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Socistyof Petroleum Engineers
,.. Akq. Arw”ti”., 27.29 WI 1994.

SPE 26987 Producing Extra Heavy Oil from the Orinoco Be!t by Electrical Submersible Pumping System - A Pilot Test
R. Gonzalez and M. Reina”, Corpoven S.A. q SPE Mambar
C.W;W This ww 1994 SUCie!y 0+ P.UO!,UA Englnew,, l.c. 111 Lat. A. E4mniCarlbbOa” Pe”ok”m E.ww!F& COnfars”C4 hdd in B“.”.,

wia @&laTed !0, Pr<$e3m3~l-,Ke

ABSTRACT EIeaw” and extra-heavy oils have. !cmn traditionally
produced using sucker rod pumpq. However, this production method is inefficient\ highly energy corrsumin~ mrd the umtirl life of the equipment is abort. Therefore, other methods of artificial Iii have to be evaluated, irr order to exploit the hemg oil resm-vea more efficiently and economically. In this papiir, the results of a pilot teat &irrg”an eleztrieal submergible pump to produce extra-hea~ oil (9.2 “AH) in the Orinoco Belt, Eastern Vene-zda, are presented. The ma@num preductioo rate obtained was 1,170 BOPD (186 M%), tibkh iS 700 BOPD (i i“i M3D] hider than the maximum rate obtained with sucker rod pumping in .&e .gune weil. NO diueni was used in ~ this particular test. The pumping efficiency obtained (37.7V.) indicate~ that with a higher capaci~ pump, production rates of up to 2,000 330PD (318 M3/D), without the use of diuent, can be achieved.

INTRODUCTION
The Orinoco Belt comprises aevemd massive sceumrdations of heavy and extra-heavy oils pamlleiirrg the rrorthem bank of the Orinoco River in the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The API gravity of the oil ranges &o~. 6 to 160~1 at surfice conditions and the oil vxscosity ranges ffom 140 to 21,000 eerrtipoises at 140 “F “(6O“C). The average sand porosity is about 30~o and the permesbfi~ ranges &om 1 to 12 darcies. Reservoir depth ranges fkom 600 f~ (183 M) irr the SoUth to 4,000 feet (1,219 M) along the northern border of the area. Although, the earliest exploratory well was drilled irr 1935, exploitation of the area did not begin until IW19, when petrbleos de Venezuela (PDVW and ita affiliates commenced an aggressive. exploration equrign. Since its begirrnin~ the production method utilized in the area haa been sucker rod pumping with d~uent. WM this method, production ratas of up to 1,300 BOPD (207 M3/D) with 3..5 in (8.89 cm] “pumps and 2,000 BOPD (318 M3LD) with 4.5 irr 785

