You are on page 1of 108

Political Science (Paper 1


Political Science (Paper 1)
Western Political Thoughts

1. Aristotle 2. Plato 3. Machiavelli 4. Montesquieu 5. Thomas Hobbes 6. John Locke 7. Rousseau 8. Jeremy Bentham 9. John Stuart Mill 10. Karl Marx

Muslim Political Thoughts

1. Al-Farabi 2. Al-Mawardi 3. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi 4. Al-Ghazali 5. Ibn-e-Khaldoon 6. Allama Muhammad Iqbal

Page 1 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

Western Political Thought---Aristotle Aristotle

“Aristotle was the unimpeachable authority on every science and art known to his day.” (Maxey) Aristotle was born in 384 BC. His father was Physician. He studied in Plato’s Academy for about 17 years. He was attached to Plato’s Academy for two reasons: 1. It was the cradle of education in Greece for advanced studies. 2. He was so much influenced by Plato’ teaching. He served as tutor of Alexander the Great in 343 BC and kept his school in the Lyceum for 12 years. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Athenians revolted and prosecuted the accused persons of whom Aristotle was one of the many. He was charged for impiety but he fled to avoid punishment. During the middle Ages, he was simply considered “the Philosopher”. The recovery of his manuscripts in the thirteenth century marks a turning point in the history of philosophy. According to Dunning, “the capital significance of Aristotle in the history of political theories lies in the fact that he gave to politics the character of an independent science.” He is founder of science of logic. His monumental treatise “Politics” is the most valuable works on Political Science. The “Politics” is a chief work on the science and art of Government giving full justification for existing of the institution like the state, slavery and family is calculated to suggest the remedies for the ill of the body-politic of the city-state. Though it is generally said that “Politics” is an unfinished treatise and often obscure but the half understood words of Aristotle have become laws of thoughts to other ages. Zeller says, “Politics of Aristotle is the richest treasure that has come down to us from antiquity, it is the greatest contribution to the field of political science that we possess.”

Aristotle as Father of Political Science
The title of fatherhood of Political Science bestowed upon Aristotle is not without justification. He was brought up in the order of medicine as his father was a physician of the king of Macedonia. Since his childhood he got every opportunity and encouragement to develop a scientific bent of mind. Instead of turning towards literature like his great master Plato, he built the terminology of science and philosophy. In the words of Renan, “Socrates gave philosophy to mankind and Aristotle gave science to it.”
Page 2 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

Aristotle gives us definite and clear-cut dogmas, instead of groping in illusions and imaginations. He does not believe in abstract notions of justice and virtue, but has a concrete approach. He discarded utopian philosophy of Plato and advocated logical and scientific theories based upon realism. Aristotle supported the principle of unity through diversity. He was of the view that reality lay in the concrete manifestation of things. He separated ethics from politics. We can say that Aristotle laid the foundation of a real political science by his keen and practical political approach and systematic treatment of the subject. He may be called the “Scientist of Politics” because of his empirical study. He collected his data with care and minuteness, clarifies and defines it and draws logical conclusions which deserve nothing but admiration and praise.

Aristotle’s Views on Origin of State
“Man is a political animal, destined by nature for state life.” “State exists for the sake of good life and not for the sake of life only.” (Aristotle) Aristotle was of the view that the origin of the state is present in the inherent desire of man to satisfy his economic needs and racial instincts. The family is formed by male and female on the one hand and master and slave on the other hand. Then they work for achievement of their desires. They live together and form a such family in household which has its moral and social unity and value. Aristotle said, “Family is the association established by nature for the supply of man’s everyday wants. But when several families are united and the association aims at something more than the supply of daily need, then come into existence the village. When several villages are united in a single community, perfect and large enough to be quite self-sufficing, the state comes into existence, originating in the bare needs of life and continuing in existence for the sake of good life.” Three elements are essential to build the state on perfect lines i.e., fellowship, practical organization and justice. A man without state is either a beast or a God. According to Aristotle, “he who by nature and not be mere accident is without a state is either above humanity or below it, he is tribe-less, lawless and heartless one.” The family is natural and inborn instinct, similarly the state is also natural for individuals. Baker said, “The state is the natural home of the fully grown and natural man. It is an institution for the moral perfection of man to which his whole nature moves.” Aristotle was of the view that state is a “Political Koimonia”, an association which represents a functional unity of varied and reciprocal parts made by the pursuit of a common aim in which
Page 3 of 108

” State is an association of human being and the highest form of association existing for the sake of perfect and healthier life. “Man is essentially good and the function of the state is to develop his good faculties into a habit of good actions. 6. Maclwain said. furnishing of security. intellectual and physical excellence. Distributive Justice It is mainly concerned with voluntary commercial transaction like sale. “the supremacy of law is accepted by Aristotle as a mark of a good state and not merely as an unfortunate necessity.” Justice means that every citizen in the state should abide by the dictates of law and fulfill its moral obligation towards community members. According to Aristotle. The state is based on the element of justice 3. Functions of the State 1. The state also ensures to fulfill all the natural needs of its members and to provide opportunities to the individuals for the attainment of moral. The state is not merely an association of associations but it is a highest natural association for pursuits of spiritual class of common life of virtue. Law was superior to the Government because it checked the latter's irregularities.Political Science (Paper 1) their nature. Sabine paid tribute to Aristotle in these words. Corrective Justice It deals with proper allocation to each person according to his capacity and worth. Rule by law was better than personal rule because law had as impersonal quality which the rules lacked. The state functions to ensure a perfect and self-sufficing life of all its components members. their habits and their training lead them all to join. 4. “The state is a kind of Koimonia which is a supreme over all others. 5. 2. hire. It also aims at the highest good of the community for its proper realization of demands and needs in it. and embraces them all. The absence of law is the negation of good laws and this meant lack of constitutional laws. According to Aristotle there should be two kind of justice: 1. Page 4 of 108 .” Rule of Law Aristotle believed in natural laws but not the natural rights. 2. acquisition of property etc.

First part is a practical manual of conduct advising democrats. Strong desire for justice becomes another feature of revolution. 2. if any change occurs in the existing system or constitution of the state. Second part is a treatise on the philosophical basis of the good and stable governments. but the ruling party has been transferred from one man to another. The proletariat is passionate to secure absolute equality for the availability of the same rights that are possessed by few. The few struggle for proportional equality for perpetual upgrading superiority in power and privilege. monarchs and oligarchs and even tyrants as how to keep themselves in power. Particular Causes of Revolution: 1. made Aristotle to contemplate deeply and to stress the causes of the Revolution and its remedies. Aristotle’s theory is divided into two parts: 1.Political Science (Paper 1) Aristotle emphasis that reward and honors should not be offered to the virtuous few but to others as who collectively contribute in the welfare of the state and should be proportionately rewarded. Theory of Revolution Decay and disturbance in political life brought crucial changes in the Governments of the citystate in Greece. Aristotle was of the view that if the constitution remains the same. The main feature of revolution is to be the craving of men for equality. it is a revolution. What is Revolution? To Aristotle. The possession of sovereign power by an individual or group so as to create fear and apprehension in the minds of the subject 4. Equality has two characters-absolute and proportional. For example. Universal desire for honor and prestige 3. 2. if in the state the constitution has changed from monarchy to democracy. Disproportionate increase of power and wealth in any part of the state Page 5 of 108 . General Causes of Revolution: 1. it is also a revolution. aristocrats. 2. Aristotle was of the view that men turn to revolution when they think they have not got their dues. Undue priority and prominence of individuals caused great stir in the heart of the subdued people 5. it means revolution. Desire for gain and profit.

revolutions are led by the dogmatic policies of demagogues in attacking the rich. Aristocracy tends to become oliogarchy. 10. through the undue encroachment of the richer classes polity to become democracy. Page 6 of 108 . Abundant political power should not be concentrated in the hands of one man or one class of men. Too much power concentrated in one man or class of men for political gains Dissimilarity of different elements in the state The rivalries of people of different races in the state Dynastic quarrels and conflicts Free immigration of outside races with different notions of justice and law Revolutions in Particular kind of State: 1. 9. 2. Democracy In democracies. Honors and rewards should be distributed as fairly as possible only to deserving ones because inequalities of offices and honors drive men to revolt. revolutions take place due to two reasons: A) Oppressive or Totalitarian rule B) Rivalry among the ruling dictators 3.” Aristotle was of the view that democracy is more secure and stable than oligarchy. Remedies for Revolution: 1. 11. revolution held to the policy of narrowing down the circle of the Government. According to Dunning “Stability can be maintained only by proportionate equality and by giving to each his own. Tyranny or Oligarchy In oligarchies. Carelessness shown in granting public offices to disloyal citizens and undue favoritism shown to the individuals 8. Aristocracy In aristocracies. 2.Political Science (Paper 1) 6. through the undue aspiration of the poorer class. 12. Elections intrigues and moral degradation kept up in the selection of some people 7. The various classes in the state without any discrimination of color and creed should be treated alike and with proper consideration 3.

He should perish the intellectual life of the citizens to perish revolutionary tendencies. the poor and the rich should be encouraged to take part in the state administration which does not affect the sovereign power. a) A tyrant must employ spies particularly females to trace out disloyal persons to gallows the concerned. 7. In democracy. Lawlessness and anarchy should not be allowed to creep in even in small and trifling matter. Political offices should be within reach of every individual who is able of performing his functions best. g) h) i) He should increase the material well-being of the citizens. 10. Bribes and other kinds of illegal gratification should be made quite impossible to accept. Aristotle also suggested various methods in making oligarchies and tyrannies-stable which are to be followed by a tyrant. In oligarchy and aristocracy. Political stability and internal solidarity can be gained by maintaining proportionate equality. 9. Proper education should be imparted to the citizens in the spirit of constitution. b) c) d) e) He should follow an aggressive policy abroad He should always warn people about constant fear of invasion from outside He should keep the people busy and never allow them to remain in vertigo and lethargy. particularly the administration of public finances is open to public scrutiny. The Government should be so vigilantly organized that the political office-holders cannot make money out of their offices.Political Science (Paper 1) 4. 6. He should adorn his city and must work for its glory Page 7 of 108 . He must extend enthusiasm in religion f) He should punish the guilty so that crimes must be ended for the peaceful order in the state. 5. the inferior class must be well treated and the principles of democratic equality must be followed among the privileged classes. The habit of obedience and submission to law should be instilled. 8. A Government would gain popularity and political stability if it so arranges things that the internal details of the administration.

" __________________ Page 8 of 108 . He even permitted interference in the privacy of individual’s life when necessary in the interests of the state.Political Science (Paper 1) j) He must have respect for the good. social and economic standard. It had the effect of reversing ethical. According to Aristotle “A revolution constitutes more a political than a legal change. Aristotle put the security of the state above everything else.

He wrote about 36 treaties all in the form of dialogues. unbound by custom. “The Protagoras”. “The Apology”. even of customs and stupidity themselves along the road to a national life. education. education and metaphysics.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Plato Plato Introduction Plato was born in Athens in 427 BC when the civilization of ancient Greece was at the zenith of glory and eminence. perfection and universality of thought. “The Gorgias”. “The Meno”. Plato’s Republic known as “Respublica” in Latin is translated from Greek word “Politeia or Polity” which means a political constitution in general. temperance and courage which alone imbibed the happiness to the individual and stability to the states. Then he returned to Athens and opened an academy. He belonged to royal blood of aristocracy. In 399 BC. able to direct the forces. the law giver. It is a major contribution to political philosophy. The Republic and Plato “The true romance of the Republic is the romance of free intelligence. economics. Sabine) The Republic is an excellent product of Plato’s maturity. His academy became the best school in Athens. ethics. untrained indeed by human stupidity and self will. Egypt. “The Republic is not a mere work upon politics but the finest treatise on education that ever was written. He made efforts to discover the eternal principles of human conduct i-e justice. Africa. He wandered abroad for twelve years in Persia. from his mother’s side he was related to Solan. It is an achievement of comprehension.” Page 9 of 108 . Rousseau said. Other works of Plato include: “The Politicus”. It was about political philosophy. Italy and Sicily in the hours of disillusionment. and “The Critias”. the defeat of Athens by Sparta made him to despise democracy. Work of Plato “The Republic” is the most important and authentic work of Plato. absorbing wisdom from every source and tasting every creedal dogma. It presents a picture not of any existing state in Greek but of an ideal state in which weakness of the existing states were to be avoided. moral aspects of life and metaphysics.” (Prof. the turning point came in the life of Plato.

cities will never rest from their evils.” Criticism The Republic contains a good deal of criticism on contemporary institutions. not because it is a romance. Plato considered justice to be the supreme virtue and his ideal state be dwelt with it.Political Science (Paper 1) Main feature of the Republic is the virtue of knowledge. We can say that the Republic is his master piece. Plato stresses that state should not be an assembly of corrupt and selfish individuals but be a communion of souls united for the pursuit of justice and truth and also for the welfare of the people. He should Page 10 of 108 . He was of the view that an individual presented almost the same features and qualities on a smaller scale as society on a bigger scale. Philosophers were the best entitled to rule the state because of their superiority in virtue. Plato was of the view that different classes and individuals had different capacities for the attainment of virtues. Features of an Ideal State 1. He believed that the virtues of an individual and of the state were identical. Plato built his state on the analogy of an individual organism. Plato’s Republic is the crowning achievement of art. science and philosophy. Plato never thought of the possibility of the institutions of his ideal state. He never thought of the impracticability of this idea concerning his ideal state. “The mainspring of the Republic is Plato’s aversion to contemporary Capitalism and his great desire to substitute a new scheme of Socialism. He compares the construction of an ideal state with an act of an artist who sketches an ideal picture without concerning himself with the fact whether individual characteristic features of imaginative picture are to be found anywhere or not? In the same way. Rule of Philosophy Plato was of the view that in an ideal state the philosopher-ruler should be prominent. The labor class showed the least capacity. According to Baker. being capable of ever becoming a reality.” (Plato) The Republic of Plato is interpreted as Utopia to end all Utopias. The Republic represents a strong protest against the teachings of Sophists and the existing social and political corruption. Plato’s Ideal State “Until philosophers are kings or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and the power of philosophy and political greatness and wisdom meet in one. but because he constructed an ideal state in it. opinions and practices.

social. an individual could not fulfill all his desires by himself alone due to lack of capacity. 7. intellectual and political uplift. there should be a complete censorship of art and literature. It is not all despotism. Justice in ideal state Justice is the main feature of Plato’s Republic and it is also present in his ideal state. Philosopher-kings are immune from the provisions of law and public opinion. Plato built his ideal state on the analogy of individual and this identification leads to confusion. there is any restraint of law nor of public opinion over philosopher-rulers but that is not an unqualified absolutism. Control over the education system Philosopher ruler should control the education system in an ideal state. which is quite wrong. He failed to distinguish ethics from politics. 5. 2. We can say that Plato was the first feminist of his time. Thus co-operation among individuals should be necessary to satisfy their mutual desires. 6. No unqualified absolutism Though. equal opportunities should be given to both men and women for their economic. Principle of Functional Specialization Plato was of the view that due to multiple wants. 8. 4. Page 11 of 108 . neither. System of Communism Plato was of the view that guardian class should live under the system of communism of property and family. 3. Justice is the bond which binds every member of society together. Equality among men and women According to Plato. The rulers and soldiers do not possess any property of their own. His ideal state is based not merely on analogy but almost identification between the individual and the state. Some people are specialized in performing some certain tasks.Political Science (Paper 1) has a broaden vision of unity of knowledge. Criticism 1. It is necessary so that nothing immoral things might falls into the hands of the young individuals. It forms a harmonious union of individuals. because rule of philosophy is not free from the basic articles of the constitution. Censorship of art and literature In ideal state.

