You are on page 1of 42

HoW tO cAmP oUt In ThE

wIlDeRnEsS
NoRa TeAl DoTy

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Here is an example of what you would need to pack into a75lb. backpack on a 45 day camping trip: Camping Trip Packing Example Group Gear Personal Gear Suggested Accessories Leaders Only Planning The Essentials of An Expedition Taught By NOLS The National Outdoor Leadership School If You Are A First-Time Paddler Culture Shock Having a Paddling Accident Base Camp Pulling A Canoe Out Of Water Why We Wear Cotton Undergarments and Socks Wilderness Cooking Wilderness-Safe Foods Wilderness Ethics The Study of Water Map Reading Building a Team on An Expedition How To Build a Fire Wilderness Camp Sites Dehydration Wilderness Sanitation Bear Protection If You Come To A Beaver Dam While Paddling Lining New Method of Lining Camping Climate Hypothermia Impassable Terrain (streams) Single Person Canoe Float Plane Fishing License
2

Slate Schists Underarmor Livestrong Shredgain (only instructors) If your Canoe Tips Over Upstream from A Rapid Class 3 Rapid Rescue Team Demos Rafting Hiking Shale-covered mountains/Peaking Checking Out The Terrain (experts/instructors) Checking The Campers’ Luggage to Make Sure Everything is Fine (instructors/leaders) Nature Lessons Daily Second-Time Internet Travelers Daily Nature/Practical Lesson Ideas (15-30 min. each) Recipes

3

Here is an example of what you would need to pack into a 75lb. backpack on a 45 day camping trip: Camping trip packing example (plan from 130 degrees above to 30 below): Group gear: Tent/tent stakes/tent pole parts including ropes/tent fly Wooden two-person canoes (with metal infrastructure) Single-burner propane stove, foldable (one for each group of 4) Wooden paddles (one for each individual paddler) Waterproof plastic barrels (must fit into canoes/carry up to 370lbs.) Ropes for front of each canoe (must be at least 15 ft. long) Canoe straps with buckles (hold more than 200lbs each) Life jackets for each person with the right fit One navigator/powerful SOS radio electronics A small foldable one-burner propane stove/lighter/skillets/Tupperware/sporks/lantern or lanterns for each cooking group of 4 3 sizes of Ziploc bags (for daytrips storage of snacks, and storage of group food) *suggestion is a Tupperware with holes in it for draining noodles (help prevents bugs from getting into your food) Elevation maps/compass/first aid kit for every 4 people A huge thick black garbage bag to line your backpack (for waterproofing) Personal gear: Suggested Accessories: Thermos Waterproof watch Unscented biodegradable hand sanitizer Large water bottle with measurements in (L) liters, and (mL) milliliters Disposable/waterproof camera Water purification pills
4

3 cm. etc… (Basically anything you will find at a outdoor sports store) 6 Pairs Hiking Socks Medium Cushion Sock Liners Under Armor Top (or similar brand) Jacket (windbreaker or rain protection. preferably Gore-tex which can be found at North Face) Fishing License Warm Winter Hat Winter Gloves Glove Liners Lined Windbreaker Pants 2 Pairs Long Underwear Bottoms 5 Pairs of Cotton Underwear (only breathable fabric) 5 (Women only) 100%Cotton Sports Bras Gaiters 1 Pair Mountain Hiking Boots Head Net 1 Inch/abt.Water moccasins Hair comb Unscented-biodegradable toothpaste Travel toothbrush Small bar unscented-biodegradable soap in small plastic travel container One-piece swimsuit Goggles Sunglasses with UV protection Chap Stick with at least 30 SPF Unscented gum (if you want to store it in your pack the entire time) Sunscreen (unscented) Bug repellent Bandana/washcloth Mandatory gear: Waterproof flashlight Long underwear tops (2 pairs minimum) Dig-its or trowels (1 per 4 people) Daytime snacks nuts/dried fruit/energy bars/chocolate mms and nut assortments/pumpkin seeds/sunflower seeds. Thick Durable Camping Mats (1 Per 5 .

Person) Sleeping bag (based on weather conditions) Light to Medium Weight Winter Coat (unzips with bottom layer of fleece) Group First Aid Kit (plus small kits for each group of 4) Prescription Medications Mini Pencil and Notepad Black Garbage Bags 3 Per Person Mini Foldable Stool or Chair Washrag Unscented Biodegradable Shampoos and Conditioners Mini Packages of Kleenexes Lighters (for the leaders) Sleeping Bag Straps Stuff Bag for Sleeping Bag Ratchet Tie-Downs Autocam Tie-Downs Wooden Paddles Wooden/Metal Canoes 50 ft. Extra Rope Seam Seal for Tent Rips (instructors/experts only) Leaders Only: Pepper Sprays Leaders Only: Flares Leaders Only: One pair binoculars to share Potable Agua Waterproof extra-large stuff bags Karabiners 3 per person Planning the essentials of an expedition as taught by (NOLS) The National Outdoor Leadership School: One structure which seems to work the best is if you are planning a trip that includes both mountain hiking and whitewater canoeing. You will need a topographical map of the entire length of the river and the mountain range 6 . is taking a float plane into a place in the wilderness located on a lake that is also the source of a whitewater river.

despite knowing about the rapids ahead. which can always be expected to happen. Typically a canoeing trip will start at the river’s source. in which lies your core and most of your strength. in case there are any unexpected setbacks. Making a technical mistake in a river with whitewater could mean serious injury or death. the most important form will be in the wrists. it is more tranquil. arms.surrounding the lake for up to about 25 miles on either side. Typically your wilderness leaders will demonstrate what they expect of you first and then allow you to try it while critiquing your form. Learning to paddle for the first time on a lake is the best alternative to a river because the water is not flowing in any particular direction. you are not going to be stuck near the beginning of your trip and then trying to make up miles on the river in one big effort. If you are a first-time paddler: Don’t worry. Once your form is corrected by your instructor keep practicing it do not let yourself pick up any bad habits because mistakes can be life or death on the 7 . which are ranked from class 1 to class 5 with class 5 being the most difficult. you will most likely have a day-long training session in a lake before you start heading down the river. The overall plan should be to alternate days with canoe trips and mountain day hiking trips. shoulders. especially depending on the severity of the rapids. The mouth is usually the ocean in many cases which means that the water runs directly into the ocean. It is easier in this case to camp out next to the river and return to the campsite and the canoes after a full day of hiking. which is usually a lake. and most of all the torso. This will enable you to enjoy yourself and carry out the group’s plans while at the same time staying moving down the river to the final destination. so be sure you are paying close attention: for a paddler. which can often be found on the same map.

