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N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I


Christ His &Church
A New Testament Survey of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles

L e c t u r e s © 2005 Gordon-ConwellT . D a v i d G o r d o n b y D r . Theological Seminary


N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I
About the Ockenga Institute and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary: Established in 1985, the Ockenga Institute exists to make the rich educational resources of GordonConwell Theological Seminary available to Christian leaders throughout the world. Through our various centers and programs, we serve as the research and continuing education arm of the school, seeking to build Christian leaders for the Church of Jesus Christ, present and future. Contact us: Dimensions of the Faith Ockenga Institute of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 130 Essex Street South Hamilton, MA 01982 tel: 1-800-294-2774 email: web: Copyright: Copyright © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Printed in the USA. Acknowledgements: Curriculum Design and Developer: David Horn Project Editor: Dana Hess Notebook Writer: Gypsy Fleischman Audio Editor: Curt Wanner Graphic Design: Ashli Newman Notebook Format: David Finnell and Dénes House

About the author: Dr. T. David Gordon, a native of Richmond, VA, is currently Associate Professor of Religion and Greek at Grove City College in Grove City, PA, where he has served since 1999. Previously, he had taught for 13 years at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. He served for nine years as the pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church in Nashua, NH. He and his wife, Diane, have two daughters, Grace and Dabney.


© 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary

A N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y o f t h e G o s p e l s a n d t h e A c t s o f t h e A p o s t l e s Preface: The Dimensions of the Faith series is developed with the firm conviction that a life of faith and obedience in Jesus Christ is based upon a working knowledge of Godʼs word. You cannot obey what you do not know. For this reason, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary has developed the Dimensions of the Faith series for any Christian who desires foundational knowledge in the areas of Old and New Testament, Biblical Interpretation, Church History, Theology, and Missions. The goals of each course are the following: 1. To paint the big picture of what you are learning; 2. To provide you with the basic content; 3. To introduce you to key words that will enlarge your capacity for knowing; 4. To guide you to understand how greater knowledge of Godʼs word can be applied naturally to everyday life and service; 5. To direct you to valuable resources as Godʼs word whets your appetite for further study. The Dimensions of the Faith series is designed to be used in a variety of settings. You may wish to use the materials as a resource for your own spiritual growth and enrichment. You may also wish to study the materials as a group. The series may be used as a leadership tool for churches or as a training tool on the mission field. We encourage those of you who are pastors to use the series with your ruling boards or your volunteer teaching staffs. A certificate is available for those who complete all six subject areas of the Dimensions of the Faith series. In addition to the notebook and tape/CD version you currently own, you may listen to the lectures on the Gordon-Conwell website: The variety of formats will allow greater flexibility in the use of this material. For more information about the Dimensions of the Faith series, please contact us by postal mail at the Ockenga Institute, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, South Hamilton, Massachusetts 01982, or email us at We pray that God will use this series as a powerful tool for expanding your knowledge of God and Godʼs word so that you may be able to share the good news throughout the world.


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Use the designated blank spaces and margins as your opportunity to interact with what you are learning. You may have noticed that we have used the drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci as a motif for our materials. we have provided you with a series of icons. church history.About the Study and Workbook Guide: The following study guide is designed as a scratch notepad to be used as you listen to the accompanying taped lectures. Each chapter includes valuable information and questions for you to ponder while you listen. Just as Da Vinci sketched out his ideas in the process of creating a final painting. Breadth of Biblical Knowledge: Grasp the big picture. We do so under the firm conviction that a fuller knowledge of God and his word requires expanding your horizons in all directions. from A to Z. and culture. so we invite you to sketch out your own thoughts in the notebook while you listen to the lectures. APPLICATION FOR SERVICE Depth of Biblical Knowledge: Use these resources to grow deeper. QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY iv © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . BASIC CONTENT Length of Biblical Knowledge: Stretch yourself to obedience and service through correct understanding. To guide you through the materials. theology. DEFINITION Height of Biblical Knowledge: Grow in your knowledge of the basic content of Scripture. SCOPE Width of Biblical Knowledge: Expand your understanding by enlarging your vocabulary.

