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Basic Outline Model 1. 632 ad/ce 2. Chaliefia a. Deputy b. Successor 3. Ali a. Cousin/son-in-law b. Married Fatimah 4.

Abu Bakr 5. 4 rightly guided caliph 6. Hassan 7. Hussein 8. Mu’awiya a. Imposed himself as a caliph b. First Arab dynasty c. Umayyad Dynasty d. 661-750 9. Karbala 680 a. Yazid i. He appointed his son to be his successor ii. Fought Hussein in Karbala 10. Abbasid a. 750-1258 11. Shia 12. Sunnis a. Usurpers 13. Prince of Martyrdom of Hussein a. Fight against injustice and oppression 14. Hussein 15. Ocaldation a. Went to heaven 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Shia Islam a. Twelve Shia i. Iran / Iraq/ Bahrain

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b. Ismail is Shia i. Syria / Pakistan/ London c. Zaydis Shia i. Yemen ii. Sufism a. Mysticism b. Tariqat i. Orders 1. 70-80 orders Ashoura Alawis a. Focus of their religion is Ali b. Last incarnation of God c. Transmigration of souls d. Esoteric i. Secrets of their religion only for themselves Abbasids defeated by Mongolians 1258 a. Mongolians not good at building states Religious a. Sunni i. Deferred to the state ii. Sultan and Caliph iii. Zakat iv. No hirecocy b. Shia i. Handled their own affairs ii. Guide lines iii. Zakat iv. Al-Khums – 1/5 v. Autonomy and wealth c. d. e. Druzes i. Israel / Syria / Lebanon ii. Al-Hakim 1. Last incarnation of God 2. Trace him to Fatima 3. Fatimid Caliph

b. Ephesus (431) 2. Ka’ba stands in Haram. 29. esp. touching and kissing Black Stone. Pillars of Islam a. pilgrim would enter the sacred area. 27. 2012 1. Ka’ba is a rectangular building which Prophet Mohammed purged of idols and made it the center of Muslim devotion. 28. e. On 8th day. Pilgrims would go round the Ka’ba seven times. Chalcedon (451) a. after Sunset. Prayers also in Mosque (Masjid). Mid-afternoon. the Haram. d. all after a ritual washing. One nature Human 1. pilgrims go out and comeback. with the Black Stone embedded in one of its walls. Zakat: Almsgiving: (poor/needy/relief of debtors/liberation of slaves/wayfarers). Shahada: Testimony that there is no God but God. noon prayer. 5-Hajj: Pilgrimage: Once in a lifetime at least. Devine or a man ii. End of Ramadan is celebrated as one of two great festivals of the liturgical year (Eid al-Fitr).26. They May 21. and Mohammed is the prophet of God and seal of prophets. Greek Orthodox . Hajj to Mecca. One nature Devine 2. once in Mecca. Salat: Prayer: Performed five times a day: Datbreak. On the approaches to Mecca: Pilgrim would purify himself by ablutions and put a white garment. Noon. Sawm: Fast: Once a year in the month of Ramadan (the month in which the Koran was first revealed) from daybreak until nightfall. Two Natures 1. Christological convinserty i. and early part of the night. c.

Syria. Saint Mark iii. Egypt ii. Procession of Holy Ghost b. First to align themselves with Rome . Lebanon ii. Syriac and arabic c. a monk i. P. I 4. Northern Iraq b. Nestorius. Mainly Syria. Maronite Catholic Church i. Coptic. Armenian e. Arabic. ii. L. but joined at a later dates and decided to enter a union with Rome a. S. The divine words of God dwell in Jesus the man iii. Only Egypt ii. Coptic language b. Latin.P/I. L. Syrian orthodox church i.I. Nestorian Church a. Armenian Catholic Church i. Armenian orthodox church i. Syriac and Arabic f. N. Chaldean Catholic Church  Were formally Assyrian Church i.a. Armenian language iii. Assyrian Church 3. Went against Chalcedon ii. Palestinian mandate. Syrian Catholic Church d. 11th Century split from Roman Church c. Greek Catholic Church i. Greek and Arabic c. 2. The whole community converted on mass to Christianity ii. Coptic Catholic Church i. Roman Catholic + Uniate Church  Not with Rome. S ii. Monophysites  One nature and it is divine a. Arabic b. and sometimes Greek g. Lebanon. Roman Catholic i. Arabic. Coptic orthodox church i.

