You are on page 1of 47


A display device, also known as an information display is a device for visual or tactile presentation of images (including text) acquired, stored, or transmitted in various forms. While most common displays are designed to present information dynamically in a visual medium, tactile displays, usually intended for the blind or visually impaired, use mechanical parts to dynamically update a tactile image (usually of text) so that the image may be felt by the fingers. Here are the common types of display devices: Analog electronic displays CRT CRTs, or video monitors, are the most common output device on computers today. A CRT is an evacuated glass tube, with a heating element on one end and a phosphor coated screen on the other. When a current flows through this heating element, called a filament, the conductivity of the metal filament is reduced due to the high temperature. This cause electrons to pile up on the filament, because they can not move as fast as they would like to. Some of these electrons actually boil off of the filament. These free electrons are attracted to a strong positive charge from the outer surface of the focusing anode cylinder (sometimes called an electrostatic lens). However, the inside of the cylinder has a weaker negative charge. Thus when the electrons head toward the anode they are forced into a beam and accelerated by the repulsion of the inner cylinder walls in just the way that water is speeds up when its flow though a smaller diameter pipe. By the time the electrons get out they're going so fast that they fly past the cathode they were heading for. The next thing that the electrons run into are two sets of weakly charged deflection plates. These plates have opposite charges, one positive the other negative. While their charge is not strong enough to capture the fast moving electrons they do influence the path of the beam. The first set displaces the beam up and down, and the second displaces the beam left and right. The electrons are sent flying out of the neck of the bottle, until they smash into the phosphor coating on the other end of the bottle. The impact of this collision on the out valence bands of the phosphor compounds knocks some of the electrons to jump into the another band. This causes a few photons to be generated, and results in our seeing a spot on the CRT's face. Digital electronic displays LCD

A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices. Currently, its the most popular alternative to the CRT. LCDs are organic molecules that, in the absence of external forces, tend to align themselves in crystalline structures. But, when an external force is applied they will

rearrange themselves as if they were a liquid. Some liquid crystals respond to heat (i.e. mood rings), others respond to electromagnetic forces.

When used as optical (light) modulators LCDs change polarization rather than transparency (at least this is true for the most popular type of LCD called Super-twisted Nematic Liquid crystals). In their unexcited or crystalline state the LCDs rotate the polarization of light by 90 degrees. In the presence of an electric field, LCDs the small electrostatic charges of the molecules align with the impinging E field. The LCD's transition between crystalline and liquid states is a slow process. This has both good and bad side effects. LCDs, like phosphors, remain "on" for some time after the E field is applied. Thus the image is persistent like a CRT's, but this lasts just until the crystals can realign themselves, thus they must be constantly refreshed, again, like a CRT. TFT LCD TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display) is a variant of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) which uses ThinFilm Transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though it is usually synonymous with LCD. It is used in both flat panel displays and projectors. In a TFT screen, also known as active matrix, an extra matrix of transistors is connected to the LCD panel - one transistor for each colour (RGB) of each pixel. These transistors drive the

pixels, eliminating at a stroke the problems of ghosting and slow response speed that afflict non-TFT LCDs. The liquid crystal elements of each pixel are arranged so that in their normal state (with no voltage applied) the light coming through the passive filter is 'incorrectly' polarised and thus blocked. But when a voltage is applied across the liquid crystal elements they twist by up to ninety degrees in proportion to the voltage, changing their polarisation and letting more light through. The transistors control the degree of twist and hence the intensity of the red, green and blue elements of each pixel forming the image on the display.

Vacuum fluorescent display
A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer-electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens. Invented in Japan in 1967, the displays became common on calculators and other consumer electronics devices. [1] Unlike liquid crystal displays, a VFD emits a very bright light with high contrast and can support display elements of various colours. VFDs can display seven-segment numerals, multi-segment alpha-numeric characters or can be made in a dot-matrix to display different alphanumeric characters and symbols. In practice, there is no limit to the shape of the image that can be displayed - it depends solely on the shape of phosphor on the anode(s). Hundreds of millions of units are made each year. [2] The device consists of a hot cathode (filaments), anodes (phosphor) and grids encased in a glass envelope under a high vacuum condition. The cathode is made up of fine tungsten wires, coated by alkaline earth metal oxides, which emit electrons when heated by an electric current. These electrons are controlled and diffused by the grids, which are made up of thin metal. If electrons impinge on the phosphor-coated plates, they fluoresce, emitting light. Unlike the orange-glowing cathodes of traditional vacuum tubes, VFD cathodes are efficient emitters at much cooler temperatures, and are therefore essentially invisible

he extra indicators (in our example, "VCR", "Hi-Fi", "STEREO", "SAP", etc.) are arranged as if they were segments of an additional digit or two or extra segments of existing digits and are scanned using the same multiplexed strategy as the real digits. Some of these extra indicators may use a phosphor that produces a different colour of light, for example, orange.

