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United States Department of

Agriculture

Soil Conservation Service

P.O. Box 2890 Washington, D.C. 2001 3

May 24, 1983

TECHNICAL RELEASE NO. 69 210-VI SUBJECT: ENG

- RIPRAP FOR SLOPE PROTECTION AGAINST WAVE ACTION

Purpose. To distribute Technical Release No. 69,Riprap for Slope Protection Against Wave Action. Effective Date. Effective when received.

This technical release (TR) presents recommended design procedures and criteria for rock used to protect slopes against erosion from deep-water wave action. The TR consolidates in one document, for convenient use by SCS personnel, a design procedure developed by the West National Technical Center. The riprap design for slope protection is applicable to dam faces and other reservoir shorelines. When the slope cannot be adequately protected by vegetation, using procedures outlined in TR-56, riprap or other comparable types .of structural protection should be used. Filing Instruction. File with other Engineering Technical Releases. Distribution. The technical release distribution made (shown on reverse side) provides enough copies so that each practicing professional engineer may have one as a reference copy. Additional copies may be obtained from Centr Supply by ordering Item o. TR-69.

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PAUL M. HOWARD Deputy Chief for Technology Development and Application Enclosure

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WO-AS-I 10-79

The Soil Conservation Service is an agency of the

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AQRICULTURE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE

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U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service Engineering

Technical Release No. 69
February 1983

RIPRAP FOR SLOPE PROTECTION AGAINST WAVE ACTION

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Jack Stevenson. Harold Honeyfield. Portland. The procedures presented herein should be useful to both planning and design engineers in determining preliminary or detailed design values for riprap protection of slopes. Jack Land. Charles Houston. Preparation of a technical release (TR) was assigned to the West National Technical Center (NTC) . Oregon. decided that the Engineering and Watershed Planning units and Engineering Division would make a coordinated effort to develop the needed riprap design procedures. and James Dunlap.PREFACE In late 1971. . The Engineering Division distributed a draft of the TR to other NTC's during 1978 for review and comments. Others who assisted substantially in preparing the TR were Gary Margheim. At the 1975 National Design Engineers Conference. The late Harry W. members discussed their most urgent needs and. in the interest of national benefit. a need was recognized for design procedures for riprap protection of slopes. Firman was instrumental in developing the technical information.

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Construction Specifications 11. Beddings and Filters D. Gradation and Thickness of Rock C. and Wind Duration Appendix B Flow Charts Appendix C Example Problem Appendix D Worksheet for TR-69 Riprap for Slope Protection Against Wave Action Appendix E Derivation of Relationship Between Rock Size and Significant Wave Height . Design Wind Velocity and Duration D. Alternative (Short-Cut) Design Procedure Bibliography Figures Appendix A Derivation of Relationship Between Wave Velocity. Design Wind Direction B.TECHNICAL RELEASE NUMBER 69 RIPRAP DESIGN FOR PROTECTING SLOPES AGAINST WAVE ACTION CONTENTS Subject List of Figures Nomenclature Scope Introduction Factors To Be Considered in Riprap Design The Attack The Resistance Design Procedure I. Page - 1 ii-iv 1 1 1 1 2 2 Determination of Significant Wave Height A. Significant Wave Height Design of Riprap Protection for Slopes A. Effective Fetch C. Effective Fetch. Slope-Protection Layout E. Determination of Rock Size B. Wave Height.

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Wave Action Dumped Rock Placement Detail Wave Height as a Function of Effective Fetch and Wind Speed 13 14 .50-Year Recurrence Maximum Wind-Velocity Relationship Determination of Overland Wind Velocity Wind Relationship .Overwater to Overland Rock Size Selection Rock Weight-Size Relationship Rock Gradation Limits Wave Length Relationship Wave Runup Ratio Water Surface Created by Wind Set-Up(s) Riprap Layout vs.LIST OF FIGURES Page Illustration of Definitions Generalized Correlations of Significant Wave Heights with Related Factors Computation of Effective Fetch and Design Wind Direction Maximum Basic Wind Velocity .

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. pound Fe = effective fetch.16 feet/second2 GS = specific gravity of rock. See ASTM C-127. pound g = acceleration of gravity. pound 9 F = total force. dimensionless a = wave amplitude. mile F = fetch.28 x at 20 C. feetjsecond = velocity of water flowing around or impinging on the rock. h = depth of water. mile P Fm = inertial force. dimensionless m C = total coefficient. feet E = mean energy of wave per unit area $ -.NOMENCLATURE 0 A =' 2 = 6. dimensionless C = virtual mass coefficient. feet . dimensionless 9 D = least dimension of a given geometric shape measured along one of the principal axis. longest reach of open water to dam.ound &F = fetch.foot. feet/second Cd = drag coefficient. dimensionless dry. saturated surface H = wave height from trough to crest. feet D50 = diameter of median rock size. feet C = wave velocity. mile Fd = drag force. feet Hs = significant wave height (average height of the highest one-third of the waves for a specified period of time). feet - bulk. 32.

dimensionless K = ratio of rock size related to the D gradation curve. feet L = wave length in deep water (distance between two successive crests in the direction of propagation). dimensionless R = wave runup (vertical distance above storm water surface to which a wave will run up on a given structure).013 = coefficient of proportionality. RT = mean rate of energy transfer to wave from tangential wind stress. dimensionless K coefficient of effective rock volume constant such that K Q3 equals v = the volume of rock. bedding. feet r = 0. feet R m = mean rate of energy transfer to wave from normal wind pressure. feet iii . R = mean rate of energy dissipation from viscosity. 50 size or (W 50 ) weight in a rock K a = coefficient of effective rock area constant such that K g2 equals the projected area of a rock perpendicular to the velocfty. feet t = time.kS = stability coefficient.580 = coefficient of energy partition. feet2-second J-J s foot-pound = 0. second tg = thickness. KA = K dimensionless Q = characteristic linear dimension of a rock. dimensionless v S 3. dimensionless S = wind set-up (the increase in water level above stillwater elevation in a reservoir from shear forces of the wind).

5. second Td = minimum wind duration required for generation of wave heights for a corresponding effective fetch distance and wind velocity. feet T' = thickness of riprap layer. filter.340 x 1b-sec2 = mass density of air ft4 1 1 1 . dimensionless p = 2. mile/hour = weight of median size rock.089 x 10 -5 Ib-sec = absolute viscosity of water ) ft2 = mass density of water bsc : p = 1 . riprap. pound/feet3 TW = specific unit weight of water. pound/feet3 6 = wave steepness = H / L .6 x r = wind resistance coefficient.350. pound W' = buoyant weight of rock. pound WS0 Wr = dry weight of rock. mile/hour d UL = overland wind velocity. pound r Xi = radial distance over open water. dimensionless a = S/2T2 = 2. feet t r = thickness. mile/hour U W = overwater wind velocity. minute U = wind velocity 30 ft above water surface. dimensionless T2 = 2. or embankment slope angle from horizontal. dimensionless @ ' = 0. dimensionless T = specific unit weight of the rock. dimensionless = wave age = C/U. pound Z = cotangent of slope angle a.tf = thickness. feet/second U = design wind velocity. inches T = wave period. 9 3 7 1 -ft2 1 1 1 1 1 p t = 2.