If you have never ventured into the wilderness then you are not mentally prepared for what you are about to experience. You will need to be prepared to live completely differently then you ever have for an extended period of time. animal life. one thing you will not be used to is when you are thirsty and need a drink you will have to place some drops from a bottle of Potable Agua usually provided by instructors. Culture shock: There is such a huge range of adversity on an expedition. some of it will come from the fact that the nature all around you has astounding beauty.O. How else will you know what to expect? For example. like nothing you’ve ever seen. So pay close attention to how you’re feeling because this is your chance to address any issues that are going on. which will purify and dilute any strange or odorous bacteria which is found in the water in that area of the world. in fact. You should also ask N. alumni and your leader lots of questions. Not all adversity is bad. This will help let it sink in what all you will be facing instead of getting a little of it at a time in pondering thoughts.river. you should thoroughly research the region you will be travelling in and anything that will help make your trip easier. Can be experienced in the wilderness and is often a topic of conversation.S. because it is quite different from pouring a glass of water from the fridge. For example. research the wildlife. like concerns about discomfort or possible personal health risks. plant life. The only things that can prepare you for this would be looking at a slideshow of prior similar expeditions by certified NOLS instructors or large-scale certified wilderness expedition leaders. so this is one of the changes you will need to get used to. In addition to that. It will take a certain amount of time usually about 15 minutes for the water to be purified and ready to drink.L. types of terrain 8 .

and your canoe starts overflowing with water from the rapid and as your boat sinks. since it will carry your belongings and the group’s food barrels will also be strapped in there. With your life vest on you will be able to stay afloat. In fact. For those who. necessarily. If you have an accident on a rapid for example let’s say that you are going over a rapid and you accidentally go over a ledge instead of through the tongue. are cold climate campers and Arctic river paddlers. The number one most important thing to remember is to hold onto your paddle. you should get out of the canoe so that it does not sink completely and is unsalvageable with your weight. A river is moving fast and you might find it harder to swim in it than you think that is why you will want to hold onto the paddle to help you out with getting to the bank. always remember that it could have been worse. be aware that if you are near enough to the Arctic Ocean. political grasp of the region.including pictures. The experts should always be positioned at the bottom of a rapid so that they can recover a canoe in an emergency situation. leave that to the leaders. you will be dealing 9 . The second thing you always want to get into the water feet first never head first in case you might hit your head and your feet should always be pointed downstream or in the direction the water is moving so you can see where you are going. it could be a rough patch of water that put you at the mercy of the river for awhile while the waters basically flooded and probably forced you to make personal decisions you never thought you’d have to make. All you need to do is get yourself safely onto the shore. an accident doesn’t mean that your canoe tips. Having a canoeing accident: When you have an accident. especially if it's in a different country. like me. history of the region. You should never attempt to save the canoe in the river.

This method ensures that the 10 . the canoes tipped upside down and leaning on one another in a line at least 20 feet from the water’s edge. Colder water conditions like this are much harder to swim or move in during a canoeing emergency because cold water will paralyze you and you won’t be able to move and sometimes speak. as the front end should go in first. While one holds onto the rope tied on the back end of the canoe. Base Camp: Base camp is where you keep your canoes and food storage during your day hikes. The second person who will be paddling in the back of the canoe is then responsible for pushing off from the shore by wading a few feet into the water. The food barrels should be strapped into the canoes using the ratchet and auto cam tie downs. the person who will be paddling in front will have on their life vest and be holding onto their paddle while climbing into the canoe as the other person holds the rope. especially in the beginning of the trip. Any other camping gear that is left behind on the day hikes for a particular reason will need to be stored tightly under these straps in the canoes as well to keep them from being stolen by animals or from blowing away under windy conditions. it should never leave your hands.with freezing water temperatures. You will want to plan to stay at a given campsite where you are day hiking for several days. That is why you keep the paddle in your hands when you are falling into the river. Putting a canoe in the water: Two people are needed to grab hold of each end of the canoe and place it 3 -4 feet or 1 meter into the water front-end first. and then stepping into the canoe as it enters the downstream flow. It isn’t safe to be in the water for more than just a few minutes or you will inevitably get hypothermia. so you can get much of the hiking out of the way by taking 3 or 4 day trips out of one base camp.

It should be easy for just one person. A canoe is too heavy for just one person to drag unless you are in a one-person canoe. or just lose control when entering the faster downstream flow of the river. you will need two people to carry the one-person canoe to its proper overnight storage location. and pull the canoe until it is about halfway onto the shore or dry land.. Pulling a canoe out of water: You may have to jump out holding on to the rope attached at the front of the canoe. Why we wear cotton undergarments and socks: Mainly to prevent chafing. Cotton is the most breathable fabric that 11 . be turned around. You will always want to flip a canoe so the bottom is facing up whether it’s piled side-by-side on the ground with other canoes or hanging up on a rack near a public lake. on a rack typically if you are canoeing locally but on the ground in a row if you are using proper storage procedures in a wilderness setting.canoe will be in the appropriate natural position going downstream and will not cause the paddlers to struggle. Allow your partner to climb to the front of the boat and get out on the dry land so they can help you by each grabbing an end of the canoe and bringing it to its proper storage place. which is built smaller than a two-seater canoe and therefore is possible for just one person to drag it out of the water. from the banks of the river. although you will never want to drag it on land. depending on how shallow the shore is up to about 3-4 ft. typically about 6 meters or about 20 ft.

you can find. Your hands should never leave their positions when paddling and the paddle should always be an arms-length from your body at all times. so it doesn't create even the slightest disturbance on the water's surface. When it enters the water it should cut right through it. Every stroke should be like this. The paddle should be over the water about a foot but not touching or nearing the water. the water in that region may not be warm. not to paddle to gain speed. Your paddle should hit the water right on the center of the side of your body. You should go from the first position to the second position without bending any arms. not in front of it. It will help you stay on top of your “A” game all day long. and secondly. you also tend to encounter freezing climates in higher elevations in mountainous regions including snow and icecovered schist and shale. Your paddle should be positioned almost constantly behind your body in the water at a 60degree 12 . it very well may be close to freezing. Holding the paddle straight out in front of you with both hands in their positions put the paddle in vertical position over the water on your right side. then cotton is actually going to soak up your perspiration without leaving you feeling wet or sweaty. Once you lift the paddle out of the water it again rotates to the center of the right side of your body to cut through the water's surface again. for a female instructor it may be up to 2 feet long about but for a first time paddler anywhere from 1 ½ feet – 2 feet. It is also best to plan to wear medium cushion hiking socks because even if you may only encounter warm climates. That is the basic paddle. Paddling: one hand must be on the end of the paddle fingers facing down over the handle and the other placed halfway between the two ends of the paddle. Paddling in the back of the canoe your responsibility is only to change the direction of the canoe. You should always start in that same position with every stroke with the paddle stretched out in front of you and in the next position it should be hanging vertically over the water. If you are hiking or paddling strenuously or for a long period of time. Each stroke should be pulling the water as far back as is comfortable for you.