The light produced by most VFDs contains many colours and can often be filtered to enhance the colour saturation providing a deep green or deep blue, depending on the whims of the product's designers. Phosphors used in VFDs are different from those in cathode-ray displays since they must produce acceptable brightness with only around 50 volts of electron energy, compared to several thousand volts in a CRT

photons are emitted. the ionizing state can be maintained by applying a low-level voltage between all the horizontal and vertical electrodes–even after the ionizing voltage is removed. along the rear glass plate. are mounted in front of the cell. Long electrodes are also put together between the glass plates. neon. A small amount of nitrogen is added to the neon to increase hysteresis. The transparent display electrodes. and helium gas in a plasma television is contained in hundreds of thousands of tiny cells positioned between two plates of glass. As the gas ions rush to the electrodes and collide. How plasma displays work Composition of plasma display panel The xenon. another lightweight flatscreen display using different technology. To erase a cell all voltage is removed from a pair of electrodes. Plasma displays should not be confused with LCDs.[21][22] In a monochrome plasma panel. The address electrodes sit behind the cells. Many tiny cells between just two panels of glass hold a mixture of noble gases. which are surrounded by an insulating dielectric material and covered by a magnesium oxide protective layer.Plasma display A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays (80 cm or larger). Control circuitry charges the electrodes that cross paths at a cell. The gas in the cells is electrically turned into a plasma which emits ultraviolet light which then excites phosphors to emit visible light. This type of panel has inherent memory and does not use phosphors. along the front glass plate. in front of and behind the cells. . creating a voltage difference between front and back and causing the gas to ionize and form a plasma.

Every pixel is made up of three separate subpixel cells. one subpixel has a green light phosphor and one subpixel has a blue light phosphor. is being developed. 1024x768. Each mirror represents one or more pixels in the projected image. color LASERs. the back of each cell is coated with a phosphor. One subpixel has a red light phosphor. Digital Light Processing Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a trademark owned by Texas Instruments. the control system can produce most of the visible colors. the same as a triad of a shadow mask CRT or color LCD. Rapidly toggling the mirror between these two orientations (essentially on and off) produces grayscales. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments. sequential illumination by three colored light emitting diodes. Plasma displays use the same phosphors as CRTs. In this way. and 1920x1080 (HDTV) matrices are some common DMD sizes. representing a technology used in some TVs and video projectors. colors are produced either by placing a color wheel between a white lamp and the DLP chip or by using individual . The number of mirrors corresponds to the resolution of the projected image (often half as many mirrors as the advertised resolution due to wobulation). those utilized by single-chip DLP projectors. and is currently used in televisions manufactured by Samsung. It was originally developed in 1987 by Dr. The ultraviolet photons emitted by the plasma excite these phosphors to give off colored light. The operation of each cell is thus comparable to that of a fluorescent lamp. controlled by the ratio of on-time to off-time. 1280x720. Plasma panels use pulse-width modulation to control brightness: by varying the pulses of current flowing through the different cells thousands of times per second. Digital micromirror device In DLP projectors. green and blue. 800x600. Yet another method. These colors blend together to create the overall color of the pixel. is currently in use by Mitsubishi in their LASERVUE products. which accounts for the extremely accurate color reproduction when viewing television or computer video images (which use an RGB color system designed for CRT display technology). These mirrors can be repositioned rapidly to reflect light either through the lens or on to a heat sink (called a light dump in Barco terminology).In color panels. the control system can increase or decrease the intensity of each subpixel color to create billions of different combinations of red. Color in DLP projection There are two primary methods by which DLP projection systems create a color image. known as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). each with different colored phosphors. the image is created by microscopically small mirrors laid out in a matrix on a semiconductor chip. A third method. and those used by three-chip projectors.[2] In a projector with a single DLP chip.

the eye will see that specific frame color slightly shifted. green. The same is true for the red. The colors are thus displayed sequentially at a sufficiently high rate that the observer sees a composite "full color" image. green. for the duration of the whole frame. the third color gets displayed (blue for example).” This is best described as brief flashes of perceived red. the eye will follow the object with a constant motion. while others may never see them at all. or in this case. This effect is not perceived only for the moving object. A single-chip projector alternates between colors and produces separate red. The use of the secondary colors is part of the new color performance system called BrilliantColor which processes the primary colors along with the secondary colors to create a broader spectrum of possible color combinations on the screen. this was one rotation per frame. Thus. it will see a frame of a specific color (red for example). When an object on the screen moves. and green "shadows" observed most often when the projected content features high contrast areas of moving bright/white objects on a mostly dark/black background. . and also in animations where moving objects are surrounded by a thick black outline. and blue. Some people perceive these rainbow artifacts frequently. LEDs or LASERs for example. although it gets displayed at the same location overlapping the previous color. The color wheel is divided into multiple sectors: the primary colors: red. The scrolling end credits of many movies are a common example. most systems operate at up to 10x the frame rate. but the whole picture. This effect is caused by the way the eye follows a moving object on the projection. and blue images when displaying a moving image. DLP projectors utilizing a mechanical spinning color wheel may exhibit an anomaly known as the “rainbow effect. Then. but the projector will display each alternating color of the frame at the same location. when the next color is displayed (green for example). Now. and the eye will see that frame's color slightly shifted again. the eye will have moved toward the object's next frame target. illuminating a moving hand. The DLP chip is synchronized with the rotating motion of the color wheel so that the green component is displayed on the DMD when the green section of the color wheel is in front of the lamp. yellow and white. In early models. while the eye is moving. blue and other sections. So. and in many cases secondary colors including cyan. Brief visible separation of the colours can also be apparent when the viewer moves their eyes quickly across the projected image.light sources to produce the primary colors. blue. magenta. Then.

