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# Subharmonic and Superharmonic Oscillations (Rao

)
We noted in Chapter 3 that for a linear system, when the applied force has a certain frequency of oscillation, the steady-state response will have the same frequency of oscillation. However, a nonlinear system will exhibit subharmonic and superharmonic oscillations. Subharmonic response involves oscillations whose frequencies ( ) are related to the forcing frequency ( ) as
(13.65)

where n is an integer (n = 2. 3,4,...). Similarly, superharmonic response involves oscillations whose frequencies ( ) are related to the forcing frequency ( ) as
(13.66)

where n = 2, 3,4 In this section, we consider the subharmonic oscillations of order of an undamped pendulum whose equation of motion is given by (undamped Duffing's equation): ̈
(13.67)

where is assumed to be small. We find the response using the perturbation method [13.4,13.6]. Accordingly, we seek a solution of the form
(13.68)

or

(13.69)

where denotes the fundamental frequency of the solution (equal to the third subharmonic frequency of the forcing frequency). Substitution of Eqs. (13.68) and (13.69) into Eq. (13.67) gives ̈ ̈
(13.70)

If terms involving

,

and

are neglected, Eq. (13.70) reduces to

74) into Eq. (13.74) where C denotes the amplitude of the forced vibration.72) can be expressed as (13.76) results in ̈ (13. (13.̈ ̈ = 0): (13.76) By using the trigonometric relations .73) reduces to (13.71) and set them equal to zero ̈ or ̈ The substitution of Eq. (13. (13.73) If the initial conditions are assumed as x(t = 0) = A and ̇ (t = 0) = 0.71) We first consider the linear equation (by setting ̈ The solution of Eq.72) (13. (13. (13.75) Now we consider the terms involving α in Eq.74) into Eq. The value of C can be determined by substituting Eq.72) and equating the coeffieient of on both sides of the resulting equation. we obtain and so that Eq. which yields (13. (13.77) (13.

79) must be zero. (13.77) can be expressed as ̈ (13.80) A (Amplitude) stable frequency unstable Equations (13. Since in order to have a subharmonic response (13.(13.75) give .79) The condition to avoid a secular term in the solution is that the coefficient of in Eq.80) and (13.78) Eq. (13.

represents stable solutions while the curve QR.85) . (13.6].(13.84) into Eq.81) Substituting Eq.82) can be seen to be a cubic equation in and a quadratic in A.83) where the amplitudes of the harmonic and superharmonic eomponeni. we obtain the equation to be satisfied by A and ω in order to have subharmonic oscillation as (13. A and C are to be determined. The minimum value of amplitude for the existence of stable subharmonic oscillations can be found by setting as Consider the undamped Duffing's equation ̈ The solution of this equation is assumed as (13.78). where the slope is positive.69) and rearranging the terms. (13.82).82) Equation (13. The relationship between the amplitude (A) and the subharmonic frequency (ω). is shown graphically in Fig.13. given by Eq. (13. where the slope is negative. It has been observed that the curve PQ.7. (13. 13.s. (13.83) gives.4. with the use of the trigonometric relations of Eq. [ * + ] (13.81) into Eq. The substitution of Eq. (13. denotes unstable solutions [13.84) (13.

we obtain (13. (13. in conjunction with Eq.88) and Eq. (13. .Neglecting the terms involving coefficients of and .86) gives (13.87) Equations (13.89) Equating C from Eqs. (13.87) gives ( ) (13. gives the relationship between the amplitude of superharmonic oscillations (C) and the corresponding frequency .88) and (13.86) and (13. and .90) which can be rewritten as ( ) ( ) ( ) (13. (13.91) Equation (13. the terms involving and can be neglected and Eq. As a particular case. and equating the on both sides of Eq.85).86) (13.88).87) represent a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations that can be solved numerically for A and C. (13.89) leads to ( )( ) ( )( ) (13. if C is assumed to be small compared to A.91).