Plato fails to condemn the institution of slavery and regard it as fundamental evil. 5. 3. His assumption that the state should control the entire lives of its citizens is false and contrary to human liberty. Plato is a moralist rather than a political idealist. By the system of functional specialization. Plato tends to dwarf the personality of the individual. 4. 6. Plato completely ignores the lower class in his ideal state which forms the great bulk of population. Plato’s system of communism of women and temporary marriage is detestable and unethical. Such negligence may divide the society into two hostile groups.Political Science (Paper 1) 2. __________________ Page 12 of 108 . There is no possibility of any full development of human personality in his ideal state.

but reflected their own way of solving the existing problems of their state. 6. Both taught that all manual labor should be done by slaves or non-citizens. Both upheld slavery and justified its continuation in true spirit of Greek ideals. as “What could have been more ridiculous than this mob-led. 2. realist and scientific in his approach of propounding theories. Aristotle believes that reality in the concrete manifestation of a thing. Each regarded slaves as an indispensable part of the community for the manual performance and overall development progress of the state. and not in its Page 13 of 108 . Aristotle strikes at the very point with definite and clear-cut dogmas and doctrine. While Plato believes in the abstract notions of justice. 3. the favorite and most brilliant pupil of Plato.” On the other hand Aristotle was of the view that “the people are not capable of selfgovernment. virtue and idea. 5. 4. It is this conviction which makes Aristotle a true Platonist. this government by a debating society. While Plato draws conclusion through the use of allusion and analogy.Political Science (Paper 1) Comparison between Plato and Aristotle Aristotle. Both wanted to impose limitations on citizenship. 3. Aristotle is logical. Where Plato is visionary. is more conscious of his differences than of the points of agreement with him. The differences which these giants of philosophy were not the outcome of any grudge or ill-will. If Plato believes in the doctrine that the reality of a material thing lies in its idea not in its form. Both opposed the views of Sophists that the state came into birth for the sake of life and continues for the sake of good life. Aristotle’s “Political” is no less a manual for statesman than the “Republic” of Plato. Both despised foreigners and regarded races other than Greeks fit for subjection and bondage and as mentally inferior to the Greeks. 2.” 4. Aristotle judges the speculative fundamentals on the basis of exact comparison and deduces a thought presentable and acceptable even in modern civilization. Similarities 1. a mobocracy. passion-ridden democracy. imaginative and utopian. Differences 1.Both condemned democracy and wanted to replace it with some sort of constitutional or ideal polity while Plato echoed in condemning democracy.

and made freshly streamlining and fascinating by his powerful influential and charming style for practical adoption for state functions. 7. Plato inseparably mixed ethics and politics. On the other hand Aristotle was of the view that unity could be achieved through diversity in universe and men.” (Maxey) __________________ Page 14 of 108 . all who believe in old worlds made new by the toilsome use of science are disciples of Aristotle. “Plato seeks a superman who will create a state as good as ought to be. Plato was the propounder of new philosophy. but the former was made to sub serve the later. all who believe in new worlds for old are disciples of Plato. He subordinated political theories to ethical considerations. Aristotle was a systemiser of already existing knowledge.Political Science (Paper 1) supposed inherent idea. Plato believed in the phenomenon of unity through uniformity. Aristotle seeks a super science will create a state as good as can be. Ethics and politics were not only separated. 5. In Aristotle it was quite the reverse. 6. Thus.

Little is known about his early education. the hated beloved prophet of secularism. In 1506. treachery. He eventually freed and permitted to return to his family. But he failed in his plans because Medicis re-established their control over Florence. an ardent nationalist. On many occasions. cynicism. Machiavelli’s best known work. audacity.” (H. In 1498. the Medicis were expelled from the city and Florence became a republic. Cesare Borgia became the model for “The Prince”. malevolence. The Florence was ruled by the Medici family in 1494. had one of the enigmas of modern history. an impassioned patriot. deception. Machiavelli first joined public life as a chancery clerk. However he was known as a well-read fellow in Italian and Latin classics. a convinced democrat and an unscrupulous seeker after the favor of depots. his services were required as diplomatic observer in royal courts abroad. He enunciated the philosophy of art of Governments for effective discipline and stability in the state. The Medici exiled him and forbid his presence in Florence. He tirelessly struggled for the attainment of glory and magnificence of Rome by consolidating all scattered forces. a political Jesuit. He firmly believed that “fear is the domineering weapon for a Prince for complete obedience and is mightier than love. a body which had responsibility for war and interior affairs. He was strong. Soon afterward Machiavelli having been wrongly accused of implication in the Boscoli conspiracy against the Medici was imprisoned and tortured. as a true Florentine was naturally shocked to see the political upheaval and social decay in his beloved country and he determined to save her from all intrigues. Machiavelli became second chancellor and secretary of the Council of Ten. Thomas) Machiavelli. He advocated strongly for using the harsher methods and oppressive means for the stability of the state. He held that post for fourteen years.” Moral Indifference of Machiavelli Page 15 of 108 . cunning.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Machiavelli Machiavelli “Machiavelli had been represented as an utter cynic. He was very much impressed by Cesare Borgia in Romagna. Machiavelli persuaded the counsel to adopt his plan for formation of a citizen army. vigorous and intelligent man. hatred and lust that were necessary for a prince. whom Allama Iqbal has characterized as the “Sharp Agent of Devil” was born in Florence in 1469. Machiavelli.” (Sabine) “In Machiavelli we find the frankest and the most brutal analysis of the selfishness. disorders and petty wars. In the same year. He denounced all the church doctrines and held the Popes responsible for the plight state of affairs.

but he refused to accept them essential to the political stability. He imparts priority to the state and puts it above morality and religion. 5.Political Science (Paper 1) The reasons of Machiavelli’s moral indifferences are following: 1. These Page 16 of 108 . moral judgments are wholly subordinate to the existence of political and temporal existence and welfare. 6. the prince of Florence. It is a memorandum on the art of Government and of State diplomacy. In modern world. He wanted to practice pagan virtues of cunningness. It gives an awe-inspiring technique for successful ruler-ship and as such is a guide to the rulers and kings of his time and of succeeding times. The Prince and the Discourses are still modern theories and are being practiced in many secular countries of modern age. The whole argument of Prince is based upon the premise directly derived from Aristotelian philosophy that the state is the highest form of human association and that consideration for the state welfare must be given priority and preference than the well-being of the individuals. Machiavelli’s advocacy of unreligious and his indifference to morality have become so much disrupted that even his name has become a by-word for fraud. Machiavelli and State Diplomacy Machiavelli wrote his most important work “Prince” and dedicated it to de Medici. Machiavelli calculated that the institution of Papacy brought decline and destruction to the glory of Rome. He did not at all deny the excellence of moral virtues. force and dishonesty. glorious or shameful. “Prince” of Machiavelli is neither an academic treatise nor a book on political science. 4. because it is the highest form of social organization and the most essential of all institutions for the protection and promotion of human welfare. He pleads that the religion must be skillfully exploited as a useful weapon for achieving the annexing designs by the sovereign. In Machiavelli’s philosophy. Machiavelli stands courageously for the preservation of his state. merciful or cruel. on the contrary. 3. everything must be disregarded. Machiavelli does not believe in any ethical dogmas or in any divine law because of intentional segregation of politics from religion. about the best means of maintaining their power. He says that there must be no consideration of what is just or unjust. 2. He wrote primarily for the exaltation of the state. 7. some of the States Heads acted as “Prince of Machiavelli” by freezing all channels of human progress and liberty and also by reducing the citizens to that of animals and slaves. duplicity and knavery for achieving successful goals.

all regular channels of human activities are barred and all roads lead to war. egoism. selfishness and brutalities for the attainment of his motives. Machiavelli was of the views that: “Virtue brings ruin.” “A wise ruler ought not to keep faith when such observance may be turned against him. When you over-power your enemy. 10.Political Science (Paper 1) premises led to the conclusion that it was Caesar and not God to be worshipped. while vice brings security and prosperity. 7. Use force and duplicity rather than benign ness in dealing with other people. 3. A Prince should not be prodigal with the money of his own people. Caesar must make himself worthy of this worship by a cruel. especially foreigners. The strong must impose intimidatory laws upon the weak to arrest their rebelliousness. A prince must possess the qualities of wisdom. Do evil but pretend to do well. Page 17 of 108 . It is better to be creator of horrors than to be maintainer of love and affection. exiled and murdered. ruthless and successful seizure of power. In the Machiavellian state. The Prince should have no regard for the rights of others. The Prince must kill his enemies and if necessary. 5. He must remain vigilant and alert from his relations so that he may not be deposed. He should impose heavy tax upon them to the point of robbing them. 2.” “Cruelty is better than mercy. 8.” The main point of Machiavelli’s state diplomacy is following: 1. Concentrate all your efforts on war. A Prince. A Prince must discard all the canons of leniency and decency. but he should be very liberal and generous with the money plundered from other countries through aggression and other mean resources. 4. 6. root out the entire roots of his family. 9. otherwise some of his relatives will become vindictive to take revenge for the wrong you have inflicted. must turn into a murderer and a looter. Honor to nobody but to yourself. Let mercy be on your tongue and evil in your heart. Machiavelli was of the view that to be good is harmful but to pose to be good is useful diabolic attitude. his friends. Here Machiavelli personified Caesar with a state and almost identifies the state with the ruler. in order to crush his competitors. A prince must consider his friend and neighbors his ardent foes and does not repose any confidence in them. He who aspires to acquire mastery can afford to have no rivals. Impart priority to your own interests.

Political Science (Paper 1) __________________ Page 18 of 108 .

Holland and lastly England where he remained for above two years. In 1728 he visited Austria. For a long period of twelve years he continued as chief magistrate at Bordeaux. Reflections and the causes of the Greatness and Decline of the Romans. At the age of twenty seven he became president of Parliament of Bordeaux. Montesquieu’s doctrine of Separation of Powers Page 19 of 108 . 3. His father was an eminent French lawyer. Hungary.” (Sabine) Montesquieu was born in 1689 at Chateau de la Bordeaux in a noble aristocratic family. but he was not satisfied with the job because he was an extensive reader of literature and history and had deep sympathetic ties with the intellectual movements of his days. religious and social institutions in France. During his tour. This book won a great fame and immortality for Montesquieu because it came out after fourteen year unremitting labor and he made it a masterpiece for all ages. After his return he settled at La Brede and kept himself busy with the task of writing of political philosophy. as were their fellows across the channel. and yet he too was guilty of extreme over simplification. Of them all he had perhaps the clearest conception of the complexities of a social philosophy. 2. Important works of Montesquieu are: 1. This book was published in 1734. it embodied a brilliant satire on the existing political. At that time France although under absolute control of King Louis XIV. The Persian Letter: He published these letters in 1721. yet was more fertile for growth of political theory but Frenchmen were not satisfied with the political situation. Switzerland.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Montesquieu Montesquieu “Of all French political philosophers in the eighteenth century (other than Rousseau) the most important was Montesquieu. At last he left presidency and moved to Paris. the most important of parliaments in France except that of Paris. Rome. Venice. The Spirit of Law published in 1748. he came across the leading politicians and political thinkers in England and he was deeply impressed by the English conception of liberty and by the English system of Government.

Everyone is born to enjoy it without any distinction of color. there can be no liberty because apprehensions may arise.” According to Montesquieu there are three kinds of power: 1. Locke and Harrington had taught him what to expect and for the rest he adopted the myth which was current among the English themselves. He believed that the separation of powers among the different organs of the government is the best safeguard against tyranny. which are contrary to the will of the subject. By virtue of the legislative power. The theory of separation of powers among Legislative. Executive and Judicial branches of government was best realized in the British Constitution. the existence and liberty of people would be exposed to arbitrary rule. he is vested with the powers to punish criminals and also to safeguard the life and property of the individuals. the prince or magistrate exerts temporary or permanent laws and amends or abrogates those laws. When it is combined with the legislative. By virtue of the executive powers. creed and religion. establish the public security and provide protection against invasions. He pleads that each power must be exercised by a separate organ and a system of checks and balances should thus be established for solidarity and harmony of the state. Montesquieu was of the view that liberty is an indispensable fundamental for human progress and glory.Political Science (Paper 1) Montesquieu expounds his theory of separation of powers to set forth the governmental organization in order to safeguard the political liberty. sends or receives Ambassadors. there is no full Page 20 of 108 . Montesquieu did not rely upon observation. “It is by this mixture of monarchial. 2. that the separation of powers among the three organs of governments fully ensures liberty and freedom. Bolingbroke said. It is quite obvious from all above cited discussion. by imposing healthy checks on the despotism of the government bureaucrats. By virtue of the judiciary powers. that our free constitution of Government has been preserved so long inviolate. he makes peace or war. the separation of powers was absolutely essential. aristocratically and democratically power blended together in one system and by these three estates balancing one another. If the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and the executive then again there will be no liberty. When it is combined with executive organ. 3. then there will be violence and oppression in the capacity of a mortal God. He came to realize that for maintaining liberty. Montesquieu’s study of English constitution is not very correct until this day. When the executive and legislative are united in the same person. Criticism: 1.

” In spite of all inconsistencies in the theory of separation of powers. Montesquieu forms the government into three types: 1) Republic: Montesquieu was of the view “A republican government is that in which the body or only a part of the people. there can be no exercise of sovereignty but by the votes of the people and these votes express their own will. In Republics. 3) Despotism: Page 21 of 108 . Mill was of the view “the separation of powers will result in a clash between the three different organs of the government because each one will take interest only in its own powers. France and America.” To him. whose fundamental maxim is no nobility no monarch. He was of the view that the most intermediate power is that of nobility. 2. it too wielded a considerable influence in Pakistan. but there may be despotic process. If all the branches are made separate and independent of each other. the body of the people is possessed of the supreme power it is called democracy. when in a republic. each branch will endeavor to safeguard its interests and possibly may jeopardize other’s interest. held high standard of idealism in all that pertains to liberty. The principle of democracy was virtue. He gives more importance to the principle on which government is based than to its nature. He enunciated the dangers attending each form of government if it lost its basic principle. 3. Sovereignty rests with the people in democracy. There the House of Lords is a legislative as well as a judicial body. This in some measure seems to be essential to a monarchy. Perfect separate power in the functions of the government is impossible. Montesquieu is placed in the first rank of those distinguished thinkers who in the eighteenth century. 2) Monarchies: Montesquieu remarks that monarchial government is that in which a single person governs the state by fixed and established laws. 4. He assigned a particular basic principle to every form of government.Political Science (Paper 1) separation of powers between different governmental agencies. of an aristocracy virtue-cum-moderation. Montesquieu’s views on Forms of Government The classification of government of Montesquieu is base partly on the number of those who hold political power and partly on the manner in which that power is exercised. is possessed of the supreme power. of monarchy honor while that of despotism was fear. The Lord Chancellor partakes of all the three functions of government.

wherein fundamentals of religion i-e.Montesquieu’s scheme creates distinction between the republican and monarchic form based upon the number of persons who possess the supreme power. and hence it is a lawless state. Each of the form is associated with its peculiar principle: a) b) c) d) Democracy is based upon political virtue Aristocracy is based upon moderation Monarchy is based upon honor Despotism is based upon fear and oppression Relation between Forms of Government and religion & Size of State: Montesquieu was of the view that certain religions had a definite affinity for certain types of governments.. equality. Real democracy is possible only ion small city-state. that democracy and aristocracy are subtypes of republican form. as Montesquieu does. Despotic state is not at all state because it is established by the absence of established law. which should not be included in the plan at all. fraternity and freedom are deeply inculcated and practiced for the security of mankind and glory of the state. His own words become laws of the land and complete subordination to these laws a expedient. monarchy suited the moderate-sized state while a big country or an empire must have despotic government. Criticism: 1. France of Montesquieu’s time was too large for a republic form of government. Republican form of government is possible only in a state of small size. without any law and without fixed rules. It is quite wrong to assume. a worst form of government and he unlike Machiavelli discarded the doctrine of aggrandizement and expansion. the distinction between the monarchic and despotic types depends upon the way in which the power of governments are to Page 22 of 108 . 2. Islam goes well with Democratic Republican form of government. It is a quite unfair to place despotic government at par with monarchial and republican forms. Montesquieu declared monarchy. Monarchy would suit her best. 3.Political Science (Paper 1) A despotic government is that in which a single person directs all functions of the government with his own capricious will. Roman Catholicism is closely affiliated with monarchial form of government with arbitrary rule and Protestantism even in this modern age is deeply attached with despotism and cruel expansionism.

Political Science (Paper 1) be exercised. Montesquieu as the Aristotle of 18th Century 1. Montesquieu follows the inductive and historical methods of Aristotle and like him. Montesquieu too pays his attention on the influence of physical environment on the life of man and social institutions. Like Aristotle. Montesquieu closely follows Aristotle when he says that the fundamental types of political constitutions are fixed once and for all but they are different to some extent under the impact of the local conditions. Montesquieu steps into the shoes of Aristotle. monarchial and despotic. republican. __________________ Page 23 of 108 .Montesquieu’s observation that the law of a society gives to its unique and particular character. 4. the state itself becomes altogether a different state. 5. takes keen interest in the practical political activities. when he recognizes basic types of government i-e. if there occurs a change in the constitution. 2. 3. has its parallel in Aristotle’s statement that the constitution of a state determines the very life and character of its people.