grouped in threes to form red-green-blue (RGB) pixels. When viewed from a distance. the spots. They also use much less power than an LCD television of the same size. At one end of the gun electrons are produced by "boiling" them off a metal filament. a SED consists of a matrix of tiny cathode ray tubes. one for each sub-pixel of the display. legal and financial problems have prevented the commercialization of SED systems. The surface . To date. whereas 60 frames/sec equals 3. potentially exceeding the safe limits of wheel rotation and requiring the projector to drop back to 3x speed. 3x. There is a maximum rotational speed limit for the wheel.600 frames/minute. SEDs are closely related to another developing display technology. Video framerate is usually measured in frames per second and must be multiplied by 60 to find the wheel speed. If the color wheel spins 4 times per frame. manufacturing. namely their high contrast ratios. blend together in the eye to produce a single colored spot known as a pixel. Electromagnets surrounding the gun end of the tube are used to steer the beam as it travels forward. the field emission display. or FED. which requires relatively high currents and consumes a large proportion of the CRT's power. (Projector specifications often list the wheel speed at specific framerates as 2x. 4x. essentially an open-ended vacuum tube.)[3][4] Increasing the video refresh rate to 85 frames per second does not necessarily further reduce the rainbow effect since this rate would increase the wheel speed to 20. known as "sub-pixels". The two differ primarily in the details of the electron emitters. however. each "tube" forming a single sub-pixel on the screen. SEDs combine the advantages of CRTs. at 15. wide viewing angles and very fast response times. etc.The effect varies with the rotational speed of the color wheel and the frame refresh rate of the video signal. allowing the beam to be scanned across the screen to produce a 2D display. Surface-conduction electron-emitter display A surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) is a flat panel color television technology currently being developed by a number of companies.300 RPM. In a general sense.000 to 15. The SED replaces the single gun of a conventional CRT with a grid of nanoscopic emitters. with the packaging advantages of LCD and other flat panel displays. flowing forward towards the screen. green and blue (RGB). one each for red.000 RPM. light is produced. Multi-color LED-based and LASER-based single-chip projectors are able to eliminate the spinning wheel and minimize the rainbow effect since the pulse rate of LEDs and LASERs are not limited by physical motion. When the fastmoving electrons strike phosphor on the back of the screen. The electrons are then accelerated and focused into a fast-moving beam. it is rotating at a speed of 14. SEDs use nanoscopic-scale electron emitters to energize colored phosphors and produce an image. A conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) is powered by an electron gun. typically 10.400 RPM. Color images are produced by painting the screen with spots or stripes of three colored phosphors.400 RPM.

but is a constant field requiring no switching. the required field can correspond to a potential on the order of tens of volts. applied externally. accelerates these scattered electrons towards the screen. . this also means that changes in voltage cannot be used to control the brightness of the resulting pixels. and the process tends to be fully on or off for any given voltage. A second field. Due to the nanoscopic size of the slits. Production of this field requires kilovolt potentials. on the order of 3%. However. impact with slit material on the far side and are scattered out of the emitter surface.[1] Each emitter is aligned behind a colored phosphor dot. The quantum tunneling effect that emits electrons across the slits is highly nonlinear. and further reduces the complexity of the emitter array.conduction electron emitter apparatus consists of a thin slit across which electrons jump when powered with high-voltage gradients. This allows the selection of particular emitters by powering a single horizontal row on the screen and then powering all of the needed vertical columns at the same time. so the electronics that produce it are quite simple. Any power leaked from one column to surrounding emitters will cause too small a field to produce a visible output. and the accelerated electrons strike the dot and cause it to give off light in a fashion identical to a conventional CRT. if it was already on the additional power will have no visible effect. if that emitter was not turned on the leaked power will be too low to switch it. thereby powering the selected emitters. Since each dot on the screen is lit by a single emitter. This allows SED displays to work without an active matrix of thin-film transistors that LCDs and similar displays require. A few of the electrons. there is no need to steer or direct the beam as there is in an CRT.

printers fall into the following categories: Daisy Wheel: A type of printer that produces letter-quality type. There are many different types of printers. You can change the daisy wheel to print different fonts. and the quality of dot-matrix printers has improved.the printer rotates the disk until the desired letter is facing the paper. forcing the character to hit an ink ribbon. Ink-jet printers are capable of producing high quality print approaching that produced by laser printers. and in general they are noisy and slow. In terms of the technology utilized. leaving an impression of the character on the paper. printing from 10 to about 75 characters per second. Then a hammer strikes the disk. The daisy wheel is a disk made of plastic or metal on which characters stand out in relief along the outer edge. . As the price of laser and ink-jet printers has declined. To print a character. Ink-jet: A type of printer that works by spraying ionized ink at a sheet of paper. Magnetized plates in the ink's path direct the ink onto the paper in the desired shapes. although some newer models offer higher resolutions. A daisy-wheel printer works on the same principle as a ball-head typewriter.Types Of Printers: A device that prints text or illustrations on paper. daisy-wheel printers have become obsolete. Daisy-wheel printers cannot print graphics. A typical ink-jet printer provides a resolution of 300 dots per inch.

