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12/6/2012

PURPOSE OF USING VALVES Valves are used to control the flow of liquids, solids and gases in industrial as well as domestic situations and are one of the major piping components. components. The most common and familiar valves are the taps used in the home to control the flow of hot and cold water. In the oil industry, valves are a water. major element in the control of operations. operations. About 8-10% of the total capital expenditure of 10% the chemical industry is used for procurement of valves. valves.

PRESENTATION ON MECHANICAL VALVES BY ALOK KUMAR SINGH

VALVES ARE USED FOR ONE OR MORE OF THREE MAIN PURPOSES

VALVE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUNCTION
VALVES ON/OFF REGULATION GLOBE NEEDLE BUTTERFLY DIAPHRAGM PISTON PINCH CHECK NON-RETURN MULTI-PORT FLUSH BOTTOM FLOAT FOOT LINE BLIND SPECIAL

To control the rate of flow ( (throttle); ); To shut off/permit flow (ON/OFF function); To isolate systems and protect products.

GATE BALL PLUG PISTON DIAPHRAGM BUTTERFLY PINCH VALVE

VALVE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON END CONNECTIONS

VALVE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

VALVES

VALVES

SCREWD ENDS

SOCKET WELD ENDS

FLANGED ENDS

BUTT WELD ENDS

SOCKETTED ENDS

WAFER TYPE ENDS

CAST IRON

BRONZE

GUN METAL

CARBON STEEL

SS

ALLOY CARBON STEEL

POLY PROPY-LENE

SPECIAL ALLOY

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used.Steel Ball Valve 5351BS 5353. p g Curve A = Quick Opening Curve B = Linear Curve C = Equal % Equal Percentage (most commonly used valve control) Used in processes where large changes in pressure drop are expected Used in processes where a small percentage of the total pressure drop is permitted by the valve Used in temperature and pressure control loops Linear Used in liquid level or flow loops Used in systems where the pressure drop across the valve is expected to remain fairly constant (ie.12/6/2012 STANDARDS OF MANUFACTURE Metric/Imperial dimensions. Some API standard are : API 6D.Steel Check Valve For Petroleum Industry 1868BS 1673. QUICK-OPENING VALVE.Gate Valve For Petroleum Industry 1414BS 1868.Carbon Steel Gate Valves 602API 609.Carbon Steel And Alloy Steel Plug Valve 5353- VALVE TYPE SELECTION CRITERIA VALVE STROKE(OPENNESS) VS THE FLOW Equal Percentage: equal increments of Size limitations Cost Operating Conditions:temperature.DIN. British Standards .Butterfly Valves 609Some BS standard are : d d BS 1414. safety systems or cooling water systems) 2 .Steel Globe Valve For Petroleum Industry 1673BS 5155.API.ANSI (previously ASA).Pipe Line Valve 6DAPI 600 – Steel Gate Valve API 602. US Standards . American Petroleum Institution .Butterfly Valve 5155BS 5351. Conditions:temperature pressure and flow rate Service Maintenance requirements valve travel produce an equal percentage in flow change Linear: valve travel is directly proportionall l t l i di tl ti to the valve stoke Quick opening: large increase in flow with a small change in valve stroke VALVE CHARACTERISTICS EQUAL-PERCENTAGE VALVE LINEAR VALVE.BS German Standards . steady state systems) Quick Opening Used for frequent on-off service onUsed for processes where "instantly" large flow is needed (ie. (flanges and other equipment are commonly used in the oil industry Valves are rated according to the maximum pressure and temperature at which they can safely be used.

durability. no Oil. slurry and hydraulic systems Adv: Adv: Offer minimum resistance to flow Tight sealing with low torque Low cost & High capacity Low leakage and maintenance Operation. Plugs can be made of rigid materials such as Teflon¨.No flow restrictions & low cost Disadv: Disadv: Poor throttling Cavitate at low pressure drops Gate valves should not be used where frequent operation is required GATE VALVE GATE OR DISC BALL VALVE To provide a quick opening. steam. heavy liquids.when ball is turned through 90 deg. gas air slurries liquids steam condensing gases. flow will be allowed. linear & simple shut-off shutFor Fully open/closed. resistance Quick Opening valve Infrequent operation Gate usually wedge-shaped or a vertical disc as in the wedgediagram Application: Oil gas. limited-throttling limitedHigher temperature fluids Ball has opening through centre. making Teflon¨ them ideal for high-purity h id l f high. and corrosive liquids Adv: Adv: high capacity.i hi h Adv: Adv: Good for high pressure applications Easy to operate Provide a tight shutoff Disadv Plugs may freeze if not operated for a long period of time PLUG VALVE 3 . sanitary. slurries. air. and capability of withstanding high pressures Disadv: Disadv: Prone to cavitations Not Suitable For Lines Subject To Pulasting Flow Poor throttling characteristics Expensive BALL VALVE BALL PLUG VALVE To provide a quick. reliability. simple shut-off shutNot Common In Sizes Over 6 Inch Not Suitable For Lines Subject To Pulasting Flow Controls flow using a plug with a hole through it. when this opening is in line with the inlet & outlet ports.12/6/2012 GATE VALVES Used when a tight shut-off is required & there must be shutstraightstraight-line flow of fluid with min. No flow can takes place Application: Normally found in seawater. trim and drain.

