You are on page 1of 52



Prepared by: Ms. Anh Tel: 0972 660 959 Email: Address: No 173, Ban Town, My Hao District, Hung Yen Province

Page 1 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 /



If you just started learning English, you first need to know some basic rules of the language. Developing a solid foundation in English grammar will not only help you create your own sentences correctly but will also make it easier to improve your communication skills in both spoken and written English.

Study all the lessons below and incorporate your learning into your speaking and writing.

Page 2 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 /



Table of Content
1. Singular and Plural Nouns 2. Count Nouns vs. Non-Count Nouns 3. Possessive Nouns 4. Pronouns 5. 'Be' Verbs 6. Action Verbs 7. Adjectives 8. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives 9. Adverbs 10. Simple Tense 11. Progressive and Perfect Tense 12. Perfect Progressive Tense 13. Irregular Verbs 14. Gerunds 15. Infinitives 1 16. Infinitives 2 17. Active Voice and Passive Voice 18. Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive Mood 19. Auxiliary Verbs - 'Be', 'Do', 'Have' 20. Auxiliary Verbs - 'Will/Would', 'Shall/Should' 21. Auxiliary Verbs - 'Can/Could', 'May/Might/Must' 22. Prepositions - 'On', 'At', 'In' 23. Prepositions - 'Of', 'To', 'For' 24. Prepositions - 'With', 'Over', 'By' 25. Conjunctions - Coordinating and Correlative 26. Conjunctions - Subordinating 27. Conjunctive Adverbs 28. Articles - Indefinite and Definite 29. Interjections 30. Capitalization

Page 3 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 /



A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. Usually, the first page of a grammar book tells you about nouns. Nouns give names of concrete or abstract things in our lives. As babies learn "mom," "dad," or "milk" as their first word, nouns should be the first topic when you study a foreign language. For the plural form of most nouns, add “s”. bottle – bottles cup – cups pencil – pencils desk – desks sticker – stickers window – windows

For nouns that end in ch, x, s, or s sounds, add “es”. box – boxes watch – watches moss – mosses bus – buses

For nouns ending in f or fe, change “ f” to “v” and add “es”. wolf – wolves wife – wives leaf – leaves life – lives

Some nouns have different plural forms. child – children woman – women man – men mouse – mice goose – geese

Nouns ending in vowels like y or o do not have definite rules. baby – babies toy – toys

Page 4 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 /

kidney – kidneys potato – potatoes

memo – memos stereo – stereos

A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms. sheep – sheep deer – deer series – series species – species

[Quiz 1.1] Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

I have three (child, children). There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women). (Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys. I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box. A few men wear (watch, watches). I put a (memo, memos) on the desk. I saw a (mouse, mice) running by. There are few (bus, buses) on the road today.

Count nouns
Can be counted as one or more. pen, computer, bottle, spoon, desk, cup, television, chair, shoe, finger, flower, camera, stick, balloon, book, table, comb, etc. Take an “s” to form the plural. pens, computers, bottles, spoons, desks, cups, televisions, chairs, shoes, fingers, flowers, cameras, sticks, balloons, books, tables, combs, etc.

Work with expressions such as (a few, few, many, some, every, each, these, and the number of).

Page 5 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 /

a television. each balloon. sunshine. flour. or neither). a book. and much). We ate some rice and milk. Do you see any traffic on the road? That wine is very old. a few computers. etc. that. either. air. a comb. some spoons. Work with expressions such as (some. Sugar is sweet. I hope to see some sunshine today. He eats rice. The wood is burning. This meat is good. a shoe. Generally cannot be pluralized. these books. some cameras. the number of tables. you would never say much pens or much computers). the number of chairs. each cup. traffic. ice. Non-count nouns Cannot be counted. those. these televisions. or the). Work with appropriate articles (a. each. sugar. wine. many combs. Do NOT work with expressions such as (these. this. depending on the context of the sentence. Spanish. an. English. . oxygen. the cup. the chair. soccer. any. enough. I drink milk. an. the camera. furniture. a pen. milk. She does not speak much Spanish. the table. every stick. a stick. Page 6 of 52 Ms. a few fingers. The sunshine is beautiful. They usually express a group or a type. a flower. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. the balloon. a desk. or the). etc. the computer. every. Do NOT work with much (for example. the spoon. a few shoes. meat. We watch soccer together. rice. water. a bottle. many flowers.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH a few pens. Work both with and without an article (a. every desk. the finger. many bottles. wood.

milk. computer. Hunts's new computer is working well. watch. add the apostrophe and “s” to the second person only. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. pen. John and Mary's new house David and Sue's wedding Tom and Doug's car If two people own separate things. Dr. rice. Page 7 of 52 . box. water. just add an apostrophe ('). The kids' toys My parents' house The teachers' lounge If two people own one thing. cup. Hunts has a new computer. Possessive nouns usually are formed by adding an apostrophe (') and “s”. wind. Hunts' computer is new. Susan's and Beth's books Jean's and Dan's pants Ben's and Jim's offices [Quiz 3. student. wood 3.1] Which of the following is not correct? 1) 2) 3) Dr. POSSESSIVE NOUNS Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 2. furniture.1] Choose all of the non-count nouns in the following list: wine. John's book Kerry's car Grandma's mirror When a noun is plural and ends in “s”. add the apostrophe and “s” for each person. potato. Dr.

James and Mr. Example story: Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. Memorize the personal pronouns: Singular Singular Subject First Second I you Object me you Singular Reflexive myself yourself Plural Subject we you Plural Object us you Plural Reflexive ourselves yourselves Page 8 of 52 Ms. Mary. James' son Tom.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH 4. PRONOUNS A pronoun takes the place of a noun. Mr. They are Koreans. It is big. If the story above is written using pronouns: Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. You are a student. He and his son Tom are experts in biochemistry. She works with Mr. They cut it into halves. and Tom researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment. Mr. Mary works with Mr. Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns refer to a person: I go to school. James' son Tom are experts in biochemistry. The word ‘it' refers to an object: I drank it. They researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment. He works here. We gave her food. James and . James. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. James and his son Tom.