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Riprap p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t wave a c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r p r o t e c t i n g t h e s l o p e from o t h e r a t t a c k s . F a c t o r s To Be Considered i n Riprap Design The A t t a c k The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e d e s i g n f o r s l o p e p r o t e c t i o n i s wave a c t i o n . For s u c c e s s f u l performance. G e n e r a l l y . a r i p r a p l a y e r must b e designed t o : 1. Where s i t e conditions present values greater than these. and 2 . 2 . 4 . P r o p e r l y s i z e d and graded rock o v e r l y i n g a s u i t a b l e bedding. and t h e f o r c e s c a u s i n g e r o s i o n d u r i n g wave a t t a c k on an e a r t h s l o p e a r e b o t h v a r i e d and complex. I t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t t h e e r o s i o n by p r o t e c t i n g t h e surface with riprap (6). o r b o t h has provided adequate s l o p e p r o t e c t i o n (1). E v a l u a t e t h e performance o f a l l s a t i s f a c t o r y s l o p e . 5) l i s t e d i n t h e Bibliography. f i l t e r . The d e s c r i b e d ranges of r i p r a p d e s i g n assume t h a t t h e wave h e i g h t i s a d i r e c t measure of t h e e r o s i v e n e s s of t h e wave a t t a c k ( 7 ) . r e f e r t o t h e publications (1. t h e s e have a n e f f e c t i v e f e t c h l e s s t h a n 10 m i l e s and s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t l e s s t h a n 5 f e e t . See F i g u r e 1 . These d e s i g n procedures a r e l i m i t e d t o rock used a s r i p r a p p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t wave a c t i o n . . P r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l rock p a r t i c l e s from displacement by t h e wave f o r c e . 3 . Introduction E a r t h s t r u c t u r e s r e t a i n i n g a r e s e r v o i r a r e s u b j e c t t o e r o s i o n by wave a t t a c k . The mechanics of wave g e n e r a t i o n a r e extremely complex.TECHNICAL RELEASE N M E 69 U BR RIPRAP DESIGN FOR PROTECTING SLOPES AGAINST WAVE ACTION Scope These d e s i g n procedures and c r i t e r i a a r e recomended f o r rock used a s r i p r a p p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t deep-water wave a c t i o n .p r o t e c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s b e f o r e s e l e c t i n g one f o r u s e . They a r e i n t e n d e d f o r u s e w i t h dams and r e s e r v o i r s r e c e i v i n g S o i l Conservation S e r v i c e (SCS) t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . and bedding u n d e r l y i n g t h e r i p r a p from washing o u t through t h e v o i d s . f i l t e r . Keep t h e p r o t e c t e d e a r t h .

Molitor.To evaluate wave height. 2. The analytical development of these relationships is shown in Appendix A. In most instances. This figure IS based on relationships developed by Saville. and others. In recent years more exact methods have been developed by theoretical and experimental analysis. for successful performance. Thickness of riprap layer 4. Weight of rock Gradation of riprap 3. Figure 2 presents the generalized correlations of significant wave height (H ) and wind duration (Td ) with design wind velocity (Ud) and effective fegch (F ) . or embankment materials. or both Design Procedure I. 8 . 'Design wind direction 2. 6. Wind velocity and duration The Resistance The principal influence on the resistance provided by durable riprap is the size of rock. Determination of Significant Wave Height For many years wave height has been estimated by the empirical formulas of Stephenson." which are defined as waves having lengths equal to or less than twice the depth of water. e McClendon. and Cochran in their study of freeboard allowances for waves on inland reservoirs (2. Roughness of riprap surface Slope of the embankment face 5. The relationships are based on the ) Sverdrup-Muck theory (9) as modified by Bretschneider (10) and are considered accurate and reliable enough for riprap design. bedding. The factors determining the rock size for a satisfactory riprap installation are: 1. deep-water waves are generated in front of an embankment . Creager. Conditions of filter. the following factors that create waves in open water must be analyzed: 1. Effective fetch 3. filter. Figure 2 is based on so-called "deep-water waves. the riprap must be placed so that individual rock particles will not be displaced by the forces of waves or by outwash of underlying bedding.

-u. and Extremes. 2 . prevailing winds during the winter months (reservoir frozen) are considerably different from prevailing winds during the period when the reservoir has open water. Department of Commerce.Use of Climatological Data The U. The determination can be made from (a) Weather Service climatological data or (b) site orientation. NC. tables of "Normals. and (d) the minimum wind duration. in annual climatological-data summaries. Means. "Normals. Multiply the azimuth of the wind by the appropriate wind velocity for each month." for the local area of concern. S. Divide the sum of the values determined in step 2 by the sum of the wind velocities to obtain the design wind direction. ~ n i t e d states. FTS 672-0683. 3 . Where shallow-water waves develop. Weather Service publishes. and Extremes" that include wind data for local areas. Design Wind Direction Considerable judgment must be used in determining the design wind direction. To obtain Local Climatological Data--Annual Summaries. Another reference is Climatic Atlas of ~ h e .S. get in touch with the National Climatic Center. The procedure for determining the wind direction from climatological data is : 1. estimates based on deep-water conditions give conservative wave-height predictions. obtain the speed and direction for the fastest mile for each month. (b) the effective fetch. Method 1 . . A.(a) the design wind direction. Figure 2 can be used to estimate the significant wave height that may develop within a reservoir after the foilowing have been determined. Using the climatological data tables. and (b) in some areas of the United States. Means. Asheville. Note: Apply Method 2 if the computed design wind direction is away from the dam. Effective use of this information requires an awareness of two potential problems: (a) an average or weighted average wind direction may be a wind direction infrequent in the area under consideration. (c) the design wind velocity over water.(11).

Subsequent studies by Saville (12) showed that the shape of an open water area affects the fetch. the shorter the effective fetch. Saville's method is based on the concept that the width of the fetch on inland reservoirs normally places a definite restriction on the length of effective fetch. 2 X Col. Draw the central radial from a point on the face of the dam to a point on the opposite . 4 Wind Direction = t ( 5 ) = Check for comparison: Method 2 Z(2) Wind Direction = t ( 4 ) = 12 . Method 1 - Use of Climatological Data Using a topographic map of the site.Use of Site Conditions Wind direction can be obtained by determining the point on the shoreline over the longest stretch of open water from the dam. the smaller the width-to-length ratio. lay out seven radial lines at 6-degree intervals on each side of a central radial.WIND DIRECTION 1 2 Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Speed (mph) 3 Direction 4 Azimuth 5 Col. B. Effective Fetch Early studies of wind and wave development generally assumed the fetch to be the greatest straight-line distance over open water. This direction should be weighed with other topographic conditions or climatic information.

