount of carefully placed drainage materials control the action of seepage and thus permit much steeper slopes. buttress etc. In the interest of economy. relatively flat for safety in rapid drawndown (when embankment is relatively impervious. the pure homogenous section has fallen into disuse because of the development of a modified homogeneous section (Fig. For a completely homogeneous section.23 a. the upstream slope should be.160 5. rock fill. the design of earth dam should be adopted to the full utilization of the available materials. 5. Earth dams may be classified into three main types : 1. and the downstream slope must also be flat to provide a slope sufficiently stable to resist the forces resulting from a high saturation level. 5.

5. of core in the zoned type can be chosen. Innumerable modifications might be made of the zoned type section depending upon the arrangements of seepage control and drainage arrangements. within reasonable limits. 5. Fig. Fig. The minimum width should be adequate to reduce seepage and permit ease of construction. For most effective control of steady seepage or drawdown seepage. Zoned type It is the most common type of dam section in which a central impervious core is flanked by shells of materials considerably more pervious. The shells enclose and protect the core. 5.24 ). to meet the best adjustment in the quantity and the cost of impervious soils available. If the width is less than the height of the embankment.B. The modified homogeneous type of embankment is most suitable in localities where readily available soils show practically no variation in permeability. although even in this case some drainage measures may be necessary.161 A fully homogeneous section might be found convenient where the slopes are required to be flat because of a weak foundation. the section should have a progressive increase in permeability from the centre towards each slope ( Fig.24 Zone type earth dam section The width. The minimum base width should be equal to the height of the embankment. the upstream shell affords stability against rapid drawdown and the downstream shell acts as a drain that controls the line of seepage.R. . the dam is considered as diaphragm type.S. 5.25 the dam may be considered as homogeneous type. Similarly if the core is larger than the size shown in fig.25 Size range of impervious cores in zoned embankment-after U.

27.27 Inclined diaphragm type earth dam Internal diaphragm of rigid materials like concrete have the disadvantage of getting ruptured due to settlement of the dam.P.e. cement concrete. Fig. or other material in the central or upstream face of the dam. a special filter zone will be required to provide the necessary filter action. . of different gradations subject to seepage must be checked for filter action. The diaphragm may consist of earth. 5. sand. 5. The position of the impervious diaphragm may vary to extreme limits-upstream face on one side and central core on the other end.26 Diaphragm type earth dam Fig. 5. The intermediate cases are termed as burned blanket or inclined diaphragm type as shown in fig. Fig. 5. 5. If the gradation range between adjacent zones of the dam or foundation is so great that a natural filter will not be established.162 All transitions between materials. Diaphragm type ( Fig.28 (a) Nanak Sagar dam (Constructed after breach) U. gravel or rock and thin diaphragm of impervious materials is provided to retain water.26 ) In this type the entire dam is composed of pervious material i.

6 t/m3) This material constitutes the foundation to a depth of 15. An inclined diaphragm provides slightly better stability against earthquake. However. Horizontal piping through embankment. 3. the construction convenience dictates the position of the core.12 DESIGN OF EARTH DAM Design Example 5. Boggy areas downstream of the dam.28 (b) Section of the u.5 times the height of dam.2 An earth dam has to be constructed at a place where soils have the following characteristics: (i) Sand mixed with gravel (a) Saturated unit wt 2 gm/cc (2 tIm3) (b) Sp. preferable to have core of the earth.65 (c) Angle of internal friction 33° (d) Cohesion nil (e) Dry unit wt. therefore. 15. Cracks in the embankment. . 5. Boils.163 Fig. Small defects arising from the negligence may cause breach which may lead to serious damage and devastation.3 to 0.s. 1. and 4. Gravity 2. 1. There are certain advantages and disadvantages in locating the core centrally or in an inclined position. some problems may be subsequently met with during the operation of the reservoir. 5. below the base of the dam after which rock is available.6 gm/cc (1.Om. The width of the earth core at the base should be 0. The following are the most common troubles which may need proper and timely treatment.11 MAINTENANCE & TREATMENT OF COMMON TROUBLES IN EARTH DAMS Proper maintenance of an earth dam is very essential. 2. riprap It is. In spite of good design.