. 5. Am I a doctor? Is he sleepy? Are we there? Page 9 of 52 Ms. Verbs must match subjects.. They are my friends. I get ready for a new day. We are here The verb comes first in interrogative sentences. I am not a doctor.1] Write the correct pronoun in each blank. I gave…………….com . I like…………………very much. At home. I like the smell of my house.was fun. 'BE' VERBS A verb shows action or a state of being. He is not sleepy.HANOI UNIVERSITY Third Male he she it him her it BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH himself herself itself they they they them them them themselves themselves themselves Third Female Third Neutral [Quiz 4. We are not there. Home is my place to rest. He saw the movie………………. was delicious.a book. Negative sentences need „not' after the verb. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I ate an apple……………. I go home. I am a doctor. He is sleepy. You look tired………………should rest. She is a teacher. I feel totally relaxed. "Be" verbs indicate a state of being. Home refreshes me.

Action verbs need s at the end with third-person. We aren't tired. Is they running? Are you ready? 6. 5) 6) 7) 8) It is not moving. He am not sad. He isn't sleepy. We aren't there. ACTION VERBS Action verbs express action and are the most common verbs. She are not tall. He eats bread. or did not.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH "Are not" (is not) can be shortened to "aren't" (isn't). You are kind. singular subjects. Remember the variations of "be" verbs: Present I am You are He is She is It was We are You are They were Negative I am not You are not (aren't) He is not (isn't) She is not (isn't) It was not (wasn't) We are not (aren't) You are not (aren't) They were not (weren't) Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Was it? Are we? Are you? Were they? [Quiz 5. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail.1]Which of the following sentences are written correctly? 1) 2) 3) 4) I am thirsty. Page 10 of 52 Ms. It floats on the sea. does not. I do not eat bread. Negative sentences need do not. He does not eat . She walks to the station.

Page 11 of 52 Ms. and did not to didn' . 7. Negative Sentence I do not (don't) sing a song. We do not (don't) sing a song. You look sleepy. It makes me forget about the real world and refreshes my tired mind.HANOI UNIVERSITY You did not walk to the station. Do you eat bread? Does he eat bread? Does she walk to the station? Did they finish it? Do not can be shortened to don't. Some sentences may be correct as is. Interrogative Sentence Do I sing a song? Do you sing a song? Does he (she) sing a song? Do we sing a song? Did they sing a song? [Quiz 6. does not to doesn't. It doesn't float on the sea. She do not dance. or did. You do not (don't) sing a song. . ADJECTIVES Adjectives describe or modify nouns. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. They sang a song. He (she) sings a song. You sing a song. He (she) does not (doesn't) sing a song. 1) 2) 3) I runs a marathon. I like fairy tales. I don't eat bread. They didn't finish it.1] Correct the verb errors in the sentences below. A fairy tale is an imaginary story that has unrealistic characters in a fantastic background. It come with rice. We sing a song. BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH It does not float on the sea Interrogative sentences begin with do. does. They did not (didn't) sing a song. She doesn't walk to the station. Remember the variations of action verbs: Affirmative Sentence I sing a song. 4) 5) 6) Does you leave today? We don't stay here.

The beautiful birds also sing in the big oak tree. A pretty girl Red flowers A long stick Heavy boxes Warm weather Commonly. important – unimportant. conventional – unconventional. the oppressed. similar – dissimilar When using a string of . the rich. A big brown house A small old English desk A beautiful black Italian leather purse Delicious Chinese food The + adjective describes a class or group of people and acts as a noun.1] Write opposite adjectives using the appropriate prefix. certain – uncertain definite – indefinite. complete – incomplete. Page 12 of 52 Ms. expensive – inexpensive able – disable. predictable – unpredictable. aware – unaware. red roses blossom in my cute small garden. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. clear – unclear. the homeless. ambiguous – unambiguous. In the spring. assemble – disassemble. believable – unbelievable. etc. they should appear in a set order: size/shape + age + color + origin + material. the poor. the old. This popular TV show is loved by the old. the young.2] Underline all adjectives in the following sentences. [Quiz 7. adjectives of opposite meaning are formed by adding a prefix such as un. in. or dis. 1) Clear – 2) Definite – 3) Correct – 4) Expensive – 5) Complete – [Quiz 7. correct – incorrect. common – uncommon. evitable – inevitable.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Adjectives generally appear immediately before the noun. content – discontent. comparable – incomparable.

change the 'y' to 'i' before adding the 'er' or 'est'. adjectives that contain only one syllable or end in 'y' use 'er' to form comparatives and 'est' to form superlatives. Chad is stronger than Dan. respectable – more respectable – most respectable beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful preferable – more preferable – most preferable hardworking – more hardworking – most hardworking Some adjectives have different forms of comparatives and superlatives. Amy is smarter than Betty.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH 8. Superlative adjectives compare more than two things. Commonly. good – better – best bad – worse – worst little – less – least much (many) – more – most far – further . For adjectives ending in y. She likes him more than me. Greg is more diligent than his brother. Page 13 of 52 Ms.furthest The word than typically appears in comparative sentences. I have more apples than he. old – older – oldest young – younger – youngest pretty – prettier – prettiest long – longer – longest short – shorter – shortest bright – brighter – brightest close – closer – closest happy – happier – happiest Adjectives with two or more syllables do not change but instead add more to form comparatives and most to form superlatives. COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES Comparative adjectives compare two things. Anh / 0972 660 959 / .

1] Write the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the word cold in each blank.3] Fill in the blanks. Listen to his speech carefully. The moon is more closer to the earth than the sun. 1) 2) 3) My friend has a pretty .2] Which of the following sentences is incorrect? 1) 2) 3) Mary is shorter than Jane. That shade of blue is the most beautiful color. ADVERBS Adverbs modify a verb. Today is ………………. It rained or another adverb.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Superlatives are typically accompanied by the word the. [Quiz 8. I browse the web frequently. The ………………… weather is yet to come! Today's sunshine is ……………………beautiful than yesterday's. but I have a…………….day yet. The news is very surprising! The coffee is extremely hot.. An adverb tells more about a verb in the sentence. Tomorrow will be the …………………. [Quiz 8. This is the longest song that I have ever heard [Quiz 8. so be careful. Yesterday was a cold day. an adjective. An adverb describes more about an adjective in the sentence. I have the best score on the exam. Paul is the tallest boy in the neighborhood.than yesterday. . 9. Tom is the oldest man in town. Page 14 of 52 Ms.. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. The fire engine runs fast..

Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Computers run much faster these days. perfect. SIMPLE TENSE Verb tense tells you when the action happens. I sat on the (comfortable. Each main tense is divided into simple. Let‟s install the new program (quick. faster).1] Choose the correct word form in the following sentences. There are three main verb tenses: present. progressive. quickly). Simple Present finish Progressive am/is/are finishing Perfect have/has finished Perfect Progressive have/has been finishing Page 15 of 52 Ms. and future. adjectives can be changed to adverbs by adding 'ly'. clearly). 10. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I spoke to you (careful. It rains very hard. My dog runs very (fast. and perfect progressive tenses. We talked about it (clear. comfortably) sofa. happy – happily easy – easily [Quiz 9. change the 'y' to 'i' and add 'ly'.HANOI UNIVERSITY Nature is really amazing! BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH An adverb modifies another adverb in the sentence. I clean my room less frequently because I am busy. Commonly. carefully) last time. past. slow – slowly quick – quickly comfortable – comfortably loud – loudly clear – clearly To change adjectives ending in 'y' into .

I will know it by tomorrow. I will cook breakfast tomorrow. c. Page 16 of 52 Ms. (past) I will run a marathon next year. Future tense needs will (shall) + verb. I knew it the day before yesterday. see I see a movie once a week. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. run I run a marathon this year. (present) I ran a marathon last year. learn I learn English. know I know it. (future) eat I eat lunch now. I will eat lunch in one hour.HANOI UNIVERSITY Past Future finished will finish BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH had finished will have finished had been finishing will have been finishing was/were finishing will be finishing Things to remember about simple tense: a. I ate lunch an hour ago. I learned English the last two . I cooked our dinner already. Present tense is the original verb form. cook I cook my supper every night. b. I will see a movie tomorrow. I will learn English next year. I saw a movie yesterday. Past tense has a few patterns.

to the library to borrow some books this weekend. (present progressive) I was running a marathon at this time last year. Page 17 of 52 Ms. I was eating lunch when you saw me. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. I was cooking our dinner when you called me. or will be in progress at a certain time. a song at the concert yesterday. verbs are formed with a "be" verb + ing. (past progressive) I will be running a marathon next Sunday. run I am running a marathon right now. 11. learn I am learning English at my desk. was. I will be learning English then.1]Fill in the blanks with appropriate verb . 1) I …………. 3) I …………. 2) He…………. I will be eating lunch in the meeting.. PROGRESSIVE and PERFECT TENSE Progressive Tense The progressive tense involves action that is. (future progressive) eat I am eating lunch now.a letter to his girlfriend tomorrow.. In the progressive tense. I was learning English the last two years.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 10.. cook I am cooking my supper now. I will be cooking breakfast by the time you come home.

know I have known her since I was young. Use has/have + the past participle form of the verb. Page 18 of 52 . I had learned the basics of English grammar in elementary school. I will have learned a lot about English grammar when I finish college. (past perfect) I will have run a marathon by the time I turn 30. run I have run several marathons this year. I will have cooked supper every night by the time this diet ends. (present perfect) I had run many marathons in the past. I had cooked supper every night until the stove broke. I had known her until she passed away. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. (future perfect) learn I have learned a lot about English grammar this semester. cook I have cooked supper every night this week. Use will have + the past participle form of the verb. Use had + the past participle form of the verb. The future perfect tense describes future actions that will occur before some other action.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Perfect Tense The present perfect tense describes an action that started in the past and continues to the present time. The past perfect tense describes an action that started and ended in the past. I will have known her for 20 years next month.

2] Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given. Page 19 of 52 Ms. and I was still tired. and I am still tired. She had been practicing the piano. Use will + have + been + ing. 2) I …………. By tonight. [Quiz 11. and future progressive tenses. The present perfect progressive tense tells you about a continuous action that was initiated in the past and finished at some point in the past. and/or will continue in the future. It had been raining. it will have been raining several hours. By next summer. are continuing in the present.(study) math as my major since high school 12. and the street will be very wet. PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE The perfect progressive tense describes actions that repeated over a period of time in the past.(exercise) hard since last year. I will have been running for almost a year. and she is much better now. however. The past perfect progressive tense illustrates a continuous action in the past that was completed before another past action. Use have/has + been + ing. I sing a song on the big stage. I had been running. and the street is still wet. 1) He……………. the action has some relation to the present time. It has been raining. She has been practicing the piano. and the street was still wet. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. and she had gotten much better. I have been running. Use had + been + ing.1] Using the following sentence and create three more sentences using the present. and I will be fit and healthy.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz . The future perfect progressive tense indicates a continuous action that will be completed in the future. past.

but there are a few patterns. she will have been practicing the piano for several months. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. They will have been walking for almost an hour by the time they arrive at their . [Quiz 12.1] Choose the incorrect sentence from the following. 13. IRREGULAR VERBS Regular verbs form their past and past participle by adding ed (d). 1) 2) 3) I have been sleeping all day today.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH By the time of the concert. and she will be much better. She have been eating a lot recently. Base Verb learn study cook solve ask watch listen Past learned studied cooked solved asked watched listened Past Participle learned studied cooked solved asked watched listened Irregular verbs do not have definite rules. Base Verb grow know begin draw drive Past grew knew began drew drove Past Participle grown known begun drawn driven fly give speak swim go take find flew gave spoke swam went took found flown given spoken swum gone taken found Page 20 of 52 Ms.