9. 3. 10. 4. Basics and Backgrounds How History Helps Clearly Canon There to Here: The New Testament Thy Kingdom Come Back to the Future Gospels 101 Matther. 7. 6. 8. 5. Mark. and Luke: Three Angles. One Story The Red Letter Edition: The Gospel of John The Spreading Flame 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 v © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .Table of Contents 1. 2.

vi © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .

Built to represent the heavens and the earth. Gordon will be using? 1 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e O n e Everyone would agree: the world is vastly different today than it was two thousand years ago. Sacrifice — The substitutionary punishment (death) of an animal. Why is it important to understand the variety of ways that the term “background” can be used? What is the definition of “background” that Dr. a sacrificial system in which an animal takes the place of a person. And we can better experience its life-changing power in our own lives. Notes _____ Atonement — At the heart of bibical religion. Temple — The building in Jerusalem where the Jews worshipped Yahweh. we can more fully understand the life-changing nature of Godʼs message to those who received it two thousand years ago. Why? Why do we study the New Testament? Why are these ancient writings relevant to our lives today? What makes the Bible powerful and meaningful to those of us living thousands of years after it was written? When we understand the background of the New Testament. Yet we continue to accept texts written by these people as if they are relevant to our daily lives. the political and social factors which influenced its writers and the cultural context into which these writings came. receiving for him or her the punishment for his or her sins. The place where God lived among his people. The people living in Jesusʼ time could not even have imagined the way we live.

N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ What was the Decree of Cyrus? Where in the Bible is it recorded? In what five ways was Judaism affected by this era of outside rule? What happened to Israelite religion when the temple was destroyed? What is one essential ingredient of biblical religion? How is this ingredient part of the Christian faith? To what extent is the church today influenced by the same kinds of political forces and religious compromises that affected the Israelites? What would happen to your spiritual life if Christʼs atonement was suddenly taken away? 2 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .

. Notes _____ “No Jews offer sacrifices anywhere. Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity.we’ve got atonement. Philadelphia: Fortress.” 3 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary ...They don’t have the atonement. It’s just Christ! But we have atonement and atonement still is essential to the biblical religion. 1984.Basics and Backgrounds Which tradition has the more-appropriate claim to being the successor to Old Testament Temple religion—Judaism or Christianity? Jacob Neusner....

The text of the New Testament is something like such a letter — it gives us the body. those outside the Mosaic covenant. no date. and why it was written. You open it. but some of the details would be difficult to understand.” referring to the non-Hebrew nations. Gentile — Literally “the nations. but we have to look at the history around the writing of the text to put the pieces together. who it was written to. nothing other than the body of the letter. How does the context in which we understand the New Testament affect our interpretation of the text? What errors do we make when we have faulty information about the setting of the text? How is our understanding enriched when we have a more complete picture of Godʼs redemptive work in history? Meritorious (or “works religion”) — The idea that a person achieves salvation by his or her good actions. if you knew who wrote the letter. and find that it is a love letter. or by his or her adherence to a set of laws. 4 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . youʼd have a much better chance of putting all the pieces together. when it was written.” Specifically. yet there is no address and no signature.New Testament Survey I: Lecture Two Notes _____ Imagine finding an unopened letter in a book. However. Give two of the reasons why first century Judaism was not “works religion”. Torah — Literally. the Hebrew word for “Law. the Mosaic Law found in the books of Exodus through Deuteronomy. You would certainly still be able to understand most of the content.

what events and ideas would need to be included? 5 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . it is history.How History Helps What was the true problem Jesus had with the Pharisees? Notes _____ When was Godʼs promise given to Abraham? What was the promise? What was the Apostle Paulʼs main problem with the Torah? “If there is anything that is unscientific.” What is the difference between knowing something scientifically and knowing something historically? How does an understanding of who God is affect our study of history? If you were to write a history of Godʼs redemptive work in your life.

1982): 94-122. sometimes we want people to conform to our rules and expectations before we consider them Christians. Earle E. eds. 1978. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. God and Man in Time: A Christian Approach to Historiography. Louisville: John Knox. Howard Rienstra. 69-82. History and Historical Understanding.P. “ in C. Dunn.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ Like the Galatians. McIntire and Ronald Wells. Philadelphia: Fortress. 75-107. In what areas do you think the Church is guilty of this? “Paul no where says [the Jews] found grace offensive or mercy offensive. M. Sanders. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.” Is the study of history religiously or philosophically neutral? Is there a distinctively Christian way to study history? Cairns. Was first century Judaism a meritorious religion? E. and the Christian Scholar. pp. T. 1984. Objectivity. Reprinted in Jesus.. Paul and Palestinian Judaism. “The New Perspective on Paul. 1990.” BJRL 65(August. 1979. “History.G. pp. What they found offensive was the crucified Messiah. James D. 6 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Paul and the Law.