The need for a more efficient production method for the exploitation of its heavy oil areas motivated Cnqroven to evaluate the ESP” h the Orinoco Bek.0 MMSCM)of Oii. present in the reservoir. It should be mentioned that.86 MMSCM) of water..292 M~/D) of mdlum gravity oils (22-26 “API) ffom 40 wells. . PI and RPI curves are shown in Figure 2. an afHiate of PDVS~ has accumulated extensive technical experience using Electrical Submergible Pumps (ESP) in Barinas and Apure States. Reservoir oil and gas samples were recombined irr -the l+oratory to reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. ROCK AND FLUID PROPERTIES The reservoir selected for the test was the MFB-53 (’fMP H-15) rwemoir.1 MMSTB (7. located irr the Bare Field of the Orinoco Belt (See F@re 1). The test was made in three phases. The well was tested for 24 hours for each pump frequency.09.” “.160 psi (7992 kpa) and 137 ‘F (58 “C). due to the high productivity index of the wells. Irr this paper the results of this test are presented. in eight and a half years of prodoctio~ is as follows: 44.250” M) Iorrg irr the North-South direetion and 34.6 darcies. A subsequent PVT enaIysis yielded an API Oravity of 9. Horizontal Permeability = 10. respectively. other production methods need to be evaluated to exploit the huge hea~ oil reserves of the OMoco Belt. aproxirnately. MMSCM) of gas. This is the largest. at the stated conditions. it was determined that.3 sand (MPB-53 Reservoir). 1. origimdly. the following parameters were monitored: bottom hole and well head flowing pressures and inlet and outlet pressure of the diluent injected to the pump and to the flowing line. the lifting capacity of these pumps is considered low. 900/0 of the curnnmlative production has been obtained through the use of Cyclic Stesrn Irjection. The estimated volume of oil originally @ place is 1. with a maxirnurn net oil sand thickness development of 174 feet (53 M).334 Irk) and 137 W (58 “C).073 RB/STB..065 psi (7.. The test was conducted in a period of one and a half months.4 MMSTB (0. which is completed in the U1. to date.A PILOT TEST 26987 (11. as well as a brief description of the reservoir’s rock and fluid properties and the operating characteristics of the pump utikzed during the test. Shale Content = 5%. The productivity index (PI).. Using itatic bottom hole pressure surveys end pressure decline curves. where it produces 27 MBOPD (4. resemoir that has been discovered in the Orinoco Belt. Vertical Perrneabfity = 5.86 BOPD/psi. The average values for each parameter are as follows Porosity = 30%. Corpoven S. more efficiently and economically.86 M). Therefore.3.500 M) wide in the East-West diieetion.43 cm) PUMPScan be obtained. formation fluid samples were collected and sent to the laboratory for analyses. .2 “API and nn oil fomration volume factor of 1. Southwestern Venezuela. Nevertheless. 5.A. The average net oil 786 . at the time of the evrduatiom the bottom hole pressure and temperature in well MPB-159 were 1. Well MFB-1 59. “me average production rate is bigher than 400 BOPD (64 M31D) per well and the total eutmmdative production for the resewoir. Aditionstly.950 MMSTB (3 10X106M3)..2 PRODUCING RXTRA HEAVY OIL FROM THS ORINOCO BELT BY ELECTRICAL SLIBMSRGIBLE PUMPING SYSTEM . The dmcnsions of the reservoir are 23. and 38. Water Saturation= 17%. to obtain a solution gas-oil ratio of 106 SCF/STB. darcies. In each phase. sand thickness of the reservoir is 75 feet (22.448 feet (10.’786 feet (7. was estimated to be 3. was then selected for the test. There is no free gas.5 MMMSCF (1. The petrophysical parameters of the reservoir are aumrnarized in Table 1.

12 MMST’B (178 MSCM). wit~ open hole gravel pack irr 1983. and the bgtim hole pressure-temperature recorder. the needs of the electric motor was 286 Hp.25.I 3 . with 82. By August 1993. During its produ~ion Me. at a frequency of 60 Ik. 3. JWMNXITON PERFORMANCE The evaluation test was conducted in three phases. The bottom hole pressure and temperature recorders were designed to work under maximum preswres and temperatures of 5000 psi (34. however a 390 KVA transformer was installed. Thu8.(17. the design program are sirown in Table 3. but due to safety reasons two 160 Hp motors were sekcted instead.. -Eksctric motors with additional horsepower to --—.. F@rre -4. in order to inject diluent ilom the surface to the ayction end of the pump. respectively. The pumping capaci~ at maximum efficiency (66%) is 3.200 BOPD (191 M3/D).R GONZALEZ M FMNA AND 26987 CIIAIZACTERITICS WELL MFE-159 OF ~.5 in (8. early on. The weU had been gravel packed for sand control. Aa to the transformer capacity. It was placed on production in 1985. -Pumping efficien~ irr the order of.irr(3. the average ~roduction rate hti” been 400 BOPD (64 M3/D). . 18 cm) coiled tubing was installed. Three months prior to the evahration of the electrical submergible pump (September 1993]. shows the actual wfdl’s completion diagr~ which consists of 7 in . two 160 Hp motors.153 volts output voltage. the design progmrrr indicated a 169 KVA. taped to the production string.8 cm) casing. 7. which are discussed as foUows.5 amps at 60 Hz in each motor. the protection (housing).286 tons of ateant were injected into the well. it had been equipped with a sucker rod pumping unit to M its productio~ which had reached 1. which ha8 a 480 volts input voltage and a 1. high dduent rates were used to guarantee trouble &ee operation in the handling of conventional crude by the pump. its cunmndative production was 1.200 BOPD (191 M3/D). The results of —.500 BOPD (238 M3/D). a 1. that reqmred by the desigm two 160 Hp units. The electrical submer@ble pump selected was of the type GN-200 -540 Series . f])REDATrademark 787 abrasion and high Frequency Variation from Wlgh to Low and Diluent Rates from High to Low Dm”ng this phaa~ which was considered as the start-up and system adjustment stage. The pump perfomce profile is presented irrFigure 5. The type of cable used is REDALEAD cl) ffom REDA #lOJ.000 BOPD (477 M3/D) and at 50% efficiency it is 1. In Deceniber 1991.3 ~_d. Additionally. 51?/~ according to the performance profile for the selected pump.65rS feet (808 M).450 kpa) and 500 “F (260 ‘C).ARZtlJ. which has 107 stages and is highly resistant to abrasion. -Capable of handIing highly viscous heavy cntdes. PUMP INSTA”L-UTIONDESIGN The installation design was performed taking into consideration the basic data shown in Table 2 and considering the foUowing factors: -Pumps highly resistant to -d temperatures. A design program was mn considering oil production with and without dduent. at-ler which it was placed on production with 1.—— Well Ml%-] 59 was drilled and completed ori@raUy in the U1. (1)~A Tmde_k . reducing tie formation crude viscosity for a more efficient pump performance. Figure 3 shows the location of the well in the reservoir. Accor&mg to the design requiremerrta.S9 “cm) production tubii~ the electrical submergible pump whose wction port is “at 2.