512 mi. Divide t h e sum of t h e r a d i a l v a l u e s found i n 1 by t h e sum of t h e cosines t o obtain t h e e f f e c t i v e fetch. M u l t i p l y t h e s c a l e d l e n g t h of each r a d i a l by t h e s q u a r e of t h e c o s i n e of i t s a n g l e w i t h t h e c e n t r a l r a d i a l . 4 X col. EFFECTIVE FETCH No. Procedure f o r Methods 1 and 2: 1. 2. Draw t h e c e n t r a l r a d i a l from a p o i n t on t h e f a c e of t h e dam t o a p o i n t on t h e o p p o s i t e s h o r e l i n e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t o y i e l d t h e l o n g e s t d i s t a n c e o v e r open w a t e r . 13.280) - ft.s h o r e l i n e o v e r t h e l o n g e s t d i s t a n c e of open water i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e "wind d i r e c t i o n " a s determined by Method 1 o u t l i n e d above i n p a r a g r a p h A . ) col. R e f e r t o F i g u r e 3. i 5. Method 2 . .Use of S i t e C o n d i t i o n s Using a t o p o g r a p h i c map. = - mi. CI cos 01 cos2 a Xi scale distance (Ft. l a y o u t seven r a d i a l l i n e s a t 6-degree i n t e r v a l s on each s i d e of a c e n t r a l r a d i a l .280 f t / m i = Check: Fe I(5) 15(5. 5 E f f e c t i v e F e t c h (Fe) = I ( 6 ) = 1(3) f t .

There are three methods of estimating maximum overland wind velocities. slope of land. Means. above. These velocity changes are due to differences in altitude. The average represents the overland wind velocity. The graph plotted should be similar to Figure 6. particularly in mountainous areas." This value can be adjusted for duration and effective fetch in three steps: a. Overland Wind Velocity (UL) Method 1 - Use of Climatological Data The local climatological data bulletin lists the wind speed for the fastest mile by months. and Extremes. Judgment must be used with Figure 4. versus wind duration (Td) from Figure 2 for the effective fetch ( e ) F determined for the site. As in Figure 6. Means. Design Wind Velocity and Duration Obtaining a reliable estimate of the maximum wind velocity that would exist over a length of time at a given site is practically impossible.S.S. The value of wind velocity where the two curves intersect is the overland wind velocity for the site. b. . since wind velocity can change sharply in short distances. Plot wind velocity (U ) versus wind duration ( d ) from T Figure 5 for the maximum wind velocity o6tained in step a. for a 50-year period of recurrence. The contour lines were developed in part by H. Method 3 - Use of Maximum Speed of Record The local climatological data bulletin lists the fastest mile of record under the section "Normals. Obtain the maximum wind velocity (fastest mile of record) for the area being studied. and other topographical features. under the section "Normals. Method 2 - Use of Generalized Data A value for wind velocity can be obtained from Figure 4.'' List the 12 speeds given and obtain an average.C. The procedure is to obtain a value for wind velocity overland and then adjust it to represent the overwater conditioin. Thom (13) and in part from U. sheltered areas. 1. Weather Service records at 141 stations throughout the United States. and Extremes. on the same graph plot wind velocity c.C. which is a map of isolines showing the maximum wind velocity 30 feet above ground.

The computed overwater velocity becomes the "design wind velocity (U ) " for the site. Appendix D contains some worksheets that may be used to record design data. 5. Design of Riprap Protection for Slopes (3. Significant Wave Height The highest waves are energized by wind over long reaches of open water. Overwater Wind Velocities (U ) W Overland wind velocities must be adjusted to reflect overwater velocities. . For a given site condition with significant wave height (Hs) and embankment slope known. Rock Size The size of rock is determined from relationships of wave heights. The overwater velocity can be determined for the overland wind velocity by applying the ratio. because the latter velocities are higher. the average observed values for this relationship are shown in Figure 7 (2) The ratio can be obtained from Figure 7 for the effective fetch determined for the site. entering with a wind velocity of 50 mphablowing toward the upstream face of the dam over the longest reach of open water (F ) ( 4 . Appendix C contains an example problem illustrating the design procedure. The charts on pages B2 and B3 are used for planning and design respectively. Although the ratio of values for overland versus overwater for individual sites may vary considerably. and drag on the rock relative to the stable size of rock needed to resist these forces for a given embankment. Both methods used to obtain significant wave height (H ) for a site require prior determination of wind velocity and effective fetch. A. Method 1 - Use of Prescribed Data When site data have been developed by procedures described in this Technical Release.2. Use Method 2 only when no climatic data are available. Method 2 - Use of Limited Data The significant wave height (H-) can be determined from Figure 2. 4. d D. wave velocities. 15) Flow charts contained in Appendix B indicate the steps to be followed during the design of riprap. the significant wave height (Hs) can be determined from Figure 2 by use of the computed design wind velocity (U ) and the d effective fetch (Fe). 1) P 11. The chart on page B 1 is used for ponds.

(Dmax. 18. Riprap with broadly graded minus-D material is more effective than uniformly graded rock in preven&g leaching of the underlying material. The design size 50 relationship presented in Figure 8 is based on the results of a laboratory investigation (16. and the smaller rocks fill the voids among the larger ones.5 times the D min. B. The recommended gradation limits (K ratio) for rock riprap are shown in Figure 10. There are two types of rock placement: 1. 17. Type 2 . is to be converted to size by Figure The dimension as given by Figure 9 is then to be used as D ) forband-placed riprap. Type 1 . Equipment-placed rock is superior to hand-placed rock because of historically low 3. therefore. maintenance costs ( ) The W50 weight of rock.determine proper rock size (W weight) from Figure 8. 2. 1 ) 9. The analytical development of the equation in Figure 8 is given in Appendix E. ) should be &e $ to or less than 1. can be converted to rock slze (dimension in feet) from the relationship given by Figure 9.Hand-Placed Rock: Riprap that is hand-placed consists of rocks of uniform size carefully placed by hand in a definite pattern with minimum voids. as determined from Figure 8. The minimum thickness of a rock riprap layer is two times the D50 size of rock. Leaching may be prevented . The maximum size theminimum size ( size. It is. The minimum thickness of the hand-placed riprap layer should C. determined from Figure 8.Dumped (Equipment-Placed) Rock: The larger rocks are uniformly distributed and firmly in contact with one another. The rock W weight. necessary to recognize more than one gradation as satisfactory for embankment protection. a0 It probably will be necessary to design a well-graded filter material for placement under hand-placed riprap to protect against the outwash of embankment. Riprap consisting of well-graded mixtures of rock smaller than the D size and uniform mixtures of rock larger than the D size 50 are as effective as riprap consisting of uniformly sized material0 The advantage of uniform riprap is that it does not segregate during placement. Gradation and Thickness of Rock The recommended gradation and thickness of rock depends somewhat on the rock available and the base material. Beddings and Filters The finer material underlying the riprap is picked up and carried away by turbulent eddies and jets that penetrate the riprap blanket through the interstices of the rock particles (leaching). The concept calls for angular rock.