His contact with royal family brought him into contact with most important personalities of the period. However he found a link between Renaissance and the Restoration. It was this period in which he wrote his master piece of work “The Leviathan”. His father. education and experience." Page 24 of 108 . On leaving Oxford. It was the crucial period when upholders of constitutional rule were fiercely fighting for the annihilation of the supporters of Divine Right of Kings. he joined Oxford. His soul remained insatiate with the University education and found it worthless. He attacked the ancient institution of Papacy and also won disfavor from royalists. thus. and he constructed a system of strong and responsible sovereign Government on the basis of the then very popular doctrine of social contract. Hobbes built up a systematic philosophy of state. he became tutor to the heir of William Cavendish who later on became Earl of Devonshire. the Vicar of Westport. for all the facts of nature. “The only basis of human action is a perpetual and restless desire of power after power that ends only in death. He got the degree of graduation at the age of nineteen. where he joined the supporters of royal absolutism. and he stroke to make this system broad enough to account on scientific principles. published in 1651. He left England during the horrors of civil war and was forced to take refuge in France.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Thomas Hobbes “Hobbes was in fact the first of the great modern philosophers who attempted to bring political theory into intimate relations with a thoroughly modern system of thought.” (Sabine) Thomas Hobbes was born near Malmesbury in 1588. including human behavior both in its individual and social aspects. Hobbes’s Conception of State of Nature Hobbes was of the view. Hobbes received his early education in Wiltshire. Every one is striving for the gratification of his appetites and these appetites are different from individual to individual because of physical constitution. taking his stand neither on tradition nor on theology but on his study of human nature. At the age of fifteen years. deserted his wife and children when Hobbes was still a boy. He lived for about twenty years in France whose autocratic Government appealed him considerably. as much a creature of his times as Machiavelli was. a place in Malmesbury. It was an important work of Hobbes which brought him immortal fame in the history of Western political thought. Hobbes saw the miserable condition of his beloved country and ardently advocated for the maintenance of authority and order. By nature man is selfish and egoistical. Hobbes was. He was the victim of broken home.

In such condition there is no place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain. According to Hobbes. no use of commodities that may be imported by seas. as is of every man against every man. the state of nature was “a state of war of all against all in which the chief virtue of mankind were force and fraud. danger and coercion. And this purpose could only be achieved by establishing a strong and stable Government capable of inspiring awe and fear by using harsh and arbitrary methods who disobey its laws and of giving attractive rewards to those who do conform.Political Science (Paper 1) Hobbes’s man lived originally in state of nature without the benefits of Government. “During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe. no arts. they are in that condition which is called war. but a Government of fear.” Logical Conclusions: 1. no navigation. Later on man realized that peace had definitely more utility than constant was and fear of violent death brought man’s passions into line with his reasons. his anxiety to retain what is already had and his never ending desire for self aggrandizement on the basis of ‘mine and mine’ led him to perennial conflict and anarchy in the state. Man could live in harmony and peace with one another either through fear of punishment or desire for profit. and which is worst of all.” There was no Government of civil laws to maintain peace and order. and such a war. man undoubtedly wanted peace and tranquility. All human actions were regulated by two things: 1. Individual egoism According to Hobbes. Hobbes said. no knowledge of the face of the earth. continual fear and danger of violent death. The only slogan echoed “Kill when you can. usurp what you can. no society.” 2. Man is the state of nature becomes the slave and tool of impulses and passions. and consequently no culture of the earth. Page 25 of 108 . Hobbes was of the view that there was no distinction between right and wrong in the state of nature. no account of time. no letters. The instinct of self-preservation 2. There can be no private property in the state of nature for possession of a thing depends upon the power of upholding it. deceitfulness and intimidation were the order of the day. but his fear of others. Only force.

4. 3. 8. that the terror thereof. he can do so. inalienable and unpunishable. 10. 2. of which acts a multitude. a way of life. Page 26 of 108 . Sovereignty is indivisible. he is enable to form the wills of them all to peace at home and mutual aid against their enemies abroad. The sovereign has full power to declare war against any country or nation whenever he likes. If the sovereign ignores the pact. for their peace and common defense. to punish him. “By this authority. Hobbes said. They have no right to threaten.” Features of Sovereignty 1. The sovereign is absolute and all powerful. to the end he may use the strength and means of them all. The sovereign has to protect his people from internal disruption and external aggression for the preservation of peace and glory of the state. every one the author. The sovereign is the fountain of justice and honor. as he shall thinker expedient. explicit or implicit. 7. Hobbes’s sovereign suffocated all the social and cultural communication between the people bringing about a reign of oppression and harshness. And in him consists the essence of the Commonwealth which is one person. he has the use of so much power and strength conferred upon him. because he is no party to the contract.Political Science (Paper 1) Hobbes and Theory of Sovereignty Hobbes’s sovereign was presented as a Mortal God vested with absolute and unchallenged power to rule over his subjects arbitrarily. The sovereign formulates laws regarding property and taxation etc. Subjects have no authority to call any explanation from the sovereign for his misdeeds. by mutual covenants one with another have made themselves. No condition. 6. He is the singular law-making authority. His powers to frame laws of the land are not restricted by any human agency. He was the smasher of the regular channels of democracy. given him every particularly man in the wealth. for his power is unlimited. and he has full rights to allow or disallow freedom of speech to his subject. 5. 9. to banish or depose him. can be imposed on the sovereign.

Political Science (Paper 1)

Types of Sovereignty
According to Hobbes the difference of commonwealths consist in the difference of the sovereign or the person representative of all and every one of the multitude and it is manifest, there can be put three kinds of commonwealth: 1. If the representative is one man, the commonwealth will be known as Monarchy. 2. If the representative is composed of an assembly, the state will be called a democracy. 3. When the representative is an assembly, but only a part of it, then it is called aristocracy.

Hobbes ardently favors monarchical form of Government. There must be an important monarch to serve the end for which the state is established. But a monarch without absolute power will utterly be failed for the attainment of his ideals. That is why; Hobbes is ranked as one of the great champions of absolute sovereignty. Hobbes gives a perfect and most satisfactory theory of sovereignty which is all powerful authority within the state. It is absolute, unlimited, non-transferable and irrevocable. Hobbes excelled Machiavelli’s Prince, an evil genius in exalting political authority. Machiavelli had made politics independent of religion but Hobbes set politics above religion and ethics. The powers vested in sovereignty must be absolute, unlimited and all powerful.

The political theory of Thomas Hobbes has been bitterly criticized on different grounds ever since this day. 1. The whole conception of social contract and an organized society resulting from it is unhistorical. There are no examples in history when Hobbes’s men gathered together and signed a contract for the formation of a civil society. 2. Hobbes portrays a dismal picture of the state of nature, which is far from satisfactory. He paints a darker side and completely ignores a brighter side of human nature. His picture reflects the evils of his man. He declares man selfish, solitary and brutish. But human nature has two essential aspects, good and bad. He always speaks of the badness of human nature. 3. Hobbes was of the view that the state of nature is a state of war, the war of all against all, in which the cardinal virtues are force and fraud. How could such a man go against his own nature and suddenly enter a “state not of war, but of peace, not of force and fraud but of right and
Page 27 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

justice.” 4. Hobbes says that there were no laws in the state of nature. This is baseless. 5. Hobbes’s sovereign appears to be the representative of the people, who follows public opinion and looks after public welfare. This is the only one aspect in which Hobbes has recognized the limitations of his Leviathan. 6. Hobbes did not foresee the distinction between the Government and the state. While the Government of a state might be replaced with another because of its corruption or inefficiency, the state as a reality remains intact and does not sink into lawless condition. 7. Hobbes appears to be a mixture of anarchy and absolutism. The only remedy to control of good behavior of men was the coercive power of the sovereign. 8. The Hobbesian system condemns the state for purely negative functions. It is sole function in the preservation of life and maintenance of order. 9. The civil society created by Hobbes is not much of a society. It is like a flock of cattle driven by the omnipotent Leviathan who sums up in himself the life of all and who is a universal regulator of thoughts and actions of all. Hobbes was a materialist and rationalist to the core of his heart. His political philosophy indicated the absolute sovereignty of whatever Government happened to be in power. He bade people render unto Caesar and unto God whatever Caesar commanded. His state absorbed the will of all its members in matters secular and spiritual and it was wrong to will or act against it. __________________

Page 28 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

Western Political Thought---John Locke John Locke

“Successful revolutions are stimulating to those who believe in them. Locke is the most fortunate of all philosophers for, he completed his work in theoretical philosophy just at the moment when the Government of his country fell into the hands of men who shared his political opinions. His political doctrine is embedded in the American Constitution.” (Bertrand Russel) John Locke was born at Wrington in north Somersetshire in 1632. His father was an attorney and land-owner of modest means. He got his early education at home and later on he was admitted to Westminster School. In 1652, he was sent to Oxford for higher education. At that time he was only twenty-two and entered Christ Church College (Oxford). His university career was not very shining because the narrow discipline of the place dulled his enthusiasm for formal studies. In 1660, he got the degree of Master of Arts. After taking the M.A. degree, Locke was appointed as a tutor in Greek. Locke did not like teaching profession and he started medicine. He was greatly influenced by Descartes and became physician. Later on he became the confidential Secretary of Lord Shaftsbury, the founder of the Whig Dynasty. He went over to the Parliamentary side and was later on made a field marshal in the rebel forces. When Charles II became king, he was made Earl of Shaftsbury in 1672. In 1682, Shaftsbury was charged with the crime of conspiracy. He was arrested and tried for treason. He was, however, acquitted but was compelled to leave England. Locke also facing his persecution fled with him to Holland and remained there until the bloodless Revolution. After the glorious revolution of 1688, he came under the liberalizing influences that were beginning to be felt in England and he devoted his entire intellectual faculties towards literary work and to numerous controversies arising out of his works. Sabine attributes John Locke in these words, “his sincerity, his profound moral convictions, his genuine belief in liberty in human rights, and in the dignity of human nature united with his moderation and good sense, made him the ideal spokesman of the middle-class revolution.” Locke’s father, a renowned attorney of his time exerted a considerable influence in making him zealous advocate of liberty, equality and democracy. Locke completely discarded the Hobbes’s conception of man who depicted as utterly selfish, irrational, solitary and brutish. He portrayed his men in the state of nature fully possessed a sense of sociability bringing all men in togetherness of mutual benefit and for the progress of civil society. He advocated for the elimination of the coerciveness and intimidation over the subject for peaceful progress of the
Page 29 of 108

His conception is quite apparent from his contention that “happiness and misery are the two great springs of human action. He says that man is a rational. Bases of his Philosophy Sensationalism: Locke was of the view that all knowledge and beliefs come through our senses and experiences. There is nothing in mind except what was first in the sense. Filmer contended that political power is derived from the authority of father over his children and that regal authority is subjection of children to parents. in case of this discovery all kings except. Rejection of Absolute Monarchy based on Divinity and Heredity: Locke refuted emphatically the hereditary principle in kingship advocated most fervently by Filmer in his Patriarcha and upheld by the Anglican Church. sensible and social creature. sympathy and tenderness towards his fellow-beings and is capable of being actuated by altruistic motives. Locke points out the injustice of primogeniture (the principle by which property descends to the eldest son) which is unavoidable if inheritance is to be the basis of monarchy. would be usurpers and would have no right to demand the obedience of their de facto subjects.Political Science (Paper 1) state. Locke’s View on Natural Rights of Man Locke appears to be a true democrat when he says that the establishment of a commonwealth stands for the complete security of natural rights of men. Natural rights of citizens are: 1. would all existing monarchs put their crowns at his feet. He wants to live in peace and harmony with others. Further. Right to liberty Page 30 of 108 . Optimistic Conception of Human Nature: Locke believes in the inherent goodness of human beings. at most one. Right to life 2. Right to property 3. And if the true heir could be discovered. Moreover. therefore they can demand from the citizens unflinching loyalty.” He was of the view that morality is pleasure and pleasure is only conformity to universal law. Utilitarianism: He is one of the great pleader of utilitarianism. Adam can have only one heir. and since the actual monarchs are the heirs of Adam. He feels love. but no one knows who he is.

cruel and absolutist “Leviathan” of Hobbes. His social contract did not create the irresponsible. but reserved the sovereign rights to the final judge of all actions.Political Science (Paper 1) “Most distinctive contribution of Locke to political theory is the doctrine of natural rights. Locke thought of natural rights as things which man brings with him from birth. who has given the world to men in common. “The life. The ultimate supreme power is not vested in the scepter of king. The state is created for certain conveniences and it must justify itself by creating those conveniences.” (Dunning) Locke was of the view that the right of property is a most important because all other natural rights are analogous to the right of private property. He further maintained that the right to private property existed in the state of nature under the operation of natural law. is given to men for support and comfort of their being and all the fruits it naturally produces and beasts it feeds. he ahs mixed his labor with and joined to it something that is his own and thereby makes it his own property. and nobody has originally a private dominion. in any of them. He initiated the conception of popular sovereignty. has also given reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience. because real and practical democracy was strongly enunciated. Society exists to protect them. the community. as they are produced by the spontaneous hand of nature. Locke stood for a Government which should be subject to a number of limitations.” (Sabine) According to Locke. as they are thus in their natural state. liberty and estate of one person can be limited only to make effective the equality valid claims of another person to the same rights. “God. The very idea of it was discarded by him because Machiavellian and Hobbesian conception of sovereignty brings about a reign of terror for the people who would loudly whisper for freedom and equality. exclusive of the rest of mankind.” Locke’s Conception of Popular Sovereignty Locke is regarded as the champion of people’s rights and a harbinger of their sacred and fundamental liberties. The earth and all that is therein. but it remains in the hands of the people. A government which violated its limitations is not worthy of obedience. a best way of rule by the succeeding thinkers and the whole world own him too much. Whatsoever he removes out of the state that nature has provided and left it in. they can be regulated only to the extent that is necessary to give them effective protection. It cannot rule with coercion and intimidation and tax them without their will. Page 31 of 108 . belongs to mankind in common. which has been firmly accepted. Locke did not advance the idea of legal. absolute and indivisible sovereignty.

In other words.Political Science (Paper 1) The basic rights of the individual life. The king has neither the divine authority nor any moral justification to over load the subject. This democratic government should be run by a system of checks and balances. executive and judiciary. All men are equal in the eye of Almighty God and their basic rights must not be violated under the civil laws of the state. as is evidently available in the modern constitutions. __________________ Page 32 of 108 . of election and of religious worship and in order that it may be prevented from becoming too autocratic and arbitrary. the government should be divided into three main organs i-e. liberty and property are to be protected rather than restricted by the state. the legislature should be supreme. legislature. And of these three. Locke’s Government created by the unanimous consent of the majority should have freedom of speech.

