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In this paper, we introduce two types of algebraic op-
erations on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and then
show that the Zadeh implication is smaller than the Diense-Rescher
implication, which is smaller than the Lukasiewicz implication.

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**ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS USING OF LINEAR FUNCTIONS Jae Deuk Myung
**

Abstract. In this paper, we introduce two types of algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and then show that the Zadeh implication is smaller than the Diense-Rescher implication, which is smaller than the Lukasiewicz implication. If (f, ∗) is an available pair, then A∗m B ≤ A∗p B ≤ A∗j B.

1. Introduction D. Dubois and H.Prade employed the extension principle to extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers([4], [5]). It is well-known that for two continuous fuzzy numbers, the extension principle method and the α − cut method are equivalent. In [2], Chung introduced the Lmap-Min method to the extend algebraic operations from crisp to fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear function and minimum(∧). And it was proven that for two equipotent fuzzy numbers, the Lmap-Min method and the extension principle method are equivalent. A f uzzy set is a function A on a set X to the unit interval. For any α ∈ [0, 1], the α − cut of a fuzzy set A on a set X, Aα , is the crisp set Aα = {x ∈ X|A(x) ≥ α}. For any fuzzy set A on a set X, the support of A, A+0 , is the set {x ∈ X|A(x) > 0}. A fuzzy set A on the set R of real numbers is said to be a f uzzy number if it satisﬁes the following: 1) Aα is a non-empty closed interval for each α ∈ [0, 1]

Received August 9, 2001. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 03E72, 06D72. Key words and phrases: fuzzy number, Lmap-Min method, Lmap-Addition method, extension principle method, Lmap-Max method, Piecewise linear function, shift. This research is supported by Kyung Hee University.

For a fuzzy number A. SA ]. For A. For A. L(A) is the interval [sA . 0]. L(A) L(B) 2) piecewise decreasing if f | R(A) : R(A) → L(B). A continuous binary operation ∗:R × R → R is said to be: 1) increasing(decreasing. c−d 2) decreasing if for each x ∈ [a. Throughout this paper. SA ] and A1 =[mA . b]. d]. f | B1 : A1 → B 1 A R(A) and f | L(B) : L(A) → L(B) are increasing linear functions. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. B ∈ F (R). . L(A) 3) piecewise if it is piecewise increasing or piecewise decreasing. f (x) = b−a (x − a) + c. We use F (R) to denote the set of fuzzy numbers. we write S(A)=[sA . b] → [c. b] and [c. then there is a pair (x. For two intervals [a. resp). where S(A) denotes the closure of A+0 in the real line R. we use ∗ to denote the continuous binary operation on R. For a fuzzy number A. Addition(+). B ∈ F (R). resp. u < v imply x ∗ u < y ∗ v (x ∗ u > y ∗ v.) if x < y. Remark 1. 2) hybrid if v < y. meet (∧) and join(∨) are continuous increasing binary operations on R and subtraction(-) is a continuous hybrid binary operation on R. If (A∗e B)(z) > 0. by the equation (A∗e B)(z) = ∨z=x∗y A(x) ∧ B(y). b]. ∞) and a continuous decreasing binary operation on (−∞. f | B1 : A1 → B 1 A 1 and f | R(B) : L(A) → R(B) are decreasing linear functions. 3) A is continuous on S(A). MA ].2 Jae Deuk Myung 2) A+0 is a bounded interval. 1. Multiplication(×) is a continuous increasing binary operation on [0. is the interval [MA . We call such a pair the critical point of (A∗e B) with respect to z. x < u imply x ∗ y < u ∗ v. [ExtensionP rinciple] [7]. A∗e B. a linear function f :[a. the lef t spread of A. d] is said to be: d−c 1) increasing if for each x ∈ [a. y) ∈ S(A) × S(B) such that (A∗e B)(z) = A(x) ∧ B(y). f (x) = b−a (x − a) + d. mA ] and the right spread of A. R(A). a linear function f :S(A) → S(B) is said to be: 1 1) piecewise increasing if f | R(B) : R(A) → R(B).