27 1 4 F where hw = height of wave in metres V = wind velocity in km.15 (ii) For steady seepage α = 0.t/m2 The material has to be obtained from an average distance of 1.76 tim2) (b) Specific Gravity 2.5 hw = 150 x 1958 = 2. 1. and F = 20 kms. F = fetch in kms.271 4 20 =1.h. 2. the waves rides to a height of 1.L.05 Design a suitable section of the earth dam and indicate the position of seepage line.S.5 km. the dam shall consist of a composite section. 155. p.0.0 m Assume the material above phreatic surface to be 40% saturated.0 m (d) H. The shell of the dam will consist of pervious material and core of impervious material.763 .76 gm/cc (1.10 (iii)For just after construction α = 0.032 150x 20 + 0. Also draw cross section of the dam.5 hw. ∴ 1. (iii) Levels (a) River bed level 103.55 (c) Angle of internal friction 12° (d) Cohesion 3. (e) Earthquake factor (i) For sudden drawdown α = 0. 158. Type of Dam Section As both pervious and impervious materials are available in the close proximity.763 .0.94 metres (b) Freeboard due to settlement .L.0 m (c) F. Assume V = 150 km. ph.958 metres Along slopes.0 m (h) Dead storage level 123. Then hw = 0.164 (ii) Silty clay (a) Saturated unit wt.F.032 VF + 0. Tentative cross section of the Dam (i) Freeboard (a) Freeboard for wave action: hw = 0. Design 1. A cutoff trench up to rock level with 1: 1 side slopes shall also be provided to check the seepage through the foundation material.

(iii) Slopes : For 60.80 m = 4.0 m.F.L.0 m Height of dam above bed level = (163. an extra settlement allowance of 1% due to earthquake is also taken. and h1 and h2 are heights top .80m.5 m thick graded shingle right up to the top of the dam. Thus total freeboard required both due to wave action and settlement = 2.94 + 1. Foundation (3) Shear stress in the foundation The horizontal shear under the slope of dam is given by h − h2 φ S=γ 1 tan 2 45o − 1 2 2 2 2 where φ1 = Equivalent angle of internal friction for composite section.5: 1 slope in the upstream and 3 : I in the downstream.6 m 100 ∴ Total freeboard due to settlement = 1. γ = Effective wt/cum of the composite material.0—103. Provide a freeboard of 5. 3. Downstream The downstream slope shall be provided with 0.90 m 3 Provide crest width of dam as 13.20 + 0.20 m (Assuming dam height to be 60 m) 100 For earth dam more than 30 m in height. 2 ∴ Settlement = 60 x = 1.74 m.60 m = 1. the upstream slope shall be provided with 0. Adopt slopes of the core material 1 : 1. (ii) Top level and width (a) Top R.0) = 60m (b) Crest width : 5 Bt = H 3 where Bt = Crest width in metres H = Height of dam in metre 5 ∴ Bt = 60 = 12.L. (iv) Pitching Upstream : To prevent destructive wave action.165 Settlement allowance of 2% is generally taken both for the foundation and the embankment. 60x1 ∴ Settlement due to earthquake = = 0.75 m thick stone pitching over 0.5 m stone pitching to check the erosion due to surface runoff.0 m height of the dam adopt 3. of dam = 158 + 5 = 163.0 m above H.

45 okay 12.76 x 60 = = 1.706t/m2and h =51 m.4° 210 ∴ Total shear S = (for composite section) 75 2 − 15 2 27.4 x 9.706 x 51 x tan 33° = 1. Since the dam is of composite section.93 tan 2 45 o − 2 2 = 1926. h2 =15m.706 x 51 x O.5 o = = 27.4 b) from shoulder.239 1.5 t say 1900 tonnes.05= 12.4 Sa = 1.5° (for core material). 210 Equivalent angle of internal friction for C— φ soil is given by C + γ h1 tan φ tan φ1 = γ h1 For shell material.67 t/m2 (ii) Factor of Safety against foundation shear : We should now work out the factor of safety in the foundation against shear at the point of maximum unit shear which occurs at 84 m (0. 36 x 2 + 15 x1 = = 1.76 x 60 ∴ φ1 = 13. C = 3 t /m2 ∴ tan φ1 = ∴φ1 = 33° φ = 12° 3 + 1. of the composite material 2 x150 + 1.65 = 56. For core material. r at this location. φ1 = 33° r = 1. b = 2l0m γa = Average effective wt.706 t /m3 51 Shear strength at point of maximum shear = c + γ h tan φ1 Substituting c = 0. The mean effective unit wt.93 t / cum.4 o x1.05 t/m2 Maximum unit shear = 1.5 = = 4. Here h1 = 75m.166 and toe of the dam respectively to the rock level.67 Average unit shear in the foundation (Sa) = .5 t m2 Factor of safety against shear at point of maximum shear 56. 1900 210 = 9.76 x 60 x tan 12 o = 0. the equivalent value of internal friction 150 x33o + 60 x 13. C = 0. we get Shear strength = l.