2/ designer can adjust the value of R according to the surface roughness assumed for the available material and the method of placement. Blocky or flat rock placed to create a smooth surface can increase the R value by a factor of 1.Set the upper limit of the riprap at a minimum vertical distance above the normal pool still-water level equal to the sum of the wave runup (R) and wind set-up ( ) S. 2. See Figure 1g for a sketch of the dimensions described. Layout for Installation . The drawdown of water after each cycle of runup from wave action forms a hydrostatic pore pressure. 60 and Design Note No. Aggregates for Drain Fill and Filters. or (b) the lowest controlled outlet.5 times the significant wave height (Hs) below (a) the normal water elevation for the lowest ungated opening. . 61. Specifications 24. E. 3. or (c) providing a bedding of finer rock. The values of "R. 521. Slope Protection Layout 1. Soil Mechanics Note No. Place rock bedding.5 foot. The use of a berm facilitates placement. Construction Specifications The rock and filter material shall be installed in accordance with the SCS National Engineering Handbook. Lower Limit . Filter material may be needed to prevent the outwash of embankment fill material during this process. and 523. Loose Rock Riprap.The lower limit of the riprap should be set 1. Section 20. Leaching can be prevented most effectively by placing progressively finer layers of bedding and filter under riprap until the base material is contained. (b) closing or reducing the size of the interstices. and filters on the surface of the embankment slope as shown in Figure 15. The wind setup (S) may be taken as 0. 3. Rock for Riprap." has design guidelines for gradation of the filter and bedding materials. 1. have been modified to yield values for aged riprap with roughness with compatible with that of riprap installed by SCS.1 times the significant wave height (H ) to a maximum of 0. See Technical Release No. or may be taken from Figure 13. Drain Fill." as determined by references (2) and (20).The base of the riprap should be placed on and supported by a level berm. Wave runup (R) can The be obtained from information provided by Figures 11 and 1 ' . Upper Limit . The filter and bedding layers should each be a minimum of 9 inches thick. "Tentative Guides for Determining the Gradation of Filter Materials. D.2 over that with a rough surface of angular rock.by (a) increasing the thickness of the riprap.

Its derivation is based on substitution of predetermined and rather conservative constants.5. The assumptions are: 1.1. and the longest fetch. The development of the above relation follows. substituting from equation j. ~8taequals 2. Thus.5. D50.47 Ds0 = 0. 4. by use of some reasonably conservative assumptions. The rock shape is between a cube and a sphere.Alternative (Short-Cut) Design Procedure The relation between the rock size. giving equation 1 again as (6) Equation 1 is a condensation of the theoretical and empirical relationship that constitutes the framework of the formal procedures. Introduction of assumptions 1 and 2 in Equation A19 yields: Use of assumptions 3. the equation for Figure 9 becomes: D on and using equation 4: 0.5.53 F P Using assumption 6 with a shape constant of 1. 3. . 5. 2. can. G equals 2. ~gsi~n windPvelocity is 50 mph.6. F equals F . 6. approximate but generally conservative estimates of required rock size. and 5 in Equation El4 yields: Then.4pbtain: W50 = 76.85 F P The exponent may as well be taken as 0. the equation can be used to obtain quick. KA equals 2. 4. F . be reducgd to: This relation should not be used when actual site conditions depart markedly from the assumptions.

A.S. U. Vol. Dep. S. H. H.S. Woodward.S. (14) Soil Conservation Service. 454. 123. Navy Hydrographic Office. Thorndike. 1960.S. Slope Protection for Earth Dams. "Slope Protection for Earth Dams. p. Paper No. Earth and Earth Rock Dams. . Jr." Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Foundation. Jr. Cochran. January 1966. op. "Freeboard Allowances for Waves in Inland Reservoirs. 70. 4 (5) Corps of Engineers. Beach Erosion Board. 1952. (12) Saville. Inc. March 1971. p. Jr. cit. Volume 126. "The Effect of Fetch Width on Wave Generation. U. "Revised Wave Forecasting Relationships. Department of the Army. 139. Gizienski. et al.. C. (13) Thom. v . 1961. H. Munk. Soil Conservation Service. 1954. (10) Bretschneider. 3191. Part IV. U. 1958. F. U. Vol. Council on Wave Research Engrg. 1968. Vol. Thorndike.S. EM-1110-2-2300. ( ) U. Elmo W. 3465. 450. ( ) State of California. R. New Delhi (1951). Thorndike. 101. Lincoln EbWP Unit. Government 3 Printing Office. J. Agric.. 449... December 1974. 2915. Bureau of Reclamation. p. General Design and Construction Considerations.. (7) Sherard.BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) Sherard.. on Coastal Engrg. L. 601. McClendon." Technical Memorandum No.." Proceedings. 195." Fourth Congress on Large Dams. 2nd Printing. 128. Earth and Rock-Fill Dams. W.S. Clarence E. Paper No. p. "Distribution of Extreme Winds in the United States. (6) Dennis.. U. Sean and Swell: Theory of Relations for Forecasting. "Wind. S." Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. p. John Wiley & Sons. Army.S. 1947. (2) Saville. 273.. 1963. and W. "A Guide for Design and Layout of Vegetative Wave Protection for Earth Dam Embankments. 2nd Conf. 1974. 56. L. C. U. Department of Agriculture. I. "Wave Run-up on Shore Structures. p. . (8) Saville. and Clevenger. A (9) Sverdrup. Part 11." Technical Release No.. U. and Albert L. J. Bank and Shore Protection." Publication No. Corps of Engineers." Paper No." Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. George E.. Design of Small Dams. (11) Bertram.

Robert Y. Army.1-1-36. 653. Vol. Vol. 1953. Bureau of Reclamation. "Rock as Upstream Slope Protection for Earth Dams .149 Case Histories." Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. June 1972. Robert Y. 3213. . U. 1965. 118. 492. 51. 1. "Large Wave Tank Tests of Riprap Stability. (17) Hudson. Part IV. p. 37. (16) Hudson. "Riprap Stability on Earth Embankments Tested in Large and Small-Scale Wave Tanks. Army. 1961. (18) Corps of Engineers.S. (19) Corps of Engineers. Vol. p." American Railway Engineering Association Construction and Maintenance Section Manual." Technical Memorandum No. DD-3. - (20) Association of American Railroads. Paper No. 126. "Construction and Protection of Roadbed Across Reservoir Areas. p.(15) Esmiol. U.S." Technical Memorandum No." Report No. May 1975. "Laboratory Investigation of Rubble-Mound Breakwaters. "Wave Forces on Breakwaters.1." Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Elbert E.

L=Wove Lenqth. I Sf/.L Wave C m f i C . . h = Depth of W a t e r in Reservd~r Hz S i g n ificari t Wave Heiqht. -& 4 h Smoofh . 4 Wind Set-Up.// Level Wofw I i j I I I R =Wave Runup C =Wave Velocity. DeepWof e Cond~'hon ~ Embonkmenf S e e .

) Overland Wind Velocity (mph) or Design Wind Velocity ( m ~ h ) (a) .(U.

512 - FIGURE 3 COMPUTATION OF EFFECTIVE FETCH AND DESIGN WIND DIRECTION W N T C ENG. OREGON .EFFECTIVE FETCH 13. STAFF PORTLAND.