He won the prize. He escaped to Geneva. 1772 at Geneva of parents of French Protestant ancestry. He fled to England where only one man. His father. “it created a great sensation in the artificial society of the Age of Reason.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau “Rousseau was the father of the romantic movement.” Page 33 of 108 . Hearn Shaw said. the imitator of system of thought which infer non-human fact from human emotions and the inventor of the political philosophy of pseudo-democratic dictatorship as opposed to traditional absolute monarchs. By this time. haunting terrors. The year of 1749 was a turning point in his life.” (Bertrand Russel) Rousseau was born on June 28. It was the first ramble of the Revolution. He also worked as an apprentice under a cruel engraver. “Rousseau led a life of fugitive for sixteen years and he drove through a period of deepening gloom. he gravely mediated to lead a regulated life. broken spirit. impulsive.” The publication of his book “Social Contract” aroused the indignation of the French Government. He suspected that Hume was plotting to poison him. He thought that “Everyone hurts me because of my love for mankind. the theatre but his efforts ended in fiasco. He filled with a wonder lust that was never to be satisfied. Rousseau’s suffering had greatly perturbed his brain and he was tormented by a prosecution mania. He took refuge in Germany. The Academy of Dijon announced a prize for the best essay on the subject “Has the progress of sciences and arts contributed to corrupt and purify morals”. Restless. in a middle class family. which ordered his arrest. went to Paris and tried his luck at different schemes. Hearn Shaw remarked. Rousseau left school at the age of 12. but abandoned this profession to become a dancing master. paralyzing illusions and accumulating despair. Hitler was the outcome of Rousseau. unstable he embraced the career of a vagabond as others might enter upon a profession and thereafter for twenty years he led the life of a vagabond wandering in different places. chance brought Rousseau fame and immortality. took him into his affection. an early state of society in which all men lived under conditions of simplicity and innocence.” Finally his fear of being murdered drove him to commit suicide. and traced the purging evils of society emanated from the artificialities introduced by civilization. was a skilled watchmaker. where the Democratic Council burned his book and threatened his life. where an angry mob almost strangulated him. Rousseau depicted in the essay. Then he opened a small hotel. failing health. In 1742. however. the opera. Hume. He thought a strong plea that progresses of sciences and arts had tended to degrade human morality. Isaac. learnt various crafts but adopted none.

perhaps never existed. What can render it legitimate? I believe that I can settle this question.” But with the appearance of fixed homes. everyone being equal to the other. or the noble savage. The second part of the first sentence that he is everywhere in chains imply that customs and conventions of society and state regulations imposer upon him certain artificial and unnecessary restraints which arrest the development of his personality. and yet he is greater slave than they. family and property. a philosopher of the heart rather than of the head. Only when the serpent entered into the society in the form of private property. lived a solitary. and concerned only with the satisfaction of physical needs. Page 34 of 108 . For. He led a solitary life completely devoid of language and wandered about the primeval forests begetting his offspring by the way. virtuous or vicious. He was guided by two sentiments self-interest and pity. Rousseau. he lived an isolated and solitary life having no ties and obligations. According to Rousseau. happy and carefree life of the brute was independent.” He always maintained that the natural state was also better than the social state. the knell of human equality was sounded. presented his State of Nature to be an earthly paradise though he himself confessed that the conception of the State of Nature was quite hypothetical. hunting for his food. Many a one believes himself the master of others. Man’s life in the state of nature was regulated not by reason but by the feelings of self-preservation and hatred towards incalculable massacre and incredible violence.” The institution of private property created a sense of jealousy and struggle. In short. Thus the noble savage was in the state of paradise. Rousseau was of the view “the first man having enclosed a piece of land he thought himself of saying this is mine and found people simple enough to believe him the real founder of social inequality and injustice. the best for man. The least subjects to revolutions. in it. the natural man. it is the necessary condition for the development of the various potentialities of human nature.Political Science (Paper 1) Rousseau’s State of Nature “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains. Rousseau’s man was a non-social being unknown to good or evil or the coming death. the natural man was neither happy nor unhappy. How has this change come about? I do not know. “primitive man was near animal than man. probably never will exist and of which none the less it is necessary to have just idea in order to judge well our present state. But even this primitive society was tolerable. We can say that he is born for freedom that he ought to be free.” (Rousseau) Man is born free only in the sense that freedom is his inborn right. “A state which exists no longer. converted usurpation into an acknowledged right and led to the promotion of society. As Rousseau says. In a word. and having no oral obligation with other men he could not be good or bad. contented and self-sufficing. was the life of man changed from prosperity to adversity.

As Rousseau says. “The social order is a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights. It is irrational will of man. Actual Will: It is related to the will of the individuals.” Rousseau’s General Will “The development of the theory of the general will in the Social Contract was involved in paradoxes. they neither make it nor have rights against it. Thus the life of man became pitiable.” (Sabine) The will of each individual merged into a General Will.Political Science (Paper 1) He became subject to violence. The Page 35 of 108 . all their powers and rights vested in the community and their respective wills are superseded by the General Will. Rousseau said. It is based upon reason and rationality. which is the cardinal pillar in the Rousseau’s philosophy. bloodshed. miserable and intolerable. partly because of cloudiness of Rousseau’s ideas but partly. It has been remarked by Bertrand Russell that the doctrines enshrined in his Social Contract. in view of his criticism of the natural man. 2. tend to the justification of the totalitarian state. “though they pay lip service to democracy. Rousseau’s whole arguments depended upon the fact that a community of citizens is unique with its members. it seems. crimes against property and person and all the evils of society and civilization including slavery.” Dr. McDoughall defines General Will as “The General Will is conceived as coming to be when every individual in a group or society has a conception or idea of the group as a whole and identifies his good with the good of that whole. may still obey himself alone and remain as free as before.” Rousseau explains that by the free act of those who enter into an agreement. He was of the view that man possesses two kinds of wills: 1. It leads to eternal decision imparting self-satisfaction to the individual. because he had a rhetorician’s liking for paradox. Real Will: It is rational will of the individual. has aroused keen controversy and has been subjected to severe criticism. he ought to have avoided the notion of contract altogether as both meaningless and misleading. “the problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate and in which each while uniting himself with all. Manifestly. This Will makes selfconfined and self centered. It always aims at general welfare of the society.

and historically the most important contribution which he made to political theory. Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the General Will. Characteristics of the General Will: 1.” Rousseau clearly distinguishes the General Will from will of the majority and the minority. Inalienable: The General Will and sovereignty are inalienable and undetectable. Rousseau assigns absolute powers to his sovereign by following the Hobbes’s line of action. it is also the most original. The General Will may or may not coincide with any of these Wills. Rousseau’s theory of General Will is incomplete and vague. may still obey himself alone. 3. The General Will can conveniently be realized in a small city state where the population can assemble and pass laws for their interest. Page 36 of 108 . 4. Unity: It is not self-contradictory. It does not admit of representative democracy. “The notion of the General Will is not only the most central concept of Rousseau’s theory. it may sometimes be coincident with the Will of an individual. Jones appreciated Rousseau’s theory in these words. the most interesting. W.” Criticism: 1. It is in actual practice difficult to distinguish the General Will from the Will of all. and remain as free as before. T. It is indivisible. and in which each. and in our corporate capacity. we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. That is why Rousseau laid the foundation of direct democracy. Unlimited: It is unlimited. 2.Political Science (Paper 1) problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate. 2. Un-representable: The General Will cannot be represented. The General Will is not the unanimous Will of the whole people because that might be the Will of all. while uniting himself with all. because if it were divided it would not remain General Will but would become Sectional Will.

But it does not follow that the deliberations of the people are equally correct. Self-consciousness can exist only at periods of great crisis in the life of a nation. He stresses that General Will always tends to the public advantage and that is infallible. Rousseau’s concept of General Will is rather abstract and narrow. He was of the view that the General Will neglects the force of moral law which dictates to anyone as to what is just and unjust. There arises a sort of conflict between the common interest and the interest of the individual. when the whole society is in danger. __________________ Page 37 of 108 . 7. This theory is not applicable to the bigger state in population and territory. 4. 3. Rousseau’s belief that an individual has his actual and real Wills at the same time is quite wrong. Rousseau leaves us in the realm of darkness. Where we are determined to decide what are the visible manifestation of this Will. it is nothing if it does not mean the Will of the majority.Political Science (Paper 1) General Will has its own merits and demerits. It pre-supposes common interests. It is rarely and for a short time that general will is actually realized. An individual’s Will is a corporate thing. 6. one complete whole. 10. and does not admit of representative government. which is difficult to define or determine. 5. In actual practice. 8. 9. The General Will assigns a very high place to the state and the individual will have to sacrifices his interest over the interest of the state. These interests grow out of organic relations between members of a community and are hardly possible in the multinational states of today with their conflicting ideals and interests. incapable of any division.

He received the degree of graduation at the age of fifteen from Queen’s College Oxford. his interests widened and his opinions became more subversive. whose deep interest in public affairs covered the period from the American Revolution to the Reform Bill of 1832. He was born in a rich lawyer’s family in 1748 in London. psychology. identifying himself in imagination and determining to apply to the social sciences the methods that were being worked out in the natural science. Doyle says. In 1763 Bentham entered Lincoln’s Inn to begin the study which was to be his life-long pursuit. Thomas) Introduction: Jeremy Bentham was the intellectual leader and the real founder of English utilitarianism. almost a God with James Mill as his St. 2. theology. he entered the bar for practice. In Plato’s Republic this equality was to be fully recognized. At the time of his death. logic. as a Patriarch. He also learnt Greek and French and later on he devoted to the study of Jurisprudence and legal philosophy. Paul. As he grew older. economics. From the very childhood. After his death. 3. Fragments of Government A Defence of Usury Discourse on Civil and Penal Legislation Page 38 of 108 . he was at the zenith of fame and glory because of his unparalleled contribution in the subject of jurisprudence and legal philosophy. From his youth he showed a passionate devotion to social welfare. he wrote following most important books: 1. penology etc. Bentham was scholarly and pedantic. a spiritual Leader. But after Plato it was completely forgotten for over two thousand years. His supreme mission was to reconstruct the entire legal system on healthier lines. His writings cover a wide range of interest including ethics.” Jeremy Bentham was a prolific writer and he collected works comprised of twenty-two volumes. He learnt Latin when he was only three years old. “He was venerated by a group of disciples. In 1772 after having studied law. He had an instinctive interest in science and a distinctive talent for introspective psychology.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham “Bentham was the first among modern philosophers to place women upon a political equality with men.” (H.

6.Political Science (Paper 1) 4. Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation A Treatise on Judicial Evidence A Theory of Punishments and Rewards Essay on Political Tactics Page 39 of 108 . 7. 5.

The utilitarian philosophers particularly Bentham and Austin rendered valuable service to political thought. Bentham was the first to establish the utilitarian school of thought. they were not utopian. “Here was a doctrine to rock the foundations of all accredited political theory. natural right and constitutional right equally and like were rubbish and nonsense. They were the thinkers who viewed society not from the ivory tower of isolation but from close participation. historical right.” Influence of Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism. Reform of law and legal procedure University education became universal Establishment of trade union Page 40 of 108 . He was more a legal reformer and jurist rather than a political philosopher. feudal right.Political Science (Paper 1) Importance of Bentham in History of Political Thought Bentham holds a distinctive place in the history of political thought. there was only the fact of power and the circumstances which made that power a fact. 3. Maxey said. It brought political theory back from the abstractions of the Age of Reform to the level of concrete realities. There was no right to rule and no right to be free. represented a British reaction against the value generalities about mutual rights and social contract and the mystic idealism of the German political thinkers. He had nothing original in his political doctrine and also he did not create new ideas. Bentham and his followers are mainly responsible for the parliamentary reforms in England during the nineteenth century like the Municipal Reform Act of 1835. With ruthless logic he brushed aside the ancient varieties of both radical and conservative thought. 2. They built a new theory of government according to which government was based not on contract but on the habit of obedience of utility. The following reforms are also due to Bentham’s suggestion: 1. Achievements of Bentham: Bentham was a true practical reformer and a great smasher of political evils in his age. a British gift to political philosophy. He took keen interest in the political life of his country. had erased all distinction in principle between free and despotic politics: had put it down that divine. they were not visionary and their philosophy was not transcendental. They were not idealistic.

He advocated it for its preservation on the basis of general utility. though Bentham denied natural rights.” His confidence in his ability to create a system of laws guaranteed to promote the greatest good of greatest number was unbounded. holding that law is the expression of the sovereign will in the shape of a command. This sovereign was absolute and omnipotent against which individuals possessed no natural rights nor did they have any legal right to show resistance against it.Political Science (Paper 1) His theory of law established the point of view of analytic jurisprudence. Bentham’s writings became popular in many countries. which was almost the only system of the subject generally known to English and American lawyers throughout the nineteenth century. He prefers security to liberty. Neither law of nature or natural rights could impose limitations on the unlimited absolute powers of sovereign authority. In 1811 he made a formal proposal to President Madison to draw up a scientific code of law for the USA. safety and property of the individual. Bentham totally denied the existence of natural law. and Iberian Peninsula and in several parts of South America. It is queer to note that. The only conceivable imposition to the authority could possibly be made by effective resistance by the determined subjects. Bentham was a passionate champion for the existence of freedom and equality but he would not base them natural law. But he did not kill the concept of natural rights. Security includes liberty. His ideas were used by the leaders of the national movements that defeated the Holy Alliance and created new nations on the ruins of the Spanish and Turkish Empires. His doctrines were very popular in Spain. sometimes as volunteer to the revision of the legal codes of many countries. Such was the tremendous influence which Bentham exercised in the History of Political Thought. subsistence. Bentham contributed. Later he made a similar offer to the Czar of Russia and to the Governor of Pennsylvania. Russia. The happiness of the individual depended upon security. Thus the legal reformer recognizes the right of property. He supported for the existence of an authority for the purpose to enforce rights by imposing penalties in case of violation. Kinds of Rights: Page 41 of 108 . Bentham’s Views on Rights and Duties Bentham discarded natural rights to the individuals. and in 1822 he appealed to “all nations professing opinions. yet he could not disregard the right of private property. abundance and equality. sometimes on the request.

Political Duty: It is determined by the penalty which a definitely known person i. 3.’ he was obviously borrowing the principle of equality from natural law. Moral Rights: It means vivid and intelligible expression than the other. yet he carried both these things in his political philosophy. It may indeed be used as synonymous with God. and is incapable of making law. 2. 3. Sabine said. “The liberal elements in Bentham’s Philosophy resided largely in its tacit premises..Political Science (Paper 1) 1. a political superior will inflict for the violation of certain rights. duties of following kinds: 1.e. Moral Duty: It depends upon circumstances hardly certain and definite enough to be called punishment. but who nevertheless are able to make their collective or over age will unmistakably manifest. Nature is a vague and indefinite entity. “Natural Rights” is a phrase that can contribute only confusion in a national system of political science. yet such as to create an unpleasant state of mind in the person concerned. Legal Rights: A vivid and intelligible expression means a faculty of action sanctioned by the will of a supreme law-maker in a political society. each person is ‘to count for one and no one more than one. Its sanction is the opinion or feeling of a group of persons who cannot be precisely identified. Religious Duty: It is determined by the punishment to be inflicted by a definitely known being i-e the Creator. Kinds of Duties: According to Bentham. 2. In any other sense it denotes something that cannot be thought as endowed with will. Natural Rights: It is a term commonly used without any definite meaning or any form of usefulness.” Page 42 of 108 . by putting in disagreeable relations with that infinite body of individuals known as the community in general. When he observed that one man is worth just the same as another man or that in calculating the greatest happiness. Bentham denied natural rights and natural law.

based upon popular interests. economy and supremacy of the people and brought about the greatest good of the greatest number on the basis of the identity of interests between the ruler and the ruled. the sovereign. He was for the promulgation of universal manhood suffrage. He said that rights emanated from the supreme authority of the state. i-e. The main thing is that the government should be an agency of good. Rights of Resistance: Bentham thought that a subject had no legal right to show resistance or revolt against sovereign. The sovereign was not bound to respect any individual rights. The supreme government authority. Theory of Punishment: Page 43 of 108 . but he was against any bill of rights. Bentham firmly believed in the written constitutions as guarantees of rational governments. limitations upon the powers to amend the constitution and all other devices for restraining the supreme authority and regarded them unsound in theory and worthless in practice. A government was liberal and despotic according to the arrangement of distribution and application of supreme power. A republican government was best because it ensured efficiency. He disliked oth the monarchy and the House of Lords in Britain. But a subject has a moral right and a moral duty to resist his sovereign if the utility of resistance were greater than the evil of resistance. The exercise of his unlimited powers by the sovereign would depend on considerations of utility. and suggested some amendments to it. though not infinite must unavoidably. The extension. be allowed to infinite unless limited by express convention. Bentham seems reluctant to agree with Blackstone’s characterization of the British constitution as perfect. Government: Bentham believed that in the long run a representative democracy was a more suitable form of government than any other to secure the greatest happiness of the greatest number. of happiness and not of evil.Political Science (Paper 1) Bentham’s Views on Sovereignty and Government Bentham empowered the sovereign with unlimited powers to legislate all and everything. duration and intensity of government power should be properly restricted and delimited with a view to secure the maximum of happiness and pleasures. Democratic constitution is presented by him. annual parliaments and voting by ballot. The only possible restraint on the sovereign authority is his own anticipation of popular resistance. Their legal duty is unconditioned obedience to the sovereign. i-e.

a wheel-shaped building for the housing and proper observation of the criminals. It should be individualized. 5. 8. qualitatively and quantitatively. a responsible executive. It ought to be able to prevent the offender from repeating the offence. It should be obviously justifiable and proportionate to the offence committed but it must be sufficient to secure its ends. The basic principles of punishment are: 1. He was in favor of the reform of the criminal and the prisons and suggested the building of his moral Panopticon. 2. __________________ Page 44 of 108 . Punishment must not be inflicted where it was ineffective. universal education and a representative parliament. Equable Exemplary Frugal of Pain Remissible Compensatory Reformatory Popular Certain and not severe According to Bentham. 6. to suit the individual offender. 4. needless or unprofitable. the only valid test of the adequacy of a punishment was its ability to secure public welfare. It should be calculated to prevent the spread of evil and to secure the extension of good. 3. He had a great faith in education as he wanted to bring about adult franchise. 7. groundless.Political Science (Paper 1) Bentham held that punishment should be preventive and corrective rather than coercive and retaliatory. He believed that the English criminal law was inhuman.