because this produces useless strokes with no power behind them. on the side of the canoe you are paddling on to give your direction more control. which come from overexerting useless muscles in your torso by leaning forward or leaning backward too much. you want to build up from only the best form possible which is at its core. If you’re right-handed then your paddle should typically go into the water on your left side. One of the most basic rules is that you are to sit up straight. but in a river. If it's a lake and you can swim. you turn your torso right or left depending on which is your stronger hand. which would be hard for anyone. your left wrist (if you’re right-handed) parallel to the canoe. In a river with rapids 13 . You change the canoe's direction by turning the paddle forward about 30degrees wrist ever so slightly up while in its usual position to go left and paddle angled backward from its natural streamline position at least 30 degrees to go right mainly using the hand positioned at the top of the paddle.angle from in-line with your torso wrist facing down. your torso. never ever paddle upstream in a canoe. you will be literally going nowhere because you are then trying to pull the weight of the canoe and all its contents and team members weight collectively. because that hand is positioned closest to your center of gravity. and is going to be doing most of the work naturally for that reason. not lean forward or backward while in the front of the canoe. best not to tempt fate. The flat side of the paddle at the end of your initial stroke angled out from your canoe at the bottom side about a 45degree angle from the position parallel to the side of the canoe. The paddle goes into the water at a parallel angle to your torso and your wrist should automatically find that position near the back of the canoe wrist down. good posture. If you are paddling too far in front of your center of gravity. As you do this. go ahead. we always paddle downstream. In the front of the canoe your responsibility is to paddle as fast and with as much precision as you can. Using good posture helps you to gain more speed with less complications. It is best not to take too many risks when in a whitewater river. Also.

while the other person cooks the food. Each person cleans their own Tupperware plate and Spork. it’s done. you will be able to make several types of casseroles. This is called wilderness ethics. preferably foldable. and hot breakfast foods among others. (Fishing: cooking the fish: how to: cook the whole fish not just fileting it because doing everything is tougher in the wilderness.) Using alpine stowaway skillet or a similar product. Your best bet is to pan fry and then when the skin is flakey. Wilderness cooking: one person works on setting up the small foldable single-burner propane stove. one for each group of 4. Separate rotation each meal of the day. the last person in one of the teams on the expedition cleans. Wilderness-safe Foods: • Popcorn • Seasonings Fish filet seasoning o Cinnamon o Vanilla o Brown sugar 14 . pastas. The most convenient setup of the meal system would be four groups of four and then whoever is leading the group should have a co-leader and be in a group with him or her. while the other person works on prepping the food.the water is very fast-moving and there are often many rocks and sedimentary ledges in the rapids which could tip a fly-a-way canoe. Especially if you are part of a team who is depending on you and you are depending on them.

etc…)  Summer Sausage  Pumpkin seeds/sunflower seeds  Butter whole purple onions carrots cornmeal Hersheys Bars. Everyone has 15 .o Sugar o Onion powder o Garlic powder o Oregano o Coffee powder o Hot pepper  Dried potato flakes  Bean paste  Dried fruit  Pasta  Cheese (cheddar and Monterey jack)  Soy sauce  Hot sauce  Oatmeal  Grits  Pasta sauce  Hot cocoa  Milk powder Powdered coffee Tea Bag Varieties (black. green. Wilderness Ethics: This is one of the most basic and important things you will need to learn either from your expedition leader or if you’re going somewhere like a national park. Snickers Bars. orange. and MMs. The reason is that it is important to respect whatever governing ethics are being used to preserve that land for our camping use. Kit-Kat Bars. Reeces Peanut Butter Cups. even.

and the ethics regarding plant life and animal life. If you are travelling in a line which is most common when hiking. it is best to simply misplace the twigs and trees in your path and then replace them to their place with your hand after you have passed through for those who are hiking in line behind you. Of course the ethics of nearly every wilderness area is to “leave the nature as you found it”. you will be partially responsible for making sure that the person who is following behind you does not get hit with a stick or tree limb. So it is important that just as you remove the sticks to pass through. and the products from your toothpaste to your soap and everything in between must be biodegradable if you want to be an ethical camper.their own philosophy. the ethics for the ground. because the animal paths are straight and narrow just like human paths. 16 . National parks that do not enforce these rules or all of these rules will still greatly appreciate a full effort on your part when it comes to ethics. but for the most part. For example. The study of water: Water is a very powerful thing. there is nothing that has a scent. that you also replace them behind you with your hands so that they are not swinging or swaying violently behind you and able to hit that person. if you notice the packing list. You might need to snap a tree limb which is causing a very dangerous passage for your group. This is also part of camping ethics with your fellow campmates. This applies especially when bushwhacking. Usually if you are going out into the wilderness the rules are even stricter and you may even be hassled by officials about searching your bags to make sure you are using only ethical methods for your camping trip for things like the conditions the bodies of water are to be left in.

Another formation of the water is when you see almost like a spring bubbling up that can actually cause the water to disperse quite a bit in sometimes unexpected places and produces whitewater. A canoe paddler uses this area to pull over before entering a rapid. Once you are able to turn the tip (10 inches) of your canoe into the upstream flowing bank. A ledge is an area in the riverbed that juts out from under the water almost like a mini cliff. A river is a moving body of water from its source to its mouth. then your canoe will inevitably begin to turn upstream. get out of the canoe. At the end of the tongue is a huge wave. it's not dangerous in a canoe. usually about 2-5 feet in diameter. but once you hit class 4-5 there is too much whitewater to detect where some ledges actually may be located within the rapid. sometimes reaching up to 5 feet tall in class 2-5 rapids. and the water pours over it. The fastest moving water in a river is in the middle of the river where it is also deepest. is a tongue or a break in the ledge so the water flows down between the two parts of the ledge like a smaller version of a waterfall. will slow down. often contained in the canoe of gear by sometimes almost a foot or 1/3 meter. Somewhere in the middle of the ledge which is stretching from one bank to the other. and allow you to get out of the water. there are several easily-decipherable ledges. heavily churning drop-off of the ledge. Typically in class 1-3 rapids. but it actually can push up on your canoe. Understanding how and where the water is moving is essential to successfully completing the river's obstacle course. Now 17 . it essentially all travels one way and it is nearly impossible to fight against it or to swim upstream in a river. This also creates a huge wave just inches beyond the foaming. The study of rapids in water is important for any whitewater canoe paddler. often shocking you by lifting the 1000 lbs. which is typically much larger. but if you're careful. The banks of the river contain the slowest moving water and contain an area where the water actually moves upstream.especially when in its rapids. This is called a boil and is dangerous to be around in the water. and assess the rapid for the best path to pass through.

