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– Fourier' theorem: Every periodic function can be written as a sum of sine and cosine functions. The frequencies of

these functions are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency f =

1

T

g(t )=

1

2c

+

∑

n=1

∞

a

n

sin(2nnf t )+

∑

n=1

∞

b

n

cos(2nn f t )

c=

2

T

∫

0

T

g(t )dt a

n

=

2

T

∫

0

T

g(t )sin(2nnf t) dt b

n

=

2

T

∫

0

T

g(t ) cos(2nnf t ) dt

– Nyquist formula:

maximum data rate < 2⋅bandwidth⋅log

2

(symbols) bits/s

– Shannon formula: maximum data rate < bandwidthlog

2

(1+

signal strength

noise level

) bit/s

– Amplitude modulation f (t )=s (t )⋅sin(2nf t+¡)

– Frequency modulation f (t )=a⋅sin(2ns( t) t +¡)

– Phase modulation f (t )=a⋅sin(2nf t +s( t))

– Bit error rate: BER(SNR)=0,5⋅e

−SNR

– Coherent receiver: compare distorted waveform to all legal waveforms

sig

i

=∫

0

T

(dstrt (t )−legal

i

(t ))

2

dt

min

– Corellation: compare correlation of distorted waveform and all legal waveforms

sig

i

=∫

0

T

(dstrt (t )⋅legal

i

(t )) dt

max

– Block codes, S⊂¦1,0¦

n

: rate R of code S R

S

=

log(∣S∣)

n

; distance 6 of code S 6

S

=

d(S)

n

– Bellman-Ford: node X ...

– ... has distance vector for all destinations

x

1

... x

n

– ... receives distance vector from neighbour

y

1

... y

n

– ... has cost c

XY

to reach Y

– check if,

x

i

>y

i

+c

XY

then set outgoing link for node i to Y, update cost to

y

i

+c

XY

– LastByteSent−LastByteAcked < CongestionWindow

– Additive increase: Congestion Window+=Maximum Segment Size ⋅

Maximum Segment Size

Congestion Window

– TCP Congestion Control – Summary

– When CongWin is below Threshold, sender in slow-start phase, window grows exponentially.

– When CongWin is above Threshold, sender is in congestion-avoidance phase, window grows linearly.

– When a triple duplicate ACK occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin set to Threshold.

– When timeout occurs, Threshold set to CongWin/2 and CongWin is set to 1 MSS.

– TCP

Data Rate <

0.93⋅ Maximum Segment Size

Round Trip Time ⋅.loss probability

– ∫sin( x)dx=−cos( x)+C , ∫sin(kx)

2

dx=

1

2

x−

sin(2kx)

4k

, ∫cos(x)dx=sin(x)+C ,

∫cos(kx)

2

dx=

1

2

x+

sin(2kx)

4k

– mean j , variance Var(X)=E((X−j)

2

)=E( X

2

)−(E( X)

2

) , standard deviation c=.( Var( X))

– binomial distribution

P(X=k)=

(

n

k

)

p

k

(1−p)

n−k

j=np

c

2

=np(1−p)

– poisson distribution P(X=k)=

\

k

k !

e

−\

j=\

c

2

=\

– binomial coefficient

(

n

k

)

=

n!

k !⋅(n−k) !

– conditional probability

Computer Networks – Important Formulas, 26.02.2008, Martin Dräxler, draexler@mail.uni-paderborn.de

Application

Presentation

Transport

Session

Network

Physical

Data Link

ISO/OSI

Presentation

Transport

Host-to-network

Internet

TCP/IP

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