reconciled with God b. Off shoot of twelvers c. 350 monks killed because of the alliance with Rome iii. Fatimad Caliph d. Peacock i. Founder of the buried . Aramaic a. Mainly wanted to convert Catholics mainly b. Esoteric f. Syriac 2. Syriac 5. Kurdish. Son of Ismail’s b. Close connection with France iv. Alawis – Nusairis a. Some of their rituals from Christianity g. Focus of their religion is Al Hakim (996-1020) c. Northern Iraq d. Yazidis a. Transmigration e. Haifa. Come from Iran b. Protestants(1866) / Jews  follow the old Bible a. Bahais a. Deity of Ali e. very People of the book 1. Transmigration of souls d.ii. Holy symbol c. From crusaders who built castles h. Syria period. Druzes a. Esoteric 4. They believe in an unending succession of revelation will get human kind closer to God d. The devil. Nasara b. Northern Israel c. Northern Iraq 5. small minority in Lebanon 3. fallen angel.

Agreement that the will fight with the British ii. Sharif Hussein of Mecca a. May23. Would like to create salaf society vi. 1917 . 1280-1918 ottoman empire 2. Hanife school ii. Cleanse Islam from all outside influence iii. Dividing the middle east in to areas of influence 6. Indoctrination b. 1915-16 b. Mainly in the US f. Church is based in Israel Questions 1. 2012 1. 1914-15 WW I 3. High Commissioner in Egypt i. Promised the Arabs the Arab lands of the ottoman empire 5. Strict reading of Quran v. Faisal and Abdullah 4. violence 2. Prophet Mohammad and 4 forth caliphs 2. Creating a salaf society i. British control 7. Sykes –Picot agreement a.e. Hashemite b. Iraq a. Salafi Jihadists i. Wahhabis a. 1915-16 Hussein-MacMahon Correspondences a. Purify Islam iv. Predecessor 1. Salafism a. Descendent of Mohammad PBUH c. Mohammad abdul Wahab i. Agreement came to be known by the Russians c.

and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of the object. 1896 a. Foreign Office. Anti-Semitism is deeply rooted in Europe 3. 1881 d. (Signed) Arthur James Balfour 9. Dear Lord Rothschild. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious' rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. Wrote a book. Jewish people blamed for everything in Europe 10. Maskilim – enlightened Jews b. Tsar was assinatenated ii. Dreyfus Affair 1. Auto-Emancipation d. the Cabinet. French Jews Captain that was framed 2. Tsarist Russia i. November 2nd. Enlightenment a. Highly educated b. Yours sincerely. Leon Pinsker a. Doctor c. 1897 . Belfour declaration 8. Argentina or Palestine 1. Both good for colonization 12. Theodor Herzl i. Shocked by the degree of Anti-Semitism iii. “The Jewish State” ii. 1917. Political and civil rights c. Pogrom against Jews 1.a. or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country". and approved by. I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's Government. "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to. Proto Zionism 11.