Definition 1. ∞) (S(A) ⊆ (−∞. Proposition 1.) shift from A to B. Then. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. Then if (f.). resp. A piecewise linear function f :S(A) → S(B) is said to be a shift (from A to B) if A(x) = B(f (x)) for each x ∈ S(A). y ∈ S(B)}. as follows: (A∗m B)(z) = A(x) ∧ B(f (x)) if z = x ∗ f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗m B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). Proof. resp. 2. Definition 1. B ∈ F (R). ∗) is an available pair.). B ∈ F (R). then A∗m B = A∗e B. Proof. provided that there is an increasing(decreasing. 2) If (f. See[2].Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers 3 For A. Then one has the following: 1) If A ∼ B and ∗ are increasing. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) be a piecewise linear function. 2) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be equipotent if they are i-equipotent or d-equipotent. 4. [2] 1) Two fuzzy numbers A and B are said to be i-equipotent(d-equipotent. A∗m B. Let A. 2) If A B is decreasing and ∗ are hybrid. then i(A ∗ B) = {x ∗ y|x ∈ S(A). we use i(A ∗ B) to denote the set {x ∗ f (x)|x ∈ S(A)}. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function.) if S(A) ⊆ [0. ∗) is an available pair. Then a pair (f. resp. [2] Let A. 2) f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid. [Lmap-Min Method] [2]. Let A. B ∈ F (R) and a linear function f :S(A) → S(B). A fuzzy number A is said to be positive(negative. B ∈ F (R) and let f :S(A) → S(B) be a piecewise linear function. 3. symbolized as A ∼ B (A B. ∗) is called an available pair if it satisﬁes one of the following: 1) f and ∗ are both increasing. 6. then A∗m B = A∗e B. Definition 1. 5. resp). Let A. 0]. Then one has the following: 1) i(A ∗ B) is a closed interval in R. Let A. then A∗m B is a fuzzy number. Theorem 1. resp. See[2]. .

(A∗p B) is bounded. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. (A∗p B) ⊆ (A∗p B) . as follows: (A∗p B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 if z = x∗f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗p B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). then A∗p B is a fuzzy number. Since A. there is x0 ∈ S(A) such that xn → x0 . Then. 1]. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS In the following theorem. Since z1 . Case 1. (A∗p B) = 0 for α each α ∈ (0. B. Similarly we have sup(A∗p B) ∈ (A∗p B) . Since α (A∗p B) ⊆ i(A ∗ B) and i(A ∗ B) is an interval. Since (A∗p B) ⊆ +0 1 i(A∗B) and i(A∗B) is bounded. Then for each n ∈ N there is xn ∈ S(A) such that zn = xn ∗ f (xn ) and (A(x) + B(f (x)))/2 ≥ α Since f and ∗ are increasing. Since (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 ≥ α for each n ∈ N . Case 2. z2 ∈ (A∗p B) . α Thus (A∗p B)(z) = (A(x)+B(f (x)))/2 ≥ α and hence z ∈ (A∗p B) . x2 ∈ S(A) such that z1 = x1 ∗ f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 ∗ f (x2 ). we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and addition(+). 1. z2 ∈ (A∗p B) and z1 ≤ z ≤ z2 . x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 . Theorem 2. In +0 . 1]. Proof. + and ∗ are continuous. [Lmap-Addition Method] Let A. Let z0 = inf (A∗p B) . < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A).4 Jae Deuk Myung 2. 1) Suppose f and ∗ are both increasing. Since (A∗p B) 1 α α = 0 and for each α ∈ (0. Since S(A) is bounded. If (f. Since f and ∗ are increasing. (A(xn ) + B(f (xn )))/2 → (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 and zn → x0 ∗ f (x0 ) = z0 . α α Therefore (A∗p B) is an interval. A∗p B. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function. ∗) is an available pair. Hence A(x2 ) + B(f (x2 )) ≤ A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. Hence A(x1 ) + B(f (x1 )) ≤ A(x) + B(f (x)) and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. x1 ≤ mA ≤ x ≤ MA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (A∗p B)(z) ≥ α. z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and so α there is x ∈ S(A) such that z = x ∗ f (x). there are x1 . x1 ≤ x ≤ mA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x1 )) ≤ B(f (x)). x1 ≤ MA ≤ x ≤ x2 : Then A(x2 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x2 )) ≤ B(f (x)). Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (A∗p B)α such that zn → z0 . Suppose z1 . f . Case 3. (A(x0 ) + B(f (x0 )))/2 ≥ α α α α and so z0 ∈ (A∗p B) .