).2 ‘API @avhy crude was attained. due to the fact that it was not possible to irje@ dduent through the coiled tubing. diluent was injected in the flowline. although these were reached increasing the ficquency step by step ilom 30 to 70 Hz. A production rate of. The well 788 . at the wellhead. the production rate reached 570 BPD (91 M3/D) of formation crude. This last temperature was obtained because both 160 Hp irotors “were dissipating more heat at that condition. the well irrtlow is between 1. which was not present during the rest of the teat. 01 ‘F (94 “C). ~. The drop in amperage was due to some.@ last phase. The results of a ae~ond and third teats at 65 and 45 H. 684 BPD (109 M3/D) of 9. .000 BOPD (159 M3fD) initially. F@.095 BOPD (174 M3/D). Figure 2 shows a graph of bottom hole pressure versus productio~ for the 35 Hz teat. at 630 psi (4. Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) curve is also presented on the mph... performed.34 1 k%. at 60 J+@with a temperature of 219 “F (104 “C). halfway during the test. Frequency Variation from Low to High Without Diluent In this phase. At 65 Hz a sudden drop in the production is observed. and 15 2 amperes. additional vohrrne of gas entering the pump. This was due to a drop in amperage from 31 to 21 amps.ewduation with diluent injection into the well. This means that with the pump installed the well is capable of producing horn 65 to 70°% of the oil volume provided by the formation.500 (238) and 1. Under these conditions.27 cm) tail pipe while lowering it when completing the wel. The difierencc in temperature tends to decrease”with increasing production.~~q .700 BOPD (270 M3/D). During t~ a&md phase.q respectively. after which a t%lure occurred. The results of this test are summarized in Tables 4 and 5.sf@Y m~sure io the loading and maximum displacement of the pump during start-up.100 BOPD (175 M3/D).A PILOT TEST SUBMERGIBLE 26987 The l@lr initial fiequencics (up.-the pump drained the entire diluent cohrnm above ii. without dduent. diluent was injected at a rate of 1. In this tlrst phase. It can be seen that at the same bottom hole pressure attained by the pump.~equency (35 Hz) teti”” WE . while the pump was able to M an average of 1. causing the equipment to stop and the well to start flowing naturally at a rate of 1...4 PRODUCING EXTRA HEAVY OIL FROM THE ORINOCO BELT BY ELECTRICAL PUMPING SYSTEM .5 in (1. with bottom hole conditions st. where a difference of 34 ‘T (19 “C) is observed between the well flowing naturally at 185 T (85 “C) aiid when it flowed at maximum rate.rre 8 showa the behavior of the bottom hole temperature during flowing conditions. It was observed that during the evaluation at 45 Hz and with 700 BPD (111 M3/D).160 BPD (343 _M3@) of diluted 19 “API erode. Figure 7 shows the behavior of the bottom hole temperature irrder flowing conditions and the surf@ temperature of the fluid mixture. are shown in Tables 4 and 5. . to 70 I@ were aPPfi~ as & s. to improve the separation and treatment process at the flow station. The two points shown at the right end of the graph.590 BID (253 M3/D) through the annular space between the casing and the production string. the low. This last point on the graph corresponds to the evaluation carried out with diluent in. Table 5 shows the diierent rates of dhrent irjection. probably due to an obstruction or a fkttcrrrrbrg of the 0. reaching 75 “F (24 ‘C) at 1. ternpe&e “irrcrca&s as the “production rate increases. Figure 6 shows the production rate versus tlequency curve.823 “kPa)and211 ‘F (99 “C). wtile the pump handled a total of 2.’ The well produced naturally for three days and had a bottom hole temperature of 185 “F (85 “C). The diff~ence in temperature is also plotted against It cair be obaeryed ~at the crude production. The observed amperage waa 43 amperes and the bottom hole conditions were 700 psi (4.. above and below the results for 70 ~ were obtained during tbe third phase of the .. to decrease later to 240 BOPD (38 M3/D). and at a frequency of 70 Hz.