These maps you will need use lines for elevation by each 100ft. Once you are able to set 18 . miles. is an area of the river which is lowering in elevation or is often in a downward diagonal formation. which can often lead to these maps appearing very challenging because everything nearly looks the same often times. that it forms all sorts of whitewater. is moving in multiple directions all at once on the surface of the water. and other bodies of water like lakes. Many of these mountains. Many of these in one relatively close area of river are called a rapid. and keep yourself continually on-track throughout the day. A rapid is the creation of whitewater through the rock formations in the waterbed creating the certain readable formations. and seems almost unnavigable in a canoe.000sq. These are not the only formations. rivers. to plan your next daytrip. You have to know how to read a map for navigation and hiking. I have seen mountains that are identical save a small stream or small shift in its peak formation.combine all these components of a rapid. almost completely undetectable. valleys. is moving extremely fast. A rapid is an indication that the water appears white on top. You have to have a sensitive eye and a pair of binoculars. Map reading: Map reading is essential for every wilderness expedition because no one has ever been on that terrain prior to you and there is no human habitation in that region of the globe for a significant distance often more than 5. and lakes are unnamed and unclaimed meaning they have never been officially "discovered" by anybody. mark and additional lines showing rivers. A map of these areas is provided by your federal government. A rapid means that the waterbed or floor of the river is so complex. and you have a decent stretch of whitewater territory. streams. but the most common.

The best thing to do is to find an under armor top to wear that has long sleeves even on hot days. If you are involved in a big group hiking through the wilderness everyone should switch off with their turn in the front of the line. and in the back of the line. figure it that way. and where the best climbs and views hopefully might still be. If you are in the wilderness this will be something you do nearly all day every day. If a bear has recently torn through there you can usually tell because bears will often clear out a brush by hanging on tree limbs. You will also by then be aware of which areas have streams for drinking and washing. many are. Despite what you may think. this will happen often and can sometimes be painful and potentially very dangerous. where valleys are located. so if you have long sleeves. which areas are too steep to climb on this planned trip. In reality you will usually use your arms and your hands. By the end of the day your arms will hurt from bushwhacking and may be scarred up or bleeding. Although not all animals are low to the ground. so the area is much more accessible 19 . and scratching their 5-inch nails on the bark of the tree to sharpen them. and everywhere in between so everyone takes a turn doing the dirty work. noted for being more shady. but somebody’s got to do it. you will be able to also use a map for navigation if you do not have a compass.your own course and read a map by simply stopping to observe where you are and what's going on around you. This is especially helpful. If you are second or third in line. and it breathes. you will be much happier at the end of the day following animal trails is not always easy. It is not an easy job. usually the peaks. Bushwhacking: Sometimes people picture a person with a huge knife to slice trees in one fell swoop but that is only in the movies. you need to keep a protective hand or arm in front of your face at all times because you will most likely get anywhere from a twig to a larger wooden branch snapping in your face from the first person forgetting to lead the way for you by replacing the branch after they have moved it. They are fine because the fabric is pretty thin. and so often the brush is very thick in those areas of the wilderness.

and it’s the same with the moose. It could be much worse than one might think if those bugs were attracted to your scent. Especially after going at it from dawn until dusk. so the attacks can be very dangerous. What if someone gets hurt: If someone is injured to where they are unable to stay with the group and hike because of a broken arm or broken ankle. they are attracted to pretty much any scent. breathing. it is best to backtrack to the place the float plane dropped you off and use your emergency device to call the float plane back to the lake. In the wilderness. will carve a defined path through the brushes and make it easier for humans to follow the trails. decide about the spine. That is why it is not an option to mess around with wanting to smell nice out in the wilderness. but in the long run it is better than if you were out of reach of the lake. which they eventually shed. you could be asked to leave if it is in the beginning of the trip. Identify lethal dangers in your assessment: airway. Plus if your instructors find out you are violating the ethical code of that particular area. It is easier in the long-run if you are making the mature decision to go with only unscented toiletries and more ethical. Even satellite radios and GPS are seldom of use because there is rarely a safe place for any helicopter or plane to land out in the wilderness even if you are lucky 20 . as many travelers do. Bushwhacking can cause a lot of sweat which causes chafing and other discomfort. if they get hurt on a hiking day trip. There is typically no communication in the wilderness once you reach about 5-10 miles outside of the last city you were at. and were forced to possibly carry him in your canoe for the entire trip. and about exposing injuries to the environment. The moose is a rather large animal and their antlers. You could easily waste an hour or more getting the bugs to leave you alone or even get off course. circulation. Having an unscented deodorant and unscented soaps and toiletries will keep the bugs off you when this happens. You may have to carry that person for quite a distance.to humans. the insects are often larger and often travel in swarms and groups much larger than those found in any given location where there is civilization.

enough to get ahold of someone who can help. what is required of you as a team member. This is the meaning of teamwork when you’re roughing it. someone may have to step up and volunteer their stash of snacks or share their only water bottle. If someone sprains their ankle for example. You may also have to wrap their ankle to keep pressure on it depending on how bad the sprain or break is. making larger zigzags so your path is not as steep. and how to cope with common wilderness issues. two people will have to volunteer to carry that person down the mountain in zigzag formation. You may need it but another man may need it more. 21 . If the injured person is out of water or needs something to chew on. During the briefing. Building a team on an expedition: Building a team on an expedition is basically the process of getting to know those people through camping. This is the protocol even in rainy conditions. and this is the same for all body parts. If it is your first time canoeing and mountain hiking with an 80lb. what types of food you will be eating. backpack then you will learn all about the parts of the canoes and the backpack. The mountains will cause even the strongest of signals to be cut off out of range. the leaders of the expedition will tell you a little bit about what you can expect to encounter on the trip. First you usually go through a briefing for the expedition which takes place right before the trip and get to meet and know a little about each person. hiking. You will have to carry them on your shoulders one person at their feet one at their head. but especially the head or neck. The brief shows you all the technicalities of the trip through group efforts and demonstrations. You will learn how to pitch the particular tents that are being used on the trip. and canoeing with them and spending all of your days and nights with them.

