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# Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H)) cos ωt: ωA + [1/CR1]B = 0 ⇒ A = -B/ωCR1 sin ωt: -ωB + [1/CR1]A = I0/C -ωB + [1/CR1][-B/ωCR1] = I0/C B = I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12] A = -[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ωCR1

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Complete solution V(t) = Ke-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ωCR1]sin ωt + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ωt At t = 0+ V(0+) = Ke-(1/CR1)0+ + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ωCR1]sin ω(0+) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ω(0+) I0sin ωt [R1 + R2] = K(1) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]] I0sin ωt [R1 + R2] = K + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]] K = I0sin ωt [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]] V(t) = [I0sin ωt [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]]e-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω 1/C2R12]]/ωCR1]sin ωt + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ωt Q#6.29: Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source. 1. Determine the characteristic equation. 2. Locus of the roots of the equation. 3. Plot the roots of the equation. Solution:

R V(t) i(t)

L C

For t ≥ 0 According to KVL di 1 L + ∫ idt + Ri = V(t) dt C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ d2i i di For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.booknstuff.com/

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)) L

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+ +R =0 dt2 C dt Dividing both sides by ‘L’ d2i i Rdi + + =0 (i) dt2 LC Ldt The characteristic equation can be found by substituting the trial solution i = est or by the equivalent of substituting s2 for (d2i/dt2), and s for (di/dt); thus 1 s + 2) ζ= 0 jω jω n
2

R s=0

+ LC L

ζ= 1 ζ→∞ σ

ζ→∞ -jω n ζ= 0

1 s2 + +

R s=0

LC L Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a

1 R L 1 LC

s1, s2 =

For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.booknstuff.com/

Rcr.H)) 2000-E-41 120 R L s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = 2 R L s1.com/ .booknstuff.U. s2 = 2 R = 2L ± ± ± R L 2 4(1) 1 LC 2 R L 2 4(1) 1 LC 4 R 2L 2 4(1) 1 4LC R = 2L ± R 2L 2 - 1 LC radical term (ii) Hint: 4 = 2 To convert equation (i) to a standard form.B. we define the value of resistance that causes the radical (pertaining to the root) term in the above equation as the critical resistance. s2 = ± R L 2 4(1) 1 LC 2(1) R L s1. This value is found by solving the equation 2 R 2L LC 1 =0 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.

booknstuff.B.U.com/ .H)) R = Rcr 2 Rcr 2L 2 Rcr = 2L LC Taking square root of both the sides 2 Rcr = 2L LC 1 1 LC 2000-E-41 121 1 =0 Rcr = 2L 1 LC Using cross multiplication L Rcr = 2 C Hint: ζ= 1 R Rcr =1 R ζ= 2 C L For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

s2 = -ζωn ± when ζ = 0 s1. s2 = Simplifying we get s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)) 2000-E-41 122 1 ωn = LC R 2ζωn = L 1 ω n2 = LC Substituting the corresponding values in equation (i) we get s2 + 2ζωns + ω n2 = 0 roots of the characteristic equation are Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1.B.com/ .U.booknstuff. s2 = -(0)ω n ± ω n√ζ2 – 1 ω n√(0)2 – 1 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www. s2 = -2ζωn ± √(2ζωn)2 – 4(1)(ω n2) 2(1) -2ζωn s1. s2 = 2 ± √4ζ2ω n2 – 4ω n2 2 1 2ζωn ω n2 s1.

booknstuff. s2 = ± ω n√–1 s1. s2 = -250 ± j968.246 R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 1000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F 1000 = 2(1) ± 1000 2(1) 2 - 1 (1)(10-6) (ii) = -500 ± √250000 .1000000 = -250 ± √-937500 = -250 ± √937500√-1 s1. s2 = ± jω n Hint: √–1 = j 3) R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 500 = 2(1) ± 500 2(1) 2 (1)(10-6) 1 2000-E-41 123 500 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F (ii) = -250 ± √62500 .H)) s1.com/ .B.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1000000 = -500 ± √-750000 = -500 ± √750000√-1 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.