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FIGURE 5 MAXIMUM WINDVELOCITY RELATIONSHIP WNTC ENG. STAFF PORTLAND. OREGON .W i n d Duration (Td) ( Min).

OREGON . STAFF PORT LAND.Wind Duration (Td) (Minutes) FIGURE 6 D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF O V E R L A N D WlND V E L O C I T Y Effective Fetch (Fe) (Miles) FIGURE 7 WlND RELATIONSHIP OVERWATER TO OVERLAND WNTC ENG.

.

D ROCK WEIGHT-SIZE RELATIONSHIP WNTC. ENQ.Dimension. OREQON . STAFF PORTLAND.

ORIOOW . STAFF PORTLAND.K RATIO TO 050 S l Z E UNIFORM ROCK K RATIO TO DsO S l Z E GRADED ROCK FIQURE 10 ROCK GRADATION LIMITS WNTC ENG.

S T A F F PORTLAND.miles) Equation ( A 2 1 ) From ~ . ) Effective Fetch . OREGON REF (2) (0) .p p e n d i xA FIGURE II WAVE LENGTH RELATIONSHIP WNTC ENG.(F.

(2) and (20) and footn o t 0 1 on prg.Embankment Slope Note : 8. The surface rmoothners represented by these curves is simulated by a single layer of rocks of uniform size. g . OREGON . STAFF PORTLAND. FIGURE 12 WAVE RUNUP RATIO WNTC ENG.0 Rof.

DUORAM FOR COMPUTATIONS OF WIND SET-UP IN RESERVOIR8 REF (2) FIGURE 13 WATER SURFACE CREATED BY WIND SET-UP WNTC ENO. OREOON 0 . STAFF PORTLAND.

OREGON . STAFF P O R T L A N D .FIGURE 1 4 RIPRAP LAYOUT VS W A V E ACTION WNTC ENG.

FIQURE 16 DUMPED ROCK PLACEMENT DETAIL W N T C ENQ. OREQON . S T A F F PORTLAND.

For d e e p w a t e r waves Equation A1 becomes Energy RN = 1/2 s p l ( u .w a t e r waves.APPENDIX A .DERIVATION OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WAVE VELOCITY. are: Velocity where C i s d e f i n e d a s wave v e l o c i t y . T h i s p a p e r i s concerned only w i t h d e e p . AND WIND DURATION The f o l l o w i n g t h e o r e t i c a l development i s t a k e n i n p a r t from r e f e r e n c e ( 9 ) .C ) 2 k 2 a 2 C f o r C<U RT = y 2 ~ 2 p 1 6 2 ~ ~ 2 for U>15 mph Rp = -2pk 3 a 2C 2 E = 112 pga2 Mot i o n 1.which a r e d e f i n e d a s waves w i t h a wave l e n g t h (L) e q u a l t o o r l e s s t h a n two t i m e s t h e d e p t h o f water (L 2 2 h ) . WAVE HEIGHT. wave e n e r g y and wave motion. as d e t e r m i n e d from c l a s s i c a l hydrodynamics. The f u n d a m e n t a l e q u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g wave v e l o c i t y . EFFECTIVE FETCH. S t e a d y S t a t e C<U .

Steady S t a t e . .-.2. 1. 6 = C/U . B C 1 O < B ( B ' - I n t e g r a t i o n of t h e e q u a t i o n s of motion y i e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g s o l u t i o n s . Transient S t a t e C<U a.

539 x-' o 2 l If wave h e i g h t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s p a r a m e t e r s g ~ / ~ 2 .2. t h e n from t h e d e f i n i t i o n of wave s t e e p n e s s and E q u a t i o n A 2 : 3 C o n s t a n t s o f i n t e g r a t i o n s e l e c t e d t o make s o l u t i o n s c o n t i n u o u s a t B = f3' E q u a t i o n A15 may b e w r i t t e n i n a n o n d i m e n s i o n a l form as: s i n c e 6 = f (6) and f3 = f ( g ~ / ~ ao)r B Equations A l l t h r o u g h A14.K ~ K = -2. 7 0 5 x 10' Y = .446 13 ~ ) Kt = 1 . Transient State where q = 5 2 2 m K4 = f i ( 2 K 2 - K K . = f ( g t / U ) a s i n d i c a t e d by . 3.

F i g u r e 2 was o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y from t h e c u r v e s on F i g u r e A-. and Cochran(2) d e t e r m i n e d from i n l a n d r e s e r v o i r s t u d i e s t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be approximated by: where Fe = e f f e c t i v e f e t c h ( f e e t ) Hs = s i g n i f i c a n t wave h e i g h t ( f e e t ) T = wave p e r i o d ( s e c o n d s ) E q u a t i o n s A17 and A18 a r e g i v e n i n t h e form of d i m e n s i o n l e s s g r a p h s i n F i g u r e A-1.Over t h e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t f o r i n l a n d r e s e r v o i r s (10 < g F / U ~ 4000) < S a v i l l e . From Equation A2 and the d e f i n i t i o n of wave v e l o c i t y S u b s t i t u t i o n of Equation A20 i n t o Equation A18 y i e l d s his e q u a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 11 and i s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e wave runup. and i s t h e g r a p h i c a l d i a g r a m d e v e l o p e d f o r f o r e c a s t i n g wave h e i g h t s .I. . McClendon.

OREGON . STAFF PORTLAND.FIGURE A-l WAVE HEIGHT A S A FUNCTION OF EFFECTIVE FETCH AND WIND SPEE WNTC E N G .

Lower Limit Determine Fetch (Distance of Longest Reach r I .000 Cont'd Start I m I Determine Protection Layout.Upper ~ i m i t 1 A 1 Determine Quantities I Determine Wind Velocity I I I use 50 mph Determine Wave Height I z Determine Rock Size Figure I 8 I a Dumped Thickness Bedding I Hand-Placed Thickness Bedding .0-1 Flow Chart: Procedure f o r Embankments w i t h E f f e c t i v e Height-Storage Product Less Than 3.

J 1 w Gradation Thickness I LrJ Hand-Placed Thickness Determine Protection Layout Lower Limit Upper Limit - Q 1 Determine Quantities - Develop Cost Estimate .Flow Chart: Procedure F o r P l a n n i n g Purposes V I Determine Wind Velocity Determine Wave Height Method I - I I I Determine Rock Size Figure 8 Determine Type o f Instal lation of Riprap I I .

+ Determine Overwater Velocity .B-3 Flow Chart: Procedures For Design Start Determine Wind Direction A + Cont 'd I iviethod . I I I Determine Wave Height 1 I I Develop Cost Estimate 1 Determine Rock Size Hand-Placed I and Thickness of Riprap 1 . I I I Method 2 1 I r compare results ] Determine Effective Fetch I I I Determine Wind Velocity I Method 2 compare results I I Method 1 + 3 ..