Published works. Often. composer. unfinished bits of poetry or painting.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e T h r e e When a great artist. including accounts of Christʼs life and the testimonies of those who had witnessed his earthly ministry. as well as old photographs. world-wide. Naturally. there is a great effort made to collect that personʼs works. Much the same gathering of materials took place as the church grew from a small group of disciples into a geographically spread-out. written texts began to be collected and distributed among the churches. for all people. nationally diverse group of people. even anecdotes about that personʼs childhood are gathered together. interviews with the personʼs close friends and family results in the writing of a biography. Canon — a collection of writings that the church recognizes as an ‘authoritative guideline for Christian faith and practice. inspiration. Apostle — one of the people whom Christ personally chose and specially commissioned to be the foundation of his church. Catholic — universal. and as it became more and more necessary for believers to discover ways of maintaining unity.’ What is the classical Protestant view of how the books of the NT became canonical? 7 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . or writer dies. and the definite stamp of the Holy Spirit? At what point in history did the church have what we know as the New Testament scriptures? Notes _____ Epistle — a personal letter which may have been also intended for public reading. How were these texts gathered together? How did the church come to recognize certain texts as having authority.

8 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ What is the earliest evidence we have that the NT material was being gathered? What is the most significant principle by which the church has recognized canonicity? Why was it important that Paul prove that he had been commissioned by Christ himself? How is recognizing inspiration similar to recognizing beauty? What is the Holy Spiritʼs special role in regard to the Apostles? What are some NT references to other portions of the NT as Scripture? Where do we find the first evidence of all 27 books in our modern NT being joined in one group? How does the Holy Spiritʼs testimony in your life resonate with the Apostolic testimony as recorded in the NT? The first verse of the hymn “Amazing Grace” ends with the line.

The Anchor Bible Dictionary. 9 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .Clearly Canon “I once was lost. New York: Doubleday. Freedman.” in David N.” What is the Apocrypha? Charlesworth. 292-294. was blind. “Apocrypha. but now I see. James H. A-C. but now Iʼm found. 1992. pp. Vol.. when have you experienced the Holy Spiritʼs opening of your eyes to something in the scriptures? Notes _____ Why do some churches include the Apocrypha in their Bibles? “Rather what you see in the history of the recognition of the canon is that wherever there are those that submit to the Lordship of Christ and repent of their sins. there is the recognition that in this book they hear the voice of Christ.” In considering your own spiritual walk. 1. ed.

the recipe for pie still produces a pie? How can we know that the New Testament text we now have is authentic and reliable? Lector — a person whose job it was to read the scriptures aloud so that others could write it down and thus make copies of the text. even ingredients youʼve never heard of. what are the stages from the original letters and texts of the NT to what we now have? 10 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e F o u r Notes _____ Have you ever wished you could reproduce some yummy treat from your childhood just the way Grandma used to make it? Blueberry pie. How did the New Testament come together. In the broad picture. Scribe — a person whose job was to copy by hand the text of the scriptures. and how did it stay together through thousands of years? Can we trust that two thousand years later. as you would have following and translating Grandmaʼs recipe. and the scribes who copied them had a similar job. Manuscript — handwritten copy of a text. with similar difficulties. Translation — a version of a text in a language which is not the original language in which the text was written. or gingersnaps. The people who gathered the original letters and texts of the New Testament. or oatmeal-raisin cookies? You could try following Grandmaʼs own recipe. abbreviations you donʼt understand. complete with barely-legible notes along the sides.

Gordonʼs discussion of the transmission of the NT manuscripts? 11 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . spacing... authentic text of the NT? What does Dr.” How is your faith challenged and affirmed by Dr. and punctuation of the NT manuscripts changed over time? What are the “intentional” and “unintentional” errors. Gordon explains these? What are some examples? How have scholars tried to determine what is the original. Gordon mean when he says “Donʼt build your house on theological sand?” What can you do to avoid making this kind of error? “When you compare five thousand manuscripts and they all agree.that is pretty overwhelming.T h e N e w Te s t a m e n t : T h e r e t o H e r e What are the three main families of texts of the NT? What are the basic characteristics of these families? Notes _____ What are some of the ways scribal errors have entered the NT text? How have the letters. as Dr.