034 R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 5000 = 2(1) ± 5000 2(1) 2 (1)(10-6) (ii) 1 5000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F = -2500 ± √6250000 . -4791. s2 = -208.288 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.1000000 = -1500 ± √ 1250000 = -1500 ± 1118.H)) 2000-E-41 124 s1.712.966.034).034) s1.288 = (-2500 + 2291.025 R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 3000 = 2(1) ± 3000 2(1) 2 (1)(10-6) (ii) 1 3000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F = -1500 ± √2250000 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.034 = (-1500 + 1118.288) s1.1118.booknstuff. (-2500 .1000000 = -2500 ± √ 5250000 = -2500 ± 2291.B.2291. -2618. s2 = -500 ± j 866.U. s2 = -381.288). (-1500 .com/ .

com/ .booknstuff. and determine the characteristic equation for the currents in the network as a function of k1. Find the values of k1 for which the roots of the characteristic equation are on the imaginary axis of the s plane. Find the range of values of k1 for which the roots of the characteristic equation have positive real parts.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. Solution: 1H i2 1Ω + V1(t) i1 1F 1Ω 1Ω + K1i1 1Ω i3 Loop i1: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i3)(XC) 1 XC = j2πfc ω = 2πf j2πfc = jωc jω = s 1 XC = sc c =1F 1 XC = s(1 F) 1 XC = s V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω) + (i1 – i3) 1 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.31: Analyze the network given in the figure on the loop basis.U.B.H)) 2000-E-41 125 Q#6.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.com/ .B.i1 s 1 + i3 – k1i1 = 0 s + (i3)(1 Ω) .U.booknstuff.H)) Simplifying 1 V1(t) = i1 + i1 – i2 + i1 – i3 + i1 s 1 V1(t) = (3 + s Loop i2: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL (i2 – i1)(1 Ω) + i2(XL) = 0 XL = jωL s = jω XL = s(1 H) XL = s Substituting (i2 – i1)(1 Ω) + i2(s) = 0 Simplifying i2 – i1 + si2 = 0 (1 + s)i2 – i1 = 0 Loop i3: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop Sum of voltage rise = k1i1 1 Sum of voltage drop = (i3 – i1)(1 Ω) + (i3 – i1) Substituting in (a) 1 (i3 – i1)(1 Ω) + (i3 – i1) Simplifying 1 (i3 – i1)(1 Ω) + (i3 – i1) 1 i3 – i1 + i3 s .i3 s 1 s 2000-E-41 126 (a) For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.k1i1 = 0 s + (i3)(1 Ω) = k1i1 s + (i3)(1 Ω) (ii) )i1 – i2 – (1 + s 1 ) (i) .

com/ .B.(0)(0) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.booknstuff.(-1) X B 1 (-1) 2+ s 1 + k1 + 1 s (1 + s) For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www. (ii) & (iii) can be written in matrix form 1 3+ s -1 (1 + s) 0 -1 1+ s i2 = 1 1 + k1 + s 0 2+ s 1 i3 0 0 1 i1 V1 A Determinant of A = 1 3+ s 1 (0) + (-) 1+ s After simplifying Characteristic equation: (5 – k1)s2 + (6 – 2k1)s + (2 – k1) = 0 When k1 = 0 (5 – 0)s2 + (6 – 2(0))s + (2 – 0) = 0 5s2 + 6s + 2 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here (-1)0 – (-) 1 + k1 + s (1 + s) 2 + s 1 1 .U.H)) 1 s + k1 + 1 i1 + 2 + s 1 i3 = 0 (iii) 2000-E-41 127 Equations (i).

B.2).2) When k1 = 1 (5 – 1)s2 + (6 – 2(1))s + (2 – 1) = 0 4s2 + 4s + 1 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a 4 4 1 s1. s2 = -6 ± √36 – 40 10 s1. s2 = 10 s1.6 ± j0.6 . s2 = -6 ± j2 5 6 2 2000-E-41 128 s1.U. s2 = -0.2 s1. (-0.booknstuff. s2 = -6 ± √-4 10 s1.H)) a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1. s2 = (-0.6 + j0.j0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -6 ± √62 – 4(5)(2) 2(5) s1.com/ . s2 = -6 ± √-1√4 10 s1. s2 = For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.