Azimuth o f g r e a t e s t d i s t a n c e o v e r open w a t e r 2 3310 NNW ( f r o m E x h i b i t 1 C ) . The dam has a 3 : l upstream slope. By Method 1. t h i s wind d i r e c t i o n i s away f r o m t h e dam. f r o m E x h i b i t 3C e x t r a c t t h e wind speed and d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e " f a s t e s t m i l e .c o n t r o l ) r e s e r v o i r . 3. Normal pool e l e v a t i o n t o be 3. " Speed Azimuth (ded 0 54 61 57 60 42 40 31 29 61 88 56 57 - Direction Speed x Azimuth 636 Wind D i r e c t i o n : 2385 Check by . Refer t o E x h i b i t 2 C . r Solution Step 1: Determine wind d i r e c t i o n . Oregon area. Mu1t i purpose ( r e c r e a t i o n + f l o o d . P o r t l a n d .65.200 f t .EXAMPLE PROBLEM G i ven 1. t r y Method 2. and t h e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f a v a i l a b l e r o c k i s 2. Thus. Required: Design o f r o c k r i p r a p f o r upstream s l o p e p r o t e c t i o n .= 12 By o b s e r v a t i o n . Average depth o f r e s e r v o i r i s 40 f t . Layout and topography a r e as shown i n 2. A d d i t i o n a l Data as Reference M a t e r i a l : O b t a i n f r o m N a t i o n a l Weather S e r v i c e a copy o f Local C l i m a t o l o g i c a l ~ a t a o P o r t l a n d area. E x h i b i t 1D.

S i n c e i n s t e p 1 t h e w i n d d i r e c t i o n had t o be d e t e r m i n e d b y Method 2. . By Method 1.042.66 f t = 0.1 13.S t e p 2. Check = 31y300 15 = 2.086. a. No.387 mi ( s a y 0.area i s a b o u t 75 mph. Determine wind v e l o c i t y . By Method 2. - COS a - a. e f f e c t i v e f e t c h w i l l a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d by Method 2. = 53 mph b.47 = 2.395 m i (say 3. Determine e f f e c t i v e f e t c h .4 m i ) b.512 f t = 0. E f f e c t i v e F e t c h = 27y593.4 m i ) S t e p 3. F i g u r e 4: The 50-year r e c u r r e n c e i s o l i n e f o r t h e P o r t l a n d . average f a s t e s t m i l e : 636 mph 12 Refer t o data developed i n Step 1. Oregon.

page 17. Thus. t h i s must be m o d i f i e d f o r d u r a t i o n . cor respondi ng t o an e f f e c t i v e f e t c h o f 0. however. . Wind Duration. (1) P l o t o v e r l a n d wind v e l o c i t i e s and wind d u r a t i o n s f r o m F i g u r e 5 corr esponding t o maximum wind v e l o c i t y o f 88 rnph.4 m i l e . r e a d t h e value o f w i n d v e l o c i t y (61 mph). ( 2 ) P l o t o v e r l a n d wind v e l o c i t i e s and wind d u r a t i o n s f r o m F i g u r e 2.c . See F i g u r e 6. Td (min) ( 3 ) A t t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n . By Method 3: Maximum f a s t e s t m i l e speed o f r e c o r d f r o m c l i m a t o l o g i c a l d a t a i s 88 rnph. we have determined over1 and w i n d v e l o c i t i e s o f : By Method By Method By Method Also Yax. = 53 mph 1 = 75 mph 2 3 = 61 mph Speed o f Record = 88 mph An o v e r l a n d w i n d v e l o c i t y o f 70 mph ( l J L ) i s s e l e c t e d by t h e d e s i g n e r .

Determine r o c k s i z e .4 mi. Determine g r a d a t i o n and t h i c k n e s s . By Method 1. 1. r e a d f o r a From F i g u r e 10.Step 4. r e a d W50 = 42 l b f r o m F i g u r e 8. 4 0 . w i t h e f f e c t i v e f e t c h (Fe) . 1 f t Step 6. See g r a d a t i o n envelope on E x h i b i t 5C.07 x 70 = 74.280 f t / m i ) r e a d Hs = 2 . thus. Step 7.600 f t ) 5. 1.4 m i and design wind v e l o c i t y (Ud) = 75 mph.65. Step 8. With an embankment s l o p e o f 3:1. Determine bedding g r a d a t i o n by S o i l Mechanics Note No. = 0. Determine wave h e i g h t (HS). With a wind v e l o c i t y o f 50 mph and a f e t c h From F i g u r e 9.0.87 m i of [4. read: Note t h a t f o r Fe = 0.l b cube t h e dimension. and r e a d t h e v a l u e o f 1.9 f t By Method 2 .07.). Hs = 1.6 f t (7. procedure i n u s i n g t h e f i l t e r as a base. s e l e c t p r o p e r r a t i o f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e f e t c h of 0. HS = 2.f o r l i m i t e d data. Determine beddging requirements. Sheet C-10. D = 0. t h e values o f g r a d a t i o n f o r u n i f o r m r o c k s i z e o f D50 = 0. . Determine overwater v e l o c i t y (U. u s i n g F i g u r e 2.2 ft.9 mph (say 75 mph).4 and Ud = 6 1 mph.2 i n c h e s ) a r e as f o l l o w s : Percent Passing 100 Size (inch) 11-14 Required minimum t h i c k n e s s o f t h e r o c k r i p r a p l a y e r s h a l l be 2 x D50 o r 14 inches. Step 5. From F i g u r e 7. and Gs = 2.6 ft.

f e t c h = 0. . 2 ) = 3. thus.30 R L s Obtain value f o r wind set-up ( 5 ) f r o m page 8.0.066 2.5 ( 2 . v = 75 mph.87 m i (4. L = 33 f t .l(Z. o r 10.Required bedding t h i c k n e s s = 9 inches.066. The maximum value determined should be used. where h = 40 ft.75 f t bedding 1.10 ft.2) . and wind v e l o c i t y = 75 mph. read . Compute 5 L = .600 f t ) and S i s determined t o be 0. For graded r o c k r i p r a p t h e l a y e r o f bedding may n o t be r e q u i r e d .22 = 3.l(HS) = O.= 0. Step 9: a. 6.4 f t s l o p e d i s t a n c e b. Upper l i m i t i s : Obtain v a l u e f o r L from F i g u r e 11.3 f t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e .22 f t . t h e r e would be some l o s s o f s t a b i l i t y o f t h e smal l e r r o c k and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e g r e g a t i o n d u r i n g placement. o r 10. However.5HS = 1. R+S = 2. Set-up (S) may a l s o be determined by u s i n g F i g u r e 13.75 f t filter .20 f t dumped r o c k r i p r a p Note: Uniform r o c k r i p r a p was used i n t h i s example. and HS = 0. S = O. page 23.31 f t s l o p e d i s t a n c e .86 + 0. Determine l i m i t o f r i p r a p Lower l i m i t i s : 1. F = 0.4 m i .2 33 From F i g u r e 12 determine runup r e q u i r e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g : For an embankment s l o p e o f 3:1. thus.00 f t - 0.= 1.08 f t v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e . w i t h graded r i p r a p .