In 1858 he retired. As a young boy of twelve. He was the eldest son of his father James Mill who was the disciple of Bentham. He was greatly influenced by Bentham’s utilitarian philosophy and his programmes for reformation. A system of Logic Some unsettled questions in Political Economy Essay on Liberty Page 45 of 108 . Aristotle and Thucydides. 1806 in London. sociological. such as Plato. economic and political points of views. S. History of India was written with Indian blood and in this crucial period of life and death. Mill served the East India Company as an Examiner of Indian Correspondence. He also learned French language and acquired a great fluency. But with the passage pf time. many of the evils against which the early utilitarian had been working hard.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill “If the caliber of writers is to be judged by their effect on policy. had ceased to exist and Benthamism began yielding before other philosophic systems. economist and political philosopher he was regarded as a prophet in his own age. Mill was trained by his father and by John Austin. Herodotus. He wrote following books: 1. Then he became the radical member of the Parliament and remained almost in the limbo of oblivion. psychological. As logician. Mill must rank high. He modified Bentham from ethical. 3. he had studied the philosophy of some of the great philosophers. Homer. Mill started the learning of Greek language at the age of three and then Latin at the age of eight. 2. The biological speculations of Darwin and Spencer and the sociological researches of Auguste Comte stirred the passionate seekers of learning and knowledge with the initiation of new currents of thought and Mill was also influenced by them. J.” (John Bowle) Introduction: John Stuart Mill was born on May 20. Mill died on 8th May. The year of 1856 was a year of tribulations and chaos on account of Indian freedom fighters and formidable aggressions of foreign masters. 1873 at Avignon.

Mill’s impact of Feminism obviously appeared in the early 20th century when the Feminist Movement fought for women freedom for participating in the functions of the state. 6. Mill sought after vivid ideas with the ardency of a mystic. He ranked with Rousseau. Plato distinctively appears to be the first feminist. it has been said. 7. J. Jefferson and Milton as an ardent crusader of individual liberty. the patience and arduous industry of a man of science. with a system Page 46 of 108 .Political Science (Paper 1) 4. Consideration on Re-tentative Government Utilitarianism Thoughts on Parliamentary reforms Subjection of Women Principles of Political Economy On the improvement of Administration of India during the last 30 Years (1858) Importance of J. 8. S. Mill in the History of Political Thought J. He was one of the stoutest champions of individual liberty. Mill was one of the foremost individualists of all times. He humanized utilitarian philosophy. S. He insisted upon the importance of human progress in its richest variety. He favored democracy as the best form of government as a result of adult franchise. S. His theory of liberty was his most important contribution to the history of political philosophy. Mill’s political philosophy contains following important facts: 1. In praise of his immortal ideas which will ever echo in the corridors of time.” Mill was the great prophet of sane Individualism or Liberalism. 5. He firmly believed for equality of women for the benefit and uplift of the state. “No calculus can integrate the innumerable pulses of knowledge and of thought that he had made to vibrate in the minds of generation. 3. He combined political liberalism with economic socialism and approval of a common ownership in the raw materials of the globe and an equal participation of all in the benefits of the combined labor. He was a staunch enemy of despotism and monocracy and a great supporter of democracy. 2. 9. He encountered opponents with magnanimity and generosity. When we turn the pages of antiquity. Mill too was a great feminist and he practically pleaded their causes in the parliament. He supported universal suffrage granting the right of voting to women also. passionately advocating the cause of women to take part in the functions of the government.

S. Bentham thought of quantitative pleasures. 5. who enacted such laws which vividly obstructed individual liberty. utilitarian liberalism was generally accepted in England. He recommended a second chamber. When Mill wrote. the scope of administrative activities increased. and the tendency toward state centralization led political theory to the scope of state activities and to the liberty of the individual. He believed that study of history combined with a knowledge of human nature and a careful analysis of political phenomenon would result in a gauging of tendencies of great value to legislators and statesmen. integrity. With the imposition of increasing state regulations. He drew a distinction between several kinds of pleasures. He believed that the final legislative authority should rest with the House of Commons. assumed that social welfare is a matter of concern to all men of goodwill. Sabine said.” Mill’s Views on Individual Liberty J. but at the same time he assigned the task of drafting bills. policy of Laissez fair was being abandoned in favor of greater regulations by the state. considering some as higher while others as lower. Mill is universally regarded as a passionate advocate of liberty. due to the utilitarian reforms. The democratic efforts made by the earlier utilitarian had been largely successful and political power had been extended to a considerable proportion of the population. Mill. human activities were suffocated and he firmly believed that liberty was a prime factor for the development of the society. self-respect and personal distinction as intrinsic goods apart from their contribution to happiness. Mill believed in qualitative pleasures. In the middle of the 19th century.Political Science (Paper 1) of proportional system. At that time. 6. 4. In this process some of the dangers of democracy became visible. 7. “Mill’s ethics was important for liberalism because in effect it abandoned egoism. He vigorously whispered for imparting great importance to individual liberty and emphasized that governmental interference in individual activity should e reduced to the minimum. before they come to the parliament for consideration to the House of Lords. The people became politically conscious and demanded universal suffrage. A large number of old evils and inequalities had been removed. Mill’s essay on liberty which equals in eminence to Milton’s Aeropagitica was a strong advocacy Page 47 of 108 . Prof. S. Parliament became the supreme and unchallenged law-making authority. Mill’s method was analytic. The leader in the intellectual life of the period was J. He opposed the secret ballot because it led to favoritism and corruption and vigorously proposed for open ballot system. and regarded freedom.

He believed in toleration of opinions and unhampered freedom of discussion. He had confidence that truth would definitely survive in the struggle of ideas. Freedom of conscience Liberty of thought and of its expression in speech and writing Liberty of pursuits and tastes Liberty of association Liberty to adopt his own profession in life Liberty of religion and morals Mill laid great stress on liberty of thought and expression. custom unites with legislation to confirm the evil. The limitations of the power of government over individuals lose none of its importance when the holders of power are regularly accountable to the community. 2. Mill apprehended that the growth of democracy and the increasing legislative powers of the state tended to reduce individuals to a common type and to swamp them in the tyranny of collectivism. These are: a. Individual development enriches the world by a variety of characters.Political Science (Paper 1) for the freedom of thought and expression with Miltonian favor against legislative interference as well as against the pressure of the public opinion. He recognized the necessity to the mental well-being of mankind of freedom of opinion and freedom of expression of opinion. Mill pleads for certain freedoms for the individual without which he cannot develop his personality properly. f. b. speech and action. In political speculations the tyranny of the majority is now generally included among the evils against which society requires to be on its guard. But he imposes two limitations on this liberty: 1. When individuality is quelled by the law of a monarch or an aristocrat. The individual was not at liberty to do any harm to his fellow beings. He must share labors and sacrifices to secure the society or individuals against harm. Mill favored freedom of thought. Freedom of the Individual: Originality in conduct and thought and individuality are essentially basic features efforting towards social welfare. He believed that social progress could not be achieved if each and every individual is imparted with fuller opportunity for free development of his personality. but when the masses make the law of repression. c. d. the evil of it may be counteracted by the custom of the masses. e. Mill’s theory of liberty of the individual is based upon three essential elements: Page 48 of 108 .

The freedom of action and association was to be limited by the condition that none should jeopardize other’s rights and freedom.Political Science (Paper 1) 1. 2. Revolt against the tyranny of custom. Mill advocated that individual is sovereign over his body and mind. gambling.g. He should be left free to act as he wished and society cannot impose any limitation on his freedom. Criticism: Mill was bitterly criticized because of his certain inconsistencies on the doctrine of liberty at the hands of Earnest Barker who said. Important points of Mill’s Individual Liberty: 1. The soundness of this statement may be doubted. “there can be circumstances under which it may become legitimate for others to intervene in a purely personal matter. “Mill was the prophet of an empty liberty and an abstract individual. The sovereignty of individual over himself is not a self-evident proposition. surely no one will call it an attack upon one’s liberty.” 2. e.” Mill’s theory was criticized on the following ground: 1. Mill assumed that the activities of every individual are either self-regarding or otherregarding. Mill believed in the individualistic or atomistic conception of society. tradition or public opinion which might hinder the expression and development of individuality. 5. 3. A strong plea for the importance of impulse and desire in the individual and letting the individual follow his own impulses in actions which concern him alone. having no concern with others e. The bifurcation of human actions into two-self regarding and other regarding as made by Page 49 of 108 . 3. Mill assumed that the individual is sovereign over his body and mind. 2. when one is about to commit suicide. As Mill himself admits.g. In the sphere of self-regarding activities may be included matters which affect the agent only. drinking etc. Insistence on the view that spontaneity and individuality are essential elements in individual and social welfare. 4. He says that individual is not responsible to society for his actions in so far as they concern the interest of himself and do no affect others. And society has no right to impose any restraint over the individual because restraints as such in an evil and retards the progress of the individuals. He must be left free in all actions that concern himself alone. Mill vigorously advocated for absolute and unfettered freedom of thought and expression.

__________________ Page 50 of 108 . It is but natural and each action of individual will definitely affect the others. No individual is an island in himself. Therefore it is difficult to set apart a sphere of conduct which should be regarded exclusively the affair of the individual concerned. There is very little that one can do which does not affect other person.Political Science (Paper 1) Mill is quite impracticable.

he married Jenny. Marx had to flee from one country to another on account of his conspiratorial activities.” He mixed with the revolutionaries and his radical thinking made him suspicious which created obstacle in the security of employment as a university teacher. 1818. disciple and passionate seeker of knowledge and a warm partner. but for Karl Marx. Friedrich Engel became the friend. Marx-Engel collaboration was one of the history’s most unique prominent and enduring collaboration. he became a law student at Bonn University. a member of petty nobility who remained a faithful counterpart throughout his life. He died as a wounded soul Page 51 of 108 . In early 1845. Karl Marx made endeavors relentlessly to unchain the working classes from the bondage of capitalism. In spite of lot of misfortunes and hardships. His aristocratic Jewish parents embraced Christianity when Karl Marx was only a child. he again came back to Brussels. Karl Marx studied Hegel very thoroughly and noted basic fallacies in his idealistic philosophy. socialism became international or cosmopolitan n scope in contrast to the association or national industrialism of his predecessors. In 1826. After remaining for sometime in London. Then he steeled down in London till his death. Gettell) Introduction: Karl Marx born in a prosperous family became a victim of misfortunes. Karl Marx wrote many pamphlets defending himself and severely criticizing his opponents. incalculable violence and mal-treatment towards laborers at the hands of feudal lords and industrialists. Then he entered into the field of journalism. Karl Marx got his degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Jena on the tropic of “The Difference between the Natural Philosophy of Democratus and Epicurus. He experienced great distress and poverty along with his big family. G. Karl Marx left Paris for Brussels. At the age of 17. “England has often been called the mother of Exiles”. In 1843. he left for the University of Berlin. He was born at Treves in Prussia on 5th May. Friedrich took Karl Marx to England and there he was introduced to the founders of the “German Workers Educational Union” that had recently started in London. social disparity. Karl Marx worked round the clock in the British Museum for developing the economic theories of capital. In the summer of 1845. it became the dwelling place of miseries and misfortunes. In 1841. a prey of perpetual crushing poverty and a painfully sensitive to see the incredible sufferings of humanity because of economic inequality.” (R. But before he left France.Political Science (Paper 1) Western Political Thought---Karl Marx Karl Marx “With Marx. he got an ever-lasting friendship with Friedrich Engel which brought many changes in his life.

This is considered the Bible of the Communism all over the world. Poverty of Philosophy A Contribution to the critique of Political Economy The Holy Family Revolution and Counter Revolution Political Philosophy of Karl Marx Karl Marx is rightly called the Father of Modern Communism. According to the theory of communism. 1883. 2. Karl Marx and Engel wanted to know the causes of economic changes in human society. Karl Marx applied this theory to the society in which he lived mainly Capitalist Britain.” Karl Marx was a great writer and will ever live on the pages of existence. 4. Communist Manifesto immortalized Karl Marx. 6. Karl Marx held the view that the meaning of history lay in the interpretation of material world. He did not believe in the essential goodness of man. In a speech over his grave in High ate Cemetery. Apart from this. They worked out a scientific theory of society based on the actual experience of men. A purely philosophical section on dialectics Pure economics Page 52 of 108 . He built his concept of dialectic materialism by interpreting Hegel’s World Spirit as an economic force. the only practical thing was to acquire mastery over the governing laws of society. He wrote the following master works: 1. Karl Marx borrowed from Hegel the apparatus of Dialectics but substituted matter of Hegelian idea. The theory of communism owes its birth to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel. Das Kapital is considered as the foundation stone of communism. They concluded that the changes in human society were not the least accidental like changes in external nature. Friedrich Engel declared that “his name and works will live on through the centuries. He wrote this with the assistance and help of his faithful friend Friedrich Engel. He led a life of full of pangs and despondency and faced the hardships of worldly agency with determination. Marx attacked the existing capitalist institutions. courage and perseverance. 3. Karl Marx is correctly divisible into three portions: 1. He was of the opinion that it was quite impossible to separate his economic theories from historical and social theories.Political Science (Paper 1) on March 14. They also wanted to explore what further changes are required. He conceived of a man more as an economic as a political animal. 2. 5.

Karl Marx opined that history unfolded according to a dialectical plan. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel developed communism as an ardent opposing force to capitalism. Karl Marx viewed that in each and every society industry. From the struggle between the two. Out of this struggle of ideas. But he was of the view that ideas were not the controlling factors. The incompleteness or inherent contradictions is every idea led naturally to its opposite. which may be called anti-thesis. “the wages paid to the workers are not the equivalent of the full value they produce. But these consequences according to Karl Marx were essentially involved for the accumulation of capital.e.” “The truce and the false together in Karl Marx constitute one of the most tremendously compelling forces that modern history has seen. It is true that Karl Marx rejected the substance of Hegel’s political philosophy and it is a stark reality in history that Karl Marx adopted the dialectical method developed by Hegel. The whole Europe was engulfed in moral turpitude. i. ‘thesis’ and ‘anti-thesis’ there emerged the truth embraced by both which may be called “synthesis”.” (Wayper) Proletarian Dictatorship Page 53 of 108 . The degradation was accompanied by uncontrolled industrialization in the middle of the nineteenth century. Historical materialism Hegel’s influence over Karl Marx: Karl Marx remains incomplete without the study of Hegel. he made efforts to look at this injustice quite impersonally. Appalling degradation of man in society and crushing poetry were the real basis for the communist protest. Karl Marx was a social scientist. Hegel was of the view that history gained its meaning from the interaction of ideas. Here he fully agrees with Hegel. Every idea according to Hegel. For the power of his message and for his influence upon the future movement of the communism. Ideas do not control the reality. is incomplete with inherent contradiction. The rest of the value produced by the worker during his working day is taken outright by his employer. As a social scientist. as the basis for his historical materialism. These are the outcome of material conditions. but only equal to about half of this value or even less. degeneration and oppression which fully justified the advent of communist’s bitterness and scorn against the capitalistic structure of society. This ‘synthesis’ becomes a new thesis and again there came an ‘anti-thesis’ and again emerged a ‘synthesis. This caused great frustration among the masses and consequently they became inquisitive to bring about social justice. Karl Marx can be sure of his place amongst great masters of political thought.Political Science (Paper 1) 3. new ideas emerged and these new ideas corresponded more closely to the ultimate perfection of God himself. and the process repeated itself in an unending chain. There was a perennial struggle of ideas for dominance over one another.

