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Session 1 Topic . nature and scope of Public Administration Origin Evolution Definition Nature & Scope .Definition.

Public administration relates to the activities carried out by government. Private administration refers to the management of private business enterprises.Administration as an activity is as old as society itself. But as an area of study it originated. Public and Private Administration . . with the publication of Wilson’s essay on study of Administration in 1887.  Administration occurs in both public and private organisations-is commonly divided into two types.

Administration may be defined as “group activity which involves cooperation and coordination for the purpose of achieving desired goals or objectives”. to manage affairs. which means to care for or to look after people. .The word ‘administer’ is derived from the Latin word administere.

(3) As a Process: The sum total of activities undertaken to implement Public Policy or policies to produce some services or goods.The term administration bears at least four different meanings : (1) As a Discipline: The name of a branch of learning or intellectual discipline as taught and studied in colleges and universities. (2) As a Vocation: Type of work/trade or profession/occupation. (4)As a Synonym for 'word' Executive or Government . especially one that involves knowledge and training in a branch of advance learning.

Noted below are definitions by a few famous writers. so adroitly that they shall operate as a unity. Gladden “Administration is a long and slightly pompous word. for it means to care for or look after people.N. Brooks Adams “Administration is the capacity of coordinating many. social energies in a single organism. to manage affairs…. and often conflicting. Nigro “Administration is the organisation and use of men and materials to accomplish a purpose”. but it has a humble meaning. Felix A. . E. is determined action taken in pursuit of conscious purpose”.

Luther Gullick “Administration has to do with getting things done. White “The art of administration is the direction. with the accomplishment of defined objectives”.J. L. Presthus “Administration is the organisation and direction of human and material resources to achieve desired ends”. Pfiffner and R. co-ordination and control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective”. .D.M.

Thompson “In its broadest sense. Herbert Simon. aimed at making those things happen which one wants to happen and foretelling everything to the country”.W. fined objectives”.M. Smithburg and V.A.” . Marx “Administration is determined action taken in pursuit of a conscious purpose. . It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of resources. the administration can be defined as the activities of group cooperating to accomplish common goals. D.JF.

public or private. administration is a process common to all group effort. a hotel or a local government. It is process at work in a department store. . large scale or small scale. and (2) pursuit of common objectives. Thus. a hospital. civil or military. a railroad. a bank.A brief analysis of the definitions listed above reveals that administration comprises two essentials. a university. a high school. namely (1) cooperative effort.

machinery of Government & management of personnel. where all powers are concentrated in the monarchy. It is a combination of Science of Wealth and Science of Government. Kautilya's treatise known as “Arthasastra”may be regarded as an ancient Indian text-book of practical politics. Liberal Democratic Marxian . It discusses principles of PA.Evolution of Public Administration Absolutist tradition Refers to administrative traditions of absolute monarchical regimes.

Liberal Democratic the origins of Public Administration as a separate area of inquiry are traced to Woodrow Wilson's essay. 7 Phases -Politics-Administration Dichotomy -Structural Approach-value free science of management -Human Relations Approach-Hawthorne experiment -Behavioral Approach-Simon -Development Approach-emergence of III World countries -Public Policy Approach -Political Economy Approach-moving of Political Science closer to Economics . published in 1887. The Study of Administration.

continuing .Public Administration as a discipline is not very old and it is only a hundred years.1937 1938 .1970 1971 .1947 1948 . 5 Chronological phases are: Period I Period II Period III Period IV Period V 1887 – 1926 1927 .

politics “has to do with the expression of the state will” while administration “has to do with the execution of these policies.Period I (1887 – 1926) Public Administration Dichotomy According to Frank J. This was also a period when Public Administration commanded a high degree or respectability and its product were in great demand both in . -Scientific management -The great depression in the America -These periods were the golden years of ‘principles’ in the history of Public Administration.1937) Principles of Administration The central belief of this period was that there are certain ‘principles’ of administration and which is the task of the scholars to discover and applied to increase the efficiency and economy of Public Administration.Goodnow.” Period II (1927 .

Administration is not only concern with policy decision but it deals with the policy formulation. .Period III (1938 – 1947) Era of challenge : The main theme during this period was the advocacy of ‘Human Relationship Behavioural Approach’ to the study of Public Administration. The idea of administrative dichotomy was rejected. It was considered as a proverb and naturalistic facilities they criticized due to its depend on formal structure of organization. It was argued that Administration cannot be separated from politics because its political nature and role. Similarly. the principle of Administration was challenge.

-Philadelphia Conference -Minnowbroowk Conference Features of New Public Administration -Change and Administrative Responsiveness -Rationality -Management-Worker Relations -Structures 'Education in Public Administration -Goals of New Public Administration -Relevance .Values -Social Equity & Change .Period IV(1948 .1970 )New Public Administration: New Trends in USA -Changing Environment of Social Unrest .

Every particular application of law is an act of administration. White.Some well known definitions of Public Administration are: "Public Administration is detailed and systematic execution of public law.. "By Public Administration is meant in common usage the activities of the executive branches of the National. Everyparticular application of law is an act of administration" .L.D.D. Public Administration is "the art and science of management applied to the affairs of the State" . Public administration is the detailed and systematic application of law. Simon. State and Local Governments'' .H. Waldo.Woodrow Wilson .

. provides regulatory and service functions to the people in order to attain good life. but it is also concerned with policy-making. and is interdisciplinary in nature as it draws upon other social sciences like political science. is the business side of government and as such concerned with policy execution. the sovereign will. although it tends to be concentrated in the executive branch.In sum. especially in its emphasis on the public.  differs significantly from private administration. covers all three branches of government. economics and sociology. the public interests and laws. public administration:  is the non-political public bureaucracy operating in a political system. deals with the ends of the State.

‘administration’ is the sum total of all the activities – manual. White are the supporters of this view. etc. .. clerical. which are undertaken to realise the objectives of the organisation. that is.D. Integral and Managerial According to the integral view. In this view all the acts of officials of the government from the Attendant to the Secretaries to the government and Head of the State constitute Public Administration. managerial.There are two views regarding the Nature of Public Administration. Henri Fayol and L.

This view regards administration as getting things done and not doing things. commanding. The managerial view excludes Public Administration from non-managerial activities such as manual. Smithburg and Thompson are the supporters of this view. that is.According to the managerial view of administration. Integral and Managerial . Herbert Simon. clerical and technical activities. here are two views regarding the Nature of Public Administration. the managerial activities of people who are involved in planning. coordinating and controlling constitute Public Administration. organising. Luther Gullick.