the voltage and capacity utilized by the transformer. It cart be obsewed that the maximum’horsepower used by the electrical submergible pump was 225 Hp and the ma. The reaulta show a real average efficiency of 35°/0.7%. Another teat carried out yielded 1. The results of these tets are graphically presented in Figures 6. 789 . which justifies not installing downhole gas separators.677 BPD (267 M~/D) of diluted 13. REINA 26987 CmmtnrIt Freqrrmrcy with DiIuentin the Well This last phase.950 BOPD (310 M3/D) at 37. while the total fluid Ii&d reached a rate of 1.. The described results show that fl. at different fiequerrcies. pump horsepower.189 BPD (189 M3iD) of 11. while the maximum obtained was 37. The sample calculations made show that the volume of gaa entering the pump was no more than 5°Athe totai volume produced at bottom hole cm-dtions. over a maximum of 660/. the horsepower output by the motors. ~~ - RESULT’S Well MB-159 had” produced with a sucker rod pumping unit since its orighrd completion in 1983. These results abow that the rates obtain@ match the pump capacity at 40%0efficiency in the performance curve. This ratio was used to correct the ticiency due to the use of viscous crude against the capacity taken from the calibration curves for the handling of water. efficiency and a capacity of 3. The last production teat with the %cker rod. _. Table 7 lists the different types of pumps and tbeii capacities at 37. diluent was injected at a rate of 223 BPD (35 M3/D). 7. both measured sod calculated.5 R GONZALEZ AND M. which represents 700 additional berrela of oil per day.100 BC)PD (175 M3~). The electrical submergible equipment design considered a 50°4 pumping d%ciency in the performance curve for the pump selected. meimored production.rture design of electrical submergible equipment to be used under conditions similar to those present in well MFB-I 59 should consider designing installations with 40°% pumping efficiency. but ordy after the well had atabtied with the ekctrical Submergible equipment at low diluent rates.70/0at 60 Hz. it is estimated that production rates of up to 2.xirmrmcapacity used by the transformer was 178 KVA out of the 300 KVA available. The well’s producing gas-oil ratios during the evaluation teat averaged 250 SCFL?H’B. F@re 5 presents the behavior eficiency curves calculated utilizing information from the weU head. while during the evaluation of the electrical submergible pump it produced an average of 1. pump was 400 BOPD (64 M3/D). During the fiat test in this phase.7% &ciency.9“API crude. which ia capable of producing 1. and 8.7 “API diluted crude. the calcdated amperage. They include the horsepower required by the pump. It is then conchrded that a model GN-2000 pump. Figure 10 shows the behavior of the pumping capacities versus tlequerrcies. taken from the model’s calibration curves end type of pump which complies with the expected capacity requirements.170 BPD (186 M3/D) with a dfluent injection rate of” 506 ““-B/D (80 M3iD). Table 6 shows a listing of the electrical parameters.000 BPD (477 M3/D) at 60 &. deviating later a? !55HZ for the reasons explained before. The production rates obtained were compared to the prodrrc@on test results at 60 m which was taken as the base case. Thus. Considering the results of the real pumping eficiency applied to other pump models with higher capacities. obtaining a total Iiiig of 1. was per%ormedto observe the well’s production behavior with diluent injection at the bottom. The curves described before (theoretical production and pumping capacity at 40%’ e5ciency) match with rninimaI deviations up to 60 !++~tb $re observed production cume.000 BOPD (318 M3113)can be attained. correapondmg to the asme pump manufacturer. or complimentary phase. and the rest ef6cienciea which were obtained from the production measured-pumping capacity ratio.