Anh / 0972 660 959 / .HANOI UNIVERSITY spend teach pay feel buy meet have spent taught paid felt bought met had BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH spent taught paid felt bought met had feed keep cut hit set shut fit fed kept cut hit set shut fit fed kept cut hit set shut fit [Quiz 13. Eating is always fun. Running a marathon is not an easy thing to do. Watching TV is sometimes harmful.1] Find the past and past participle forms of the following verbs using your dictionary: bring drink think tell eat make beat 14. Page 21 of 52 Ms. GERUNDS A gerund (verb + ing) acts like a noun in a sentence. Often. I like listening to music. Seeing is believing. My hobby is painting. I am afraid of singing a song on a stage. She loves babysitting her sister. I wasted all my afternoon by taking a nap. a possessive noun or pronoun comes before a gerund.

(dance) is my favorite thing to do. I hope to be chosen as a member. I want to go home early today. It was nice to meet you. INFINITIVES Part 1 An infinitive is a verb combined with the word to. 1) I enjoy………………. Most often. it acts as an adjective or an adverb. It is time to move on. Page 22 of 52 Ms. You will be amazed by my writing. 5) I am upset at his ……………….(draw) as a hobby. I am young enough to change my habits. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Don‟t be mad about my leaving early. To leave for a vacation is my only wish at this time. I don‟t want you misunderstanding.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH I hope that you don‟t mind my using your pen. I prefer to go there earlier. 4) ……………….1] Fill in the blanks. . You might wish to act as a teacher. A common mistake in a relationship is not to trust the other person. Less frequently. 2) She likes………………. 3) Children are fond of ………………. You have to explain your reasoning in detail. Help me to save the trees! To be mentally healthy. you must read books. You need to consider various rules in writing sentences.(buy) clothes. an infinitive acts as a noun in the sentence.(break) the rule. (play) with water. [Quiz 14. Do you want me to fill out this form? Here is our to-do list.

…" It refers to the infinitive. Page 23 of 52 Ms. You need to definitely explain your reasoning in detail. 2) It is common………………. This expression is used in many ways. I got closer to the speaker to listen clearly. 1) I am going ………………. It is common to think that way.(learn) English. I need to take three more classes to finish my graduate study. It was my pleasure to meet you. I am going to buy the new computer.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Don‟t forget not to make grammar mistakes. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. It is appropriate to keep a low profile. an infinitive is used with the subject it. You have to seriously work hard to succeed. 3) Did you come ………………. It was great to go on a trip with them. I came to see a doctor today.(make) a grammar .1] Fill in the blanks. You have to work harder to succeed. The sentence structure is "It is + infinitive. it is not common to split to and the verb except for when you want to emphasize the verb. [Quiz 15.(clean) my house? 16. INFINITIVES Part 2 Commonly. It was nice to see you. Generally. I want you to immediately stop doing that. You are required to leave all your belongings here. It is time to do math. It is good to see you. Be sure to check if you have tickets. It was my honor to have dinner with you.

wish Verbs that can precede either gerunds or infinitives without changing meanings: . Verbs that can precede only gerunds: consider. I expect ………………. try I stopped watching the movie. choose.) I stopped to watch the movie. expect. afford. (know) me. miss. claim. suggest. postpone.(leave) the job.(pass) the exam? Page 24 of 52 Ms.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Both gerunds and infinitive phrases can function as nouns. hope. remember. attempt. She pretended ………………. mind. quit. deserve. agree. begin. Gerunds and infinitives can follow certain verbs but not others.) [Quiz 16. stop. pretend. (go) on a vacation. The company considered ………………. seem. learn. undertake. tend. (I stopped what I was doing to watch the movie. finish. put off Verbs that can precede only infinitives: offer. appear.1] Fill in the blanks. Did you fail………………. want. manage. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. desire. (I no longer watched the movie. guarantee. determine. deny. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) I decided………………. in a variety of ways. enjoy. Do you enjoy………………. refuse. (be) a professor. give up. start.(sell) its main . love. propose. hate Verbs that can precede either gerunds or infinitives but change meanings: forget. You need to remember which verbs can be followed by only a gerund or only an infinitive. avoid. neglect. fail. resist. demand. promise. (take) care of your pet? She hopes………………. (win) at this game. practice. He desires………………. stand. decide.

passive voice can be considered more polite. It is great ………………. However. not the actor. In the active voice.) The class has been canceled. in some cases. That building was built in 1990. It is not important to explain who the writer is. The car was invented about a hundred years ago. 17. (share) the land. The object in the active sentence becomes a subject in the passive sentence. (It is not known who broke the window. (The focus is on the class being canceled. It was rumored that the company would lay off a few people soon.HANOI UNIVERSITY 9) 10) BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH They want me ………………. (The focus is on the passive voice. It is not important to know who canceled it. Your business is appreciated. Also. It is recommended that the billing process be shortened. Passive voice is used when the action is the focus. In the passive voice. ACTIVE VOICE and PASSIVE VOICE Verbs are either active or passive in voice. not the subject. the subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a do-er. You can easily rewrite an active sentence to a passive sentence.(take) this position. It is shown with by + do-er or is not shown in the sentence. as it sounds less aggressive or dramatic. The verb is changed to a ―be‖ verb + past participle. Page 25 of 52 Ms. The window is broken. I was told that Mary moved to a different country. She was elected to city council. you need to use passive voice to stress the action.(hear) that they agreed ……………….com .) The passive voice is often used. or it is not important to know who broke the window. the subject of the sentence is not a do-er. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. It is not important (or not known) who does the action.) Passive voice should be avoided when you want more clarity in writing.

com . It is recommended that you apply for this position. 18. We will go to see a movie this Sunday. The tennis match was aired on TV. I recommend that you apply for this position. The song was sung by a singer.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH The subject of the active sentence follows by or is omitted. John gave me a bunch of flowers on my birthday. Imperative Mood makes a request. A new bridge was built by the government. The government built a new bridge. I‟ll follow you. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) I was eaten an ice cream. I have been managed a company since 2004. [Quiz 17. Indicative Mood states an actuality or fact.m. He was treated kindly. [Quiz 17.2 Choose the sentences written incorrectly in the passive voice. He was written a novel. Let‟s go to see a movie this weekend! Please stop bugging me! Page 26 of 52 Ms. Sam wrote a letter to Jamie. I was deceived by the TV program. A letter was written to Jamie by Sam. MOOD for GRAMMAR A mood shows the writer‟s attitude toward what he/she is saying. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail.1] Rewrite the following sentence in passive voice. The concert was finished at 12 p.