The Marxian ideal was to bring about proletarian dictatorship through violent means and not through peaceful evolution. The proletarian dictatorship in the transitional period is not a fluctuating period of “Super Page 54 of 108 . He wanted that this revolution should be precipitated through organization and energetic sophisticated action on the part of workers. This stage of communism contains the blend of vestiges of old and bourgeoisie order. In the old capitalist state. 2. The proletarian movement is the conscious movement of the immense majority in the interest of the immense majority. The revolutionary proletariat will abolish all classes and then disappear as a class. legal and other such institutions of the capitalist state. The “Communist Manifesto” also says “The first step in the working class revolution is the raising of the proletariat to the position of the ruling class. political. this proletarian revolution has to destroy the capitalist structure of society. the proletarian revolution has to replace all the social.Political Science (Paper 1) The Proletariat class comprises of the workers. All the confronted titanic forces should be crushed by the laborers. society would not be a free society. the workers will expropriate the majority. Secondly. Karl Marx said. Karl Marx was of the view that it is then quite natural that the dictatorship of the proletariat would be a democracy of the majority. In destroying the capitalist stat it is very essential for the proletarian revolution to destroy all the social. The proletarian revolution against the bourgeoisie class in the state is directed towards the achievement of two ends: 1. There corresponds to this also a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of proletariat. Firstly. laborers or wage-earners would naturally be in the vast majority in every society. The Communist state differs from the capitalist state in two ways: a) b) In it the majority i. In this stage of communism. The first stage of Communism follows immediately after the seizure of power by the proletarian. political. the capitalist employer and exploiter used to suppress the minority and in the new stage of Communism or in the proletariat dictatorship it would be proletariat class which would suppress the minority or the capitalist. “Between capitalist and communist society lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other. resulting in the political and economic domination by the proletarians. These new institutions should be such as it suits the needs of the proletarian class. he did not like to leave this development to the forces of economic evolution.” Karl Marx believed in the inevitability of this class struggle and the ultimate victory of the proletariat after a successful bloody revolution.e. the victory of democracy. legal and other institutions with new institutions.” Lenin was the true follower of Karl Marx. He was of the view that Communism is to be achieved in two stages.

It will be exercised through elected bodies and subject to public opinion. or by a slogan.” The dictatorship of the proletariat is not an end. By studying capitalism. It will be a victory of democracy and not a despotism of a minority. the proletariat will be given full opportunity to educate itself. not the anti-thesis of democracy. Laski was of the view that the dictatorship of the proletariat means. Karl Marx wanted to know the guiding principle of its change. “from each according to his capacity. In those days. In the dictatorship of the proletariat. All functions of the state will administer themselves and administration will be a matter of technical and scientific knowledge instead of exercise of political will and authority. production was meant for Page 55 of 108 . The proletariat class in power will not maintain the affairs of the state with repression and violence. Karl Marx and Capitalism Karl Marx devoted a great part of his life to the study of capitalism I order to describe the capitalist method of production of his own age and for all ages to come. the dictatorship of the proletariat must be regarded as an entire historical epoch full of external conflicts and civil wars. to re-educate in a protracted struggle under the controlling auspices of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state will wither away. to overcome their bourgeoisie habits and traditions. but a means to an end the creation of society in which the basic principle of life and social organization would be. In the dictatorship of proletariat there is a constant organizational work along with economic progress. resolution or decree it can be done only in the course of a long and difficult mass struggle against the mass of petty bourgeoisie influence. Karl Marx studied the capitalism with missionary spirit to make a scientific forecast on its development. Lenin also remarks in this regard. to each according to his needs.Political Science (Paper 1) Revolutionary” deeds and decrease. There will be an ideal society of the free and the equal without any internal disruption and mutual dissension. but the anti-thesis of the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. the proletarians themselves. for they will not be able themselves of own petty bourgeoisie prejudices at the first stroke as if by magic.” The dictatorship of the proletariat is transitory in nature. The salient feature of the feudal production was production for local consumption.” The Communist holds that the proletarian dictatorship means the despotic rule of the Communist minority. “Revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat is power won and maintained by the violence of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie power that is unrestrained by any law. or at the behest of the Virgin Mary. After the establishment of the society. On the contrary. In the age of feudalism. “Under the dictatorship of the proletariat we will have to re-educate million of peasants and petty proprietors. hundreds of thousands of office workers and bourgeoisie intellectuals to subordinate all these to proletarian state and to proletarian leadership. persons used to produce for themselves and for their feudal lords. dictatorship of the proletariat will not remain. Lenin said.

The difference is called surplus value. But there was another way also through which capital came into existence. Labor time spent in producing labor power means the time spent in producing the food. Karl Marx opined that under capitalist structure of production in each and every factory and industry. the exchange value of product depends upon the Labor Time spent in its production. According to Karl Marx the Page 56 of 108 . the capitalist wants to make more profits and hence there is a constant clash and struggle between the capitalist and the laborer. shelter. Production for profit required two things. but only equal about half this value or even less. On the contrary the production was meant for the capitalist to sell for money. The capitalist make more profit only by exploiting the laborer. “the wages paid to the workers are not the equivalent of the full value they produce. This exploitation results in class struggle. According to Karl Marx.” In the capitalist system of production. and the laborers whose only chance of getting a livelihood was to sell his labor. unless it is used to produce surplus value. In the modern capitalist society this surplus value is appreciated by the capitalist employer. In this new system of production. The worker is fighting for the existence of his life and he wanted to avoid intimidation and ultimately class struggle starts. The rest of the value produced by the worker during his working days is taken outright by his employer. Class struggle is perennial and perpetual in the capitalism. things were produced not for consumption but for sale in the market. Gradually feudal units of production began to break up. clothes and other such things which are essential for the laborer maintenance. Now the laborers produced things not for their personal use. It is very true that there is always a difference between the exchange value of a product produced by laborer and the value of labor power. capitalists’ means of production. Lust for profit is the prime factor in the capitalist system of production. Karl Marx is of the view that property in any form is not capital. Sale of products does not produce profit. Karl Marx is of the view that profit arises in the course of production. Laborer received his wages for his capitalist employer for his work and the capitalist employer received profit. the capitalist always become greedy and ambitious to increase the amount of surplus value which means more profit for him. Profit became the only aim of production in the modern world. which can never come to an end so long as the capitalist system of production lasts. Karl Marx is of the view that capitalists are permanent profit makers because they appropriate surplus value. In simple terms this difference may be called surplus value. there was a complete change. According to Karl Marx exploitation of the laborer is another salient feature of capitalism.Political Science (Paper 1) consumption. Nowadays a laborer is able to produce in a day more than is necessary to his survival but he is paid by his employer a wage commensurate with a subsistence level of existence. The laborer demands higher wages and shorter hours of work for improving his position. In this new system of production. The early accumulation of capital was very largely open robbery. A product has a great exchange value if more human labor has been put into its production. On the other hand.

there are other obstructions to the smooth development of capitalism. “In these crisis there broke out an epidemic that. despite all its labor.” __________________ Page 57 of 108 . has up to now nothing to sell but itself and the wealth of the few that increases constantly although they have long ceased to work. Whenever economic crisis occur. Apart from class-struggle. moderate in food and drink who served from their meager living. and thereupon sin fell upon the human race. but often led to the destruction of the capital accumulated in past years.” With the victory of the proletariat. and more in riotous living. This crisis creates a great obstacle to the smooth course of capitalist development. is the economic crisis. In other words we may say that these obstacles as a matter of fact are inherent in the capitalism. Adam bit the apple.Political Science (Paper 1) primitive accumulation is the real origin of capital. He ridicules the legend of men. intelligent and above all frugal elite: the other lazy rascals. “This primitive accumulation plays in political economy about the same part as original sin played in theology. would have become an absolutely the epidemic of over-production. Economic crisis do not check the expansion of capital. it checks the expansion of capital. Karl Marx said. the class struggle puts an end to this process by ending capitalist system of production. spending their substance. In times long gone by there were town sorts of people. Karl Marx said. is all earlier epochs. the diligent. Thus it came to pass that the former sort accumulated wealth and the latter sort had a t last nothing to sell except their own skin. one. The most important among these obstacles. And from this original sin dates the poverty of the great majority that.

the fullest implications of human personality. the state is nothing but a tool of the dominant class in society. According to the Communist theory. the ruling class having the apparatus of force and absolute rod of authority will always coerce upon the other classes of society. “This public force exists in every state. “State strives to hold a just balance between the different elements in society. but of material appendages. But he was of the view that state is a machine through which the ruling class imposes its will on the majority. the state is the executive committee of the bourgeoisie. state is an institution meant for the proper development of the personality of its each and every citizen. “State is nothing more than the form of organization which the bourgeoisie necessarily adopt both for internal and external purpose for the mutual guarantee of their property and interest. it consists not merely of armed men. Karl Marx said. He says the state has never and can never aim at the common good of the community as a whole.” According to Karl Marx. According to Karl Marx. state is not meant for the promotion of the welfare of its people nor bestows any right of political obligation and obedience but its coercion and that a class coercion. Page 58 of 108 .” Karl Marx vividly differs from the classical views regarding state.” Naturally. According to Aristotle the state came into birth for the sake of life and state continues to exist for the sake of good life. It became very essential for the privileged class to have an armed force for the purpose to maintain the privileges of the privileged class and secondly to protect the interests of the privileged class. According to classical view. there was no state in primitive society and as soon as human society was formed it bifurcated into two classes. Laski said. Fear and intimidation of the ruling class constrained the people to subdue for complete obedience and hence the Marxian state aims at crushing the independent will of its subjects. Economic is the domineering factor which becomes the base of all structures of the society. It strives by its policy to effect such an adjustment of the relationship between citizens and will enable each of them to realize. Karl Marx concluded that the development of the state had nothing to do with any form of representative institutions. prisons and repressive institutions of all kind.” (Karl Marx) State is thought of as parliament or some representative institution. Friedrich Engel said. Communists hold the views from the record of history that the state exists only to help the capitalist in exploiting and suppressing the laborers. According to Communist Manifesto. if he so desires. The state acts as an agency of class coercion in the hands of dominant economic class rather than an association of citizens is the pursuits of a common purpose.Political Science (Paper 1) Theory of State “The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the bourgeoisie as a whole.

There would be no question of mine and thine. It shows itself the way to accomplishing this revolution. “Where. all the functions of the government and the means as well as technique of production were to be controlled by the society. This is a known factor that in the capitalist structure of society. and the complete annihilation of the aristocratic and capitalist class in the society ushers a new epoch of social equality and economic parity. economic.” Karl Marx was of the view that the state will be able to wither away completely when society has realized the value. As soon as private ownership of means of production is eliminated. and with the disappearance of the class distinctions in society. Karl Marx’s state is a machine by which one class exploits and suppresses the other. On the contrary. When violent bloody revolution in the name of communism bring about complete and ultimate victory to the proletarian revolutionaries. but not over the means of production and its direction was vested in the hands of the capitalist. With the advent of proletarianism. Criticism: 1. “From each according to his ability: to each according to his needs. Every one will work voluntarily according to his ability and capacity and will get share according to his needs and requirements. Classless Society: Karl Marx was of the opinion that class struggle is perpetual and constant between man and man and consequently man always fought for his own existence. the state arises depends directly on which where and to what extent. The proletariat seizes political power and turns the means of production into state property.Political Science (Paper 1) Karl Marx viewed state as a product of class antagonism. “Whilst the capitalist mode of production more and more completely transforms the great majority of the population into proletarians it creates the power which under penalty of its own destruction is forced to accomplish this revolution.” All the class distinction in society would disappear. According to classical view. when and to what extent. Proletariats in that society are neglected people always living at the sweet mercy of capitalist. Karl Marx’s theory of state stands against the classical theory of state. And. a new system of legal. It ends only if the final and ultimate victory of the labor is achieved.” Then there would be no problem of production and its distribution. In this new system. Page 59 of 108 . conversely the existence of the state proves that class antagonisms are irreconcilable. the class antagonism of a given society cannot be objectively reconciled. all class distinction would automatically vanish and society would become a stateless and classless society. Whilst it forces on more and more the transformation of the vast means of production already socialized into state property. the class struggle would also come to an end. Lenin said. The proletariat would use their power to eliminate private ownership of means of production. Friedrich Engel said. the main reason for the existence of the state is the promotion of the good of the community. political and production world emerges out.

Karl Marx’s views do no explain the exact nature of the state. It gives a wrong conception. Now we live in an era of democratic socialist planning. The example of medieval kings and emperors stand against the theory of Karl Marx as they were not the representative of an economic class and consciously pursuing the interests of their own class. 3.e. Nowadays state is meant for the promotion of the common good. the ancient and medieval kings were the representatives of the whole society. He says that the ruling class is the representative of an economic class and the ruling class is always interested in pursuing its own interests.Political Science (Paper 1) 2. two great hostile camps and two prominent classes constantly indulging in class struggle and warfare which culminated into oppression and chaos. In the first half of the nineteenth century. 4. The conception of Karl Marx that victory of proletariats over the capitalists would result in the disappearance of class distinction is absolutely incorrect and untrue for glaring reasons that he had created class distinction i. Thus it can be said that Karl Marx’s theory of state is not at all applicable to the states of modern times. bourgeoisie and proletariat. On the contrary. Laissez-faire policy was predominant but today its forces are no longer reliable. but for twentieth century it is quite inapplicable. This is incorrect view of Karl Marx. __________________ Page 60 of 108 . Karl Marx’s theory of stat is quite applicable to the first half of the nineteenth century.

Farabi became as famous as any philosopher of Islam. profound moral convictions and his genuine belief in liberty and in the dignity of human being united with his moderation and humanitarianism made him the ideal spokesman of his age. a district of Transoxania. either in the form of commentaries or in treaties of his own based upon Plato. Mathematics and Physics. Logic. Siyasatu’l-Madaniyah 3. Politics. He left his indelible impact upon the succeeding generations through his works. Al-Farabi is the first Muslim philosopher to have left political writings. He mainly studied in Baghdad and after gaining considerable proficiency in the Arabic language. he became an ardent pupil of the Christian savant Abu Bishr Matta bin Younus. Being a great expositor of Aristotle’s logic.Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Al-Farabi Al-Farabi Introduction: Abu Nasr Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Tarkhan al-Farabi was born at Wasij. corrosions and false vanities. A Summary of Plato’s Laws 2.” (Sherwani) Al-Farabi was a renowned philosopher of his age and deeply reverenced in all ages. Being a first Turkish philosopher. we find him regularly attached to Saif-ud-Dowlah’s court. he left behind lasting and profound influence upon the life of succeeding Muslim Philosophers. In 946 Saif took Damascus and Al-Farabi became permanent resident of that Page 61 of 108 . no Muslim thinker ever reached the same position as al-Farabi in Philosophical knowledge. quite prominent as translator of a number of works by Aristotle and other Greek versatile writers. Sherwani was of the view. His sincerity. which are still read. learnt and discussed with great passion and literal zest. Al-Farabi’s works was preserved from ravages of time contain five on politics as under: 1. He was one of the greatest philosophers that the Muslim world had ever produced. Al-Farabi’s insatiated enthusiasm led him to study Philosophy. he was aptly called al-mu’alim al thani (the second teacher). a village near Farab. “A man with such learning had no place in the ninth-century Baghdad and as we have pointed out. Jawami’u’s-Siyasat 5. According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon. which was full of rivalries. Ara’u ahli’l-Madinatu’l-Fadilah 4. Ijtima’atu’l-Madaniyah Contribution of Al-Farabi to Islamic Political Thought “In pure philosophy. and it is said that a savant of caliber of Avicenna found himself entirely incapable of understanding the true bearing of Aristotle’s Metaphysics until one day he casually purchased one of Farabi’s works and by its help he was able to grasp their purport.