Paper presented at the 1993 SPE Electrical Submergible Workshop. .100 SSU (23S cps) at average bo~om hole temperature.800 SSU Qj730 cps) at average surface temperature for fornmtion crudes having a gravity of 9.100 BOPD (175 M3/D)witb an electrkd submergible pump.The production from well MPB-159 increased 700 BOPD (111 M3/D). of the installedcapacity. Powerg M. -The heat dissipated by the two 160 Hp motors increa8ed the flowing bottom hole temperature by 34 ‘F (19 ‘C).dditex+l crude of 13. American Irrsiitute Petroleum “Recommended Practice for” Sizing and Selection of Electric Submersible Pump Installations”.. L. . The8e graphs simulate bottom hole as well as surface temperature of” the fluids at dflerent viscosities.7%. REFERENCES 1.The electrical submergible equipment evahrated in these teats was capable of producing behveen 65 to 70% of the well’s potential.The maximum Iiimg capacity observed was 2.The maximumproductionobtainedwitout diluent at 60 Hz was 1. “The System”.9 “API. .A PILOT efficiency at 60”Hz. to 1.The obse~ed pumpbrg etliciencies were between 35 and 37.160 BOPD (343 M3/D) of a diluted mixture of 19 “AN Gravity. . Catalog i20NCLUsIONs AND RECOMENDATTONS 2.130 BOPD (180 M3/D) and 1.6 PRODUCING EXTRA BEAVY OIL FROM THE ORINOCO PUMPING BELT BY ELECTRICAL TEST SUBMERGIBLE 26981 SYSTEM . going tlom 400 BOPD (64 M3/D) with a sucker rod pump to 1. REDA “Submergible Pumps for Petroleum Industry”. .A GN-5200 (REDA) pump is required to produce the maximum production rates expected flom well MFB-159.6 ‘API and a vkcosity of 300 SSU (65 cps) at average bottom hole temperature and a viscosity of 900 SSU (195 cps) at average Sufiace temptiature for a . . ranging tlom 1. CentriMt-Hughes 1992. the 4. -The maximum capacity reqtired for the 300 KVA transformer irratakd was 178 KV~ or 59. Catalog 1992.: Yfbe Depth Constraint of Electric Submersible Pumps”. .170 BOPD (186 M3/D) at 70 Hz with dfluent injection. . API Recommended Practice IIU(RF llU).3V. 790 3.. Figure 11 shows the different viscosity versus temperature behavior curves for the different crudes produced (formation and dfluted) during the evaluation tests. is the best possible choice for the conditions of the well under evaluation.The measured production was equivalent to 40% of the installed pump capacity.