Correct: She recommended that each student take a note. request. commend. (can) fly. (finish) her meal. I would take any . Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail.) Incorrect: Our suggestion is that everyone on the team does the survey. the verb to be is be in the present tense and were in the past tense. Incorrect: If I was you. recommend. The following verbs often attract the subjunctive mood: ask. I wish I were more organized. and demand. [Quiz 18. (The second verb is in a clause following a verb expressing a wish. regardless of what the subject is. In the subjunctive mood.(be) you.1] Write the correct form of the verb given. wish. I would take any offer. She suggests that the office ………………. If I were you. 1) 2) 3) 4) I insist that Jennifer ……………….(be) closed today. Correct: Our suggestion is that everyone on the team do the survey. Correct: I wish I were able to speak English fluently. If I ………………. Incorrect: She recommended that each student takes a note.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Subjunctive Mood expresses a doubtful condition (contrary to fact) and is often used with an "if" clause. A verb in the subjunctive mood may have a different form. order. I wouldn‟t buy a house. The subjunctive for the present tense third-person singular drops the s or es so that it looks and sounds like the present tense for everything else. I would win the game. Page 27 of 52 Ms. insist. suggest. Correct: If I were you. (The verb follows „if‟ and expresses a non-factual condition. I wish I ………………. It suggests a non-factual or doubtful condition.) Incorrect: I wish I was able to speak English fluently.

2. you can write sentences in different tenses. 19. The following examples show these verbs used as auxiliary verbs. or voices. Our manager insists that the group is reorganized."Do" as an auxiliary verb Page 28 of 52 Ms. This song has been sung by all nations. b. AUXILIARY VERBS "Be". Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. etc.2] Choose the correct sentence from the following. . Used in progressive sentences: I am taking a bath. It was written by a petitioner. Used in passive sentences: I was given a free meal. may. You have been practicing hard. will. moods. 1) 2) 3) 4) I wish I was able to buy this car. do." With auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verbs are: be. They have been studying all night. The verb forms of be. can. She is preparing dinner for us. He was seen by fans at the airport. shall. do. You may choose what you like. might. "Have" An auxiliary verb helps the main (full) verb and is also called a "helping verb. should. would. could.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 18. have. and have can be used either as a main (full) verb or an auxiliary verb. he would apply for the university. 1. I am having a cup of coffee. It were recommended that the company closes its foreign offices. ought."Be" as an auxiliary verb a. "Do". I think I should study harder to master English. If Jack were 17 years old.

would. might. [Quiz 19. or consent: I will take this duty. 20. Did you have a conflict with that time? I must ask that you explain the reason. Page 29 of 52 Ms. We have done a lot so far. I am a professor in the economics department. shall.2] Which of the following sentences does not show any auxiliary verbs? 1) 2) 3) 4) I didn‟t have any reason to go there. Used in questions: BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Do you want to have another one? Did he finish his homework? Do we need to keep going straight? 3. should. may. Used in negative sentences: I do not know the truth. Will Used to express desire. Have we practiced this song enough? Three seats have been reserved for us. They didn‟t arrive here yet."Have" as an auxiliary verb . She had been queen of the town. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail.HANOI UNIVERSITY a. AUXILIARY VERBS "Will/Would" and "Shall/Should" The verbs will. and must cannot be the main (full) verbs alone. choice. She doesn‟t agree with me. can.1] Identify all auxiliary verbs in the following paragraph. I have just heard that you didn‟t attend the meeting yesterday. could. b. preference. They are used as auxiliary verbs only and always need a main verb to follow. Used in perfect sentences: I have been following you for a mile. [Quiz 19.

m. This airplane will take 200 passengers. Used to express capacity or capability: This bucket will hold two gallons of water. For the future tense. The news will spread soon. Used to express routine or habitual things: Normally. Shall Mainly used in American English to ask questions politely (it has more usages in British English). Used to express contingency or possibility: If I were you. Used to express determination. Would (past form of will) Often used in auxiliary functions with rather to express preference: I would rather go shopping today. we would work until 6 p. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Used to express a wish or desire: I would like to have one more pencil. will is more frequently used in American English than . Shall we dance? Shall I go now? Page 30 of 52 Ms. or persistence: I will do it as you say.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Will you stop talking like that? Used to express the future: It will rain tomorrow. We‟d rather say something than stay quiet. insistence. I would be so happy.

Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Page 31 of 52 Ms. I should take a bus this time.HANOI UNIVERSITY Let‟s drink. We should be there this evening. Used to ask for someone‟s opinion: What should we do now? Should we continue our meeting? Should we go this way? Where should we go this summer? Used to say something expected or correct: There should be an old city hall building here.m. We should have visited the place on the way. He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process. Students shall not enter this room. shall we? BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Often used in formal settings to deliver obligation or requirement: You shall abide by the law. Used to express that you wish something had happened but it didn‟t or couldn‟t (should + have + past participle): You should have seen it. suggestion. or idea: You should rest at home today. Should (past form of shall) Often used in auxiliary functions to express an opinion. I should have completed it earlier to meet the . preference. Everybody should arrive by 6 p. There shall be no trespassing on this property. It was really beautiful.

He can‟t speak French.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 20. 1) I ………………. we have lunch together? 4) I ………………. please. Could you please let me pass you? Could I get you more water? Page 32 of 52 Ms. You could see the boat a cup of tea. Could (past form of can) Describes an ability that someone had in the past: I could swim when I was young.leave now.have seen him.1] Fill in the blanks using an appropriate auxiliary verb. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Can you open this jar? Used to ask for permission: Can I use your bathroom? Can I leave now? Can I raise the volume? Used to make requests or suggestions: Can I have more napkins? Can I have the bill? You can take this spot if you like. AUXILIARY VERBS "Can/Could" and "May/Might/Must" Can Used to express ability (to be able to do something): I can make jewelry. You can do whatever you want.we read the email? 21. 2) You ………………. His dance was amazing. They could tell he was nervous. 5) ……………….com . It is too late. Often used in auxiliary functions to express permission politely: Could I take this jacket with me? You could borrow my umbrella. 3) ……………….