corrosive substances & slurries Disc attached to valve stem rests against seat to shut off flow of fluid Adv: Adv: Efficient throttling & Accurate flow control Available in multiple ports Disadv: Disadv: flow resistance High pressure drop More expensive than other valves GLOBE VALVE NEEDLE VALVE Most accurate flow control among the valves Similar To Globe Valve Except Disc Is Pointed At End . Suspended Particles (Elastomeric Diaphragm only) & Severe Chemical Adv: Adv Ad : Can Be Used Where Leakage Cannot Be Tolerated Disadv: Can Only Withstand A Maximum Operating Pressure 7 to 10 Kg/Cm2 g Require frequent maintenance as damage to diaphragm occur Cannot Withstand Temperature Above 400 Deg F Hand wheel Visual Indicator Travel Stop Bonnet Compressor Diaphragm One Piece Molded Flange Panel Mount Provision GLOBE VALVES Throttling service/flow regulation valve Linear and Equal percentage valve Frequent operation Application: steam. In some designs. oil lines. Neoprene.12/6/2012 DIAPHRAGM VALVE DIAPHRAGM VALVE For Low Pressure Corrosive Service As Shut-off Valves ShutDiaphragm moves up and down to operate the valve Diaphragm materials available in Nitrile. And Smaller For Use On Pilot Plants And Bench Scale Equipment And Instrument Service . etc. Application : Slurry Services. Adv: Adv: NEEDLE VALVE Disadv: Good For Manual Flow Control . Positive Shut –Off Not Always Posible Or Desrible. Hypalon. PTFE.Steel Valves Are Often Made From Bars stock Arc Rugged. seat is scored If Shut Down Tightly 4 . air.Ground Joint Union Bonnet Connection Preferable. Valves 2 Inch. water.

low cost . gases. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. . Flow forces a ball or disk in one direction to open the valve. liquids with suspended solids and ventilation systems BUTTERFLY VALVE Adv: Small. water pressure pushes the disk and closes the valve Application: Suspended Particles. quick-acting & reliability High capacity. when flow stops.minimum maintenance.The disc seals against the opening to cut of flow & can be positioned at a point between fully closed and fully opens as required Application: Liquids. light-weight. drip tight shut –off . One common application is in the discharge line of a centrifugal pump to prevent reverse suction Adv: Adv: Check valves are automatic in action CHECKVALVES: HOW THEY WORK… CORRECT FLOW REVERSE FLOW SWING CHECK CHECK VALVE CLASSIFICATION Controls direction of flow It has a hinged disk. When the water flow reverses. easy operation . Low pressure drop & self-sealing so they don’t require an additonal flange gasket for installation Can be used for vacuum service Disadv: High torque required for control Prone to cavitations at lower flows Leaks early & only low-flow throttle The material used for seats restrict its use for high temperature application CHECK VALVES Allow flow in one direction only. the ball or disk seats to close the valve.12/6/2012 BUTTERFLY VALVES Linear. Equal percentage & Positive shut –off quarter turn valve Fully open/closed or throttling services Frequent operation Minimal fluid trapping in line The disc or wafer rotates about a vertical axis & can be turned through 90 deg. slurries. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure.high velocity Adv: Adv: Minimum Pressure Drop is Required Best For Liquids And For Larger Line Sizes (Above 2”) CHECK VALVE SWING LIFT Disadv: WAFER PISTON LIFT BALL LIFT NON-SLAM Not Suitable In Line Subject To Pulsating Flow Some Styles Operates Only In A Horizontal Position 5 .