League of Nations i. King crane commission of 1919 a.000 1. 19.Kurds b.1939 a. Lord Peel 1937 a. Through Palestine throughout the Palestinian mandate c. 16. 10. Feisal proclaimed himself king of Syria 1920 a. France 1. Arab revolt b. White paper by the British i. 1. Escaped to Iraq Peel commission a. 22. Partition Palestine 1939 a. The first Zionist Congress i. 18. Mandate system ii. a. 14. 17.000 1942 . 20. Syria and Lebanon iv. 21. 15.Husseini i. Britain 1. Basra – Sunni The Balfour was incorporated into the mandate 1936 . Restricted immigration to Palestine ii. President Wilson sponsored Feisal’s Iraq a.000 next 5 years 2. Total 75. Eve of WW II b.13. 25. Hajj Amir al. Iraq and Palestine iii. Baghdad . Mosul . Basle in Switzerland ii. Based on Historical link 1918 a. Palestine should be the future Jewish homeland 1.Shia c.

2012 1. 135 CE a. Minority report 1. 26. Bi-National state 1947 a. 2. Nov 1947  May 1948 2. Systematic way get Jews to Palestine b. 24. Biltmore program in New York City 1. Establish a Jewish majority Ben Gurion a. 27. Nakba 1. Leader of Jews in Palestine b. 395 a. Zionist conference i. Ben Gurion announced Israeli’s independence 1949 a.000 Jews into Palestine ii. Forget the white paper a. “I will fight the white paper like there was no war and I will fight the war like there is no white paper” 1946 a. 25. a. Armistice agreement May 30. 70 CE 3. Byzantine . Anglo American committee recommendation i. Palestine should neither be ruled by Jews or Arabs iii. Bor kokhba revolt expelled 4. Nov 1947 UN Resolution War of Independence  Jews Catastrophe  Arabs a. Fight the white paper ii. 100. Defer the question to the UN b. Roman empire split i. 586 BCE a. May 1948  1949 May 1948 a.23. 28. 29.

680 13. seized of Vienna b. 8. Grandson of gingsis Kahn 14. Nor more eastern half 16. Greek Orthodox Community. 661 -750  Umayyad dynasty 10. 570 a. razed Bagdad b. Istanbul c. First loss ever of Muslim land. Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarja. 1774. 1683: Ottomans expelled  Crimean War with Tsarist Russia.  France  1830-1836  Algeria . Hulogo i. 1280-1918/1920  Ottoman Dynasty 15. 12. b. 7. Jewish Community. Suleiman the magnificent c.  Eastern Questions (What do we do with the Ottoman Empire). 6. 750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty a. Constanipole ii. Capitulations (outside power a minority protector).1. 410 a. 1529 a. Armenian Community  Janissaries  Second siege of Vienna. Spain 11. 632 Bystine empire Birth of Mohammad At 40 Birth of Islam 9. Roman Empire 5. 1453 a. 622 a. Seized Constantinople b. Shadows of God on Earth Ottoman Empire  Millet System: Muslim Community.

Proto Zionism 1896 a. Auto-emancipation ii. Theodor Herzl b. Problems . Pogrom against the Jews b. 20. Became a France department 1844 Morocco Defeated by 1854 Morocco was made a colony 1798 Napoleon invaded Egypt Projected himself as a liberator British 1492 a. Granada 1881 a. Historical links 1915-16 a. Balfour Declaration 1919 King crane commission a. 22. 24. The Jewish State i. 18. Promised the Arab lands of the ottoman empire 1917 a. Divide the middle east into spheres of influence c. Sykes-Picot b. Establisment of a jewish state in Palestine or c. Defeat of the last Muslim state in Spain i. 21.         17. Dryfus Affair 1897 Basle conference a. 25. Hussein – Macmahon i. Palestine should be Jewish homeland b. Discovery of new world c. 19. Expulsion of Jews from Spain b. 23. President Wilson b. Leon Pinsken i.