They may not be happy about what happened. The store might have been closed today. Might (past form of may) Used to suggest a smaller possibility than may does (actually. BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Could it be true? This plan could really work out. May Used to ask for formal permission: May I come in? May I say something now? May I ask one question? Used to suggest something that is possible: She may agree with this plan. You could always stay at our house. Everyone must save the natural resources of the earth. The building must have a fire alarm. I might not come this time. might is more common than may in American English): He might have finished it. You must answer my question right now.HANOI UNIVERSITY Used to express possibility: All of them could ride in the . It might be right. It may shower tonight. I might go see a doctor. Must Used to express something formally required or necessary: I must complete the project by this week. You might have lost it. The government must provide health care for everybody. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Used to show that something is very likely: He must be a genius. Page 33 of 52 Ms.

could. Here are a few common prepositions and examples. The paper is on my desk. could. or time. ………………. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition. must) have practiced a . BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 21. could. In the beginning stage of learning the language. may. 22.1] Choose the right word for each blank. and "In" A preposition is a word that links a noun. may. must) have lost it. (can. could. might. may. must) you please lower your voice? 5) You………………. (can. must) be kidding! How is that possible? 6) I ………………. could. "At". might. might. Her performance was amazing. PREPOSITIONS "On". Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. or to introduce an object. to the office at the desk on the table in an hour about myself A preposition is used to show direction. location. could. must) speak both English and Chinese fluently. She must be very tired. (can. 2) I can‟t find my watch anywhere. may. you should try to identify a preposition when reading or listening in English and recognize its usage.(can. On Used to express a surface of something: I put an egg on the kitchen table. may. 3) Professor. may. Page 34 of 52 Ms. or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.HANOI UNIVERSITY You must be joking! There must be an accident. 1) She ………………. might. I ……………….(can.(can. might. pronoun. might. must) I ask a question? 4) ……………….

Used to indicate the state of something: Everything in this store is on sale. The bus will stop here at 5:45 p. We saw a baseball game at the stadium. He kissed me on my I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988 Used to indicate a part of the body: The stick hit me on my shoulder.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Used to specify days and dates: The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. I am good at drawing a portrait. Used to indicate an activity: He laughed at my acting. Used to indicate an email address: Please email me at abc@defg. I wear a ring on my finger At Used to point out specific time: I will meet you at 12 p. Used to indicate a place: There is a party at the club . . Used to indicate a device or machine. There were hundreds of people at the park. Page 35 of 52 Ms. My favorite movie will be on TV tonight. such as a phone or computer: He is on the phone right now.m. The building is on fire. She has been on the computer since this morning. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. .

I almost picked up the wrong one because it looked like mine. season. My hometown is Los Angeles. [Quiz 22.2] Choose a correct preposition in the sentence. Used to indicate a location or place: She looked me directly in the eyes. The new semester will start in March. We are not interested in gambling. The students stood in a circle. Page 36 of 52 Ms. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. year: She always reads newspapers in the morning. In the summer. we revised the tone three times. which is in California. I am currently staying in a hotel.1] Identify all prepositions in the following sentences. Used to indicate a shape. interest. at. 1) I want to lose 5 kilogram (on. This jacket comes in four different sizes. opinion.HANOI UNIVERSITY In BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Used for unspecific times during a day. [Quiz 22. or size: This painting is mostly in blue. Used to express while doing something: In preparing for the final report. Used to indicate a belief. or feeling: I believe in the next . we have a rainy season for three weeks. in) one month. We walked out the exit and went to the baggage claim area. There were hundreds of different bags on the conveyer belt. A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product. color. month. After flying for many hours. we finally got off the airplane.

in) a larger size? She seems to be interested (on. This class will be held (on. That‟s the bag of my friend‟s sister. at.HANOI UNIVERSITY 2) 3) 4) 5) BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Could you get me this pants (on. The package was mailed to Mr. The first page of the book describes the author‟s profile. relating to. I always dreamed of being rich and famous. To Used to indicate the place. A large number of people gathered to protest. I will come to pick you up (on. and "For" Of Used for belonging to. 23. Don‟t touch it. in) 2 pm tomorrow. person. at. Used to indicate reference: I got married in the summer of 2000. in) Mondays. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase. or the direction of something: I am heading to the entrance of the building. "To". at. Used to indicate an amount or number: I drank three cups of milk. Page 37 of 52 . This is a picture of my family. Prepositions "Of". in) Psychology. The highlight of the show is at the end. or thing that someone or something moves toward. I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days. at. Kim yesterday. or connected with: The secret of this game is that you can‟t ever win. He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment.

Please send it back to me. it is 4:50. My answer to your question is in this envelop. For this reason. I‟ve decided to quit this job. Page 38 of 52 Ms. Monday to Friday. Do not respond to every little thing in your life. Used to mean because of: I am so happy for you. We feel deeply sorry for your loss. (In other . I put a note on the door for privacy. She has been studying hard for the final exam.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH All of us went to the movie theater. The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars. Used to indicate relationship: This letter is very important to your admission. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. This is all I have for today. Used to indicate a time or a period: I work nine to six. I baked a cake for your birthday. I attended the university for one year only. Used to indicate a limit or an ending point: The snow was piled up to the roof. It is now 10 to five.) For Used to indicate the use of something: This place is for exhibitions and shows. Used to indicate time or duration: He‟s been famous for many decades.

for) bed. He cut my hair with his gold scissors. Turn off the TV and go straight (of. to. She has been working with her sister at the nail shop. to. PREPOSITIONS "With".com .HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH [Quiz 23. to. I slept (of. It was my first trip (of. for) only two hours last night. to. for) my best friends.1] Choose the correct preposition in each sentence. Were you the one talking with an accent? People with a lot of money are not always happy. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. This is the soup that I made with rice and barley. The manager will be with you shortly. and "By" With Used to indicate being together or being involved: I ordered a sandwich with a drink. He was with his friend when he saw me. Used to indicate feeling: I am emailing you with my sincere apology. to. Used to indicate "having": I met a guy with green eyes. Page 39 of 52 Ms. for) Hawaii. This book was written (of. Used to indicate "using": I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me. "Over". for) school. 5) 6) I was late (of. for) the people who want to learn how to play a 24. He came to the front stage with confidence. Spencer is one (of. 1) 2) 3) 4) guitar. to.