N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ What are the oldest actual manuscripts. “[God] had now spoken in these last days in his Son and there were a group of Apostles upon which the church had been established. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Keith and Ian Moir. Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament. and the church and all of its subsequent generations would be built upon that apostolic foundation” 12 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .F. and God had spoken to and through them. pp. 10-20. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. that we have found? Where and how were they found? Eliot. 1995. 1960. pp. Bruce. F. or portions of manuscripts. 9-25.

political corruption. Deliverance — rescue from bondage or danger. Parable — A figure of speech. and he went right to the source for his answers. Gordon will remind us. Notes _____ Kingdom of God/ Kingdom of Heaven — at the core of Jesus’ teaching. if you really care about us. and curses if they are not. Like the Israelites. and is it finished yet? As Dr. and innumerable other horrors testify to the fact that human nature has changed little since the days of Cain and Abel. which generally includes blessings if the stipulations of the covenant are kept. Yet Jesus came to establish his kingdom and to bring about the redemption and healing of the world. hurry up and get rid of all this bad stuff!” Can it be that Godʼs kingdom exists even in the midst of the mess that the world is in? Where is it? When did it start.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e F i v e There is no denying the fact that great evil exists in the world. John the Baptist from his prison cell had similar questions about the Kingdom of God. this refers to God’s sovereign rule and the working out of this rule in redemptive history. Jesus used such figures in an unusual manner. by employing them without an instructional context. genocide. What is the summary statement of Jesusʼ proclamation ministry? What two places in the Bible may this statement be found? 13 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Wars. greed. Covenant — an agreement made under oath between two parties. we look around us and say “God. He did this to fulfill his prophetic role of proclaiming judgement upon Israel.

ultimate Kingdom”? “So the whole Old Testament at least is hoping that a kingdom. but a kingdom of God would come. When God would put his king on the throne and God himself would be God to his people and rule them.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ How does the Israelitesʼ experience of a failed kingdom set the stage for Jesusʼ coming? Why is John the Baptist greater than all the prophets.” How is the Kingdom both present and future? What aspects of it are present? What aspects are future? Where in the teachings of Jesus can you find examples of the “old” giving way to the “new”? How is the Kingdom like a mustard seed? Do members of your family have differing attitudes toward Godʼs Kingdom? How is your familyʼs unity affected by these attitudes? 14 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . not of Israel. yet the least in the Kingdom of God? Where is he located in redemptive history? What is the significance of Jesusʼ Kingdom being the “final.

Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed. Freedman. ultimate reign of God anticipated throughout the Old Testament in all of the law and the prophets. pp. “God’s ultimate Kingdom where God himself will live and rule in the midst of his people and do all that the earthly kingdoms could not accomplish. New York: Doubleday. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. “Messianic Movements in Judaism.” 15 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . 791-797. The New Testament Environment. Richard A. In what sense did the kingdom of God arrive when Jesus was here on earth? Herman Ridderbos. Nashville: Abingdon. 187-196. “Is your Kingdom here?” How has God answered your question? Notes _____ “He is bringing into human history the final. pp. 4. K-N. Horsley.” in David N. 1992. The Coming of the Kingdom. asking Jesus.Thy Kingdom Come Have you ever felt like John the Baptist. Eduard.” Were there other people in Jesus’ time who were claiming to be the Messiah? How did their approach differ from Jesus’? Lohse. ed. 1976.. as you consider the suffering that is in the world today. Vol. 1962.