During the briefing they will teach you how to pack your backpack so that it won’t be unmanageable for you on the trail. At the end of the trip you will have a de-brief once you reach your final destination. and that you will learn how to do a white water rescue demonstration in a class 3 rapid.what obstacles you are going to encounter along the way. mountain hiking. and 22 . or pose any danger to yourself. and then they will commend you for your effort and the fact that you actually did something most people will never get the chance to do! You will return the group gear and probably receive some kind of certificate of achievement if not an actual certification of some sort. gather dry leaves. The instructors will recap the high points and the low points as well as the highlighted lessons we will learn on the trip to help us manage our future certification in leading wilderness expeditions and in wilderness camping and travelling expertise. mainly so it will not be top heavy. take rocks and surround an area of dirt at least 4 feet in diameter. especially if you are on a National Outdoor Leadership Expedition or on an expedition lead by a NOLS graduate who is certified to lead a wilderness expedition and a certified expert in the areas of camping. and whitewater canoeing. These are all examples of common team efforts taken in wilderness conditions where mountains and rivers are prevalent. How to build a fire: find an area of land with no vegetation only dirt. your leaders may tell you that you will be portaging over a mesa that you are going to learn a canoeing technique called lining. Every person’s part in these activities is equally important because if care is not taken then the situations might end in injury or possibly death of a fellow camper. First. For example. bulky. moss. This is also the time for you to ask any questions you want to know.

grasses. moss and grasses to refuel the fire so the larger sticks will light quite quickly. Find bigger and bigger sticks until your fire is big enough following the country's laws about fire regulation. When you are ready. after you have done this to several twigs. this is called tinder. Be sure you have quite a bit of small twigs and dry leaves. in a pile about 5-inches in diameter by 10-inches in height. Commonly done is pitching your tent on top of bushes. Your manmade fire pit should be 10-12 feet from any vegetation that could easily catch fire like grass. and pile them in the middle of the fire area. gather medium-width twigs. and can often be found in small compact packages at any sporting goods store. the fire will then spread to the rest of your larger sticks and these will burn for longer. Sometimes that can be difficult because someone may be injured or overly tired since you have been working hard since sunrise. rocks of all shapes and sizes. you should always put the rocks back where you found them after your fire is over and try to cover the area where the fire pit was built with underbrush and twig. and leaf vegetation so it will not disturb the animal life. then take a sharp pocket knife and shave off the bark leaving the light colored dry wood underneath. leaves. Second. take a match and light first the very inner part of grass and leaves until it is ablaze. This may seem uncomfortable and strange but you will want to actually pitch your tent before it gets dark so you may 23 . You may also shave these down and it will help them to burn better. and even steep hills. Wilderness campsites: When you are out in the wilderness there is no designated camping site. etc… As an important ethical part about using the wilderness responsibly. You have to find a place to pitch your tent. moss. make a strong teepee shape out of them in the middle of the circle of rocks around the mosses.

You must 24 . Wilderness sanitation: Usually consists of using twigs. so where there may be a marked water source.have to settle for less than the best campsite. not black. sometimes wilderness maps are outdated. Find something that is comfortable to you. Another way of prevention is to make sure that you note when you are running low on Potable Agua drops. Consider that you will also be laying your sleeping bag on a mat. It is always best to plan ahead for the possibility of being far from a water source all day. leaves. not just on a pile of rocks. or sometimes a stream just dries up. You need to plan ahead for dehydration by saving your water when you are going to have to go a longer distance with the possibility of not finding a water source. As scary as it seems. or moss to wipe your privates when using the bathroom. which seems to be a hotter fabric color. it is quite possible that that source no longer exists. and make sure you request more from your instructor before leaving the base camp for a daily hike or a day of paddling. Dehydration: Wear as much sun protection as you can and drink as much fluids as are available to you. Try dressing in lighter colors. The bathroom must be 100 ft. away from any bed of water to keep water supply from being contaminated. This will have to be a daily practice and one of the most important things you need to pay attention to on a wilderness expedition. The sleeping mats that are designed for camping are able to take years of wear and tear and are incredibly durable to all ground conditions.

To rinse or shower yourself. then you will be sidestepping up the mountain. and mark an x over it using the dig it. wide zigzag formations going up the mountain. That way if you fall you should be able to break your own fall because this type of hiking enables you to fall uphill naturally instead of downhill. When hiking on sea-level terrains. and other things like giant hoof and paw prints. as is common in high-altitude mountain ranges of North America when travelling to higher elevations. it is best to use biodegradable products and wade into the nearest water source up to your knees in a bathing suit and with water moccasins on. If you get lost. This is also the best place to see the animal kingdom in its purest form. sleet or slippery snow conditions.take with you a small shovel called a trowel or a "dig it" and dig a hole each time you use the bathroom about a foot deep by 5 feet in diameter. if the water’s freezing like up near the Arctic. While animals will tend to stay completely out of the way of humans on these trails. you will find some really cool evidence that animals do frequently use these wilderness pathways. then the best option is to try to stay on the shore while washing yourself instead of wading into the freezing river water. you will need to know certain techniques used to travel up the mountain in the safest conditions. If you have never hiked off of the trail: If you are mountain hiking off the trail for the first time. then using a bandana and some biodegradable soap in the water source nearest your campsite. like shed antlers. The most convenient way of washing your hands is to bring a biodegradable hand sanitizer in your personal belongings. You will be travelling in 10-20ft. This helps you to walk a path that is less steep then walking vertically up the mountain. and if you do not. but animal instinct is a lot like human intuition so following the animal trails is usually the best pre-made path you will find in the wilderness. trees with bear-claw markings. you will be following animal trails and doing a little bit of your own trail blazing. until you are able to hike the peak. you will 25 . then when you are done you must cover it. When you encounter rain.

and also colorful clothing will scare a bear away so take out that colorful clothing and wave it around if there is a bear in the area.have to coordinate your navigation skills using the group map. because the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. just be sure you are prepared to set up camp by the time the sun sets because any camping done in northern-most areas of the globe will experience a much shorter day. Wilderness wildlife: A lot of the wildlife you will find in North American places will be some very impressive birds like the great Eagle. sometimes as short as 2 hours. and of course your memory of the path you've taken so you can collectively decide on how to backtrack to the base camp. Another impressive bird found up near the Arctic Circle in the Yukon Territory is Paragon Falcons. You can always tell by the position of the sun. which someone who is designated daily is responsible for. you will be able to find your way easily back to the base camp in any conditions or situation. Try putting away any food that you might be snacking on. It’s most impressive to watch these birds either flying up high using the air patterns. By being able to navigate without a compass. Eagles will often build their nests at the top of evergreen trees along rivers. as you should learn before ever starting your day hiking. or hunting in which case they swoop down at the highest speeds known in the bird kingdom and catch their prey on the ground. a compass to position yourself. believe it or not. These birds are not vultures but they are not known for 26 . Screaming or making a lot of noise or clamor will also make a bear turn around and go the other way most likely. They fly up high far above the tree-line unless hunting. too. which are the fastest bird in the world. bears can smell the sugar and will be attracted to it. Bear Protection: one of the leaders in your group should have a bear spray.

