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# Kangweon-Kyungki Math. Jour. 11 (2003), No. 1, pp.

1–7

ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS USING OF LINEAR FUNCTIONS Jae Deuk Myung
Abstract. In this paper, we introduce two types of algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and then show that the Zadeh implication is smaller than the Diense-Rescher implication, which is smaller than the Lukasiewicz implication. If (f, ∗) is an available pair, then A∗m B ≤ A∗p B ≤ A∗j B.

1. Introduction D. Dubois and H.Prade employed the extension principle to extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers([4], [5]). It is well-known that for two continuous fuzzy numbers, the extension principle method and the α − cut method are equivalent. In [2], Chung introduced the Lmap-Min method to the extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear function and minimum(∧). And it was proven that for two equipotent fuzzy numbers, the Lmap-Min method and the extension principle method are equivalent. A f uzzy set is a function A on a set X to the unit interval. For any α ∈ [0, 1], the α − cut of a fuzzy set A on a set X, Aα , is the crisp set Aα = {x ∈ X|A(x) ≥ α}. For any fuzzy set A on a set X, the support of A, A+0 , is the set {x ∈ X|A(x) > 0}. A fuzzy set A on the set R of real numbers is said to be a f uzzy number if it satisﬁes the following: 1) Aα is a non-empty closed interval for each α ∈ [0, 1]
Received August 9, 2001. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 03E72, 06D72. Key words and phrases: fuzzy number, Lmap-Min method, Lmap-Addition method, extension principle method, Lmap-Max method, Piecewise linear function, shift. This research is supported by Kyung Hee University.

For a fuzzy number A. SA ]. For A. For A. L(A) is the interval [sA . 0]. L(A) L(B) 2) piecewise decreasing if f | R(A) : R(A) → L(B). A continuous binary operation ∗:R × R → R is said to be: 1) increasing(decreasing. c−d 2) decreasing if for each x ∈ [a. Throughout this paper. SA ] and A1 =[mA . b]. d]. f | B1 : A1 → B 1 A R(A) and f | L(B) : L(A) → L(B) are increasing linear functions. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. B ∈ F (R). . L(A) 3) piecewise if it is piecewise increasing or piecewise decreasing. f (x) = b−a (x − a) + c. We use F (R) to denote the set of fuzzy numbers. we write S(A)=[sA . b] → [c. b] and [c. then there is a pair (x. For two intervals [a. resp). where S(A) denotes the closure of A+0 in the real line R. we use ∗ to denote the continuous binary operation on R. For a fuzzy number A. Addition(+). B ∈ F (R). resp. u < v imply x ∗ u < y ∗ v (x ∗ u > y ∗ v.) if x < y. Remark 1. 2) hybrid if v < y. meet (∧) and join(∨) are continuous increasing binary operations on R and subtraction(-) is a continuous hybrid binary operation on R. If (A∗e B)(z) > 0. by the equation (A∗e B)(z) = ∨z=x∗y A(x) ∧ B(y). b]. ∞) and a continuous decreasing binary operation on (−∞. f | B1 : A1 → B 1 A 1 and f | R(B) : L(A) → R(B) are decreasing linear functions. 3) A is continuous on S(A). MA ].2 Jae Deuk Myung 2) A+0 is a bounded interval. 1. Multiplication(×) is a continuous increasing binary operation on [0. is the interval [MA . We call such a pair the critical point of (A∗e B) with respect to z. x < u imply x ∗ y < u ∗ v. [ExtensionP rinciple] [7]. A∗e B. a linear function f :[a. the lef t spread of A. d] is said to be: d−c 1) increasing if for each x ∈ [a. y) ∈ S(A) × S(B) such that (A∗e B)(z) = A(x) ∧ B(y). f (x) = b−a (x − a) + d. mA ] and the right spread of A. R(A). a linear function f :S(A) → S(B) is said to be: 1 1) piecewise increasing if f | R(B) : R(A) → R(B).