96. the effect of the outer shell should be neglected. Taking focus as origin.29 Design Problem Dimension From figure 5.6 = 13.6 2 .0 m x= y 2 − 13 2 2 x13 or y= 26 x + 169 .6 m ∴ Y0 = Thus 52 2 + 96. (a) Construction of base parabola: The focus of the base parabola is located at the downstream toe of the core denoted by F.167 4. Hence in computing the position of the seepage line.106 say 13.5. h = 52 m and d = 96.d Fig. Position of Seepage Line in the Composite Section The shells of the dam which consist of sand and gravel are several times as pervious as the central portion of the dam consisting of silty clay. The upstream pervious shell has practically no effect on the position of seepage line and the downstream shell will act as a drain. the equation of base parabola is given by y 2 − y0 x= 2 y0 2 where x and y are the points on the parabola and y0 is the focal distance which is given by y0 y0 = h2 + d 2 .29.

Stability Computation of Upstream and Downstream Slopes The stability of upstream slope has been computed for the following conditions (i) Sudden drawdown condition (ii) Just after construction condition Both the conditions shall be analysed with and without earthquake.s.34 a+∆ a ∆a = 034 x 44.8 348 38. the saturated weight of soil is taken in drawdown range between f.1 = 1 gm/cc = (1t / m3) 40% saturated weight Let V be the volume of solids in unit volume of soil then . we get 13 a + ∆a = = 44.1 52..6 47.s.l. the weight of soil is takesn as 40% saturated. The upstream shell material is so excessively pervious as compared to the central section that it wi1I have no effect on the seepage line. = 0. The seepage line is completed at the downstream end by sketching a short transition curve from point C to the base parabola. The stability of the downstream slope shall be computed for the following conditions: (i) Steady seepage condition (ii) Just after construction condition Both the conditions shall be analysed with and without earthquake.l. Below d.7 26. the seepage line will pass beneath the base of the dam (figure 5.l.4 50. 15. 5.29). For calculating the actuating forces in sudden drowdown condition.s.0 Thus the base parabola is plotted for the above computed values of x & y.6 44.s.l. (a) Sand mixed with gravel Weight of fully saturated soil = 2 gm/cc (2 t /m3) ∴ Submerged weight = 2 . 15. Hence through this section the seepage is drawn as a straight line. the submerged weight of soil is taken while above f. (b) Correction at ingress and egress points The base parabola intersects the downstream face at a distance a + ∆a along the face from the point A.1 m along the face from the point Co. The upstream end of seepage line is sketched with short transition curve as shown in fig.7.6 y = 13 20.30.3 41. or 5. Thus the seepage line meets the downstream face tangentially at point C.2 30.4 = 151 m. As the foundation material is also very pervious. The unit weight of soil are being calculated hereinafter for different conditions. y0 a + ∆a = 1 − cosα Substituting y0 = 13 m and α = 45°. and d.168 The values of y for different values of x are given below : x = 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 80 96.4m 1 − cos 45 o ∆a From fig.