If you come to a beaver damn while paddling: You may very well encounter a beaver damn in the river you are travelling down or sometimes a series of beaver damns. You and your canoe partner should both help push the canoe over the beaver’s damn. Trout. mountain goats. moose. but in shallower parts of the river. deer. Each canoe should already have tied to its helm a rope about 12 feet long which is used to help bring in the canoes in the evenings. it is important to understand that when you are in the 27 . wolves. this may be a requirement. and large wilderness beavers. where the last team member is standing. and Catfish. buffalo. Lining: Lining is the process of passing a group of canoes through a particularly turbulent almost impassible stretch of river. if you encounter a beaver damn the best thing to do is to get out of the canoe. Each member of the team will stretch out along the impassible rapid. the instructors at the most difficult points along the shoreline. You may have to get out and into the canoe frequently. beaver damns are usually built in shallow waters that won’t pass your knees or thighs. It’s okay to use your hiking boots. You will also encounter brown or black bears. You will also have the opportunity to fish for Grailing. First before I explain how to line. The canoes will be passed one by one in sometimes a very slow process to a calm area of the bank located just downstream from the rapid.attacking humans. Bluegills.

so don’t fret. jagged. This pattern continues for each canoe simultaneously. Each rapid is different so there is not one way of lining but there are some basic methods. in length.wilderness that canoe is very important and needs to be protected and cared for. or beaver dams are the natural wonders that can help you retrieve your canoe somewhere downstream. It is safer to get the canoe through the rapid by directing it from the banks of the river then going through the rapid if it is above class 3 unless you are a certified expert in whitewater canoeing from a reputable outdoor expedition school. rapids. If you lose the canoe entirely but it is not submerged you do have a decent chance of seeing it somewhere downstream. stretch of bank starting with the first person. from a crouching position on a steep. trees hanging into the river. high water level from prior flooding conditions. This is just an example of what you 28 . protruding rock. high wave and a drop in elevation of the riverbed of 10-15 ft. When it gets to the instructor or experts in the group they will be the ones to do the tough stuff like getting the canoe through a 10 ft. as is commonly found in a class 3 rapid class. all in a space of 20 ft. you will need to make sure you tie a rope onto the back of the canoe about 15ft. to the next person in line. so that you can have one person guiding or lining both the front and back of the canoe to make sure it does not get out of control of the team on the rapids which could either turnover the canoe and dump its contents. Sometimes if you are lining a rapid that is more turbulent in certain parts that could sweep your canoe vigorously into the downstream flow of water. could submerge the canoe and cause it to sink which makes it next to impossible to recover. and forks in the river (which can usually be pre-detected from looking at a topographical map). ones that can ruin your chances are serious rainfall. For one each person can cover about a 10-20 ft. This is why we line. Things like river bends. They will start out by taking one canoe and walking it down 10 ft. or can cause the heavy wooden and metal canoe with its contents to suddenly jerk out of the grip of the team causing you to lose the canoe entirely.

A leader should have about 5 karabiners attached to their belt at their waist. This would enable more people to be helping during the really rough patches of river rapids. Everyone will feel stretched to their physical limits on a wilderness expedition. You will be forced out of your comfort zone. up to about 5 canoes. If you have optional gear like karabiners. or even lend them to someone on your team who could use them better from their position.might encounter in the wilderness as a certified expert. then you may want to use these to help you to line. No need to worry unless you are an expert already. These karabiners would be used for the easier parts of the largest rapids so that the line will be much more efficient by one person attaching weight according to their own weight on the karabiners. The other new suggestion is to use a lockpulley contraption on each rope for each canoe. Most people think they have to camp in the summer. though. New method of lining: This involves the heavy use of karabiners by the leaders of the expedition. Camping climate: There really is no specified camping climate. But in any case of a beginner or intermediate. 29 . but that is just not the truth for a real camper. Be careful that you don’t underestimate the power of the whitewater even in calmer areas of the banks because the canoe can seem heavier or can be harder to direct even in class 1 whitewater. nature in its true form is not as people-friendly as places you visit in civilization.

com for relatively cheap. Gander Mountain. otherwise if I felt like we needed to camp in a particular location. A three-season sleeping bag is the type of sleeping bag you will need to use on the trip. as a leader I would offer to help them decide in those situations based on where the best campsite might be based on an elevation map and make sure it is one of the first things the team should know is how to navigate without a compass and how to read an elevation map. or online at Walmart. If you are hypothermic: 30 . It is perfectly possible to get camping gear appropriate for all conditions. or hail. and the shale and schist which is typically found at the peaks. I would announce it at the beginning of the day during the daily briefing. I would make my decisions on an expedition on a daily basis with a fair estimation as to where you will end up based on the needs of the team. It just depends on what types of weather you are prepared for with your gear and clothing as to how many options you will have as your nightly campgrounds. If you’re in mountainous wilderness regions you can encounter both freezing snow conditions and very hot dehydrating temperatures within a single day as you increase or decrease elevations on the topographical map. Up high you will have incredible views and an early morning hike down the mountain in the morning which are the perks. There are various perks to camping in each area of the mountain. but on the flip side you will also be in colder temperatures and sleeping on harder ground because of the cold temperatures. Mummy sleeping bags which are really warm and for really snowy weather are very popular and can be found at any sporting goods store like Dick’s. or sleet. I would let the beginner and intermediate hikers make the final daily decision as to where on the mountain to aim to camp.Most people who are realistic campers want to go camping all year round even if there is snow on the ground.

Streams are usually less than knee deep and typically only about 1-2 feet deep. It tends to be either slippery or your boot might sink in the silt if the typical layer of quartz is thinner in areas. which will make you really cold if you are wet and in freezing temperatures either water or outdoors. If at all possible huddle close to a heat source like a stove and be sure to keep your feet and your hands as warm as possible.Take your wet clothing off and get on several warm layers of clothing immediately. these boots will help you to get the traction you need even on this terrain. Dry your wet clothing. Remember. Single-person canoe: If you are in the single person canoe you act as both front and back position using directional strokes as well as paddling for speed. because these are your extremities and need to be protected from the cold. Try to protect yourself from wind. and drink things like hot chocolate and hot sugary drinks that warm your body immediately. If you come to an impassible terrain in which you find a stream: You will need to plan on hiking up the stream instead of on the dry land if there is some impassible area of land. when paddling for direction in a one-person 31 . You will need to plan on wearing your gaiters and your hiking boots with wool socks. It’s really hard to be hiking sideways over a stream so be sure that one foot is downhill from the other foot you don’t want to lose your footing in a freezing stream somewhere in the wilderness falling downhill. first and foremost.