200 or 2. called internal or resident fonts. One uses an array of LEDs to expose the drum. Laser printers produce very high-quality print and are capable of printing an almost unlimited variety of fonts. they are also considerably slower. color ink-jet printers provide an inexpensive way to print full-color documents Laser: A type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. Because ink-jet printers require smaller mechanical parts than laser printers. In addition to the standard monochrome laser printer. Once the drum is Charged . However. but you can add additional fonts in one of two ways: . Another drawback of ink-jet printers is that they require a special type of ink that is apt to smudge on inexpensive copier paper. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner. Finally.however they both work like a laser printer One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution -how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down. the price of ink-jet printers is lower than that of laser printers. which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. This is also the way copy machines work. In addition. There are two other types of page printers that fall under the category of laser printers even though they do not use lasers at all. offset printing usually prints at 1. which uses a single toner. the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure. The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1. they are especially popular as portable printers. Most laser printers come with a basic set of fonts.200 dpi at the high end. Some laser printers achieve higher resolutions with special techniques known generally as resolution enhancement. laser printers are sometimes called page printers. Because an entire page is transmitted to a drum before the toner is applied. Color laser printers tend to be about five to ten times as expensive as their monochrome siblings.In general. there also exist color laser printers that use four toners to print in full color.400 dpi. By comparison. and the other uses LCDs.

The advantage of font cartridges is that they use none of the printer's memory. Dot-matrix printers vary in two important characteristics:  speed: Given in characters per second (cps). they can print to multi-page forms (that is. soft fonts : All laser printers come with a certain amount of RAM memory. although you can still see a difference if you look closely.font cartridges : Laser printers have slots in which you can insert font cartridges.  print quality: Determined by the number of pins (the mechanisms that print the dots). and you can usually increase the amount of memory by adding memory boards in the printer's expansion slots. The disadvantages of line printers are that they cannot print graphics. ROM boards on which fonts have been recorded. the more fonts that can be downloaded at one time. the speed can vary from about 50 to over 500 cps. Dot-matrix: A type of printer that produces characters and illustrations by striking pins against an ink ribbon to print closely spaced dots in the appropriate shape. However. The best dot-matrix printers (24 pins) can produce near letter-quality type. Line: A high-speed printer capable of printing an entire line at one time. Dot-matrix printers are relatively expensive and do not produce highquality output. the print quality is low. and they are very noisy. A font that has been downloaded is often referred to as a soft font. Most dot-matrix printers offer different speeds depending on the quality of print desired. The more RAM a printer has. This is called downloading fonts. it can vary from 9 to 24.000 lines per minute. . to distinguish it from the hard fonts available on font cartridges. something laser and ink-jet printers cannot do. You can then copy fonts from a disk to the printer's RAM. A fast line printer can print as many as 3. carbon copies).


although they are very good. and laser printers produce letterquality type. When cool. which means that images must be dithered first. these printers print images as dots. Early fax machines used direct thermal printing. Impact or non-impact: Impact printers include all printers that work by striking an ink ribbon. There are two kinds of thermal printers: • • Thermal wax transfer: a printer that adheres a wax-based ink onto paper. Non-impact printers include laser printers and ink-jet printers. . no matter if a full page or only one line of print is transferred. also called dye sublimation printers. printing about 30 cps. The big advantages of these printers over thermal dye transfer printers are that they don't require special paper and they are faster. but if you look closely. A thermal printhead melts wax-based ink from the transfer ribbon onto the paper. and line printers are impact printers. The important difference between impact and non-impact printers is that impact printers are much noisier. Monochrome printers have a black page for each page to be printed. Unlike thermal dye transfer printers . Graphics: Some printers (daisy-wheel and line printers) can print only text. images are not quite photo-realistic. Daisy-wheel printers tend to be the slowest. while color printers have either three (CMY) or four (CMYK) colored panels for each page. Only daisy-wheel. Some dot-matrix printers claim letter-quality print. Daisy-wheel. near letter quality. Speed: Measured in characters per second (cps) or pages per minute (ppm). or draft quality.Thermal: A printer that uses heat to transfer an impression onto paper. This type of thermal printer uses an equivalent panel of ink for each page to be printed. Direct thermal: a printer that prints the image by burning dots onto coated paper when the paper passes over a line of heating elements. Other printers can print both text and graphics. and laser printers range from about 4 to 20 text pages per minute. the speed of printers varies widely. dot-matrix.000 lines per minute). Line printers are fastest (up to 3. Printers are also classified by the following characteristics: Quality of type: The output produced by printers is said to be either letter quality (as good as a typewriter). the wax is permanent. Dot-matrix printers can print up to 500 cps. As a result. ink-jet. you can see the difference.


In the Western market. any digital camera that has live-preview falls into this category. Among digital LPDs. With the exception of very few live-preview DSLRs. most have a rear liquid crystal display for reviewing photographs. or recording images in an analog format to magnetic tape like many video cameras.Digital Camera A digital camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically in a digital format. However. Many modern LPDs have a movie mode. chips comprised of a grid of phototransistors to sense the light intensities across the plane of focus of the camera lens. CMOS sensors are differentiated from CCDs proper in that it uses less power and a different kind of light sensing material. In addition. in addition firewire is becoming more popular and supported among more digital cameras.e. however the differences are highly technical and many manufacturers still . that is. Modern compact digital cameras are typically multifunctional. the product of their maximum resolution dimensions in millions. instead of using photographic film like conventional cameras. Classification Digital cameras can be classified into several categories: Live-preview digital cameras A Live-Preview Digital camera (LPD) is a camera that uses a conventionally generated digital image (live-preview) on an electronic screen as its principal means of framing and previewing before taking the photograph. and a growing number of camcorders can take still photographs. They are rated in megapixels. and mid-range LPDs have much lower video quality than low-end Video cameras. All use either a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor or novel sensors based upon either of those two principles. with some devices capable of recording sound and/or video as well as photographs. some newer camcorders record video directly to flash memory and transfer over USB and FireWire. even a low-end LPD can take far better still pictures than a mid-range video camera. The actual transfers to a host computer are commonly carried out using the USB mass storage device class (so that the camera appears as a drive) or using the Picture Transfer Protocol and its derivatives. i. digital still cameras now outsell their 35 mm film counterparts.