76 1. of shell material is taken as 1.l Core below d.76 0.45 0.60 1.l Core above d.75 2.65 + 0.45 t / m For just after construction condition no pore pressure effect in sandy soil is taken into account.76 1.76 1.55 + (l-V) x 1 = 1.00 1.45 1.606 x 2.s.00 0.1 = 0. The values of unit weight of shell and core material under various conditions of stability analysis both for upstream and downstream slopes are given in Table 5.0 0.45 1.l Shell below d. Slopes (i) Sudden drawdown (a) Without Earthquake (b) With Earthquake (ii) Just after Const.45 1.0 1.51 x 100 3 = 1.00 1.76 For Calculation of N Shell above d.s.76 . Thus an amount equivalent to the value corresponding to pore pressure is to be deducted from (ΣW tan φ + c.s.76 gm/cc = 0.45 1.76 1.l Core above d.V)1 = 2 or V = 0.76.55 + 0.s.l Core below d.76 0. Slope (i) Steady Seepage Condition (a) Without Earthquake (b) With Earthquake (ii) Just after Construction (a) Without Earthquake (b) With Earthquake 1.45 0.s.00 1.45 1.l 1.s.l Shell below d.45 1.).l Moist Core For Calculation of T Shell above d.60 1.0 0.s.s.75 gm / cc (1.s.5 Values of unit weight under different stability conditions For Calculation of N Condition U.l Core below d.49 40 Weight of 40% saturated earth = 0.s.00 1.l Core above d.75 2.00 1.l Shell below d.60 1.75 1.s.76 t/m2 Weight of 40% saturated clay Let V be the volume of solids in unit volume of soil then V x 2.45 0.75 1.76 0.s.45 1.l Core below d.606 ∴ Weight of 40% saturated soil 40 = 0.45 1.s.76 0.394 x = 1.00 1.45 1.l Moist Core Moist Shell For Calculation of T Shell above d.5 Table 5.S.169 V x 2.S.0 1.76 1.l Core above d.6.L.75 1.e. Condition (a) Without Earthquake (b) With Earthquake Condition Moist Core Moist Core Moist Shell Shell above d. The value of unit weight of dry sand i.76 100 say = 1. V = 0.l Shell below d.s.65 +(l .49 x 2.75 1.76 1.76 .l D.s.75 t/m 3) (b) Silty Clay Submerged weight = 1.s.

3 t. Factor of safety = ΣT ΣN for shell material = 100 + 1694. the stability computations have been worked out in Table 5.8 x 1 + 140.90 + 119.6.75 + 297 x l.45 + 57.76+3411 x 1] = 1 [115.60 + 102.5 = 2474 3380 + 9.75 + 322 x 0.6 x 2 + 92 x 0.3 x 1. Resisting force ΣN = 1 [79.7 x 1.76 + 757.515 Okey.6 x 1.50 + 100.0 + 107 = 467.76 + 119 x 1] = 1 [144.4 + 274.00 + 245. . tan φ + c. Radius of slip circle = 150 m.7 t φ for shell material is 33° and for core is 12 ° and C = 3 t / m2 • 5206 tan 33o + 467.00 + 3411.00 + 1515.5 x 0.45 + 58. A slip circle has been drawn with a radius of 150 m as shown in figure 5.0 = = 2474 2474 = 1.5 3749.5 F.00 + 1694.20 + 69.50 x0.8 say 5206 t ΣN for core material = 115.00] = 2473.76 t say 2474 t.00 + 523.5 + 245.OO] = 5673.5m 360 ΣN .2 x 1.76 + 1694.80 + 107. The entire circle has been divided into nine slices. = 2474 5206 x 0.65 + 467. L.8 + 3412 = 5205.170 A — STABILITY COMPUTATION OF THE UPSTREAM SLOPES: (1) Sudden Drawdown Condition (a) Without Earthquake Adopting the above values of the weight of different types of soils under different conditions. Length of arc in the core material 35 = 2 π x 150 x =91.S.2125 + 274. Actuating force ΣT = 1 [99.5 tan 12 o + 3 x91.31.