Definition 1. ∞) (S(A) ⊆ (−∞. Proposition 1.) shift from A to B. Then. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. Then if (f.). resp. A piecewise linear function f :S(A) → S(B) is said to be a shift (from A to B) if A(x) = B(f (x)) for each x ∈ S(A). y ∈ S(B)}. as follows: (A∗m B)(z) = A(x) ∧ B(f (x)) if z = x ∗ f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗m B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). Proof. resp. 2. Definition 1. B ∈ F (R). ∗) is an available pair.). B ∈ F (R). then A∗m B = A∗e B. Proof. provided that there is an increasing(decreasing. 2) If (f. See[2].Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers 3 For A. Then one has the following: 1) If A ∼ B and ∗ are increasing. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) be a piecewise linear function. 2) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be equipotent if they are i-equipotent or d-equipotent. 4. [2] 1) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be i-equipotent(d-equipotent. A∗m B. Let A. 2) If A B is decreasing and ∗ are hybrid. then i(A ∗ B) = {x ∗ y|x ∈ S(A). we use i(A ∗ B) to denote the set {x ∗ f (x)|x ∈ S(A)}. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function.) if S(A) ⊆ [0. ∗) is an available pair. Then a pair (f. resp. [2] Let A. 2) f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid. [Lmap-Min Method] [2]. Let A. B ∈ F (R) and a linear function f :S(A) → S(B). A fuzzy number A is said to be positive(negative. B ∈ F (R) and let f :S(A) → S(B) be a piecewise linear function. 3. symbolized as A ∼ B (A B. ∗) is called an available pair if it satisﬁes one of the following: 1) f and ∗ are both increasing. 6. then A∗m B = A∗e B. Definition 1. 5. resp). Let A. 0]. Then one has the following: 1) i(A ∗ B) is a closed interval in R. Let A. then A∗m B is a fuzzy number. Theorem 1. resp. See[2]. .

(A∗p B) is bounded. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. (A∗p B) ⊆ (A∗p B) . as follows: (A∗p B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 if z = x∗f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗p B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). then A∗p B is a fuzzy number. Since A. there is x0 ∈ S(A) such that xn → x0 . Then. 1]. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS In the following theorem. Since z1 . Case 1. (A∗p B) = 0 for α each α ∈ (0. B. Similarly we have sup(A∗p B) ∈ (A∗p B) . Since α (A∗p B) ⊆ i(A ∗ B) and i(A ∗ B) is an interval. Since (A∗p B) ⊆ +0 1 i(A∗B) and i(A∗B) is bounded. Then for each n ∈ N there is xn ∈ S(A) such that zn = xn ∗ f (xn ) and (A(x) + B(f (x)))/2 ≥ α Since f and ∗ are increasing. Since (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 ≥ α for each n ∈ N . Case 2. z2 ∈ (A∗p B) . α Thus (A∗p B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 ≥ α and hence z ∈ (A∗p B) . x2 ∈ S(A) such that z1 = x1 ∗ f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 ∗ f (x2 ). we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and addition(+). 1. z2 ∈ (A∗p B) and z1 ≤ z ≤ z2 . x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 . Theorem 2. In +0 . 1]. Proof. + and ∗ are continuous. [Lmap-Addition Method] Let A. Let z0 = inf (A∗p B) . < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A).4 Jae Deuk Myung 2. 1) Suppose f and ∗ are both increasing. Since (A∗p B) 1 α α = 0 and for each α ∈ (0. Since S(A) is bounded. If (f. Since f and ∗ are increasing. (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 → (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 and zn → x0 ∗ f (x0 ) = z0 . α α Therefore (A∗p B) is an interval. A∗p B. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function. ∗) is an available pair. Hence A(x2 ) + B(f (x2 )) ≤ A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. Hence A(x1 ) + B(f (x1 )) ≤ A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. x1 ≤ mA ≤ x ≤ MA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and so α there is x ∈ S(A) such that z = x ∗ f (x). there are x1 . x1 ≤ x ≤ mA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x1 )) ≤ B(f (x)). x1 ≤ MA ≤ x ≤ x2 : Then A(x2 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x2 )) ≤ B(f (x)). Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (A∗p B)α such that zn → z0 . Suppose z1 . f . Case 3. (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 ≥ α α α α and so z0 ∈ (A∗p B) .