However since the introduction of the Canon EOS Digital Rebel (a smallsized. It is also part of the reason professional photographers find their images flat or artificial-looking. They typically save pictures in only the JPEG file format. They tend to have significantly smaller zooms than prosumer and DSLR cameras. Traditionally DSLRs are considered much more professional than bridge cameras which have so far been prosumer or at best semi-professional.consider the CMOS chip a charged coupled device. Canon PowerShot A60 Compact digital cameras Also called digicams. which accounts for much of their ease of use. This allows objects at a larger range of depths to be in focus. For our purposes. a new class of DSLR has emerged and the distinction between bridge versus DSLR as prosumer versus professional cameras has become less black and white than it used . They excel in landscape photography and casual use. a chip sensor is a CCD. They are characterized by great ease in operation and easy focusing. Bridge cameras Main article: Bridge digital camera Prosumer or Bridge digital cameras form a general group of higher end LPDs that physically resemble DSLR cameras and share with these some advanced features but share with compacts the same basic LPD design. this design allows for limited motion picture capability. this encompasses most digital cameras. They have an extended depth of field. low-priced DSLR introduced in 2003) and what followed it of similar entry-level DSLRs from different manufacturers.

Many of the these cameras can save in JPEG or . have so far been always produced with only one single sealed (non-interchangeable) lens (but accessory wide angle or telephoto converters can be attached to the front of the sealed lens). Another multiple shot method utilized a single CCD with a Bayer filter but actually moved the physical location of the sensor chip on the focus plane of the lens to "stitch" together a higher resolution image than the CCD would allow otherwise. Their linear or trilinear sensors utilize only a single line of photosensors. record audio and the scene composition is done with either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). each based on the hardware configuration of the sensor and color be. The name prosumer from professional (or producer) and consumer.RAW format. The high-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. The new class of DSLRs can be described as consumer (compared to the higher classes of DSLRs). A third version combined the two methods without a Bayer filter on the chip. A Comparison between the bridge and entrylevel DSLRs would reveal that they are on par. The overall performance tends to be slower than a true digital SLR. Bridge cameras tend to have long. Prosumer cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the bodies resemble each other. The second method is referred to as multi-shot because the sensor is exposed to the image in a sequence of three or more openings of the lens aperture. or three separate image sensors (one each for the primary additive colors red.or ultrazoom lens. There are several methods of application of the multi-shot technique. Method of image capture(Working) Since the first digital backs were introduced. Single-shot capture systems use either one CCD with a Bayer filter mosaic it. The first method is often called single-shot. which compromises -in varying degrees. or three lines for the . green. green and blue) passed in front of the sensor in sequence to obtain the additive color information. means a professional-consumer or a producer-consumer (who is involved somehow in the production of the product that they consume). can usually take movies. while the top bridge cameras remain prosumer (compared to compact LPDs). and blue) which are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter.a "do it all" ability with barrel distortion and pincushioning. but they are capable of very good image quality while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. depending on the quality of the zoom lens. The third method is called scanning because the sensor moves across the focal plane much like the sensor of a desktop scanner. in reference to the number of times the camera's sensor is exposed to the light passing through the camera lens. there have been three main methods of capturing the image. The most common originally was to use a single image sensor with three filters (once again red. The distinguishing characteristics are that prosumer cameras lack the mirror and reflex system of DSLRs.

However.three colors. It is usually inappropriate to attempt to capture a subject that moves with anything but a single-shot system. In some cases. a digital rotating line camera offers images of very high total resolution. The choice of method for a given capture is of course determined largely by the subject matter. scanning is accomplished by rotating the whole camera. the higher color fidelity and larger file sizes and resolutions available with multi-shot and scanning backs make them attractive for commercial photographers working with stationary subjects and largeformat photographs. .

CD single or DVD a 185 MB small form factor CD. A wide variety of storage media has been used. most commonly seen in the Sony CD1000. • A common alternative is the use of a card reader which may be capable of reading several types of storage media. PCMCIA hard drives Early professional cameras. moving it back and forth between the camera and the reader can be inconvenient. These include: Onboard flash memory Cheap cameras and cameras secondary to the device's main use (such as a camera phone). such as the Kodak EasyShare One. Thermal printer Known only in one model of camera that printed images immediately rather than storing. via Bluetooth or IEEE 802. An external card reader allows convenient direct access to the images on a collection of storage media. and over time have become increasingly smaller in size. Other cameras use wireless connections. as well as high speed transfer of data to the computer. But if only one storage card is in use. USB is now the most widely used method ( Most cameras are viewable as USB Mass Storage). discontinued. Some cameras use USB PTP mode for connection instead of USB MSC. which has resulted in an ongoing need to . Many modern cameras offer the PictBridge standard. though some have a FireWire port. some offer both modes.Connectivity Many digital cameras can connect directly to a computer to transfer data: • Early cameras used the PC serial port.11 Wi-Fi. as the device takes power from the USB port. Video Floppy A 2x2 inch (50 mm × 50 mm)floppy disk used for early analog cameras.5" floppy disks Mainly the Sony Mavica line of the late 1990s. Batteries Digital cameras have high power requirements. Storage Digital cameras need memory to store data. Use of a card reader also avoids draining the camera battery during the download process. which allows sending data directly to printers without the need of a computer. 3.