Suppose z1 . ∗. B ∈ F (R) and f :S(A) → S(B) a piecewise linear function. α Thus (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) ≥ α and hence z ∈ (A∗j B) . Then there is a decreasing sequence < zn > in (A∗j B)α such that zn → z0 . Proof. then A∗p B is a fuzzy number. Hence A(x2 ) ∨ B(f (x2 )) ≤ A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α. ∨ and ∗ are continuous. there is x0 ∈ S(A) such that xn → x0 . In the following theorem. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing. Since A(xn )∨B(f (xn )) ≥ α +0 . (A∗j B) ⊆ (A∗j B) . the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. Hence A(x1 ) ∨ B(f (x1 )) ≤ A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α. f . x1 ≤ x ≤ mA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x1 )) ≤ B(f (x)). B and + are continuous. z2 ∈ (A∗j B) and z1 ≤ z ≤ z2 . Case 1. α α Therefore (A∗j B) is an interval. Case 3. (A∗p B) is a non-empty closed interval. Since A. ∗) is an available pair. < xn > is a decreasing sequence in S(A). (A∗p B) is continuous. x2 ∈ S(A) such that z1 = x1 ∗ f (x1 ) and z2 = x2 ∗ f (x2 ). x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 . 1]. A(xn ) ∨ B(f (xn )) → A(x0 )∨B(f (x0 )) and zn → x0 ∗f (x0 ) = z0 . x1 ≤ MA ≤ x ≤ x2 : Then A(x2 ) ≤ A(x) and B(f (x2 )) ≤ B(f (x)). Since (A∗j B) ⊆ +0 1 i(A∗B) and i(A∗B) is bounded. z2 ∈ (A∗j B) . Then. Since (A∗j B) 1 α α = 0 and for each α ∈ (0. Case 2. Since f . Since α (A∗j B) ⊆ i(A ∗ B) and i(A ∗ B) is an interval. z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and so α there is x ∈ S(A) such that z = x ∗ f (x). A∗j B. Then for each n ∈ N there is xn ∈ S(A) such that zn = xn ∗ f (xn ) and A(x)∨B(f (x)) ≥ α Since f and ∗ are increasing. Since f and ∗ are increasing. A. (A∗p B) = 0 for α each α ∈ (0. (A∗j B) is bounded. If (f. 1]. This completes the proof. Since S(A) is bounded. Theorem 2. we deﬁne a fuzzy set on R. 2. there are x1 . B. 1) Suppose f and ∗ are both increasing. Since z1 . [Lmap-Max Method] Let A. Let z0 = inf (A∗j B) .Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers α 5 all. as follows: (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)) if z = x ∗ f (x) for some x ∈ S(A) and (A∗j B)(z) = 0 if z = x ∗ f (x) for any x ∈ S(A). we introduce the algebraic operation on fuzzy numbers using piecewise linear functions and maximum(∨). x1 ≤ mA ≤ x ≤ MA ≤ x2 : Then A(x1 ) = 1 and B(f (x1 )) = 1 and so (A∗j B)(z) ≥ α.

Since f and ∗ are both increasing. then A∗m B ≤ A∗e B ≤ A∗j B. (A∗j B) is continuous. 4. Since f and ∗ are both increasing. Therefore A∗e B ≤ A∗j B. Let A. the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. Proof. 3. B ∈ F (R). then (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). Since f . In the following two theorems. Theorem 2. B ∈ F (R). Thus (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). Straightforward. If (f. 5. This completes the proof. B and ∨ are continuous. (A∗j B) is a non-empty closed interval. Theorem 2. ∗. 2) 1) If A B is decreasing and ∗ are hybrid. Proof. ∗e and ∗j } is a lattice.6 Jae Deuk Myung α for each n ∈ N . Straightforward. Suppose that f and ∗ are both increasing. ∗) is an available pair. Let (x0 . Then one has the following: 1) If A ∼ B and ∗ are increasing. the case where f is decreasing and ∗ is hybrid can be proved. y0 ≥ f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). we show that {∗m . y0 ≤ f (x) and so A(x0 ) < A(x) or B(y0 ) < B(f (x)). Thus (A∗e B)(z) ≤ (A∗j B)(z). ∗p . Suppose x0 > x. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing. Corollary 2. If x = x0 . A(x0 ) ∨ B(f (x0 )) ≥ α and so z0 ∈ (A∗j B) . Similarly α α α we have sup(A∗j B) ∈ (A∗j B) . then A∗m B ≤ A∗p B ≤ A∗j B. In all. then A∗m B = A∗p B = A∗e B = A∗j B. Let A. . If (f. B ∈ F (R). Suppose x0 < x. ∗) is an available pair. A. Proof. y0 ) be the critical point of A∗e B with respect to z ∈ i(A ∗ B) and x ∈ S(A) such that (A∗j B)(z) = A(x) ∨ B(f (x)). Let A. then A∗m B = A∗p B = A∗e B = A∗j B. Using the exactly same argument as for the case f and ∗ are both increasing.

2. D and H. . D and H. C. A and M. London. Prentice Hall PTR. FSS 2. Dubois. Dubois. Prade. Gupta.Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers 7 References 1. J. 1985. 4. ed. CRC Press. D and H. Fuzzy real algebra: Some results. New York. Prade. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications. Raton. 327348. Dubois. 3-29. Algebraic operations on fuzzy numbers and fuzzy equations. 1995. H. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 3. 7. Possibility Theory. FL. Prade. 1979. Academic Press. Kauﬀman. Fuzzy Sets and Systems: Theory and Applications. J. 1987. New York. 5. 1980. Introduction to Fuzzy Arithmetic: Theory and Applications. Analysis of Fuzzy Information Vol. New York. klir and Bo Yuan. Boca. S. 6. D and H. New Jersey.1: Mathematics and Logic.. Prade. 1988. Fuzzy numbers: an overview In: Bezdek. M. Dubois.. Chung. submitted. Geordge. Van Nostrand.

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