Anglo-American committee b. 30. 680 a. Biltmore b. 28. Incorporated into the mandate b. Arab revolt throughout Palestine 1937 a. 100. 1947 Nov resolution c. Caliph – successor –deputy 3. Partition d. Mu’awiya D. Cousin ii. 27. Restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine 1942 a. 31.000 to Palestine c. To rehiblated the Jews in their own home countries d. Sunni – Shism 2. Get as many jews as possible in Palestine to get the majority 1946 a. Refered it to the UN b. Partition of Palestine into two states 1939 a. Umayyad tribe . Son n law iii. Ali (d. 32. Britain leaves and State Of Israel declared 1. 29. UNSLR May 1948 a. 632 4. Peel commission b. Fight the white paper c. Family 5.26. 33. Caliph a. Against establiment of a jewish state 1920 a. c. 661) i. Jews can legally go there 1936-1939 a. Neither be ruled by jews or arabs 1947 a. White paper b.

Ephesus 2. Shia i. Mahdi a. Mahadi a. Nestorians a. Sunnah 8. Minorities a. Syrian orthodox iii. Shia a. Ismail is 1. Koran b. Yazid a.6. Druzes a. Son of Ismail 2. Infallible Imams d. Syriac 5. Who was a boy 2. Al-Mahdi 9. Greek Catholic b. Al Hakim b. Armenian . Fatimid 1. The Devine words of God dwelled in Jesus the man 4. Sunni a. Armenian orthodox 6. One nature and it was a Devine nature i. Coptic orthodox ii. Named by father Caliph b. Sunnah c. Alawis ii. Chalcedon 3. Monophysite a. Koran b. Twelver 1. Killed Imam Hussein 7. Nestorian Church that came to be known as Assyrian Church a. Roman church + Uniate (every church has their own custom and traditions) a.

Yazidis a. Hajj  Pilgrimage i. Ramadan ii. Jordan i.c. Zakat i. Israel lost territory . Piacock 9. Egypt i. They believe in an unending revelation b. Northern Iraq b. Lebanon 2. Alms giving d. Prayers i. Salat c. Testimony i. Procession of the Holy Ghost 8. Bahais a. Satan is the fallen angel that will reconcile with God d. West Bank ii. Coptic 7. Focus on ethics 10. Pillars of Islam a. Marinate f. Gaza c. Greek / Cathlic split in the 11th century a. Kurds c. Israel signed armistice agreement on ceasefire lines a. Chaldean e. East Jerusalem b. Eid al edha June 6. Israel did not agree to a ceasefire line with Syria a. Eid of Fitr e. Syrian d. 2012 1. Sawm/fast i. Shadia b.

Source of tension around DMV and broadly speaking around the border 2. Turkey signed a pact with Iraq 4. Jamal Abed Al-Nasser of Free Officer i. Sea of Galia ii. Who owned them 1. Gap between rich and power was great iii. Egypt under Nasser said “A new form of colonialism under the pretext of defense mechanism” 6. Advocate of Arab nationalism 4. Did not want the Soviet Union to expand their influence 1. Pakistan 5. Dan  Israel 3. 1952 a. British and American ii. Foot hold not allowed 2. Ba’ath party in Syria supported Nasser against the Bagdad pact b. Riparian Rights d. more Jordan River 1. Not happy how the Egyptian army preformed in the 1948 war iv. Important because of water i. Jordan Valley. Always tensions until 1967 war 3. 1948 loss b. King Farouq coup i. Cold War ii. Soviets Gave Egypt one large arms shipment . 100 kilometers c. Arms deal i. Agreement that those lands will be DMZ i. Closining the gap between the rich and the poor iii. 1955 a. Playboy v. Iran. Turkey. Making Egypt stronger ii. Important to the Israelis from a security perspective and economic e. Hasbani  Lebanon 4. Bagdad pact i. Banias  Syria 2. Unhappy that he was not paying attention of the state ii.b. Western defense alliance 3.