34 mo .s7 *5Q Psl S4ST?OM HOLS TSNPERANRE CRUOE OIL GRAVilY WATER SPECS=fS GRAVTW WATER CONTENT GAs.0 K* 14. Wss PS3 Ss7 Psl mm HOLE PRESSURS HOLE PRESSURE PROOUGlliSN RATE {BUILD UP lesT) PROWCINOSX 3.ol I?Ano BUSELE POINT PRESSURE GAS s~auc GRAV31Y W13_L HEAD PRESSURS 791 .C4 5% fw Pclm 6s4 PSI .5. w=M4s-333YJ -usam4703i3 MFE=lwu3430cs@ MF6m3%31. .ta TAsLE#2 WELL GASK2DATA CASING 0!AA4ETER OL&UEiER TxZSLGMT.3 1*S is 8..* [:) a. 9.4 +ims#i rmoPNLs!&.+.m $7d Ss5 .37m 3233 460/450 VOLTS.3 E.86 S/nmsl 137F... API 1.— ill $$ 167 1s1 VIII (s) T<.6s 433 197.LLmRl’!~uz3 ~~ SETS& SPE2698 7 WELL ni— m .. 3-w3- TWIN PERFORAllONS TOTAL DE Pm PFUMMYVOL?AGE STARC SO~OM FLOWWG SOITOM 38ar.s 32$ -8 a..15 msu.sm 97A ..1aa3E 710 -444334.~ 339 3W l%) —— MF%ibi MF51w MFs-tm WB-1*7 _ 9.<s - . .o 333.3. AvHuOEs.. 1.

?(VOLT8) 2347 40 2247 -p%&M?AtE .’ i g. E 1$4 211 Zfs Its l. FREQUENCY LOW TO lb DILUENT W THE FLmmlNE..PRESSVRE WW (PSI) 47 MTAKZ - SC41 ma 34B0 3200 700 *U8 .: U .~. Mws5w(wll ~— HOLE Tmqof) -. SURFACE PRES8URECOIITEMPIOFI —— 7s 70 70 126 1$4 i2c H1oH Low m SOTTOM HOLEDILUENT. X-CONSTAMT FREQuENcY FLOUUNC DILUENT THE BOTTOM w HOLE AND IN WE m 70 34 al 870 690 Mt 2M 792 . mmwwx -—. MO- POWER (HP) :: 224 2s8 Zr# -WJWAGS VOLTAQE AT CEH. TABLE #3 SPE2698? PARAUETER DILUENT WITH DILUENT StmKe amET ._ u 30 37 lK m ...’. 9. : a .. TABLE #4 M*URED vAmABLEs FRmuENcY EVALUATIONONomOiu c BOnnM WI AMP..

.H4 4<9 2I1O {ma 7W w ‘?m 3. ..= .$%x’ lAREwmL#J#lHHm”J~ HOLE 2.* 10TAL VC&lAGE mm 2s4s i7a 202 130 lf2 f.— 224 w 8$ 3?3 an m w....FREWEWY —mM— Law ?0 W3H a.. . . .. . COWTANf FREWEW Nilmhan .* W..8 42..... .:. .— MOLE IWO) FISWIJNE — .-FREwL4cY LNLWMTIN IKE 2.=....“. .-mw’rw FREQIIEKY —fflmEs0170M lmLEMJolHE— Im Ills w In 793 . . -. . FRE-auw EVAUJAllON CONOITiONS WI PRcaKnclN RATE @ml CiLUEMT 801T0M . TABLE M PilOWJCmON 7iATE V3 FREQUENCY spE26987 PUMP LmmG ml) ... TABLE 9S ELW7RKAL VARV@LES FREOUE!+SV EvuuAnON — — PUMP Pm (w Hwl 10 I.-7WQUEWY WUJENT LCW lQ HIGH FLOWJKZ m m !s9 % 647 W 4M 7W .Ow SOTI’OM 78 m 4S warm .—.=.. — 49. .—.

4000 GN.52OO GN.70M GN-1OOOO ~ 1170 1500 ?950 2100 2650 3700 794 .MQwL GN.5+300 GN.3200 GN.— TABIA # 7 ELECTRICAL SUBMERGIBLE PUMPS CAPACITIES S40 SERIES-i7EDA FREQuENCY: 60 HZ EFFICIENCY 40% CRUDE OIL GRAV17Y: 9.6 “API .