and reverse flow pushes the disk down to its seat and stops the backflow Adv: Adv Ad : Good For Vapours . Not Recommended For Service Which Deposit Solids PISTON LIFT CHECK VALVE BALL LIFT CHECK VALVE Controls direction of flow ball is located at end of stem and lifts to allow flow Application: Space Limitation Problems.Steam . Not Suitable For Lines Subject To Pulsating Flow 6 .12/6/2012 SWING-CHECK VALVE WAFER CHECK VALVE Wafer check valves are flangeless swing check valve covered under regulatory code API 594 Adv: Adv: less pressure drop across the valve in large sizes. Not Common In Sizes Over 6 Inch.And Water. Minimum shut off is 5 psi Adv: Stop Flow Reversal More Rapidly Than Others Good For Viscous Fluids Which Deposit Solid Residues That Would Impair Operation Of Other type Vertical Or Horizontal Installation Is possible Disadv: Not Common in Sizes Over 6 Inch. Suitable For Pulsating Flow Disadv: Many Design But For Horizontal Service Only. upward regular flow raises the piston and opens the valve. sizes reduced water hammer and are compact Disadv: producing relatively high head losses excessive wear under some operating conditions WAFER CHECK VALVE PISTON LIFT CHECK VALVE In a lift check valve.

1500# & 2500 #) Trim: The trim is comprised of stem .900# . Hydrostatic test of all valves. Strip check on 1% of total ordered quantity of valves at random to verify compliance with specification requirements Review of radiographs / radiographic reports and reports of any other NDT tests.300# . P.25% Others (S. API 600 specifies trim number in table 3 of the standard .e. Mn) : As per IBR For all “IBR Valves” test certificate in form III-C shall IIIbe furnished. Any mandatory of supplementary test. American Standard specified the following classes p g (i. 150# . Here The Disc Is Held In Position By A Spring Which Is Housed In A Housing Cap Or Yoke INSPECTION AND TESTING Inspection plan to be submitted to Purchaser by supplier during order FOR FORGED VALVES/CAST STEEL VALVES Visual and dimensional inspection.12/6/2012 BALL LIFT CHECK VALVE NON-SLAM CHECK VALVE The Non-slam Check Valve Is A Spring-loaded NonSpringLift Check Valve With A Modified Design Of The Body The Valve Is Designed In Such Way That Same Can Be Sandwiched Between The Two Flanges.600#.seat surfaces . duly signed by IBR inspection authority or an IBR approved representative All valves shall be painted red TERM USED FOR VALVE SPECIFIATION Pressure –temperature ratings: Pressure –temperature rating is the maximum allowable sustained non shock pressure at the corresponding tabulated temperature. For SW / BW end carbon steel valves under “IBR”. These are listed in ASME B16. Review of material test certificates.400# . the body material chemical composition IBR shall conform to the following : Carbon (Max.) : 0.back seat bushing and other small internal parts that’s normally contact the surface fluid. TRIM PARTS OF COMMON VALVES GATE STEM SEAT RING WEDGE RING GLOBE STEM SEAT RING DISC NUT SWING SEAT RING DISC HOLDER SIDE PLUG LIFT CHECK DISC GUIDE SEAT RING BUSHING BUSHING HOLDER PIN DISC NUT PIN 7 .34 Class: The valve is specified by the pressure rating of the body of the valves. for cast steel valve only IBR VALVES Valves described as “IBR Valves” shall be in accordance with the latest IBR (Indian Boiler Regulations) as well as the other requirements specified in the specification.it specifies the types of material which can be used for the parts with its typical specification and grade.

relatively cool liquids) disc is best defiance oilagainst wire drawing because its resiliency make it easier to close tightly. UPSTREAM PRESSURE: Pressure of the fluid entering the valve.12/6/2012 Wetted parts: parts: Wire drawing: drawing: All parts which come in contact with the service fluid are called the wetted parts . sometimes refers to as outlet or reduced pressure. The ice formation on the wedge will obstruct movement thereby increasing the leak through seat further This refer to the valve in the closing element is retracted entirely so that there is no restriction of flow This refers to the valve where the entire operation of valve is achieved by 90 deg. LAER: Signifies “ lowest achievable emission rate ” is the minimum rate of fugitive emission which is achieved by deploying proper sealing arrangements 8 . Turn of the closing element DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE: Pressure of the fluid discharged from the valve. sometimes refers to as inlet or supply pressure. Straight –through flow: flow: Quarter –turn valve: This term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by excessive velocity between seat and seat disc A WOG (water -oil-gas. Stem discs are of harder material and to be closed carefully to prevent wire drawing In LPG service . LDAR: Signifies “ leak detection and repair” to ensure that the fugitive emission standards of EPA are met.the wire drawing effect causes a threat of antithe antirefrigeration.