Two countries supported it 1. Israel. and great Britain took the Suez canal d. PM Ben Gurion 1956 a.5. US marines set to Lebanon c. Made US look stupid ii. Nationalize the Suez canal b. Syria Ba’ath and Egypt Union ii. Became a figure larger than life in the Arab world 1957 a. 7. Iraq 2. Supporting any government in the world against communism ii. Michel Aflaq . 8. Executed almost all ruling family ii. Always talking about invading Egypt b. France. Civil war in Lebanon i. US President Eisenhower unhappy i. Eisenhower doctrine i. Coup d’état in Iraq i. Nasser emerged as the leader of the Arab world i. Camile Chamoun iii. Threatened 1955-56 a. Nasser remained the leader of the new country iii. Lebanon 1958 a. Moshe Dayan i. British and French c. Means resurrection ii. 6. Called on all three to withdraw e. Height of the cold war iii. Supported the Eisenhower doctrine ii. Ba’ath party i. United Arab Republic i. Ba’ath part played a huge rule d. Pro-British and western government toppled Nationalist came to Power b. ii. Founded in the 1940’s 1. Did not want Egypt going deeper in the eastern camp iii.

1964 a. Tenets of the Ba’ath party 1. Freedom within Syria and from colonialism 3. Also a Lenin concept 2. Only the Ba’ath party will lead society 5. Ba’ath party took power in Iraq b. Still emergency rule 11. Bring all Arab states together in one nation 2. divert water from the north . Arab Unity a. Arabs say no. Lenin concept 4. 1961 a. Christian 2. Ba’ath party took power in Syria i. Sunni Muslim iii. Popular struggle  support Palestinians 2. Overthrow or overturn 2. Damascus officers broke it’s union with Egypt b. We are the ones to rule Syria and we will be the only ones to rule Syria ii. Salah Al Din Bitar a. Popular struggle 1. Radical transformation in all aspects of society 3. Revolutionary party 9. Land reform iv. Freedom of Speech 4. Palestinians 10. New concepts in the Ba’ath party i. Supporting people towards their liberation a. Vanguard party 1. Bridging the gap between the rich and the power i. Socialism a. Meaning to be in the forefront 3. Inqilab 1. Israel announce that it’s national water carrier near completion i.a. 1963 a.

Lebanon b. g. President of Syria 2. Fatah a. Secretary General. Yasser Arafat . d. b.Israel c. 13. Banias Spring – Syria ii. f. Dan River . Kartoum i. Neo-Ba’athists came to power 1.12. Arab League in Cairo a. Hasbani River . 1967 a. a. c. Salah Jadid Alawi. a. 3 No’s 2. Hafiz Al Assad Alawi. 2012 1. e. PLO b. Minister of Defense 1967 Soviets sent false alarm word through Sadat to President Nasser Israeli troops were deployed next to the Golan Heights in preparation for an attack on Syria Let me send Chief of staff to the Golan Heights to see no Israeli army Soviets reaffirmed that the Israeli’s are going to attack Are you trying to hide beside UN observers? Closed the straights of Israel attacked Defeated the Arab world in six day war June 11. 1. Creation of the PLO in East Jersulem iii. Israel response was bomb the dams 1966 Coup with the Ba’ath party i.

3. National pact i. Lebanon took its independence b. Medical doctor e. Many Palestinians killed ii. Told tanks to come back home 3. George Habash a. Sept. Started the questioning armed Palestinians on his lands e. Maronite Christians and French b. Late 70 Assad made an inner coup and took control h. Assad said no a. Air force flew over Syrian tanks iii. 1970 a. Arab armies weak b. Made King Hussein look like a figure head i. PFLP c. North Palestine b. 1943 a. Black Sept. 1920 a. PLO new boys on the block 4. After 1967 a. Salah wanted to send in his jets 2. Crossroads between east and west ii. Rabin was the ambassador i. Reactionary force d. Greater Lebanon under the French mandate 7. Maronites are catholic c. Sunnis slow down on Arabs . Lead the Hijackings d. Salah Jadid and Hafiz Al-Assad 1. i. Syria tanks came to support the Palestinians g. Maronites slow down on west iii. Israel decided to help Jordan ii. Kicked them out to Syria iii. 1970 they decided to remove the King by force f. We have to take the Palestinian on national stage c. Keep going to Lebanon 6. Christian 5. First hijacking of western planes b.

