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Computer Networks – Important Formulas

– Fourier' theorem: Every periodic function can be written as a sum of sine and cosine functions. The frequencies of
these functions are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency f =
1
T
g(t )=
1
2c
+

n=1

a
n
sin(2nnf t )+

n=1

b
n
cos(2nn f t )
c=
2
T

0
T
g(t )dt a
n
=
2
T

0
T
g(t )sin(2nnf t) dt b
n
=
2
T

0
T
g(t ) cos(2nnf t ) dt
– Nyquist formula:
maximum data rate < 2⋅bandwidth⋅log
2
(symbols) bits/s
– Shannon formula: maximum data rate < bandwidthlog
2
(1+
signal strength
noise level
) bit/s
– Amplitude modulation f (t )=s (t )⋅sin(2nf t+¡)
– Frequency modulation f (t )=a⋅sin(2ns( t) t +¡)
– Phase modulation f (t )=a⋅sin(2nf t +s( t))
– Bit error rate: BER(SNR)=0,5⋅e
−SNR
– Coherent receiver: compare distorted waveform to all legal waveforms
sig
i
=∫
0
T
(dstrt (t )−legal
i
(t ))
2
dt
 min
– Corellation: compare correlation of distorted waveform and all legal waveforms
sig
i
=∫
0
T
(dstrt (t )⋅legal
i
(t )) dt
 max
– Block codes, S⊂¦1,0¦
n
: rate R of code S R
S
=
log(∣S∣)
n
; distance 6 of code S 6
S
=
d(S)
n
– Bellman-Ford: node X ...
– ... has distance vector for all destinations
x
1
... x
n
– ... receives distance vector from neighbour
y
1
... y
n
– ... has cost c
XY
to reach Y
– check if,
x
i
>y
i
+c
XY
then set outgoing link for node i to Y, update cost to
y
i
+c
XY
– LastByteSent−LastByteAcked < CongestionWindow
– Additive increase: Congestion Window+=Maximum Segment Size ⋅
Maximum Segment Size
Congestion Window
– TCP Congestion Control – Summary
– When CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially.
– When CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly.
– When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold.
– When timeout occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS.
– TCP
Data Rate <
0.93⋅ Maximum Segment Size
Round Trip Time ⋅.loss probability
– ∫sin( x)dx=−cos( x)+C , ∫sin(kx)
2
dx=
1
2
x−
sin(2kx)
4k
, ∫cos(x)dx=sin(x)+C ,
∫cos(kx)
2
dx=
1
2
x+
sin(2kx)
4k
– mean j , variance Var(X)=E((X−j)
2
)=E( X
2
)−(E( X)
2
) , standard deviation c=.( Var( X))
– binomial distribution
P(X=k)=
(
n
k
)
p
k
(1−p)
n−k
j=np
c
2
=np(1−p)
– poisson distribution P(X=k)=
\
k
k !
e
−\
j=\
c
2
=\
– binomial coefficient
(
n
k
)
=
n!
k !⋅(n−k) !
– conditional probability
Computer Networks – Important Formulas, 26.02.2008, Martin Dräxler, draexler@mail.uni-paderborn.de
Application
Presentation
Transport
Session
Network
Physical
Data Link
ISO/OSI
Presentation
Transport
Host-to-network
Internet
TCP/IP