5.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B. s2 = s1. s2 = -4 ± √16 – 16 8 s1. s2 = -4 ± √0 8 -4 ± 0 8 s1.booknstuff. s2 = 3 2 0 s1. s2 = For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www. s2 = -2 ± √4 – 0 6 -2 ± √4 6 s1. s2 = 0. s2 = -0. 0.com/ . s2 = -2 ± 2 6 s1.U.667 2000-E-41 129 s1.5 When k1 = 2 (5 – 2)s2 + (6 – 2(2))s + (2 – 2) = 0 3s2 + 2s + 0 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1. -0. s2 = -2 ± √22 – 4(3)(0) 2(3) s1.H)) -4 ± √42 – 4(4)(1) 2(4) s1. s2 = s1.

com/ .32: Show that equation 6-121 can be written in the form ζω i = ke.H)) 2000-E-41 130 When k1 = -1 (5 – (-1))s2 + (6 – 2(-1))s + (2 – (-1)) = 0 6s2 + 8s + 3 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1. s2 = For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.472).828 6 s1.U.472) Q#6.334 + j0. s2 = s1.B. s2 = -8 ± √64 – 72 12 -8 ± √-8 6 s1. s2 = (-1. s2 = -8 ± √-1√8 6 -8 ± j2.nt cos (ω n√1 .ζ2 t + φ ) Give the values for k and φ in terms of k5 and k6 of Eq. s2 = s1. Solution: Let k5 = kcosφ (i) k6 = -ksinφ (ii) 2 k = (kcosφ ) + (-ksinφ )2 k = k2cos2φ + k2sin2φ 6 8 3 s1.334 .j0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.booknstuff. s2 = -8 ± √82 – 4(6)(3) 2(6) s1. (-1. (6-121).

B. (i) by (ii) kcosφ = -cot φ = -ksinφ -1 k5 φ = cot k6 Using the trigonometric identity cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y k6 k5 2000-E-41 131 Q#6.U.33: A switch is closed at t = 0 connecting a battery of voltage V with a series RL circuit.booknstuff.H)) k = k2(cos2φ + sin2φ ) k = k2(1) k = √k2 = √k52 + k62 Dividing Eq.com/ . (a) Solution: sw t=0 R V i L For t ≥ 0 According to KVL di V = iR + L dt Dividing both sides by ‘L’ di R V + i= dt L L This is a linear non-homogeneous equation of the first order and its solution is.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. Thus For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.

com/ 0 R L e(R/L)t + ke-(R/L)t R + ke-(R/L)(0) .U.H)) R P= L V Q= L Hence the solution of this equation i = e-Pt∫ QePtdt + ke-Pt V i = e-(R/L)t∫ e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t L V i=e -(R/L)t 2000-E-41 132 L ∫e (R/L)t ∫ e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t e(R/L)t dt = d dt (R/L)t L e(R/L)t ∫ e(R/L)tdt = Substituting V i = e-(R/L)t L V i= + ke-(R/L)t R i(0-) = i(0+) = 0 Substituting i = 0 at t = 0 V 0= R e =1 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.booknstuff.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.e-(R/L)t ) + R -V e-(R/L)t 2000-E-41 133 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.U.booknstuff.B.b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab t V2 WR = ∫ (1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2(1)(e-(R/L)t))Rdt 2 0 R t V2 WR = ∫ (1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2e-(R/L)t)dt 0 R V2 WR = R Simplifying V2 WR = R (b) Li2 WL = 2 LV2 t+ R t t t ∫ (1)dt + ∫ e-2(R/L)tdt + ∫ (-2e-(R/L)tdt) 0 0 0 2L e-(R/L)t L e-2(R/L)t 2R 3L 2R (1 .e-(R/L)t )2Rdt 0 R (a .com/ .H)) V k=R Substituting V i= R V i= R P = i2R t WR = ∫ i2R dt 0 t V 2 WR = ∫ (1 .