and of course your own 70 pound backpack. you will find it impossible to get to a bank before reaching a rapid. which can be a very dangerous situation causing a lot of loss on the expedition including possible loss of personal safety. Once you get caught in faster moving waters. A float plane only needs about 200 feet of deep water to land. A single-person canoe is also more challenging to maneuver in difficult areas of a river or any challenging situation involving class 1-5 whitewater. and/or the ever-so-necessary group gear. A single-person paddle has a paddle on each end of the stick. A float plane has a very big hole in the side typically it is also higher off the ground and loading at a dock can be a large stretch to get into the plane. because you are using half the power. When arranging for a float plane. Float plane: A float plane is a little harder to board then a regular jet plane. be sure that the pilot 32 . personal belongings. never in the center where the water is the fastest. beware that the typical stiff camping clothing you will be wearing will make it harder to board. You need to be careful to start learning how to paddle in a single-person canoe on or very close to the banks of the river. you inevitably start out much slower that say someone learning in a two-person canoe. typically. If you are not used to it then you will be unable to maneuver quickly enough because rivers typically speed up when it is headed into rapid territory. some very heavy barrels for food. which cannot be detected by looking at a map so often comes unexpectedly. You will also need to help load some heavy equipment into the plane including all the canoes for the group.canoe you first put your paddle in the water at a 60 degree angle from directly at your side in the back parallel with the direction of the canoe. A single person canoe is more difficult in the sense that in learning to paddle in it.

You do have to have a license before fishing. It could take anywhere up to two hours to unload all of your supplies off the plane. Before the mid-19th century. The equipment will be divided up among people to carry as part of the group gear like the tent and the cooking supplies. The best plan for the rest of the day is a group discussion. depending on if there is a dock to park the plane. chances are that in the wilderness there are a lot of good opportunities to fish. Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit. You should never plan a hike for the first day. A license can cost as little as $5 and be obtained in a single day. Slate: “Shale can mesomorph into slate. When unloading. and then time to explore the camping area. After you fish and are able to identify the type of fish and that it is edible. and soon enough it will be over. the terms slate. it is best to take it on the trip. meals. to make their blades. 33 . The worst thing you can do is complain. you may be wading in waist deep water. Be prepared to do your share of the work. In the context of underground coal mining. shale and schist were not sharply distinguished.knows that he can actually land in a given area on the map. Then you have to gut and scale it before putting it on the burner. or Alaskan Native. Simply offer to help. Loading and unloading a float plane can take an entire half a day and be somewhat exhausting and a bit of a culture shock if you have never been into the wilderness before. Fishing license: If you have a fishing license.

” (www.” (www. chlorite.the term slate was commonly used to refer to shale well into the 20th century. which is a reference to the ease with which schists can be split along the plane in which the platy minerals lie. Slate is frequently grey in color. or tendency to split into layers. and draw slate refers to roof slate (shale) that falls from the mine roof as the coal is removed.wikipedia.wikipedia. roof slate refers to shale above a coal seam. foliated. feldspar and quartz are much less abundant in schist than in gneiss. meaning the individual mineral grains split off easily into flakes or slabs. Schist is characteristically foliated. and graphite. derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.com/slate) Schist: “is a medium crystalline rock that has a highly developed schistosity. slate occurs in a variety of colors even from a single locality. biotite.com/schist) Underarmor: 34 . can be seen by the naked eye. Slate is a fine-grained. However. The individual mineral grains in schist. The green color of many schists and their formation under a certain range of temperature and pressure has led to a distinction of the greenschist facies in the mineral facies classification of metamorphic rocks. homogeneous metamorphic rock. Most schists are composed largely of platy minerals such as muscovite. The word schist is derived from the Greek word meaning "to ". Unlike its close cousin gneiss. For example. drawn out into flaky scales by heat and pressure. talc. banding is poorly developed or absent.

Shred gain (only instructors): wider strokes with your paddle that are faster and more powerful good for lost canoe rescue. It is very popular wilderness wear. They are known for being very colorful. They are used for gaining "mucho" speed and also changing direction very fast. They are not for the weak of heart. one popular one is the one that spells out “LIVESTRONG” on the band. They are like uber-powered strokes. pants. and shorts. rapid rescue and when instructing. They have some very modern clothing that has technology to give any sporting experience the utmost comfort for your body. it is known for being light-weight but keep the heat drawn to your body so you will not get cold. It absorbs the sweat. 35 . It is also considered to be a sleek and stylish brand for wilderness-wear as well as general sportswear and comes in a variety of long-sleeved to sleeveless styles. It is probably most famous for being worn by a famous biker by the last name of Armstrong who has recently won the famous Tour De France bike race for several years. These strokes can only be used by expert paddlers because they are so difficult. Sheryl Crow is also famous for wearing the brand while supporting his bike racing. skirts. Livestrong: A clothing brand which is especially popular today for its plastic bracelets which have different “sayings” on them. His girlfriend.Is a very popular clothing brand that you should know about for camping and other types of sports.

mountain hiking. They have an expedition which takes a group of campers from the Yukon to the Arctic Circle in a 45-day camping. if you are anywhere near the Arctic Circle. which means you will have to put down your paddle entirely and help grab them from the water and possibly hold onto them leaving the upstream (extreme) padding to just one person in the canoe.000 miles are travelled via whitewater canoeing into the Arctic. You will want to use shred gain also because if the condition of the water and weather is wet and freezing. 36 .It's especially helpful when both partners use it at the same time in rough river conditions and with things like rapid rescue/rapid rescue team demonstrations in class 3 rapids where you will have to let rescue demo swimmers grab onto your canoe at the bottom of the rapid and guide them to shore then paddle back to the bottom of the rapid at the deepest part of the river. hold onto your paddle. For example. while using shred gain to paddle the canoe from a sideways position river pointing toward the bank. To be instructors or certified experts is just another way of saying “extreme paddlers”. and second. and there are just two things you will always want to remember and those two things are: feet first. then the swimmers may have delayed body system reactions because hypothermia sets in within seconds of entering freezing water. If your canoe tips over just upstream from a rapid: although I am not speaking directly from experience. a person who is an expert paddler is someone who is certified by The National Outdoor Leadership School to lead wilderness expeditions as an official wilderness expert. and whitewater canoeing (class 3 rapids) trip in which around 2. I am speaking from relative experience. A beginner or intermediate paddler would never be able to do this on their own quickly enough without bringing harm to several team members.