Create posters or multimedia displays or presentations of student activities and work for open house. Supplement work sheets with pictures specific . Show students important sites or points ahead of time to highlight spots not to miss. discuss learning. Take pictures for school newspapers and local broadcasts. Applications: Provided here are a few ideas and examples for how digital cameras could be used to support education. fair displays etc. pictures for vocabulary or reading lessons. Create a photo inventory of school property for property records. create an ID file for school records. instruments. Document crime or vandalism for police or insurance reasons. For example: lab equipment. recipe ingredients. Curriculum Take students on an electronic field trip by showing photos of a distant site. badges.develop a battery small enough to fit in the camera and yet able to power it for a reasonable length of time. Create assignments with pictures and processes. sports equipment or positions. Review field trips with pictures to show all students the sights. Support Print student or staff ID photos for cards. awards night. or even a digital yearbook. share with other groups. or special events. measurements.

Use with lenses or other optics ( your setups. telescopes. classroom. The pictures will allow you to document a greater variety of work that would otherwise not be included in a portfolio. lab. Create more authentic evaluations which include images of items or processes from your class. Create student presentations. Assessment Include students’ photos and images of their 3D and performance work in portfolios. or images of student performances. etc.) to make images available to the entire class. Write thank you letters showing recipient/sender interaction. Customize your displays and bulletin boards with photos from your school. .

and with good reason. They're versatile. sweep past the stationary document on a glass platen. but maximize throughput. professional units for the color graphics market now rival drum scanners in quality. although the transport mechanisms on some newer models reduces the stress. or put it in permanent storage on your hard drive. and can increase throughput and lessen operator fatigue for sets of uniform documents in reasonably good condition. Generally designed for highvolume business environments. Different types of scanners are: Flatbed Scanners Flatbed scanners are the best-known and largest selling scanner type. Automatic document handlers (ADH) are available on some models. and widely available. Documents are expected to be of uniform size and sturdy enough to endure fairly rough handling. A specialized variant of the flatbed scanner is the overhead book scanner. sensor array and optics are moved to an overhead arm assembly under which a bound volume can be placed face up for scanning. they typically scan in black and white or gray scale at relatively low resolutions. You can also scan a handwritten letter and send it by fax directly to somebody. easy to operate. At the other end. Scanners can read printed text and convert it to files (OCR) that you can manipulate with your wordprocessing program. both mounted on a moving arm. Their popularity for Web publishing has opened up a huge market. All use the same basic technology. in which the scanner's light source. Sheetfeed Scanners Sheetfeed scanners use the same basic technology as flatbeds. in which a light sensor (generally a CCD) and a light source. usually at the expense of quality.STUDY TYPES AND SURVEY OF OF STILL IMAGE SCANNERS AND DVD’S SCANNERS Scanners are not just for scanning pictures. pushing prices for entry level units below $100. Using .

roller. Only a few companies make microfilm scanners. Microfilm Scanners Microfilm scanners are highly specialized devices for digitizing roll film. film quality and condition may vary. but at a price. though more and more such objects will be captured directly by digital camera. drum scanners are slow. Ironically. Slide Scanners Slide scanners are used to digitize existing slide libraries as well as photo intermediates of 3dimensional objects and documents that are not wellsuited for direct scanning. drum scanners offer features not available to desktop scanners such as direct conversion to CMYK. fiche. and huge image scanning areas. and because they offer minimal enhancement capability. drum scanners use PMT (Photo Multiplier Tube) technology for greater dynamic range and color accuracy. Yet what truly sets drum scanners apart is their increased productivity. drum scanners can produce more scans per hour than a desktop unit. . the light sensor and light source remain stationary while the document is moved past. They also cost an arm and a leg. Nevertheless. Instead of using CCD technology. most drum scanners don’t support preview mode . or vacuum transport. Getting good. An important subclass of sheetfeed scanners are upright models specifically designed for oversize documents such as maps and architectural drawings. Besides their expense.drum scanner operators are more interested in numbers than what the see with their eyes. and the lack of competition contributes to the high cost of these devices. consistent quality from a microfilm scanner can be difficult because they can be operationally complex. and aperture cards. greater dynamic range. Thus they are typically found in service bureaus that cater to the color pre-press market. highest quality scans of any scanner type. drum. belt. auto sharpening. Drum Scanners Drum scanners produce the highest resolution. Since the process of scanning to CMYK is automated. not suitable for brittle documents and require a high level of operator skill. batch scanning.