She agrees with me. The phone rang for over a .HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Used to indicate agreement or understanding: Are you with me? Yes. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Used to indicate a period of time: I worked there over a year. Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount: This amount is over our prediction. Can you bend over and get the dish for me? He pushed it over the edge. By Used to indicate proximity: Can I sit by you? He was standing by me. Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence: Page 40 of 52 Ms. Could you roll over? They sent over a gift for his promotion. Kids twelve and over can watch this movie. Used to indicate movement downward: The big tree fell over on the road. Over Used to indicate movement from one place to another: Come over to my house for dinner sometime. She did not sleep there over this past month. The post office is by the bank. I am completely with you.

The branch office was closed by the head office. I ate lunch with Kate and Derma. by) the radio on my desk. Go (with.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH The microwave was fixed by the mechanic. I knocked him (with. by) now. the trip is canceled. over. Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose: You can pass the exam by preparing for it.m. by) there and catch my ball. She was (with. (With.1] Choose the correct preposition in each sentence. She didn‟t press the bell. 25. Used to indicate a mean or method: Please send this package to Russia by airmail.. Over. you will be able to achieve your . by) me when the accident occurred. The flowers were delivered by a postman. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. over. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) If she left at 4 p. but I did. she should be here (with. I just found it! It was (with. over. [Quiz 24. over. I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter. She finally broke the record by pure effort. There are three types of conjunctions: Page 41 of 52 Ms. over. by) accidentally. I came here by subway. By) your determination. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and CORRECTIVE CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence. Because it is rainy today.

unless. or clauses that are independent or equal b. Coordinating Conjunctions 1. once. and not 2. while. 2. or. but. phrases. not only/but also 3. yet he didn‟t make the final cut. Page 42 of 52 Ms. BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Connect words.Yet—indicates contrast with something: He performed very well. both/and.Correlative Conjunctions a. etc. since. but she is an early .For—means "because": I want to go there again. neither/nor.And—means "in addition to": We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on a same day. so that. before. although.Or—indicates a choice between two things: Do you want a red one or a blue one? 4. after. Used at the beginning of subordinate clauses b. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. until. for.So—illustrates a result of the first thing: This song has been very popular. if. whether. 5. how.But—connects two different things that are not in agreement: I am a night owl.HANOI UNIVERSITY 1. and. either/or. because. 3. 6. when.Coordinating Conjunctions a. yet. so I downloaded it. for it was a wonderful trip. Used in pairs b.Subordinating Conjunctions a. where. so.

wood……………. 26. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. Neither you nor I will get off early today. 2) Do you want to go swimming……………. She got the perfect score in not only English but also math. 3. I stayed out late. 4) ………….I still make mistakes.……………. although she felt sick. bricks can be used as homebuilding materials. 1) ……my friend………….Both/and She won gold medals from both the single and group races. Page 43 of 52 Ms. [Quiz 25. Both TV and television are correct words. I are taking the geography class.Either/or I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday.Although—means "in spite of the fact that": Although it was . She showed up. I ran home..1] Write the correct conjunction in each sentence.Neither/nor He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling..I had to go to work.Not only/but also Not only red but also green looks good on you. 4.golfing? 3) I studied grammar for a long time. 2. 5) I wasn‟t feeling well this morning.. Although my mom told me to come home early.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Correlative Conjunctions 1. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Subordinating Conjunctions 1. You can have either apples or pears.………………….

We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out. How—means "the way in which": I wonder how you did it. Can you show me how you fixed the computer? 6. He explained how he completed it in a few days. 5. You can watch TV if you finish your homework. 4. I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home. Before he contacted me. I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner.Because—means "for the reason that": Because he was smart and worked hard. They stopped building the house because it was pouring. you will be the first to know. 3. Page 44 of 52 Ms. If I receive a promotion. Once—indicates "at the moment when": Once you see him. Call me once you start having contractions. you will recognize him. 7. After—indicates "subsequently to the time when": Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall. I was going to call him. he was able to make a lot of money. Once the light came on. Since—means "from the time when": I‟ve been a singer since I was young. we can go to the beach.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH 2. 8. Anh / 0972 660 959 / . If—means "in the event that": If it is sunny tomorrow. we all shouted with joy.Before—indicates "earlier than the time that": He had written a living will before he died. I love dogs because they are so cute.

com . he has been doing nothing.Unless—means "except. 9. She didn‟t realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it. He worked harder for a raise so he could buy a nice car. This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here. Until—means "up to the time that": Don‟t go anywhere until I come back. I need to know where John hid the present. My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Since he graduated. Please tell me where you are going. 12. When—means "at that time": When I came in the room. 11. she didn‟t complain at all. We met while we were working at the University. While—means "during the time": Someone called you while you were at the meeting. Page 45 of 52 Ms. He finished his work as fast as possible so that he could leave early. I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on. 10. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. 13. everyone looked at me. you will never know.Where—indicates "in the place": This is where I came from. They won‟t allow us to sit until everyone arrives. Unless you ask her. 14. So that—means "in order to": So that she could keep her position. on the condition": You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher. I woke up when my baby was crying. I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first.