Thomas Aquines acknowledged their indebtedness to al-Farabi in the development of their own political theories. sometimes. Al-Farabi laid down several rules for teachers honestly striving to train the young students in philosophy. Mathematics in particular is very important in training the mind of a young philosopher. it is a matter of importance that such material should be analyzed and Farabi be given his rightful place on the scene of political philosophy.Political Science (Paper 1) delightful place. Page 62 of 108 . Al-Farabi died at the ripe age of nearly eighty years in 950. His name and works are everlasting and echoed in the corridors of time. spending his time in the gardens of the erstwhile Umayyad capital discussing philosophical questions with his friends and writing down his opinions and compositions sometimes in a regular form. Human nature rises only gradually from the sensuous to the abstract. on merely loose leaves. the study of logic as an instrument to distinguish the true from the false should precede the study of philosophy proper.” Al-Farabi renunciated from the worldly matters and he never pursued the pleasures and luxuries like other middle class Abbasids. Porphyry and Ptolemy. sometimes in an irregular form. it helps him pass from the sensuous to the intelligible and further it informs his mind with exact demonstrations. Sherwani says that we might accept the proposition that he was inspired by Plato. He led exemplary simple life with full contentment with what he got to eat and to wear. but as there is a mass of new material in his political writings not found in Plato and taken from local sources. The great Christian scholars namely Albert the Great and St. in this setting up of the Ideal City. It can be very well asserted that al-Farabi was in the truest sense “the parent of all subsequent Arabic Philosophers”. Al-Farabi voluminously wrote mainly on pure philosophy and there is no doubt that he had to draw on neo-Platonic ideas current in the Arab world of those days in his commentaries on Aristotle. from the imperfect to the perfect. No scholar should start the study of philosophy until he gets very well acquainted with natural sciences. Similarly.

who should be competent to control the actions of all in the State and must be in possession of latest intellect as well as the gained intellect. his Rais should be such superior man. under the guidance of the divinely revealed Shariat.Political Science (Paper 1) Al-Farabi’s Ideal Head of State Every Islamic state is ruled by the ruler. best and happy citizens. Al-Farabi starts from the nature of the workers of leadership and impresses his readers that what is wanted for the office is the power of making proper deductions. or as later European Political scientists would call him the Sovereign. He enumerated tweleve attributes of an ideal Sovereign: 1.” Al-Farabi contemplatively points out the virtuous qualities of his ideal Head of State. He should discuss the matters with least possible arguments and must have authority to get the work done. 6. 4. 3. 5. He must have the potentialities to convey his sense to others for complete submission. is alone qualified to help man. He must have visualization of all that is said. He must possess persuasion and imagination to attain perfection as well as a philosopher skilled in the speculative science. He must have a retentive and sharp memory. Plato after developing the matter of the government of his ideal city in his Republic had made the omnipotent and omniscient philosopher sovereign who should have no other interest but that of the affairs of state. by his very nature and upbringing. over the ideal nation and over the whole inhabited earth. The philosopher-prophet. the first ruler over the ideal city-state. “He is the Imam. in the opinion of Al-Farabi. He must be physically sound with meticulous understanding. Those ruled by the first ruler are the excellent. Rosenthal was of the view. According to Al-Farabi. All such refined and high qualities including his political and literal caliber make him an Ideal Sovereign for the overall interest of the society and the nation. who. does not submit before any power or instructions of others. a citizen to reach his true human destiny. 2. where his moral and intellectual perfection permit him to perceive God. He must have power to convey to others exactly according to his wish and he has profound Page 63 of 108 .

he would have one who has been brought up under a leader with these qualities. He must shun off playfulness and control over anger and passions. This Hakim is to Farabi a desideratum of every kind of government. 12. knavery and duplicity. He must have power to distribute justice without any effort. and would thus seen to prefer some kind of hereditary leadership. Al-Farabi fully realizes that these fine qualities cannot be found in one single human being. In case even such a person is not available. He must vie for utmost happiness to his subjects and he should do away with all forces of tyranny and oppressions. 7. fearless in doing things as he thinks best to be done. 8. He must serve the people of his state from all internal and external dangers. as well as for the virtues leading to good deeds. He must have perfect capacity for a comprehensive knowledge and prescription of the theoretical and practical sciences and art.Political Science (Paper 1) love of learning and knowledge. i-e one who is able to know the wants of the people and visualize the needs of the state as a whole. so he says that one without just five or six of these qualities would make a fairly good leader. 11. persuasion of justice and hatred of hypocrisy. it is preferable to have a council of two or even five members possessing an aggregate of these qualities provided at least one of them is a Hakim. 9. and if such a one is not procurable then the State is bound to be shattered to atoms. Page 64 of 108 . Al-Farabi’s ideal Rais must have love of truth. so that he should not prone to greed and lust. 10. with the important condition that the heir should follow the footsteps of his worthy predecessor. even five or six of them are not found in a person. He must be in possession of considerable wealth. If however.

This state is the happy and fortunate state with the people of ignorance. Timocracy (Madina Karama): It contains a variety of honours. 3. Vile State (Nadhala): Its citizens strive for wealth and riches for their own sake. The second kind of honor is accorded to men because of their wealth. The first is a personal relationship between one who is worthy to be honored because of some virtue in him. Since the Arabic source of Al-farabi is lost in the wealth of legend. they co-operate to give victory over others. 4. mastery over others and over their possessions for power’s sake. The citizens of these honor-loving states assist each other in gaining glory. jokes and pleasantries and this is the enjoyment of the pleasures of eating and merry-making. games and other pastimes. The account in the Siyasa includes a description of its ruler. fame and honor. like food. 5. or because of they have been victorious. Base and Despicable State: Its inhabitants concentrate on the pleasures of the senses. Al-Farabi sets out to distinguish between despotic states and define tyranny or despotism according to aim. and the others who accord him honor and respect because they recognize him as their superior. but refuse to be vanquished by them. exercise authority or enjoy other distinctions. by force and conquest or by persuasion and achieving Page 65 of 108 . 2. This state is the one in which men help one another to enjoy sensual pleasure such as games. at the necessities of the life. The latter seems to be more correct. State of Necessity (Daruriya): Its inhabitants aim. a place to live and carnal gratification and they generally help each other in securing these necessities of life. for this state only aims at attaining pleasure after obtaining first the necessities of life and then abundant wealth to spend. within or externally. Ibn-e-Rushd also succinctly touches upon this state. drink. Al-Farabi divides states into following categories: 1.Political Science (Paper 1) Kinds of State Al-Farabi describes the varieties of the states other than the Ideal States and the remarkable contribution of this philosopher are very much alive and given serious considerations even today. we are unable to determine whether this lengthy and diffuse description goes back to it or represents Al-Farabi’s own amplification. The honors fall into two groups. clothing. This state in the opinion of Al-Farabi is the best of all the states. Tyranny (Taghallub): It receives from the aim of its citizens.

orators and poets come into being. either to migrate I such a way as to form one single Page 66 of 108 . Democracy (Madina Jama’iya): It is marked by the freedom of its inhabitants to do as they wish. “But the more chivalrous among them are such that even when they have to shed human blood they do so only face to face. Ibn-e-Rushd avoids this by following Plato’s description of tyranny and the tyrannical man. Al-Farabi said. so nations which try to get other nations under their control consider it quite proper to do so. as many as the tyrant has desires. It is thus possible to choose from its elements of the ideal state. He initiates reasons for this mastery and says that it is sought by a people owing to its desire for protection. not while their opponent is asleep or showing his back. There is no doubt that all the lapse of centuries and the international ideology which is the current coin in politics. Rosenthal was of the view. nor do they take away his property except after giving him proper warning of their intentions. Democracy contains good and bad features and it is therefore not impossible that at some time the most excellent men grow up there.” 6. the psychology of the nations today is much the same as described by the Master centuries ago. There are only alternatives to the colonists.Political Science (Paper 1) enslavement. and the subdued nation should do it for the good of its masters. He opines that the inhabitants of a State must scatter hither and thither in different parts of a State because they have been overpowered by an enemy or by an epidemic or through economic necessity. There is nothing against human nature for the strong to over power the weak. His despotic rule is a mixed one and thus often resembles timocracy or plutocracy. Al-Farabi knows of two kinds of tyranny within which these variations occur. They are all equal and no body has master over another. Such a community does not rest till it thinks it has become supreme forever.” Colonies: Al-Farabi is comprehensively clear about the principles of colonization. internal and external tyranny. which seems to be idealistic. for this despotism expresses itself in imposing his will on his subjects and making them work for his personal ends. “Tyranny has even more variations for Al-Farabi than timocracy. always regarding all other peoples their opponents and enemies and keeping itself on Guard. In this powerful state. and it is justice both to control the weak and for the weak to be so controlled. so that philosophers. The first consists in the absolute mastery of the tyrant and his helpers over the citizens of the state. AlFarabi has a definite place for the trait of political character over other nations. ease ort luxury and all that leads to the satisfactions of these necessities. they might be able to get all the desire. Their governors only govern with the explicit consent of the governed. and the second is the enslavement of another state or people. nor does it give any other nation an opportunity of over powering it. Apart from the afore-mentioned classification of the states. and the transition from democracy to tyranny and of the democratic to the tyrannical man but done to their common source both Al-Farabi and Ibn-e-Rushd similarly define tyranny as absolute power.

It will thus be clear to understand that A-Farabi not only contemplates colonization but also self-Government of a republican kind which is closer to the modern conceptions. It may come to compass that a large body of these people are of opinion that it is not necessary to change the laws which they have brought from their mother country.Political Science (Paper 1) commonwealth or divide themselves in different political societies. they would then simply codify existing laws and begin to live under them. __________________ Page 67 of 108 .

Nasihat-ul-Muluk (Advice to Kings) 3. Al-Mawardi has left a great and valuable treasure of knowledge and philosophy. But he declined to accept this offer of appointment because he said there were far abler people who deserved the title much more than himself. Tahsilun Nazar fi Tahsil-uz-Zafar (Control of Sight for facilitating Victory) Contribution of Al-Mawardi to Islamic Political Thought Al-Mawardi was the founder of the science of politics in the Islamic World. thrologists and political philosophers who have followed him. have hardly made any improvement upon his thoughts. His books are the following: 1. at all levels. Like other Muslims he received the traditional education. Except Ibn-e-Khaldoon.” Al-Mawardi started his career as a professor of law and jurisprudence at Basra and Baghdad. and he wrote on many topics besides law. Al-Mawardi was regarded as one of the versatile and most learned jurists of his age. all the jurists. were his principal concerns. a treatise on prophecy and several works on Ethics. For four hundred years the Muslims were engaged in conquest and empire building. He was born in 974 AD and died in 1058 AD. Qawanin-ul-Wazarat (Laws of the Ministry) 4. It is related that he did not publish any of his works in his lifetime. When a friend asked why he kept his books back he replied that it was because he felt that his motives in writing them were not as pure as he should have wished and that he did not know whether Allah the Almighty had accepted these literary offerings or not. Al-Ahkam at-Sultaniyah (Ordinances of Government) 2. down to our own days. He belonged to the orthodox Shafi’te school of jurisprudence and still we find traces of the pure rationalism. and later on he was appointed as Qazi-ul-Quzat of Baghdad by a-Qaim. a Commentary on the Quran. Abbasid Caliph and he was also conferred an honorific title of Aqdal-Quat or the Supreme Justice. it is noteworthy that “Government and administration. He was not very original in what he did. and his opinions laid emphasis in the world of law and jurisprudence. but they could not evolve any concrete Page 68 of 108 .Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Al-Mawardi Al-Mawardi Introduction: Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Habib-al-Mawardi is the first writer on political theory in the history of Islam. As far his legal writings. like. His greatness lies in the fact that he received political opinions and traditions of the past and transformed them into a logical system.

Political Science (Paper 1) pattern of government or administration. and has been mainly responsible for almost complete absence of the growth of democratic life in Muslim lands. Al-Mawardi’s achievement is that he gave definition to what was unshapely and undefined. Lack of a constitutional theory has not only very much reduced the value of Al-Mawardi’s work but has its deadening effect on the later development of Islamic political thought. he had one short-coming. His immediate aim of emancipating the Sunni Caliphate of the Abbasids from the Buwayhid tyranny was so providently realized in his own lifetime. he did not indulge in empty speculation. Lack of the idea of fundamental rights of men has been one of the principal sores in Muslim polity for ages. jurisdiction. This idealistic touch made his work popular with every regime and every generation that came after him. that it must be counted as one of his remarkable achievements. gives no conception of sovereignty and seems to be completely ignorant of the idea of the constitution. he assembled his ideas in writing. therefore his book Al-Ahkam at-Sultaniyah became a standard work of reference on political and administrative practices. He does not discuss the scope. Moreover. His theory of election dealing only with the appointment of the Caliph is wholly undemocratic. Al-Mawardi’s work and his theory of Caliphate saved the Muslim people for a long to come from the extravagant and illogical claims of the Shiahs. the Mutazilah and other extremist sects in Islam. His most valuable contribution to political theory was that he based his account on historical practice and facts and liked other Jurists and the scholars. Moreover. and hence could not evolve a philosophic conception of the state. he was not a political thinker. He portrayed not only what exists but also what ought to exist. responsibilities and obligations of the state. Al-Mawardi seems to have no conception of democracy. Al-Mawardi’s remarkable contribution is that he has given a detailed account of the administrative machinery of Government. To compensate this irretrievable position he instituted the theory of absolute governorship which provided a handy instrument of self-protection to the Abbasid Caliphs against the attempt of possible adventurers who aspired to overthrow the Caliphate. Al-Mawardi knew that the Abbasids could not fully retrieve the lost ground and could not regain the glory of their early ancestors. Criticism: But with all the good points that can be said about Al-Mawardi. the Khawarij. one cannot fail to admire his effort to work out a political system essentially based on the fundamental thought and early political practice of Islam. Page 69 of 108 . he is very particular about the rights and prerogatives of the Caliph but pays little attention to the rights and obligations of the people. In spite of the untenable position in which al-Mawardi had to work.

B.. And not only traditions of the Prophet (P. it promises the inheritance or possession and governance of the earth to those only who follow in the footsteps of the Prophet (P. but omits all details about the form and constitution of the Caliphate. distribution of booty of war. the Quran does not aim at creating a state but a society. The Holy Quran aims at creating an ideal society in which good predominantly prevails over evil and in which the laws of God are generally practiced and obeyed.Political Science (Paper 1) Al-Mawardi’s Theory of State Caliphate: The institution of Caliphate represents the mission of Hazrat Muhammad (P.H) to take the counsel of the Muslims in matters of state. because the wisdom of God knows better that the social and political constitutions of men are ever changing and evolving with the march of time.U.U. the forms of religious worship. These principles are as follows: 1. The forty years of the Pious Caliphate rightly represented the true spirit of Islamic polity.U. they tackled all these issues and tried to reach definite conclusions on all of them in the light of Quran and the Sunnah. The Quran is silent on all these pertinent issues. Page 70 of 108 .U. prohibition of interest. it is obvious that the matter is left to the discretion and judgment of the Muslim community. they spent greater pains in exploring the Sunnah and the archives of early Islamic History to realize their purpose. Although the structure of the Caliphate was brutally shaken during the regime of Hazrat Usman (R. “Whatever the form and shape of the state. laws of matrimony and inheritance. And because the jurists failed to get sufficient material in the Quran to construct a detailed political theory.B. When the Muslims built a world empire and actual needs arose.” The Quran says.B. because their meaning is ever changing with the historical evolution.U. about the articles of faith. Besides.H) but also of the companions and successors were complied.H) and practice piety and do justice. The second fundamental source of political speculation was the Sunnah.A) and finally cracked during the reign of Hazrat Ali (R. its basic principle remained permanent and operative. it may bear the designation of the Islamic State.B. The Quran is very clear and definite about all fundamental problems for instance. Syed Qutab was of the view.” It also commands the Prophet (P.H) the Prophet and the main duties of the Caliph are the safeguard of religion from all destructive propaganda and innovations and the proper organization of general polity. The aim of Islamic State is to create a society as conceived in the Quran and Sunnah.A). The Muslim jurists are of the opinion that the institution of the Caliphate is not necessitated by a clear injunction in the Quran but by the consensus of opinion.B. Further. and this is deliberate. “Obey God and obey the Prophet (P.H) and the Uli-al-Amr from amongst you. if the Quranic society is realized in it. rights and obligations of husband and wife etc.