819 0. Sin θ cos θ θ a sin θ 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 (Submerged shell below d.00 176.s. 20.00 915.342 0.3 Submerged shell above d.0 140. = 365 + 538 + 951 + 915 + 467 + 176 = 3412 Submerged core above d. = .174.0 S.0 = 1694.0 = 322 Submerged core below d.s.0 -4.0 39.0 57.) (Submerged shell above d.) (Submerged shell below d.171 Table 5.4.) (Submerged shell below d.0 51.0 95.00 71.0 70.0 + 7.4 + 70.s 1. = 70.l.731 0.s 1.l.0 455.0 9.0 72.0 + 49.) (Moist core) (Submerged core above d.5 170.60 = .0 + 247.0° 0.s.s 1.0 400.1.5° -0. = 71.5 -114.) (Submerged shell below d.4 -58.6 334.2 = 58.2 Submerged shell above d.3 184.) (Moist core) 390 550 953 72 930 406 497 410 200 518 82 12 418 88 188 70 72 58 252 70 -20.6 Moist shell = 47.6 172.s 1.8 + 400.s 1.936 0.5° -12.4 + 762.208 -3.) (Submerged core above d.0 47.) (Moist shell).) (Submerged shell above d.s 1.s 1.939 0.s 1.998 0.) (Moist shell).) (Submerged core below d.0 538.0 40. (Submerged shell above d.s.s.0 39.4 = 99.) (Submerged shell above d.7 49.798 47.s 1.0 + 52.8 Submerged shell below d.7 + 9.0 52.35 0.6 = 57.0° 28.7 Moist shell= 51.) (Submerged shell above d.4 -0. (Submerged shell above d.3 + 57.s 1.5° -0.40 247.4 162.1.l.6 42.0° 0.0 + 334.0 385.5 + 140.22 Values of Area x sin θ Moist core = 42.682 55.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 10.978 0.s 1.6 = 757.0 53.22 + 72.s 1.0 113.I (Submerged shell below d. = 150 + 172.0° 0.5° 0.984 0.0 + 252.0 951.s.2 252.0 70.0 + 455.22 150.s 1.4.s 1.573 Values of Area x cos θ Moist Core = 39.0 + 385.0° 0.602 0.s.7 .878 -136.477 37.6 + 40 = 79.0 7.0 467.l.) (Submerged shell below d.0 = 142.061 Area x cos θ 365.6 Stability analysis of upstream slope for sudden draw down condition Area x Are Slice No.) (Submerged core below d.

l.7 2757.31 Graphical method of stability computation – Design example With Earthquake Earthquake factor for sudden drawdown condition. α = 0.5 + 114.7 = 1.4 + 5.s.0 + 283.7 t.05 Increase in ΣT = 0.0 = 92. = .2 t ΣT for core material = 144.05 (157 + 1130) = 64.2 x 0.65) = 0.4) = .9 = 737. Reduction in ΣN tan φ ΣT for shell material =.1.0 Fig .s.0 − 64.(136.4t Factor of Safety with earthquake 3749.2125 + 1736.8 + 523 + 69.3 = 288. 5.308.5 Submerged core above d.60 = = 2474.4 = 1 18.05 x 5673. = 53.102 + 1515.7 x 0.1. = 113 + 184 = 297 Submerged core below d. (b) .0 + 95.172 Submerged shell below d.2 + 119 = 1736.9 + 427.4 3684.0 + 39.s.8) + (162:0 + 170.05 (737.7 t Reduction in ΣN tan φ = 0.34 Okay.

head is 8 m.743.76 + 119.138.75 + 297 x 1.5 + 100.8 + 102.0 t For slice 7.45 + 757.0) = 0.0) = 2075. width of strip = 20 m ∴ h x 1 sec θ = 182.2125 = 256 t 4192.3 ∴ P tan φ = 1205.7 + 2220.0 + 119.3 t Σ h.6 x 0.6 x 1.2125 + 3411 x 1 x 0.5 = 53.0 + 274.5 x 0. 1 sec θ = 351.5 x 0.0 + 106.0) = 4191.6 x 1.05 x 6910.45 x 0.45 + 58.05 {644.05 (115.45 + 57. sec θ = 1.743. sec θ = 1.0 + 174.8 x 1.65 + 92 x 0.252.65) = 1 (24.2 x 1.45 tIm3.2125 + 58.0) = 1 (144.4 + 1760 + 22.0 + 99.2125 + 57.45 x 0. 1 sec θ = 182.05 x 1069.05) Increase in T = 0.0 t For slice 9.2125 + 119 x l x 0.03 Okey.1 + 467.45 + 1694.75 + 322 x 1.8 say 2076 t ΣN tan φ = (79.0 + 2710.8 x 0.65 + 297 x 1.5 − 256 4210. head = 10 m.2 x 1. width of strip = 20 m ∴ h . 1 sec θ = 174.8 x 1. head = 14m.0 + 430 + 1210. 1 sec θ = 498.7 x 1. sec θ = 1.3 t Now P = w h l sec θ = l x 1205.3 x 1.45 x 0.0 + 351. width of strip = 10 m ∴ h .65 + 322 x 1.5 t Decrease in ΣN tan φ = 0.0 t For slice 8.0 + 498.6 + 140.4 = 345.5 Factor of safety = = 2076 2076 = 2.75 x 0.8 + 3411.75 x 0.6 x 1.76 + 34ll x l) = 0. sec θ = 1.7 t say 4192 t Pore Pressure For slice 6. Actuating forces ΣT = 1 (99.3 = 1205.6 x 1.2125 + 1694.7 x 1.3 x 0.05 x 1 (99.0 + 70.5 t .173 (ii) Just After Construction Condition (a) Without Earthquake In this condition the shell material should be assumed to be dry and the clay core material as moist with unit weight as 1.2125 + 757.76 x 0. head = 18 m.65 + 140.65) = 0.6 + 92 x 0.3 x 1.05 x 1 (79.45 x 0.6 x 0.x 1.3 = 1205.2125 + 1431 x 0.65} = 0.76 x 0. width of strip = 10 m ∴ h . (b) With Earthquake (α = 0.6 + 65.