3-4 Day Team Expeditions With Out Instructors: The instructors will first have to have a topographical elevation map for all of the teams of 3-4 campers. First.Float on your back with your feet in front of you to protect your head. find a way to estimate how many miles you hike per day then break it down by the hour that will tell you about how far you should go. which are huge in comparison. Class 3 Rapid Rescue Team Demos: This exercise will prepare you the most for future expeditions that you will actually be leading if you are being certified. Better to let it go downstream then to get into a dangerous situation. which is 37 . The best idea is to plan the independent 3-day hike for the middle of the trip so all team members will have a lot of experience with mountain hiking even if they were a beginner at the start of the trip. Have the members of your team volunteer to swim through a class 3 rapid so you can demonstrate the rescue procedure wearing their life vests. you will be more mentally ready for the class 4 and 5 rapids. in a natural setting. Once you actually swim through a larger rapid. you will already know about how much distance you can average on a single day. if it’s in the middle of the trip instead of the beginning. Only worry about the canoe once these two things are covered or don’t worry about it at all. Plus. Then each team will take just enough food and group supplies for 3-4 days. The volunteers should be facing upwards. who will be deciding on where to hike for their 3-4 day independent expedition. feet first going downstream and as they come out of the rapid they should look for the instructors and grab onto their canoe as fast as they possibly can. The most important thing is to plan out a general plan for the hike that fits everybody’s needs and desires with input from every person in the group. of course.

38 . so that only the people in the outer canoes will do any paddling. That is entirely their incentive. although usually you will be hiking uphill. You build a raft by locating where some medium-width sticks are all around 3-4 inches or about 12 cm.probably somewhere close to ascending and descending one mountain per day. Hiking shale-covered peaks with a diverse team of members: (different skill levels and preferences) Best option is to separate into groups depending on preferences of both instructors and students/team members alike and let each individual instructor plan the second half of the day according to the needs of their individual teams. usually there is one team of people who do not want to hike at all and just relax near the top of the mountain and have no desire to climb the rocky peaks. Rafting: Rafting is fun if it’s a relaxing slow moving stretch of river that almost looks like a lake and often contains the name lake something-or-other as well but is still part of the flow of the river. and tie them together around the canoes connecting the canoes side-by-side. Sometimes you may also occasionally hike the slate covered valleys of the mountains. Those who make the peak day hike will most likely be the ones who are more expert in the area of mountain hiking as a general rule. Often times people build up vertically a little and may even try adding a small sail of some sort. but the others who are able to make it up to the less rocky peaks are perfectly able to be certified expert.

often. the policy is never to be willing to disclose any details of your daily trip or allow them to join you. 39 . earliest to bed. When you wake up the first thing you should always do is consult the map as to the options for the day hiking that day. This activity should never be discussed with a fellow camper or another non-leader. and figure out some suggestions for the hike from an expert perspective. Because many of the campers have not had this unique experience of being involved in a wilderness expedition. It is best to be the earliest to rise. they are not. You are prepared to handle this level of adversity. Even if they are comfortable with being involved in the situation. The reason why we do this is because of varying weather conditions that can cause flooding or impassible terrain like avalanches or rock falls which could cause fatalities on the hike. they may tell other campers about it and this could be a liability to the leaders. the best option is to keep the campers from knowing where you are going and what you are doing. Even if they were to follow you and see what you are doing. *The binoculars will also come in handy when assessing a rapid for the path of least resistance.Checking out the terrain (experts/instructors): As an instructor or certified wilderness expert. if they are thinking about possibilities that are scaring themselves. and this is the time to quietly find a good place out of view of the campsite to begin checking out how plausible the available options for the day really are. It might cause them to panic and make them be more hesitant to be an active team member sharing in an equal part of the daily work because they are overwhelmed and overstressed.

or how to navigate without using a compass or a map. Nature Lessons Daily: The team should meet for a few basic nature lessons daily things that are either practical or are about natural animals or plants they might find in the area. once you leave the start point where the brief takes place. They might have a few sets of clothing for their initial travels that they will need to leave behind.Checking the campers’ luggage to make sure everything is fine (instructors/leaders/experts): The day of the brief for the trip is the day you will start your journey travelling to the wilderness. it is important that you look through all of each camper’s belongings by making them dump all their contents onto the floor before they begin packing it all into their backpacks. Second-time wilderness paddlers: On your second expedition to the wilderness you should be a fully certified 40 . how to make a fire. then it will take you some time to get into the wilderness where you will start your trip because you will need to take a float plane from a particular destination. often in a warehouse setting. and then return their belongings to them after the trip. This can be done in the form of games or demonstrations. You can find a secure place to leave their confiscated stuff like any alcohol or drugs. and keep in mind. For example: how to tie knots. During the brief.

): How to tie a knot How to build a fire How to build a raft using the materials on the trip How to carry out basic emergency procedures on the trip How they can one day use their certification/superior wilderness knowledge How to bushwhack How to signal to a passing aircraft using international distress signs How to look for wildlife/where to look Study of parts of a flower/types of local flowers How to hike on shale and schists How to find a “good” campsite How to be a wilderness leader (how to determine your next steps) How to solve disputes between campers/non-leaders o First once someone reports a problem or dispute to a leader. Remember it is your life in their hands because it takes two to paddle nine times out of ten and you will want only the best when paddling the hardest two levels of rapids. the leaders will discuss the issue and one of the leaders will talk to each 41 . This means that you are now ready to continue on to paddling class 4 and 5 rapids. Daily Nature/Practical Lesson ideas (15-30min. The best plan would be to return to the portage point of whatever river you originally canoed on. you can switch to focus on learning the skills necessary to become a top expert. The reason for this is because you are familiar with this river’s rapids and with that familiarity already in-tact. I suggest that you put together an expedition that includes your former NOLS expedition leaders as well as your peers who have paddled in these classes of rapids and are expert or experienced paddlers with credentials you can check.NOLS expedition leader.

a few spoons of sugar. Add to the pot about 1 ½ cups of yellow cheddar cheese then place on low heat flame until cheese is fully melted. not just the one being blamed. Directions: Boil a pot of water on the stove and add about a cup of milk powder. 4 drips of vanilla. Macaroni: Elbow noodles and melted cheddar cheese. Directions: Boil water then cook elbow noodles and when noodles are tender remove from heat of flame.camper and will come to a consensus with the campers on the issue. Most issues are really both campers’ faults. Recipes: (all recipe portions feed group of 4 campers) Shepherd’s Pies: Casseroles: Gazpachos: Vanilla Steamer (Hot Magic Drink): Steamed milk with a lot of sugary flavoring added to it. and one spoon brown sugar. Stir until cheese is melted. Then start off adding several shakes of cinnamon powder. 8 cups elbow noodles 1 ½ cups yellow cheddar cheese 42 .