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP EXAMPLE PROBLEM
WNTC ENG. STAFF PORT LAND, OREGON

Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With comparative Data

PORTLAND, OREGON
)
Narrative Climatological Summary
The Portland Weather Service Office is located six miles north-northeast of downtown Portland. Portland is situated about 65 miles inland from the Pacific Coast and midway between the northerly oriented low coast range on the west and the higher Cascade range on the east, each about 30 miles distant. The airport lies on the south bank of the Columbia River. The coast range provides limited shielding from the Pacific Ocean. The Cascade range provides a steep slope for orographic lift of moisture-laden westerly winds and consequent moderate rainfall and also forms a barrier from continental airmasses originating over the interior Columbia Basin. Airflow is usually northwesterly in Portland in spring and summer and southeasterly in fall and winter, interrupted infrequently by outbreaks of dry continental air moving westward through the Cascade passes. Portland has a very definite winter rainfall climate. Approximately 88 percent of the annual total occurs in the months of October through May, 9 percent in June and September, while only 3 percent comes in July and August. Precipitation is mostly rain, as on the average there are only 5 days each year with measurable snow. Seldom is snowfall measured for more than a couple of inches, and it generally lasts only a few days. The greatest measured snowfall in period of record is 15 inches. The winter season is marked by relatively mild temperatures, cloudy skies and rain with southeasterly surface winds predominating. Summer produces pleasantly mild temperatures, northwesterly winds and very little precipitation. Fall and spring are transitional in nature. Fall and early winter are times with most frequent fog. At all times, incursions of marine air are a frequent moderating influence. Outbreaks of continental high pressure from east of the Cascade Mountains produce strong easterly flow through the Columbia Gorge into the Portland area. In winter this brings the coldest weather with the extremes of low temperature registered in the cold airmass. Freezing rain and ice glaze are sometimes transitional effects. In summer hot, dry continental air brings the highest temperatures. Temperatures below zero are very infrequent. The lowest recorded is 3' F. below zero. Temperatures above 100' F. are also infrequent. The highest recorded temperature is 107' F. Temperatures 90" F. or higher are reached every year, but seldom persist for more than 2 or 3 days. Destructive storms are infrequent in the Portland area. Surface winds seldom exceed gale force and only twice in the period of record have winds reached higher than 75 m.p.h. Thunderstorms occur about once a month through the spring and summer months. Heavy downpours are infrequent but gentle rains occur almost daily during winter months. Most rural areas around Portland are farmed for berries, green beans, and vegetables for fresh market and processing. The long growing season with mild temperatures and ample moisture favor local nursery and seed industries. Tourist visitation is very heavy in Portland in summer owing to immediate accessibility of choice recreational areas of diversified nature ranging from marine to mountain.
Exhibit 2 ~ 1

Meteorological Data For The Current Year
PACIFIC Rdnir
humidity, pR htitud..

45' 3 6 ' N

LOllplNb.

122

' 16 ' Y

E l c l m h 1: 1

21

h n

Yaw: 1916

F n n n mlb
b t h

J bN

CCO
MAR APR NAY JUN JUL AUG

SCP
OCT

nov
occ
YCAI

Normals, Means, And Extremes
Rdmir
humidity pr

10;l 0.9 8.1 7.2 6.9 b.9 7;4 1;O 6!4 6.4 9.5

ESE ESE ESE NU NU NU

54 61 57 bO 42
LO

S S Y S S 5~ SY

1951 1951 196! 1951 196c 1951

NU NU
NU

31 29 61
81

ESE ESE

3,) ESE

5b 51

S 195t 5 1 1961 S 1962 S l9bi SN J9b1 S 1951

k e n s and extreme. above sra from existing and N).p.rable mxposurem. A n n u l extrmnas have h e n sxcemdmd at o U H r Sites in thm locality a f o l l a t M x i m m m n t h l y precipitation 10.14 in hcember 18821 maximum precipitation in 1 4 hourm 7.66 in Dace&er . 18821 maximum snowfall in 24 hours 1 6 . 0 in January 1937.
(a) Length o f record. years, t h m w h thc current year unless o t h e n i s e noted. based on January data. (b) 70' and above a t Alaskan stations. Less than one h a l f . T Trace.

l W I U L S Based on record for the 1941-1970 period. MTL OF M CXTREE The w s t recent I n cases o f m l t t p l e occurrence. PREVAILIN6 YINO DIRECTIUI Rword through 1963. M u r a l s l n d i c r t e tens o f dcqrro c l o c h l s e YI)(D DlRECTlW f m tnn north. 00 indicates calm. FASTEST MILE M I D Speed i s fastest observe4 1-nlnutc v a l m *hm the d i r e c t t o n I s I n tens o f d q r c c s

-

-

-

-

-

3-70) FILE CODE ENG-22 E x h i b i t 4C LAWRATORY NO C-9 of AGRICULTURE SERVICE SOIL CLASSIFICATION - T Y W OF SAMPLE I TESTED AT APPROVED BY DATE SYMBOL I DESCRIPTION .SCS-ENG-353 (REV.

FILTER O R B E D D I N G M A T E R I A L S TECHNICAL RELEASE NO.C-10 E x h i b i t 5 C ' t UFPAKTMtNT OF ACR'('"LT"Ht SOIL CONbERVAI'ION SERVICE PROJECT on0 S T A T E R I P R A P . 69 .

-Play June -. Means.. Go t o Method 2. Wind D i r e c t i o n = c(4)= ~(5) = ~ ( 4 = ) c(5)= Check f o r comparison: Wind D i r e c t i o n Does wind impinge on dam? * D i r e c t on > - <: .S.--.C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Data from U... Wind Data A.. and Extremes" o r "Climatic A t l a s of t h e United S t a t e s " r L 1 Month 2 Speed (mph) 3 4 5 * Direction * Azimuth Col Col .. S = 225O W W = 270° N = 31 5 W O N = 360' * D i r e c t on from which wind was b l o w i n g i n terms o f degrees c l o c k w i s e .-.February ---March . . 1 I..--Apr i7. 2 X 4 January .Worksheet 0-1 Worksheet f o r TR-69 Rock Riprap f o r Slope P r o t e c t i o n A g a i n s t Wave A c t i o n Sht.------December #I ~ I - - -- c (2)= i .. ..? NE E S E S = 45O = 90° = 135O = 180° Azimuth : Go t o P a r t B.. Weather S e r v i c e t a b l e s of "Normals.----A u i '-3eptem5e r -.---.October .----November ... Design Wind D i r e c t i o n Method 1 .. > - S i g n i f i c a n t Wave H t ..--July .

Method used. + 5. = ft 13.280 f t / m i = mi . 4 X Col.Worksheet D-2 Sht.) = #. scale d i stance (Ft . E f f e c t i v e Fetch A t t a c h p l a n v i e w o f s i t e w / a p p r o p ' r i a t e r a d i a l s.) Col. 2 Method 2 - S i t e Conditions Azimuth = B. 4 9 53 1 5 ) ft. EFFECTIVE FETCH 1 -- Xi No. 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 E f f e c t i v e F e t c h (F.512 Continue See r e f e r e n c e s ( 3 .