6 135.643 0.) 8 (Moist shell) 8 (Submerged core below p.174 -0.76 + 17 x 0.6 28.325 -0.76 + 30.) 6 (Submerged shell below d.65} = {(103.2 ) 0.s.l.l.s.) 7 (Moist shell) 7 (Submerged core below p.935 0.8 x 1. slope under steady seepage condition Slice No.766 49° 0.2° + 7° 19° 29° 40° 0.3 903.3 x 1) = 1 x (132 +1430 + 224 + 12.F.0 14.3 x 0. 1 (Submerged shell below d.s.2t ΣN tan φ = 1 x {(71.5 -23.945 0.45 + 138.s.5 10.l) 8 (Moist core above p.S.3) = 2175.) 3 (Submerged shell below d.5 4.0 87.9 + 376.l) 7 (Moist core above P.= 4210.6 x 0.755 0.l.s.l.s.8 311.) 5 (Moist shell below d.835 0.325 0.485 cos θ 0.S.5 88.72 O.l.5 -87.l.6 345.76 + 376.035 0.) 4 (Moist shell) 5 (Submerged shell below d.2125 + (l3229 x 1.45 + 817.0 174 B STABILITY COMPUTATION OF DOWNSTREAM SLOPE (i) Steady Seepage Condition: (a) Without Earthquake: The stability computation have been worked out in Table 5.K = 2076 + 345.122 0.75 + 3333.l of fail water level) 2 (Submerged shell below d.999 0.6 17.) 6 (Submerged shell below d.5 x 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 260 -19° 502 655 743 89 956 380 320 420 35 23 550 135 6 206 53 59 52 51 -10° .l.0 34.6 40.s.) 4 (Submerged shell below d.s. A slip circle has been drawn with a radius of 150 m passing near the toe and touching the impervious rock.0 280.0 44.7 28.2125 + (2320+3330) x 0.l.8 155.5 2421.0 213. Actuating forces ΣT = 1 x (90.0 17.550 .) 9 (Moist shell) 9 (Moist core) Area θ sin θ -0.7.0 103.0 359.992 0.945 0.5 4157.0 = 1.No.3 x 1.76) 0.5 43.75 + 127 x 1.656 56° 0.1 x l) 0.8 290.5 Area x cos θ 246 495 654 737.5 42.7 Stability analysis of D.875 Area x sin θ .8 38.) 6 (Moist shell) 6 (Submerged shell below d.3 + 105 + 23.0 90. The entire slip surface has been divided into 9 slices.84.l.0 S.l.0 204.0 3.5 155.65} Table 5.0 367.0 30.5 − 53.s.

s1.3 Submerged core below d.0 + 155.1 x 1 (71.(84.76 + 17 x 0.2 2175.6 = 1320.0 + 345. d − p .s.9 Submerged core above d. or below p.S.0 Submerged core below d.75+3333) = 0.5 + 311.l.0 + 737.377 pq (ii) Just after Construction Condition: (a) Without Earthquake Effect .l.65 (817.2125 + 1806.5 + 903.6 Submerged shell below d.6 x 0.s.2125 + 5653 x 0.3 Moist shell above d.1 (439 + 5653) = 609.0 175 Values of Area x Cos θ Moist core = 4.5 x 0.L. h .0 x 1.8 Moist shell above d.5 + 23.0 + 17.8 x 1.45 + 127.5 + 44.76 + 1320.l.0 + 280.s.3 + 359. = 246 + 495.8 (b)With Earthquake (Earthquake factor α = 0.Values of Area x sin θ Moist core = 42.0 +14. q .3 x 1.0 + 135.5 Submerged shell = .1. = 17.9 x 1.6 + 38.5 + 87.75 + 376.5 x 1.0 + 40.2 t Factor of Safety = L = K . = 88.5 + 290.0 + 571. = 103.8 = 90. = 30.0 + 155.3t Decrease in ΣN tan φ = 0.2 = 1.6 = 3333.6 + 43.76 + 30.s.3 x 0.0 + 28.8 = -195.8 = 138.1 [(90.8 + 123. = 10.76) x 0.9 x 0.0 + 654.45 + 138.2 say 3659 t.65) = 125.3 = 376.1) Increase in Σ T = 0.3 x 1)] = 0.2125 + 0. = = 2175.0 = 127.0 = 71.3 x 0.1.b = 1.7 + 28.65) = 3659.5 + 3.1 = (231.1(368.5 = 817.5 + 34.s l. ΣT Length of arc (L) 36 = 2 π x 137 x 360 = 86 m ∴ cL = 3 x 86 = 258t 3669 + 258 3916 F. Factor of Safety ΣN tanφ + c.3 Saturated core = 87.0)+ 90.