appearing overnight into a world that may still be strewn with dirty piles of snow. complex preparation for Jesusʼ coming. Redemption — God’s restoration of his creation from its corrupt and defiled state to a clean and perfect state.. Yet the flower bulbs wake up and begin their work long before the shoots show above the ground. and religious laws of the past could finally be understood as a great.... and to follow God in wholehearted obedience and love.. we can see the ways in which all of nature has worked together to bring forth new life. promises.” Repentance — to turn away from those things which keep us from God.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e S i x Notes _____ There is nothing quite like the first day you wake up. magically.. you don’t deserve it. The first crocuses.. look outside. Judgment — God’s rejection and removal of all his enemies and of everything that corrupts and defiles his creation. Grace — “Giving to people who deserve one thing something else that they don’t deserve. Spring may seem as if it comes suddenly. When Spring comes.the first buds on the trees.the first robin.. and see the first bit of green pushing up through the ground. covenants. The leaves that grow all summer and fall to the ground in autumn provide necessary nutrients for new plants and trees to grow. Jesusʼ coming was like the coming of Spring. The snow that falls all winter melts to give the thawing ground its first good drink of water. it’s a gift. What happened to the Old Testament when Jesus taught the disciples on the road to Emmaus? 16 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . The events.You didn’t earn it...

according to Dr. without the judgment which removes from the fallen world that which corrupts it and that which defiles it.” Is there anyone in your life from whom you need to ask forgiveness? Have you ever needed to withhold the expression of your forgiveness for a time? 17 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Gordon. did Jesus speak in parables? What two symbolic actions did Jesus perform in order to illustrate his judgment of Israel? How does Jesus use the parable of the “gracious employer” to teach about grace? What is the proper way to respond to the Kingdom? In a nutshell. what are the five things that Jesus taught about the Kingdom? “And so judgment is essential and you do not have salvation.Back to the Future How did the apostles preach Christ and argue that Jesus was the Christ? Notes _____ What two things does the Kingdom of Jesus bring? How are these two things related to each other? Why. in a biblical sense.

Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. so that you were able to honor and thank him. 1981. Robert H.) Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. An Introduction to the Parables of Jesus.. The Parables of Grace.. “And so we bear with our sufferings precisely because they are redemptive.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ “If you don’t see what you are doing ethically as a reflection of what God has done. (3 Vols. an expression of gratitude. The Parables of the Kingdom.then you have failed to understand the joy of living in a covenant relationship with God.” How do you balance your willingness to forgive “seven times seventy” and the need for you to withhold forgiveness from an impenitent person? Describe an experience when God allowed you participate in his work through prayer. Robert Farrar.” Capon. 1988. The Parables of Judgement. 18 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Why did Jesus preach in Parables? What kinds of parables did he teach? Stein.

In the New Testament. and tried to figure out how each part was related to the bigger picture. the term “Christ” is used. 19 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . we considered each piece. and Jesus is presented as the one who fulfills God’s promise to save his people. Instead. Synoptic — a term referring to the first three gospels because of the striking similarity of their material. looked at each little part of the whole. Notes _____ Messiah — the Hebrew term meaning “anointed”. they see Jesus through “a single eye” Genre — The broad literary type. Reading the gospels is not unlike fitting together a puzzle. The Jews commonly anointed with oil a king or a priest. and they awaited the promised anointed one who would deliver them. this refers to the books of Matthew. Our interpretation of each event. the story of Godʼs redemptive work. Mark. which include Jesus’ earthly ministry and his fulfillment of his Messianic task.New Testament Survey I: Lecture Seven Most of us have completed a jigsaw puzzle at one time or another in our lives. thus. Luke. as well as in light of what kind of narrative it is and where it falls in the story. To fit the pieces together. parable. expecting this to do the trick. or teaching needs to be understood within its particular cultural context. we didnʼt just randomly throw them onto the table. or category. Gospel — in the New Testament. which signified God’s commissioning to do a certain task. We have to consider how each piece of narrative fits into the greater story. and John. miracle. into which a piece of writing falls.

how does the temptation of Jesus narrative fit into the story of redemption? What are some common misconceptions about this narrative? What does the Bible primarily talk about? What is your response to Dr.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ What is the difference between historical narrative and illustrative narrative? What are some of the ways we can distinguish between these two types of narrative? What is the fundamental question one must ask in interpreting illustrative narrative? How can we use an illustrative narrativeʼs context to better understand what it is illustrating? “So the last Adam is much greater than the first Adam. but he nevertheless is faithful to the word of God and not the word of the devil and he perseveres in his God-given task. His temptation arrives in a more difficult context.” What is the main question one must ask when interpreting historical narrative? How did the apostles go about using the Old Testamentʼs historical narrative passages? As Dr. Gordonʼs reading of the temptation narrative? Do you feel as if you have “more reason to love and serve and adore the One who was faithful to his Messianic task?” 20 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Gordon explains it.