UL = 12 = c Speed = c ( 2 ) f r o m I. Method 3 a. UL = See F i g . 2 . A . Td f o r c a l c u l a t e d Fe ( I . Max.). . D e s i g n Wind V e l o c i t y (Ud) 1.A. f a s t e s t m i l e v e l o c i t y = b. 4. column 2 Method 2 - General ized D a t a . see Fig. . P l o t below: (1) UL v s . 3 C. f a s t e s t m i l e v e l o c i t:~. Maximum Speed o f Record R e f e r t o c l i m a t o l o g i c a l d a t a r e f e r e n c e f r o m I . 5. (2) UL v s .B. see F i g .Worksheet D-3 Sht. O v e r l a n d Wind V e l o c i t y ( U L ) Method 1 - C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Data. Td f o r MX.

) . (1. Overwater Wind Velocity (u.9.Worksheet D-4 Sht. U From Fig.): ud = U . 7 2 = JL ' for calculated F . 4 Wind Duration (Td) (Minutes) A t i n t e r s e c t i o n of curves UL Use UL = = 2.

Max. H Continue See R e f e r e n c e s ( 3 . No. G r a d a t i o n and T h i c k n e s s of Rock R i p r a p G e n e r a l s h a p e of l o c a l r o c k ? rod cube sphere Method of placement? Type 1 (Equip. > .) . 4 . Type 1 . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Rock S i z e ( F i g . 15) s Method 2 - Assumed wind v e l o c i t y i s 50 mph. .G r a d a t i o n d e s i r e d ? Fig. 9. D = D = Uniform Graded 50 K Factor :< : Percent Passing by !Jt. 2 ) H s = < 5'? Yes. Design of Rock P r o t e c t i v e Layer A.With p r e s c r i b e d d a t a ( F i g .Worksheet D-5 Sht.Go t o s t e p 1 Go t o s t e p 2 Type 2 (Hand) - 1. = 11. 8) B. S i g n i f i c a n t Wave H t . Method 1 . 100 = D50 Size (in ) Kmin ( or - Kmax Min. 5 D. 5 .

= D min = Bedding and/or F i l t e r See S o i l Mechanics Note 1: D.5Hs = b. 6 Minimum t r = 2 D50 = 2. Type 2 .lHs= (2) c. f o r lowest ungated opening Lowest c o n t r o l l e d o u t l e t e l e v . Slope P r o t e c t i o n Layout a t t a c h compuCations 1. Upper Limit E l e v a t i o n (Elev Normal Pool ElevNp = l) n a. 13 S = ElevUL = ElevNp + + S = . lowest ElevLL = in f l a w above .5' Wind set-up (1) S=O.Hand-placed Fig. Lower L i m i t E l e v a t i o n (ElevLL) a. 1 1 L = - Y - Hs = L R = b. D = D min = D max = 1 .Worksheet D-6 Sht. (f a c t o r (S) S max = 0. Wave runup (1) (R) Fig. Normal water e l e v .1. Fig. 5 D min Minimum t r C. 9 . 2.

Waves i n c i d e n t on a r o c k . d i m e n s i o n l e s s t i s time (second) equals . The d r a g f o r c e e x e r t e d on t h e r o c k c a n be expressed by t h e g e n e r a l d r a g equation i n which C i s t h e v e l o c i t y of water flowing around o r impinging on t h e rock ( f e e t /second) Cd i s a d r a g c o e f f i c i e n t . These f o r c e s c o n s i s t o f a d r a g f o r c e and an i n e r t i a l f o r c e . d i m e n s i o n l e s s %k3 $ i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of e f f e c t i v e rock volume such t h a t the volume o f a r o c k .r i p r a p embankment s l c p e develop hydrodynamic f o r c e s t h a t t e n d t o d i s p l a c e t h e rock from t h e embankment s l o p e . based on Newton's e q u a t i o n F = Ma.can be expressed a s i n which C m i s a v i r t u a l mass c o e f f i c i e n t .APPENDIX E . 2 f t / s e c 2 ) The i n e r t i a f o r c e .DERIVATION O F RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AE ROCK SIZE AND SIGNIFICANT W V HEIGHT The f o l l o w i n g development p a r a l l e l s t h a t given i n r e f e r e n c e ( 1 6 ) . d i m e n s i o n l e s s R i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i n e a r dimension of t h e rock p a r t i c l e ( f e e t ) Ka i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of e f f e c t i v e rock a r e a such t h a t ~~k~ t h e p r o j e c t e d a r e a of t h e rock yw i s s p e c i f i c weight of water equals 3 (pound/feet ) g i s a c c e l e r a t i o n of g r a v i t y ( 3 2 .

W : The weight of t h e r o c k i n a i r Wr = K ~ o rR ~ ~ ~ . wave s t e e p n e s s S u b s t i t u t i n g t h i s v a l u e f o r v e l o c i t y i n t o Equation E3 t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d by a wave i n terms of wave h e i g h t i s For dumped r i p r a p t h e f o r c e s r e s i s t i n g displacement a r e t h e buoyant weight of t h e i n d i v i d u a l r o c k s and t h e f r i c t i o n between t h e r o c k s . C dKa and C m q . t h e i n e r t i a l f o r c e e f f e c t s a r e combined w i t h t h e drag f o r c e . Where : = \e3 (yr - yw) 3 ) 'r = s p e c i f i c weight of t h e r o c k ( p o u n d / f e e t = Fq For i n c i p i e n t motion. t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s i s t i n g f o r c e i s t h e buoyant weight of t h e rock which may be w r i t t e n a s : w . ac c2 at For deep water waves where H 6 = = wave h e i g h t ( f e e t ) H / L .-. i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e terms q' 1 . Neglecting t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n due t o f r i c t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g e q u a t i o n is: i n which C t h e t o t a l c o e f f i c i e n t .Because of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e s e p a r a t e s e t s of c o e f f i c i e n t s and f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of t h e f o r c e e q u a t i o n used.

113 c o t a 19. 4U. i n which Laboratory i n v e s t i g a t i o n of rubble-mound b r e a k w a t e r s by Hudson i n d i c a t e s . Government Printing O f f i c e : 1983 .5 G.3&931/ASCS+ .S u b s t i t u t i n g t h i s v a l u e of R i n t o Equation E 8 and r e a r r a n g i n g .1 ) ' c o t a The s o l u t i o n of Equation E l 4 i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 8 and i s t h e b a s i s f o r s i z i n g rock r i p r a p . t h a t f o r embankment s l o p e and shape of r o c k .H. S u b s t i t u t i n g t h i s v a l u e f o r KA becomes yrH: and assuming Wr = W 5 ~ . . t h e n Equations B10 and B12 may b e combined and r e w r i t t e n a s For dumped rock r i p r a p a v a l u e of 3 . (6. If K~ = k s 3 . t h e e f f e c t s of t h e remaining he e m p i r i c a l v a r i a b l e s on r o c k s t a b i l i t y a r e of second-order importance. e q u a t i o n determined by Hudson i s i n which K S is a s t a b i l i t y coefficient. Equation El3 W50 ' 3 . 2 i s recommended f o r KA.S. 2 ( c s .