Pan-Arab camp i. That power was institulized b. 1970 a. Prime Minister is Sunni c. Christian are going to succeed or have an alliance with Israel 4. Red line agreement i. Chamoun Nation Liberal party b. Eisenhower doctrine i. Pierre Gemayel founder of the phalange party ii. Israel. Camile Chamoun  President 10. Progressive socialist party (PSP) iv. Pan arab and leftist camp 13. Power is distributed along religious confessions a. Kamal Jumblatt ii. 17 confessional groups 2. a win for the Plo and leftist is a win for Soviet 2. 1975 Civil War a. Kamal Jumblat 14. Skirmishes between Lebanoize army and i.iv. Speaker of the house is Shia 8. More support for armed Palestinians 12. Christian Camp i. Allow Syrian troops to enter Lebanon b. Christians threatened with defeat i. 1958 country split a. Marines diffuse the problem but don’t not solve it 11. Syrian army will not Sam missiles in the Bekaa Valley . Syria army will not go to the south of L ii. Confessional system 1. Syria 1. National security threat 3. Bashir iii. President is Maronites  Most powerful i. Syria. 1976 a. Mediation from Kissinger a. US. Israel. National movement iii. US. 1957 a. 1950’s 9. 1973 a.

15. Christians vii. Historic connects with Zionists 1. Sam missiles withdrawn c. Christians(phalange) had to withdraw from Zahl b. Palestinians stop terrorist activities toward Israel 1982 Abu Nidal . Became extremely powerful in two years 1978 Fatah terror attack in Israel Israel i. South Lebanese army 1. 17. Bashir Gemayel(confident) wanted the Israelis in 3. Israeli fatigue vi. a.c. Carter was president 1. Lebanon must be a refuge for Christians like Jews in Israel iv. Syria used the air force(helicoptors) 1. Syria soon enough will have impact on Lebanon ii. The Syrian air force will not be used against Christians Bashier Gemayel i. Ordered the invasion of Lebanon iii. 16. 1980 missile crises Reagan i. b. Battles Phalange and Syria forces ii. Shia Muslims v. a. Brought in Sam missiles to Bekka valley 4. 1978 – 2000 buffer remained 1980 Zahl i. Created a buffer zone vi. Wanted weapons v. All foreign troops to leave Lebanon b. Philip Habib envoy 1. a. Res 425 issued invasion of Lebanon in 1978 a. Collateral damage iv. Violated the redline agreement 2. Brokered an agreement a. b. iii. Led by Begin and Sharon ii. Channel with Israel iii.

maybe had begun backing iii. Sharon. c. Politically 3. Israeli demonstrated against Massacre 19. i. 800-2000 massacred by phalange ii. Syrian Social Nationalist Party ii. maybe had Gemayalel backing iv. Shia Islamic party ii. Tried to assassinate Israel ambassador in London iv. Christians and Muslims both wanted Arafat to leave now Many countries sent troops as monitors i. b. 20. (SSNP) September 16-18: Sabra and Shatila Massacre i. Begin said 40 kilo to litany River Sharon went all the way to Beirut i. a. Killed many Palestinians who wanted to speak peace with Israel iii. they were going to be attacked Syrian started to acting as a Mafia regime September 14. Israel was back in the buffer zone 20. Resolution 425 ii. Shia 1. c. Thanks to Iran and Syria v. 1982: Assassination of Gemayel Habib Shartouni i. Economically 21. If they were going to leave. Follow Khomeini of Iran iv. Official in 1985 iii.b. Israel withdrew from Lebanon . Reason used to invade Lebanon v. Hezbollah i. Socially 2. Known as a gun for hire ii. Sharon. 1982 a.000 people killed ii. 18. 1984-85 a.