Suppose z1 . ∗. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function. α Thus (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) ≥ α and hence z ∈ (A∗j B) . Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (A∗j B)α such that zn → z0 . Proof. then A∗p B is a fuzzy number. Hence A(x2 ) ∨ B(f (x2 )) ≤ A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α. ∨ and ∗ are continuous. there is x0 ∈ S(A) such that xn → x0 . In the following theorem. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing. Since A(xn )∨B(f (xn )) ≥ α +0 . (A∗j B) ⊆ (A∗j B) . the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. Hence A(x1 ) ∨ B(f (x1 )) ≤ A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α. f . x1 ≤ x ≤ mA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x1 )) ≤ B(f (x)). B and + are continuous. z2 ∈ (A∗j B) and z1 ≤ z ≤ z2 . Case 1. α α Therefore (A∗j B) is an interval. Case 3. (A∗p B) is a non-empty closed interval. Since A. ∗) is an available pair. < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A). (A∗p B) is continuous. x2 ∈ S(A) such that z1 = x1 ∗ f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 ∗ f (x2 ). x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 . 1]. A(xn ) ∨ B(f (xn )) → A(x0 )∨B(f (x0 )) and zn → x0 ∗f (x0 ) = z0 . x1 ≤ MA ≤ x ≤ x2 : Then A(x2 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x2 )) ≤ B(f (x)). Since (A∗j B) ⊆ +0 1 i(A∗B) and i(A∗B) is bounded. z2 ∈ (A∗j B) . Then. Since (A∗j B) 1 α α = 0 and for each α ∈ (0. Case 2. Since f . Since α (A∗j B) ⊆ i(A ∗ B) and i(A ∗ B) is an interval. z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and so α there is x ∈ S(A) such that z = x ∗ f (x). A∗j B. Then for each n ∈ N there is xn ∈ S(A) such that zn = xn ∗ f (xn ) and A(x)∨B(f (x)) ≥ α Since f and ∗ are increasing. Since f and ∗ are increasing. A. (A∗p B) = 0 for α each α ∈ (0. (A∗j B) is bounded. If (f. 1]. This completes the proof. Since S(A) is bounded. Theorem 2. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. 2. there are x1 . B. 1) Suppose f and ∗ are both increasing. Since z1 . [Lmap-Max Method] Let A. Let z0 = inf (A∗j B) .Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers α 5 all. as follows: (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) if z = x ∗ f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗j B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and maximum(∨). x1 ≤ mA ≤ x ≤ MA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α.

Since f and ∗ are both increasing. then A∗m B ≤ A∗e B ≤ A∗j B. (A∗j B) is continuous. 4. Since f and ∗ are both increasing. Therefore A∗e B ≤ A∗j B. Let A. the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. Proof. 3. B ∈ F (R). then (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). Since f . In the following two theorems. Theorem 2. B ∈ F (R). Thus (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). Straightforward. If (f. 5. This completes the proof. B and ∨ are continuous. (A∗j B) is a non-empty closed interval. Theorem 2. ∗. 2) 1) If A B is decreasing and ∗ are hybrid. Proof. ∗e and ∗j } is a lattice.6 Jae Deuk Myung α for each n ∈ N . Straightforward. Suppose that f and ∗ are both increasing. ∗) is an available pair. Let (x0 . Then one has the following: 1) If A ∼ B and ∗ are increasing. the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. y0 ≥ f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). we show that {∗m . y0 ≤ f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). Thus (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). ∗p . Suppose x0 > x. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing. Corollary 2. If x = x0 . A(x0 ) ∨ B(f (x0 )) ≥ α and so z0 ∈ (A∗j B) . Similarly α α α we have sup(A∗j B) ∈ (A∗j B) . then A∗m B ≤ A∗p B ≤ A∗j B. In all. then A∗m B = A∗p B = A∗e B = A∗j B. Let A. . If (f. B ∈ F (R). Suppose x0 < x. ∗) is an available pair. A. Proof. y0 ) be the critical point of A∗e B with respect to z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and x ∈ S(A) such that (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)). Let A. then A∗m B = A∗p B = A∗e B = A∗j B. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing.

2. D and H. . D and H. C. A and M. London. Prentice Hall PTR. FSS 2. Dubois. Dubois. Prade. Gupta.Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers 7 References 1. J. 1985. 4. ed. CRC Press. D and H. Fuzzy real algebra: Some results. New York. Prade. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications. Raton. 327348. Dubois. 3-29. Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers and fuzzy equations. 1995. H. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 3. 7. Possibility Theory. FL. Prade. 1979. Academic Press. Kauﬀman. Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications. J. 1987. New York. 5. 1980. Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetic: Theory and Applications. Analysis of Fuzzy Information Vol. New York. klir and Bo Yuan. Boca. S. 6. D and H. New Jersey.1: Mathematics and Logic.. Prade. 1988. Fuzzy numbers: an overview In: Bezdek. M. Dubois.. Chung. submitted. Geordge. Van Nostrand.