e-(R/L)0)2 2 2R LV2 WL = (1 – e0)2 2 2R LV2 WL = (1 – 1)2 2R2 WL = 0 joules At t = ∞ LV2 ∞ WL = (1 .)2 ∞ .U.B.com/ (1 – e.booknstuff.e-(R/L)t )2 (c) At t = 0 V2 WR = R V2 WR = R V2 WR = R V2 WR = R 2L (0) + R 2L (0) + R 2L (1) R 0 L e 0 e -(R/L)(0) - L e-2(R/L)(0) 2R 3L 0 3L 2R L e 2R 2R 3L (1) 2R 2R WR = 0 joules At t = 0 LV2 WL = (1 .e-(R/L) )2 2R2 LV2 WL = 2R2 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)) WL = 2R 2 2000-E-41 134 (1 .

34: In the series RLC circuit shown in the accompanying diagram.ζ2 Solution: 1000 Ω + 100 sin ωt i(t) 1 µF 1H For t ≥ 0 According to KVL di 100 sin ωt = L + iR + dt Here ω = ωn di 100 sin ω nt = L + iR + dt 1 ωn = 1 C ∫ idt 1 C ∫ idt … (i) For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)) LV2 WL = 2R2 LV2 WL = 2R2 (d) In steady state total energy supply W = WR + WL V2 W = R t+ R 2L e-(R/L)t L e-2(R/L)t 2R + 2R 3L LV2 (1 – e-(R/L)t)2 2R2 joules (1 – 0)2 2000-E-41 135 Q#6.com/ .U.booknstuff. the frequency of the driving force voltage is (1) ω = ω n (2) ω = ω n√1 .B.

1 For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B 1000000sin 1000t (ip)′ = Ist derivative (ip)′ ′ = 2nd derivative 100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t .com/ .U.booknstuff.B.B 1000000sin 1000t + 1000(-1000A sin 1000t + B 1000cos 1000t) + 1000000(A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t) Simplifying 100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t – 1000000B sin 1000t .1000000A sin 1000t + 1000000B cos 1000t + 1000000A cos 1000t + 1000000B sin 1000t Simplifying Equating the coefficients Cos: 100000 = 1000000B 100000 B= 1000000 B = 0.H)) LC L=1H C = 1 × 10-6 F 1 ωn = (1 H)( 1 × 10-6 F) 2000-E-41 136 After simplifying ω n = 1000 rad/sec Substituting in (i) we get di 1 100 sin 1000t = L + iR + ∫ idt … (i) dt C Differentiating both the sides & substituting the values of L & C we get d2i di i 100 (1000) cos 1000t = (1) + (1000) + dt2 dt 10-6 Simplifying we get d2i di 100000cos 1000t = + (1000) + 1000000i 2 dt dt The trial solution for the particular integral is ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t d2ip dip 100000cos 1000t = + (1000) + 1000000ip dt2 dt (ip)′ = -1000A sin 1000t + B 1000cos 1000t (ip)′ ′ = -1000000A cos 1000t .

1) sin 1000t ip = 0.XC) Z=R V Im = Z 100 Im = 1000 Im = 0.H)) 2000-E-41 137 Sin: 0 = .booknstuff.XC) Z = R + j(XC .1 sin 1000t ej t – e-j sin ωt = 2j Here ω = 1000 ej1000t – e-j1000t sin 1000t = 2j ej1000t – e-j1000t ip = 0.B.ζ2 Determine the values of ω n & ζ substitute & simplify Do yourself.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1 A (2) ω = ω n√1 .1 2j In steady state At resonance XL = XC In a series RLC circuit Z = R + j(XL .1000000B – 1000000A + 1000000B 0 = –1000000A A=0 ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t Substituting the values of A & B ip = (0) cos 1000t + (0.U. For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.com/ Transient response ω ωt .

com/ .U.booknstuff.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)) 2000-E-41 138 THE END For More Solution Manuals and Projects visit http://www.B.