Napoleon i. Suleyman the magnificent i. Took an army to Egypt ii. 1798 a. Lacate f. Province of France d. First time that they lost Muslim land ii. Built the first mosque in Paris 10. British got disturbed iv. The Arabs built on the civilation that proceeded them 3. Became a French Department c. 1830 a.June 15. Siege of Vienna. Rivalry with the European empire 3. 1683. 2012 1. Muhammad Ali b. 1836 a. British teamed up with ottoman empire and Egypt to kick out france 6. 1805 a. 1801-02 7. What should we do with the ottom. Britain and France and both against Russia iii. French went into Algeria 9. Vienna lost 4. Eastern question 1. All opposition to French rule was oppressed b. Shadow of God on earth ii. 1844 . Mobilization of society to bring about a change 2. Ottoman lost against Russia i. 1529 a. Modern middle east to 1998 iii. Islamism a. Using religion as a political ideology based on religion b. Civilation threat to the ottoman empire 5. Albanian general in the ottoman army 8. Denounce Islam can become French citizens e.an empire 2. 1774 a.

Moghul Empire 15. Jews 12. e.a. Armenian c. Autocracy is both unreasonable and un-Islamic. Arabs passed to Europe through Spain Greco-Roman knowledge. both personal and political. Khayr al-Din argued that liberty. a. and practices that he considered compatible with the Islamic sharia. 1858 a. c. 18. Mathematics and other sciences). Capitulation agreements – Become a protector of minorities in the ottoman empire a. Muslims b. From a Muslim prospective 14. Modern Borrowed from Muslim world (Philosophy. Moracco i. Greek orthodox d. is crucial for peace and prosperity. values. He advanced strong arguments for the acquisition of Western institutions. 4 main communities a. 17. Colony 11. Jews and druids protected by Britain c. He challenged Muslim Tradition based on Koranic admonition: “Oh ye who believe! b. Khayr al Din: Served the beys in Tunis and capped his career with a brief year as Grand Vizier in Istanbul. He had extensive contact with Europe and spoke French fluently. Catholics protected by French 13. Came under French control ii. prime among them the concept of liberty. Russia became protector of the Greek orthodox b. Emergence of two school of thoughts to face this political-military and ideological threat posed by the West to Muslim society. He advanced Modern Salafiyyah Movement 19. . It would be great irony if Muslims did not borrow from Europe. d. Khayr al Din: Served the beys in Tunis and capped his career with a brief year as Grand Vizier in Istanbul. He had extensive contact with Europe and spoke French fluently. Britain defeated Moghul empire 16.

He involved himself in translating English Four Schools of Islam a) Hanafi b) Hanbali c) Shafili d) Maliki 1. he emphasized the golden age of early Islam as the paradigm (model) for Muslim community. d. properly understood and interpreted. Sunna Customs and Traditions of the Prophet Mohammad 2. still he decided to work with the British East Indian Company. e. 1. decisions reached by earlier theologians) 1. For a time he was a disciple of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani who championed Muslim unity and came to scorn the strategy of accommodationists. . a. He rejected the concept of Taqlid ( Yet his concerns with failings of his society did lead him to reject his roots. c. He was Mufti of Egypt.20. Abduh and his disciples challenged the existing social synthesis as having badly deviated from the true religion. properly understood 1. He also believed that science and philosophy held the key to political and social progress. Ahmad Khan Had family connections with the Moghul court in India. He challenged the tradition that submission to political authority was required to avoid Fitna (strife. He maintained that Islam. 2. Significantly. disorder). 3. b. he urged Muslims to adopted modern Western ways. He asserted that political leadership has to pass the test of reason and efficacy. Abduh advocate that Islam. An admirer of Britain. Rather he stove to make the Muslims of India worth of Islam as a religion and culture. was perfectly compatible with modernity. Taqlid (emulation. Shaykh Muhammad Abduh came from the ranks of the Ulama. 2.