3 x 0.6 + 208 + 213 + 94 = 560. = (327.45 + 17 x 0.8 = 1.65) = 58. head = 4 m.2125 + (817.05 Increase in Σ T = 0.14 = 45.76 + 376.2 125 + 5448 x 0.S.45 + 30.8 x 1.6 x 0. head = 10 m.6 t P tan φ = 560.2125 = 121 t 3609.05 (103.05 (329 x 0.65} = 0.65) = 3609.45 + 817.6t For slice 7.8 x l.3 x 1. sec θ = 1. = = =1.60 t Pore Pressure For slice 6.05 {(90.2125 + (1321 x 1.6 + 258 − 121 3746.14 Width of strip 1 = 20 m ∴ P = wh 1 sec θ = 1 x 2 x 2O x l. Sec θ = 1.5 x 1.76) 0.525 = 213 t For slice 9.2 + 3333) = 288.6 + 376. head = 8m.76) 0.45 + 123 x 1.6 + 1383 x 1.3 x 1.6 + 3333 x 1) 0.85 3698. Sec θ = 1.3 Width of strip 1 = 20 m ∴ P = wh l sec θ = l x 1.6 + 127 x 1. S.81 Width of strip 1 = 13 m ∴ P = wh l sec θ = l x 4 x 1.45 + 138.K 176 .3 x 20 = 208t For slice 8.5 x 1.8 2303.3 x 1) = (132 + 1313 + 184 +13 + 376) = 2015 t Σ N tan φ = 1 [(71.2 + 2115 + 201 + 23.6 − 5.5t 3746.3 x 1) x 0. = = 2015 + 288.45 +1321 x l.Actuating forces Σ T = 1 (90.6 F.6 O.0 x 0.45 + 30.87 t Decrease in Σ tan φ = 0.65].2125 + l686.4 x 0.86 Okay 2015 2015 (b) With Earthquake: Earthquake factor α = 0.6 x 0.76 + 3333 x 1) = 0.81 x 13 = 94 t ∴ Σ P = 45.1 F. head = 2 m. sec θ = 1.3 x 1.525 Width of strip 1 = 14 m ∴ P = wh l sec θ =1 x lO x 14 x l.05 (71.45 +19 x 0.

5 1.86 Safe > 1.72 Safe > 1. Hence the assumed slopes of the dam section both in the upstream and downstream are safe under all conditions.177 The values of ‘Factor of Safety’ under different conditions for upstream and downstream are given in Table 5. With E.5 1. A Conditions of Analysis UPSTREAM SLOPE (i ) Sudden drawdown (ii) Just after construction B DOWNSTREAM SLOPE (i ) Steady Seepage (ii) Just after construction . Q. 5.0 SL. But the slip circles as marked in fig.60 Safe > 1. other slip circles should be drawn and for each condition the factor of safety be calculated.0 1. The detailed design has been illustrated in figure 5. The critical circle is one with minimum factor of safety.5 1.30 Table 5. one.5 and that with earthquake is more than unity. Q.8 Factor of Safety Under Different Conditions Factor of Safety Without E.80 Safe > 1.34 Safe > 1.8 The factor of safety in normal case for all conditions without earthquake is greater than 1.30 may not be the critical.377 Safe > 10 1.03 Safe > 1.5 2.515 Safe > 1.0 1. No. 1.

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