But their 4" to 5" wide scan head forces you to make multiple passes to scan even average-sized documents. the resolution may be insufficient for some needs. . You'll need to use the supplied stitching software to merge these partial scans back together again . scanning now. which is a glass surface and when the picture/photo/object is kept on the surface. WORKING OF SCANNERS Carbon-copying. as opposed to a SCSI port. Handheld Scanners Hand scanners are useful for their portability and low price (often one-third to a quarter of the cost of a flatbed scanner). and is converted into digital information that can be read by a computer. This resultant image is sharp and clear. photocopying. allowing them to be easily shared from workstation to workstation. One can actually capture a true copy and even minor details of it by using a scanner. quick and easy. a light source illuminates the object and the reflection from the surface of the object is trapped by sensing (photoelectric devices). which can be played around with too! The scanner has a scanning area. low-cost scans. High-end hand scanners offer 400 dpi resolution and 24-bit color . Unfortunately.a time consuming task. hand scanners are very popular and are capable of highquality. At least one manufacturer ships a motorized "self-propelled" unit to help stabilize its scanner.allowing you to achieve reasonably high-quality results. something that was not possible earlier. but depending on the size of the original. is the most popular way of reproducing images. Many hand scanners now offer an alignment template to help guide you when scanning. Many people find them ideal for use with a notebook or laptop. Nonetheless. Hand scanners generally plug into a computer's printing port. these were more apt technologies for text. hand scanners are less accurate than flatbeds because they have weaker light sources and often produce uneven scans .courtesy of the unsteadiness of your hand or the surface you're standing on.The use of transparent media generally delivers an image with good dynamic range. Throughput can be slow.

CCDs are linear charged-coupled device (CCD) array. converts the light measurement to an analogue voltage. and measured by the CCDs.When you scan an image it is illuminated by a light source. The light is then reflected back off the image. which is a photometer. This light goes through a lens. This reflected light is of different intensity depending on the light /dark areas of the document. The CCD. . This analogue voltage is then converted to a digital value by categorizing the information into values based on the intensity of the light detected.

The light is then reflected back off the image. The CCD. One can actually capture a true copy and even minor details of it by using a scanner. This analogue voltage is then converted to a digital value by categorizing the information into values based on the intensity of the light detected. and measured by the CCDs. Use Of Cold Cathode Diode(CCD) When you scan an image it is illuminated by a light source. The entire information is then sent to the software application that organizes the information (into bits and bytes) presenting it on the monitor. and is converted into digital information that can be read by a computer. Properties Of CCD . which can be played around with too! The scanner has a scanning area. these were more apt technologies for text. This resultant image is sharp and clear. scanning now. converts the light measurement to an analogue voltage. CCDs are linear charged-coupled device (CCD) array. which is a photometer. This reflected light is of different intensity depending on the light /dark areas of the document. which is a glass surface and when the picture/photo/object is kept on the surface. a light source illuminates the object and the reflection from the surface of the object is trapped by sensing (photoelectric devices). photocopying.HOW DO SCANNERS WORK? Carbon-copying. is the most popular way of reproducing images. something that was not possible earlier. This light goes through a lens.

The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm.7 GB (single-sided. double-layer) 9. DVD+RW. the light has a red color. and was invented and developed by Sony. and then function as a DVD-ROM. but store more than six times as much data. DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. single-layer) Capacity 8. DVD-RW (re-writable). . is an optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. and DVD-RAM (random access memory) can all record and erase data multiple times.5 Mbit/s (1×) 10.08 GB (double-sided. see Dissociated Vertical Deviation. including those with video content. Variations of the term DVD often indicate the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM (read only memory) has data that can only be read and not written. DVD DVD-R read/write side Media type Optical disc 4. may be referred to as DVD Data discs.[4] thus.4 GB (double-sided. Other types of DVDs.DVD For the binocular vision condition. double-layer – rare) Read mechanism Write mechanism Standard 650 nm laser. single-layer) 17. DVD-R and DVD+R (recordable) can record data only once.5 GB (single-sided.5 Mbit/s (1×) DVD Forum's DVD Books and DVD+RW Alliance specifications DVD. also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc. 10. DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs). respectively. and Philips in 1995.

respectively. As with hard disk drives.32 4.0 12 8 The basic types of DVD (12 cm diameter.073. and kilobyte. acquired similar numeric names with even larger deviation.92 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-1 to 18.75 12.9 0 DVD-18 DS DL (GB) 1.3 3 15. or 1. The 12 cm type is a standard DVD.46 2. or 1. in the DVD realm. Other formats.95 8. and the 8 cm variety is known as a MiniDVD.38 7. those with 8 cm diameter and hybrid variants.36 2.DVD capacity Capacity and nomenclature[19][20] SS = single-sided.000 bytes).95 4.e.824 bytes).40 13.66 2. Most computer operating systems display file sizes in gibibytes. DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes. In draft versions of the specification. . but some parameters were changed later on as explained above.2 12 4 17. The capacity by surface (MiB/cm2) varies from 6. labeled as gigabyte.. so the capacity decreased. megabyte. respectively.92 5.72 4. and kibibytes.70 8. 109. DS = double-sided. 230.0 MiB/cm2 in the DVD-18.e.000. single-sided or homogenous double-sided) are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes.741..47 2. gigabyte and the symbol GB are usually used in the SI sense (i. gibibyte (with symbol GiB) is used (i. SL = single-layer. mebibytes. For distinction.54 9. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD.000. DL = dual-layer Designation DVD-1 DVD-2 DVD-3 DVD-4 DVD-5 DVD-9 DVD-10 SS SL SS DL DS SL DS DL SS SL SS DL DS SL DS DVD-14 DL/SL [21] Side s Layer Diamete r s (total) (cm) 1 1 8 1 2 8 2 2 8 2 4 8 1 1 12 1 2 12 2 2 12 2 2 3 4 Capacity (GiB) 1.