Learn from the west iii. We have to unite as Muslims to unite the west 2. Even street signs in English brought home to al-bann the colonized status of his fellow Muslims. a. At age 16.4. c. What made them so big and strong iv. 7. 8. 22. We have to unite ii. and teacher of a local mosque. e. Fight mandate for independence 5. Imam. First seed of pan Islamism 1. return to the ways of the Salaf (predecessors). he entered Dar Al-‘Ulum. The ideology came to be after 1967 Hassan Al-Bannah: Muslim Brotherhood Al-Bannah born in 1906 in Mahmudiyya. he established the Muslim Brotherhood(al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun). . Against European threat 3. 9. First recruits were 6 Egyptian workers from the British military camp. Taken over by nationalism 4.     5. 21. We have to borrow from the west ii. Salaf Society Modern Safafiyyah Movement Salafist Safafa  ancestor/predessor 632-661  Golden age (4 rightly guided caliphs) Abu Bakr Omar Othman Ali Two schools of thought Accommodation school i. New perceptive We have to resist the west i. b. His movement took the name of Salafiyyah. Started challenging certain traditions 1. In 1927. b. 6. d. a teacher training institution. a. He was the eldest of five sons. He received his early religious training from his father. and graduated in 1927.

an orthodox way. His ancestors served the Moghul court. no class antagonism n. k. 10 in 1931. i. Al-Bannah often described his organization as a “Salafi movement. a Sufi reality. Salaf 1. MB experienced explosive growth (4 branches in 1929. but then they were enjoined to repeat their oath of allegiance. God ruler ruling well. He grew up in a household nostalgic for past Muslim glory and strongly distasteful of infidel British rule. Potential members went through a probationary stage before being accepted as “active” (amil). re-printed Protocols of Elders of Zion. Mawdudi born in 1903 in India. m.f. with a consultative assembly and a general headquarters. MB had a hierarchy starting from a small groups of “families” (usrahs. May 2011 MB became a legal political party Abu ala Mawdudi 1. and 500 in 1940).” A protean definition in line with “all things to all men. and reportedly assassinated Egypt’s 2. The utopia that existed during the time of Prophet and the first four caliphs. The Brotherhood 1. MB fought Jews in Israel. More tolerance then equality 5. He envisaged the creation of an Islamic utopia with no political parties. 2. 300 in 1938. Al-Bannah saw in MB an all-embracing organization.” i. He studied at Aligarh (founded by Ahmad Khan) and then at Allahabad completing his education law. cells) culminating in “General Guide” (al-Murshid al-‘Am). 3. Traditional Sufi ritual led by a master and the imposition of the strictly hie l. Dhimmi a. h. j. 5 in 1930. a political body. o. a scientific and cultural society. g. an athletic group. MB could be seen as a hybrid of traditional Sufi orders and modern totalitarian parties. and Sharia’h as the basis of a comprehensive code of conduct valid for all time and place. Wanted created a model society that existed during the time of the first four Caliph. 4. He rejected the .

State socialism. born in Upper Egypt in 1906. Arab nationalism brought nothing 4.6. Sayyid Qutb was hanged on August 29. Writings throughout the 1950s and 1960s consisted of three concepts a. Qutb. Shura 7. Immorality c. Justified violence 3. 9. Uprooted jahiliyaa by Prophet Mohammad 8. Qutb had a great impact 6. Backwardness d. 1961. Men are to obey God Alone c. 1967 Islamist emerged as a solution a. 2. Paganism b. Jahiliyya b. Made a term into a condition e. 1966. the ulama‟s resistance to “reform” at al-Azhar led to the creation in 1872 of the Dar al-„Ulum as a teachers college to train those bound for service in the governmental schools Sayyid Qutb 1. Jahiliyaa (ignorance) a. Hakimiyya i. communism never achieved . Let’s go ahead and let’s fight 5. God’s sovereignty is exclusive ii. son of a farmer. Jihad i.

7. Jahiliyah 9. Hakimiyah 8. Jihad .