Pl. * .. ..200 1.500 3. ..5W 4.OCO 2. ---- 0 0 500 1...000 4.- PRODUCTION FIGURE # 2. RPI ANO PRODUCTION RATE (t3/D) PROFILE ~~~ 795 .01M 3.. NJ...-. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION TRAP B-1 5. . SpE26987 A TRAP B-15 PILOT PROYECT L ~ M. !.. BARE BLOCK - PI =’.-5 1 C: ..- FIGURE # 1..500 .500 \ 2.- u“ . .

RwJmmP. 1... i!~l Ii \l 11.. \\-. ... 11(1 II {ii.. __— .’.. \ ..’.’\\t\ t.. 1! illll . . -“/. .%.IrS 540 SEXIE5 u~ .. 11.. ~ .---*_ --+ ... ?.. . . A “.. \ . . 540 st?.! \ . Z -- ... i.\ I\\ ~s t FIGURE #3: LOCATION OF WELL MFB-159 )g — USING I?IBING 7- x 2. 01.. DIAGRAM.81 ... 1! 1$ II \.3 =WJ 008Ss-319291 .. ‘TEm TALE 3-1/2” 1 . . mmn mm.ms 540 6?*IES m I v 2 54..#*. 540 SERIES A 2700. WELL MFB-159 796 . / . . .:..s.. --”. Xnmm .. COMPLETION m -.*. b .!... 2630.. t. .”._ .E3222.:G-– !.--. ......IE6 ml+ “Am.3 SEP. .1. . -. i . ‘1. \.1 l“’...... \ “t i.. # ---- /’ . .’\ \ ~ ~.FI 1-1/2.... FIGuRE # 4. ..~ .. II.-’:: /’” J /1. .%~.‘ .. .. 540 m?. 16 x 25 GPAVEL P. ..1 /’ . smm LINER 1-1/2. .. .IT’ ------- W. /----.. .. .

ml W/m. .. .l 8PE26987 -C+.. —.. . .0.et3200 540 Z6Pies -3500 C3irV8 m GN32Q0 F’ulnP-sdosti .-. -** . PRODUCTION RATE”vs FREOUENCY 797 55 (HZ) 60 65 70 75 . .200 I . FIGURE # 5. E m... ZQo OL 30 35 40 45 50 FREOUENCY FIGURE # 6. . ...3. ~ . PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE 1. .?bdsnkan--Reds Ri8u P51+u’=IICH i stag= .

. . :... VS FREQUENCY 798 ..“ = + BOTTOM HOI-2 A ~ SURFACE D.in.. . .-.. TEMPERATURE VS PRODUCTION RATE ..-.. FFERE14CE 5[ 0 100 200 30. -...40..-..0. .200 ?. .100 1. R. BOTTOM HOLE TEMPERATURE.. 10 20 30 40 (HZ) 50 60 70 FREQUENCY FIGURE # 8.000 i.300 .0 500 600 700 800 900 1.: ““ :nr$ 250 ~~ . 1501 0 . . 7..=-’--:.ATE (B/D) FIGURE # 7. . ... PRODUCTION.. .”$ 6987 “- 200 n.

. . 20 I 35 40 45 so .. . . .. 354045505560 6570 -75 * EST.. . CALCULATED * REAL .55 %0 65 70 75 FREQUENCY FIGURE # 10... .. PROD. ...:.. .: . El :“:. . .* 40% EFF. . d. PUMPING-EFFICIENCY” (HZ) VS FREQUENCY 799 . .... . PUMPING CAPACITY VS FREQUENCY — ~. . . + 50% EFF. . FREQUENCY (HZ) FIGURE # 9. s.—-.SPE26987 - 66% EFF. .. ..a ..~. +’+REAL PROD.=_._ .’ ..

.. ‘9+26987 “==-. ..oa ---- .. *%.9-API * 15. .*...6SAPI . VISCO”51TV VS””FREQUENCY ~F) —...’ 800 . . 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 ..+ —. 180 190 200 1 100 210 220 ... . _.:.—. . -. . .—. * . .3-API 9. ..7”API *11 + 13... TEMPERATURE FIGURE ‘# 11.... -- 10... 1Oo’... ... . .5-API Ic I .-.2dAPl + 19”API * 22.-.-... .. .-. :’} ---—..00 - 9..+...