048 bytes of which are user data. Each DVD sector contains 2.(hyphen) formats: . There is a small difference in storage space between + and . 2.Size comparison: a 12 cm DVD+RW and a 19 cm pencil.418 bytes of data.

it is obsolete and the data is unavailable and thus lost. but did not become the dominant form of home video distribution in the United States until June 15. Despite DVD Audio's superior technical specifications. DVD Audio currently forms a niche market.[26] DVD became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale in 1996.[5][27] Currently. how long the disc can be stored until data is lost. 1998 and in Australia on February 1. in the United States on March 1. probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD Video avoided. reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U. reflective layer. DVD Audio DVD Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. in Europe on October 1. there is debate as to whether the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable in typical listening environments. and storage practices.[37][38][39] and is believed to be an unreliable medium for backup unless great care is taken for storage conditions and handling.DVD Video DVD Video is a standard for content on DVD media. when weekly DVD Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals. The format went on sale in Japan on November 1. 1996. Durability of DVDs is measured by how long the data may be read from the disc. Compared with the CD format.[35] The longevity of the ability to read from a DVD+R or DVD-R. Five factors affect durability: sealing method. DVD as a backup medium There are two considerations for a backup medium: obsolescence and durability.1 kHz). where it was manufactured. 1997.S. 2006. the much highercapacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater sample resolution. although it was surpassed by Blu-ray Disc in Japan when Blu-ray first went on sale in Japan on March 31. assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is. If there is no device that can read the medium.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44. organic dye makeup. marketplace. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5. 2003. and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction). . is largely dependent on manufacturing quality[36] ranging from 2 to 15 years. 1999. DVD Video is the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide.

DVDR and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW. "manufacturers claim life spans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD.According to the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA). DVD+RW and DVDRAM". .

*temp. newnode=(struct nodes *)malloc(sizeof(struct nodes)). }. int isleft. int father.*prev. void pqinsert(struct nodes **p. }. int startpos./* Problem Definition: Program To Implement Huffman Encoding */ #include<stdio.h> #include< val) { struct nodes *newnode. struct nodes *next. newnode->data=val. . }.h> #include<conio.h> #define MAXBITS 50 #define MAXSYMB 50 #define MAXNODES 99 struct nodes { int data. struct nodetype { int freq. struct codetype { int bits[MAXBITS].

int val. } } int pqmindelete(struct nodes **p) { struct nodes *temp. } } void main() . while(temp!=NULL&&temp->data<val) { prev=temp.temp=*p. return val. *p=temp->next. } else { newnode->next=prev->next. *p=newnode. prev->next=newnode. temp=temp->next. if(*p==NULL) return -1. } if(temp==*p) { newnode->next=*p. val=temp->data. else { temp=*p.

alph[i]=symb.{ struct codetype cd. for(i=0. char symb.freq+node[p2]. } .p++) { p1=pqmindelete(&rootnodes).i++) alph[i]=' '. p2=pqmindelete(&rootnodes).k.p).freq=node[p1].p2. int i.isleft=0.father=p. pqinsert(&rootnodes. struct nodes *rootnodes=NULL.p1. scanf("%d". node[p2]. for(i=0.i++) { scanf("%s%d". node[p]. node[p1].alph[MAXSYMB].i<MAXSYMB.&node[i].n.p.p<2*n-1.root. node[p1].father=p. struct nodetype node[MAXNODES]. node[p2]. pqinsert(&rootnodes.freq).&symb.i<n. } for(p=n.code[MAXSYMB]. printf("Enter number of symbols\n"). clrscr().isleft=1. printf("Enter symbol and frequency\n").&n).freq.i).

for(i=0.startpos=cd. p=i.bits[k]=cd.isleft) cd.i<n.bits[k]). } for(k=cd.father.k++) printf("%d".startpos. if(node[p].startpos=MAXBITS.startpos. } .alph[i]. for(k=code[i].startpos--.i++) { cd.bits[cd.startpos]=1.code[i].k<MAXBITS. p=node[p]. while(p!=root) { cd.i<n.i++) { printf("%c\t%d\t".k++) code[i]. printf("\n"). code[i].root=pqmindelete(&rootnodes).k<MAXBITS.startpos]=0.startpos. for(i=0.bits[cd.node[i].freq). else cd.bits[k]. } printf("\nHuffman codes are\n").

} Enter number of symbols 5 Enter symbol and frequency a7 b9 c 11 d 13 e 15 Huffman codes are a 7 110 b 9 111 c 11 00 d 13 01 e 15 10 .getch().

*/ #include<stdio.str[j]!=NULL. } else break.h> #include<conio. j++. } .count=1./* Problem Definition: Program to implement run length encoding. while(str[j]!=NULL) { if(str[j]==str[j+1]) { count++. int i. printf("\t\t******RUN LENGTH ENCODING******"). clrscr(). gets(str). printf("\nTHE RUN LENGTH CODE IS:"). printf("\nENTER THE STRING:").n.h> #include<string.j++) { count=1.j. for(j=0.h> void main() { char str[100].

str[j]). } } } getch(). } else { for(int kk=0.kk<count.count. } ******RUN LENGTH ENCODING****** ENTER THE STRING:DDDDDDDDDDFFFFFFFFFFFDFDF THE RUN LENGTH CODE IS:$10D$11FDFDF .kk++) { printf("%c".if(count>3) { printf("$%d%c".str[j]).