) after it. moreover. I didn‟t enroll this semester …………………I could go backpacking in Europe. The due date for the final paper has passed. then. therefore. We have many different sizes of this shirt. there would be many more accidents. meanwhile. you should go for it. Page 46 of 52 Ms. otherwise. besides. otherwise. however. The baby fell asleep. Some examples of conjunctive adverbs are: accordingly. 27. ………………… you are confident with it. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. therefore.1] Fill in the blanks with an appropriate conjunction. next. still. consequently. Don‟t do that………………I allow it. You need to decide whether or not you are hungry. however. also. then. I am required to pay property taxes. My neighbor‟s cat has been missing …………………… last Friday. the doorbell rang.. A conjunctive adverb helps you create a shorter sentence.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH 15. however. likewise. moreover. put a semicolon (. finally. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Could you email me……………… you receive the offer? I want to buy it ………………… it is expensive or not. ……………….CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are words that join independent clauses into one sentence. . none of them may be accurate. nevertheless. There are many history books. When you use a conjunctive adverb. Whether—means "if it is true or not": We will have a picnic whether it rains or not. The law does not permit drinking and driving anytime.) before it and a comma (. it comes in only one color. etc. It rained hard. instead. I own a house. I could not submit mine on time. [Quiz 26. It is time to decide whether we should take action. lightening flashed and thunder boomed.

o. . He is not good-looking………….) is used to separate the conjunctive adverb from the sentence.. I wasn‟t late to school. I failed. but. Nevertheless. . . …………. e. u): a stamp. a cup. an orange a—used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a. . In this case. u) or vowel sound: an apple. Jack wants a toy car for his birthday. a comma (. an an—used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a. …………. i. his brother Tom is athletic. Indefinite Articles—a. Meanwhile. 28. however. an issue. a TV. Instead. they are not as strong as coordinating conjunctions and they are punctuated differently. I went home. A conjunctive adverb is also used in a single main clause. e.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Conjunctive adverbs look like coordinating conjunctions (and.1] Choose the right conjunctive adverb for the sentence. so. Jill wants a dollhouse for her birthday. for. an. o. a desk. INDEFINITE and DEFINITE ARTICLES The words a. He didn‟t go to college. an elephant. She didn‟t take a bus to work today. i. he is popular among girls. a book Definite Article—the Page 47 of 52 Ms. Likewise. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. …………. Tom is a sportsman. They returned home. or. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Hurry up. you will be late for the train. . nor). and the are special adjectives called articles. she drove her car. [Quiz 27. I woke up very late this morning. I studied hard for the exam. he started his own business. ………….

Indefinite Article (a. or degree: I felt a bit depressed. 2. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. The wind is blowing so hard. Page 48 of 52 Ms. Used to indicate a noun that is unique: Praise the Lord! The Columbia River is near here. amount. Used to refer to a time period: I was very naïve in the past. count and non-count nouns 1. I like the clothes you gave me.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Can be used before singular and plural. Definite Article (the) Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context: Please close the door. an) Used before singular nouns that are unspecified: a pencil an orange Used before number collectives and some numbers: a dozen a gallon Used before a singular noun followed by a restrictive modifier: a girl who was wearing a yellow hat Used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of quantity. Used to designate a natural phenomenon: The nights get shorter in the .

gee.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH This song was very popular in the 1980s. 29. geez. Can I have (a. an. the) managers. A comma (. It can stand alone. darn. Ouch! That hurts. oops. It can be used as filler. the sentence still makes sense. Express a feeling—wow. [Quiz 28. I‟m sorry. I need a break. That was my mistake. an.1] Choose the correct article in each sentence. Have you been to (a. the) umbrella? Are you looking for (a. What (a. Interjections do not have a grammatical function in the sentence and are not related to the other parts of the sentence. Used to indicate all the members of a family: I invited the Bakers for dinner. the) poor family. Well. an. an. She will come back in (a. INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word that expresses some kind of emotion. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Did you bring (a. 1. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. the) shampoo? I checked (a. oh: Oops. the) spoon please? I was born into (a. an. an. an. an.) can be used for a weaker . the) roof of a building. the) mailbox again. Page 49 of 52 Ms. If an interjection is omitted. the) Space Needle Tower in Seattle? I would love to talk to one of (a. the) hour. Wow! What a beautiful dress! When you are expressing a strong emotion. an. This medicine was invented by the Smiths. use an exclamation mark (!). the) amazing view! The helicopter landed on (a. an.

2. [Quiz 29. B: (Well.1] What should be B’s expression? A: I got a perfect score on the math exam. Hey. no. Hmm. Um. A instead of a). will you throw the ball back? Hey. She left a message on my phone.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH Geez! Do I need to do it again? Oh. hey: Yo. 4. Call attention—yo. You really need to be on a diet. I didn‟t know that. Wow! or Um. Always capitalize the following: The first word in a sentence. Nope.) [Quiz 29. CAPITALIZATION Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example. 3. I grew up in India. I am not going to go there. Say yes or no—yes. I just wanted to talk to you about the previous incident. hmm: Well. nope: Yes! I will do it! No. here is our proposal. The use of capital letters helps readers read your writing without confusion. um. Indicate a pause—well.2] What should be C’s expression? C: ! (Nope. what I meant was nothing like that. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. 30. or Geez) My computer just . That‟s not what I want. Page 50 of 52 Ms.

days. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. oceans. The first letter of a proper noun (specific name). This summer is going to be very hot. and holidays (but not seasons). Susie‟s birthday is this Thursday. I want to master many languages. The first letter in a person‟s title. Historical periods. Page 51 of 52 Ms. I like Coca-Cola. The Renaissance began in the 14th century. The first letter of months. Simon. Chinese. etc. I got it from Mr. David wants to play soccer with us. BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH This country is where I dreamed of. There is one Christian church in my town. such as Spanish.HANOI UNIVERSITY The pronoun I. states. Geographic areas: cities. My destination is Paris. I graduated from the University of New York. Today is June 8. We often eat Italian food. Korean. France. The shops are closed on Easter. religions. races of people. countries. This is Dr. and languages. Tom. This letter is from Chang. Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The first letter of nationalities. The Qing Dynasty is the last dynasty in China. . rivers. She likes Godiva chocolates. and Russian. mountains.

com . ohana gave me the bible.HANOI UNIVERSITY BASIC GRAMMAR FOR SPEAKING ENGLISH The first letter of each major word in the title of a book. Tolstoy‟s War and Peace is my favorite novel. rocky. Anh / 0972 660 959 / vananhvu158@gmail. if you walk two more blocks. my family will have a summer vacation in hawaii. Page 52 of 52 Ms. I didn‟t want to cook tonight. etc. china. [Quiz 30. but grew up in the united states. movie.1] Correctly write each sentence using proper capitalization. mrs. article. you will be able to see mt. I found the article “How to Write a Good Cover Letter” in this magazine. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) i was born in shanghai. so I just ordered thai food for dinner.