and not the questions which we have by sloth and indifference perhaps come to be asking of the Bible.” 21 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . or was it distinctive to his special work as Redeemer? James Henley Thornwell. wonderful treasures for you in the Bible.. “There are wonderful.Gospels 101 Notes _____ Do you ever look at the Bible as a sort of “handbook” for us to use for better living? How does your understanding change when you perceive that it is filled with information not about sinners... “Christ Tempted as the Second Adam. but about the Savior? Was Christ’s temptation analogous to our temptations. wonderful truth in the Bible if we would simply just ask of it the questions which it wants us to ask.Wonderful. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust. 1986: 298-333.” in The Collected Writings of James Henley Thornwell.

the region between Galilee and Jerusalem. and his own ideas of which events and details are relevant to the story. The Jews of the first century considered them impure. and a deeper understanding. which had become the common Jewish language at the time of Jesus.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e E i g h t Notes _____ In a court of law. what results is a more complete picture. that when two or more perspectives of the same events are compared and contrasted. of the events being described. his own personality. Many of the same events are recounted: the miracles. Aramaic — a related language to Hebrew. we immediately see that these three books concern the same period of time in history — the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Jesus would have spoken Aramaic. Samaritan — a person living in Samaria. 22 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . death and resurrection of Christ. or last things. How can we benefit from this variety of perspectives? What questions might we ask in order to have a better understanding of how these three testimonies work together to give us a fuller understanding of our Savior? Ecclesiology/Ecclesiastical — having to do with the church. As we begin our study of the New Testament at the Matthew. describing events that they have seen or heard. which began with Christ and continues until the final judgment and redemption of the world. Yet each author brings to his writing his own perspective. Eschatology — the study of the end times. so that at the very least. and Luke. The idea is. teachings. its offices and institutions. witnesses give testimony before a jury and judge. Mark. two sides of the story are revealed.

Gordon mean by having a “symphonic understanding” of the Synoptic Gospels? 23 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .Matthew. and ethnically and socially.” Why is Luke considered a universal gospel? What does Dr. One Story How can the Gospel of Matthew be divided? What phrase in 4:17 and again in 16:21 serves to divide the sections? Notes _____ What is unique about Matthewʼs gospel? What themes and concerns run throughout the book? What is the primary factor influencing the content of the gospel of Mark? What is Mark trying to show by taking this approach? What clues suggest that Luke was written to a Gentile audience? What specific groups of people have a prominent role in Luke that arenʼt paid much attention in the other gospels? “But Luke is very interested in showing the effect of the gospel and the potential effect of the gospel through the breadth of the range of human experience both in one sense chronologically and geopolitically. and Luke: Four Angles. Mark.

Gordon tells us that when we read Mark.. 19-60. A. D. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Moo. how would the total picture of Christʼs ministry as recorded in the Bible be changed? Dr. 1982. and how have you responded? “Not every instrument has the same voice or plays the same part. Gleason L. An Introduction to the New Testament. and Leon Morris. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. we should always ask “What happened? Who responded and how?” How can you apply that question to your own spiritual walk? How has God acted in your life.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ How does the universality of Lukeʼs gospel affect your understanding of the life of Jesus? If Luke hadnʼt written his gospel. 24 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . pp. 1992. 311-315. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. pp. and yet the whole thing is combined and skillfully written and performed into a unity and a majesty that you do not have by any of the others alone. Carson. Douglas J.” How can we reconcile inconsistencies from one Synoptic to another? Why are there differences in the details of stories that appear in more than one gospel? Archer.

poetic beginning. this book of the Bible may seem incomprehensible in its complexity. as the Word of God through whom we may have everlasting life. miracle-worker.” it is readily apparent that John intends for us to meet the complete Jesus — not just Messiah. and which will be perfected at the final redemption of the world. across all the earth. Church — the total “assembly” of all believers. not just the man. it is quite a change of pace to study the gospel of John. to its self-identification as a “book of signs.N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I : L e c t u r e N i n e After reading the first three gospels. or Savior — but as all these things. which have such a striking similarity in layout and chronology. from the past. From its mysterious. With such a profound purpose. not just prophet. What ties all these things together? What are some of the keys to unlocking this treasure chest of wonder? Notes _____ Incarnation — the theological idea that God became truly human — “in the flesh”. Yet it also contains the most intimate view of Christ. and future. Johannine — refers to those books of the New Testament which are considered to be written by John. present. the most well-loved verses of encouragement. who collectively make up the body of Christ on earth. Why do some people hesitate to claim that John wrote the fourth gospel? What evidence suggests that John did write this gospel? 25 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .

they believe him not. according to 20:31. He is doing Jewish things with Jewish people in Jerusalem and they reject him. How is verse 1:11 related to this structure? As Jesus explained them.” What is one way you can express your love for God by loving one of his children? How does this manifest the unity of the Church that Jesus prayed for? 26 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ What is unique about the scope of time in Johnʼs gospel? Why. did John record his “book of signs?” What is the Old Testament parallel for Jesusʼ first sign of turning water into wine? Why is this significant? Describe the two-fold structure of the book of John. what are some of the privileges of believing in him? Why is Jesusʼ new commandment really new? What part of it isnʼt new? “[Jesus] is hovering right there around the essential focus of Jewish life — their feasts.

1995. Bruce.” How does the dating of John’s gospel help us date the other books of the New Testament? Eliot. not for him to remain perpetually where we are in this fallen condition. The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. F.The Gospel of John: The Red Letter Edition As Christians. Keith and Ian Moir.F. how does our hope of future glory with Christ affect our everyday lives? How does it affect your life? Notes _____ “He goes away to prepare a place in glory. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. 27 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . 1960. Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament. He returns to the glory he had with the Father from the foundation of the world and what He wants to do is to prepare a place for us to be where he is.

For Luke. the pivotal point in history was the coming of the Holy Spirit which had been promised by Jesus and anticipated by the Old Testament scriptures. In our system of reckoning time. or In the Year of Our Lord. the Holy Spirit was poured out on Jesus’ followers at the Jewish feast of Pentecost. As we consider the importance of this event. so that we can more fully realize the role of Spirit in our own lives. an event that was and is so significant that it deserves to mark the beginning of a new era. and the years after his birth are known as AD — Anno Domini.New Testament Survey I: Lecture Ten Notes _____ According to our calendar. the years before Christʼs coming are marked BC — Before Christ. What is the basic distinction between Luke and Acts? 28 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . Pentecost — in the New Testament. Sinai Covenant — the covenant given to the Jews through Moses. This coming marked the beginning of a new era in Godʼs redemptive history. a covenant which demanded perfect obedience and which included temporal blessings for obedience and temporal curses for disobedience. which gave them the power to be Jesus’ witnesses to all the world. Christʼs incarnation is a pivotal point in history. we need to understand the Old Testamentʼs view of the Holy Spirit as well as the effects of the outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost.

. He is the one who brings heaven to earth and earth to heaven.. who will turn the hearts of the people in the end times’ new covenant. what is the pivotal point in redemptive history? Who has the central role in the narrative of Acts? Why are these people so important? What is so unusual about the testimony of the apostles? After the Holy Spirit comes to the apostles in Jerusalem.. and which parts are more directly relevant to our own actions? “The Spirit is perceived in the Old Testament as especially the agent of God who will invest the Messiah with the power for his task. what are they supposed to do? Why is the ending that Luke chose for this book a fitting ending? How can we determine which parts of Acts we should simply read with thanksgiving.” Is the proclamation of Christʼs death and resurrection part of your daily life? How can you take part more fully in the continuation of this apostolic tradition? 29 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary .The Spreading Flame How is the Holy Spirit perceived in the Old Testament? What is the relationship between the Spirit and the Kingdom? Notes _____ For Luke.

N e w Te s t a m e n t S u r v e y I Notes _____ “To say that the Spirit is here is to say the new covenant is here. Jr. NJ: Presbyterian & Reformed. To say the Spirit is here is to say the Messiah has come. or was it a once-for-all event similar to the death or resurrection of Christ? Richard B. 1979. 30 © 2005 Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary . To say the Spirit is here is to say end times are upon us.” Was Pentecost typical of the experience of New Testament believers for all time. Gaffin. Perspectives on Pentecost. the last days are upon us. Phillipsburg.