“the appointment of a Wazir does not mean that the Imam or Caliph should give up all connections with the administration of the state. took pains to preserve the original pattern of succession b y nomination and limited election within the House of Umayyad. The sovereignty rests in the people.S) could make his brother Haroon (A. The Wazarat of Execution: The Wazir of Execution is similar to the Secretary to the Government in modern times. can dismiss the officers appointed by him. 2. because based sovereignty belongs to the people. Al-Mawardi says that Wazarat is of two kinds: 1. 3. then surely in the administration of the state it is allowable for the Imam to have a Wazir beside him. The Quran and Sunnah did not specifically demand the necessity of a state. And at any rate the conception of the state was never clear. To them it was crystal clear the source of all temporal authority were the people and the people alone.Political Science (Paper 1) 2.S) his Wazir in order that his hands should be strengthened. After the fall of the Pious Caliphate. but the real significance of his appointment consists of the fact that in the province of politics it is better to have a coadjutor rather than one sole person at the helm of affairs. The Wazarat of Delegation: The Wazir of Delegation is the person in whom the Imam has the fullest confidence and to whom the powers of administration of the realm are delegated. AlPage 71 of 108 . Muslims in early Islam were not beguiled by sophisticated notions of Caliphs as presented by later theologians and jurists. The difference between the Wazir and the Imam himself is that the Wazir of Delegation is not empowered to appoint anyone as his successor and the Imam. (Ibne-Khaldoon) The Umayyad made strenuous efforts and effected a practical compromise between monarchy and the original caliphate.” And when the Prophet Moses (A. There was no written constitution as the modern constitutions. The ideas of absolution of the Caliph and of divine right were entirely foreign to them. Whatever the form of the government may be. The people can set up any form of the government conforming to the above two principles and with the exigencies of time and environment. They however. it must be upon the principle of popular representation. the idea of democratic caliphate passed into monarchical system without any ideological conflict. the highest authority. 4.B. It was on account of this that the Umayyad and Hashimite race for supremacy of power started immediately after the device of the Prophet (P.U. Wazarat: Al-Mawardi says. The State shall enforce the Shariah as the fundamental laws of the state.H). This Umayyad innovation received general approval and became an established principle of Islamic polity for alter times.

B. intelligence and the wisdom of grasping the truth of things. and those who collect them and those whose hearts are to be reconciled. diplomacy and experience.S) when He appointed him His Caliph: “O David. confidence. Al-Mawardi enumerated four chief offices of Government are under: 1. he argues from the battle of Mutah and says. 60). “The Prophet (P. absence of greed. the government should be divided into various departments dealing with the business of government such as revenue.Political Science (Paper 1) Mawardi says that the main function of the Wazir is to get the decrees of the Imam executed and he should be the main official channel of information for him. and for the cause of God and for the wayfarer” (Quran ix.B. and quotes a verse to prove that the Zakat should be distributed “among the poor and the needy.H) appointed his manumitted slave. gave an account of legal rationalism in his writings. AlMawardi said.U. We have appointed thee Our Caliph on earth. Al-Mawardi relies solely upon the Quran without reference to any other source of law. and to free the captives and the debtors.U.H) as related in the Traditions when he wishes to prove that the Caliph has the right to appoint his own successor. after him Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawahah and in case he is also Page 72 of 108 . to take his place at the head of the Muslim army and at the same time ordered that is case of his death he should be replaced by Hazrat Jafar bin Ali Talib. The Army Board 2." For the efficient functioning of the administration. The Board of Provincial Boundaries 3. good relationship with the people. Thus when he tries to demonstrate that the Imam should not indulge in luxurious living and he reminds the readers of the order which God gave to the Prophet David (A. seven qualities are required for a person aspiring to this office and these are honesty. The State administration as a whole was called Diwan. absence of luxury and amorousness.” He at the time of discussing different categories of taxes. Hazrat Zaid bin Harithah. The Board of Appointment and Dismissal of Officers Views of Central Government: Al-Mawardi being an orthodox Shafi’ite. Very rationally he makes full endeavors to demonstrate the necessity of the Imamate and he proves it not only by referring the Islamic law but lays down a general proposition that it is in the nature of man or rather those among men who are superior to others in intellect that they should hand over their affairs to one who can keep them from being tyrannized over by others and should have the power of adjudging between them in case of mutual quarrels. argues entirely on the basis of the Quran. Mawardi opines that. The Treasury 4. and lastly. Along with the verses of the Quran he argues from the order of the Prophet (P. army and other high offices of State. “It is not necessary that the holder of the office should be a follower of Islam and a non-Muslim dhimmi can also be appointed a Wazir of Execution. and follow not desires that might lead thee away from the path of thy Lord. so judge aright between man and man.

who should have the posture of the rich.H) to make these nominations. he quotes the instructions given by the Caliph Hazrat Umar to Hazrat Abu Musa al Ash’ari when he appointed him to this office. Sometimes al-Mawardi uses the documents of the Umayyad and the Abbasid periods his premises. for instance. experienced and matured in his profession and willing to undertake the most difficult missions. he quotes a proclamation of Mamun where he declares that he wishes to appoint one of his ministers who should be virtuous. and even a second’s conversation should suffice for him to get at the root of the matter.U.” Mawardi was of the view that “it was possible for the Prophet (P. should be reliable and trustworthy. __________________ Page 73 of 108 .B. who should be grateful for any good that might be done to him and should bear his troubles with patience. the mantle of command should fall on the shoulders of whomever the soldiers might choose. He should be able to understand the innermost thoughts of others by the mere gesture of the eyes. the humility of the savant and the acuteness of the jurist.” As regards the office of Qazi. he quotes the accession address of Hazrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz to demonstrate the exalted ideals of the office of the Caliph. it should be possible in case of khilafat as well. whose silence should signify his great indulgence and whose conversation should demonstrate his great knowledge. sophisticated and conservative in his habits.Political Science (Paper 1) killed. Whenever he wants to stress the importance of the Wazarat. the foresight of the learned.

The people living under his cruel subjugation had no right of resistance or revolt. It defined the proper dignity and status of men in this universe. or the claim of jurists to unchallenged obedience to the Head of the State. and he was responsible to none. The compromise was given religious sanctity and justification. so that it became permanent and unchallengeable. The great republic of Madina was built on the highest and purest ideals of democracy. “After me there will be appointed rulers over you. But when Abbasids came into power. statesmen and diplomats invented a political theory which affected a superficial and sophisticated compromise between the two forces. the Fatimids and others. The only sad thing about this was that it was too short-lived and that it could not get time for proper growth and consolidation. while the state tried to emulate the traditions and ways of Byzantine and Sassanid empires. political thinkers. his relations and obligations to God. The Muslim jurists. his wishes and whims became law.H) said. but you must obey the orders from them that is based upon righteousness. A struggle began between the State and Society. Al-Mawardi’s Views: Al-Mawardi is greatly influenced by the political ideas of his age. he nowhere supports their claim. Islam combined politics with religion in a remarkable way that it was susceptible to reason and most conducive to human relations. if they rule Page 74 of 108 . for despite his anxiety for the restoration of sovereign power of Abbasid Caliphs. The emperor or Caliph became the spiritual and temporal head of the state. Al-Mawardi quotes the following tradition from Abu Hurairah: the Prophet (P. 1. it brought about a complete revolution in human thought and knowledge. The consequences of the premature demise of the Republic of Madina were dire and far-reaching. The act of rebellion in such an eventuality was not regarded as a crime but as a vindication of the fundamental rights of people. and His privileges as the Lord of creation. The society tried to reflect the principles of Islamic life and polity. it signaled the victory of the State polity over religious ideology.B.U. It taught for the first time the ideas of universal brotherhood and complete equality of men. and both the good as well as bad deeds will go by them. After the ascendancy of Islam. It demolished the artificial barriers of color and creed and brought the poor and the rich at one platform. the people had a right to overthrow him and choose a new leader in his place. the Abbasids. The fast developing ideals of Islamic democracy were blasted and superseded by the imperialistic systems of the Umayyads. For one hundred years of Umayyad rule the struggle between these two forces continued.Political Science (Paper 1) Theory of Rebellion Introduction: Even in the ancient and medieval tribal and monarchical systems it was recognized that if the monarch ruled with tyranny and inequity. He discards the divine right of rule. for if they rule with fairness the good of it will occur to them and to you both.

A) Page 75 of 108 . it is obvious that he cannot sit to impeach himself or allow others to punish him. 4: 58) does not give license of despotism to rulers.U.” Obedience to the head of the State is bound by the condition that he obeys the injunctions of God. rules with truth and justice. set me right. bring it to the judgment of God and the Prophet (P. and the most hated and damnable person to me on the Day of Judgment shall be the Tyrant Imam.U.” Abu Said narrated that the Prophet (P. “Their affairs are decided by mutual counsel amongst themselves" (Al-Quran. nor discusses the fundamental rights of man. that the State was conducted by the elected representatives of the people. and not responsible to any Majlis or Tribunal. that Islam has given an open charter of rights to humanity. “Obey God.” He continued the speech and said. It was the clear infringement of this covenant that eventually led to the assassinations of Hazrat Usman (R. and that it existed only to protect and promote their interests.U. it is just probable that the vengeance of God may overtake them all.B. or the Imam may be expelled his office. but if you see me diverting.U.H) said.A) reported that the Prophet (P. No method has been proposed by means of which the will of the people may be ascertained. And since the Imam is the executive Head of the State. But it is ambiguous as to how a tyrant or heretical Imam can be deposed. One thing is quite clear from the writings of Al-Mawardi.B. he said in his policy speech: “Obey me as long as I obey God.H) as well as from the practice of the Pious Caliphs. provided you believe in God and in the day of Judgment. “Indeed if the people see evil and do not rise to ward it off.A) was elected Caliph.H). He is very careful in choosing only those traditions which suit his purpose.B. but when I disobey Him you are no longer bound to obey me. and obey the Prophet (P. Al-Mawardi clearly advocates revolt when the Imam either falls prey to sensual passions or becomes sceptic of the basic tenets of Islam.B.” 2. and violated the principle of representation and threw overboard the interest of the people. “if you quarrel on any issue. He could have easily established from the tradition of the Prophet (P.Political Science (Paper 1) with inequity you will get the benefit of it and they. the evil consequences thereof.” When Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.U. “Some of the most loved and nearest persons to me on the Day of Judgment shall be the Just Imam.H). There is no precedent in Islamic history when an Imam was deposed from office by legal and proper means.” In the early phases of Islamic history. He could have noted that the famous verse of the Quran. In another verse the Quran says.B. the people thought it as their inherent right to repeal such rulers and grab political power from them. that is. for the same verse continues. 42: 38) and not by the arbitrary will of a ruler. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R. and obey the ruler who is from amongst you. He does not elaborate a detailed theory of rebellion.” (Al-Quran. that he is opposed to the claim of undisputed obedience to the Caliph.H) said. follow me. there were a general and strong feelings among the Muslims that there existed a solemn covenant between the State and people. and that it has unambiguously defined limits of State’s powers and freedom of the individual. “And I am just like one of you so when you find me on the right path. So when the rulers broke this covenant.

__________________ Page 76 of 108 . because after the regime of the Pious Caliphs. killed these ideas altogether and the concept of the covenant was completely forgotten. Conclusion: Al-Mawardi did not elaborate a theory of rebellion and if he wanted to propound a theory. many a ruler denied the right of the people to participate in the affairs of the State.A) and also to the sudden collapse of the powerful Umayyads. But there is no denying the fact that the people resented the autocratic trends in the statecraft and stood for their basic rights. he could have found abundant sanction for it in early thought and practice. It may be noted here that the idea of rebellion has always been most abhorrent to Muslim rulers throughout history. The Abbasid Caliphs fetched the reign of the Islamic empire.Political Science (Paper 1) and Hazrat Ali (R.

From the capital of Saljuqs. Then Tusi became the full-fledged Prime Minister of the whole empire with the succession of Malik Shah to his father’s throne in 1072. his influence spread to the capital of the Abbasid Caliph. Nizam-ul-Mulk was not his real name. where Nizam-ul-Mulk was born. His elementary education started with the study of Traditions and Jurisprudence and his father wanted him to take up the legal profession. Alp Arslan and Malik Shah. so consequently he was put under the scholarly guidance of Al-Samad Funduraji. thus having an opportunity to acquaint himself with their state administration. a small town in the suburn of Tus. imprisoning Emperor Diogenes himself and forcing him to pay tribute to the Islamic state. the political situation ion the country became aggravated and in the hours of turmoil and confusion. After 1049 he went to Ghaznah. Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed as a joint Minister with Amin-ul-Mulk Kunduri. Imam-ul. who was a profound scholar of Law of his age. after his appointment as minister. But Kunduri was soon put to death. which he owed entirely to Nizam-ulMulk’s efforts. It was Alp Arslan who conquered all the territories of Western Asia till then ruled by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine. Then he went to Merv and there Chaghari Beg appointed him the mushir (counselor) of the katib (secretary) of his son. Alp Arslan.Haramain Sheikh Abdul Malik-I Jawaini added a number of other distinctions to his honorific titles. Tusi traveled to Bukhara and Merv. Nizam-ul-Mulk’s Persian works are the chief inspiring sources for the study of his political ideas: Page 77 of 108 . Later on the advice of Ali bin Shadhan that Alp Arslan after his accession to the throne in 1062.Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi Introduction: Khawaja Abu Ali Hasan bin Ali bin Ishaq widely known in history of Islamic political thought as Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi. he fled to Balkh and entered the service of Ali bin Shadhan who was the governor of that province. He was born in 1017 AD. and as if these titles would not suffice to connote the qualities of the man. In his last days he came into collision with the Ismailyah movement of Hasan bin Sabah. where he sought service with Ghaznawids. and by the titular Caliph of Baghdad. Alp Arslan. who is said to have honored him with the titles of Radi-ulAmir al Muminin. the great divine of the period. in whose activities he saw danger to the Saljuq Empire. When Sultan Abdul Rashid was killed in 1052 and with his demise. Al-Qaim. and also to a number of towns in Transoxiana in search and employment. Nizam-ul-Mulk was cruelly assassinated by one of Fidais (the Assassins) in 1091 AD. Abu al-Hasan Ali belonged to a family of landowners of Radhkan. it was a title of honor conferred upon him by his Saljuqi ruler. His father. Sherwani was of the view that during his term of offices he was showered with all kinds of honorific titles and dignities both by his master.

Nizam-ul-Mulk is said to have written a book entitled as Safar Namah (The book of Travels) which is now extinct. His work was a valuable constitution of his country. It was an age of radical change and fusion of social and political ideas and institutions. Contribution of Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi to Islamic Political Thought An age of Political Turmoil: Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi lived in a dark age of political warfare and constant conflict among the political demagogues to grab power which has witnessed the lower degradation of the Caliphate. In his immortal political works. Dastur-al-Wuzara (The conduct of Ministers). Contribution of Nizam-ul-Mulk: This is an admitted fact that Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi wielded a profound influence on the succeeding generations by making valuable contributions to the history of political thought. and his contributions not only became advantageous in his era but also greatly influenced the later period. It is more generally known as the Wasaya-iKhawaja Nizam-ul-Mulk (The precepts of Khawaja Nizam-ul-Mulk) 3. he discussed at length all evils and ills of politics of his age and he aptly suggested remedies in order to avoid all kinds of destructive tendencies among the states. He did away with the stagnant politics and despotic conspiracies of palaces and became responsible for heralding a new era of political consciousness. when the House of Abbasids was tottering.Political Science (Paper 1) 1. Siyasat Namah or Siyar-ul-Mulk (The book on State polity and administration) 2. This also saw the decline of the Ghaznawids Empire and the Bhwaihid kingdom and the emergence of the Suljuqs after their victory over the Ghaznawids in 1040 when their nomadic and wandering life changed into the cultured race who ruled over vast gigantic empire. the power was declining. the book was compiled nearly a thousand years ago. Siyasat Namah. following its transformation during a period of three centuries from a democracy into autocracy and then from autocracy into a mere puppetry in the hands of powerful aristocrats and wazirs. He was an irrepressible advocate of natural rights of individuals and he ardently championed their cause to give liberty and freedom but with restrictions to show respect and regard to the rulers. His foreign policy was a great success. and he maintained cordial relations among his neighboring states. It is sufficient to know the ideas contained in the Siyasat Namah came from the prominent Prime Minister of the Saljuqis and are the ones accepted by his master Jalal-ud-Din Malik Shah as the constitutional code of his extensive empire. specifically in the Muslim world in which Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi lived and worked relentlessly. and the days of the Eastern Empire of Constantinople were nearing their end. and Page 78 of 108 .

in a word he rose to such eminence that the whole continent of Asia may well take a prides in his personality and his work. Umar Khayyam. a friend of the great Persian astronomer-poet. founder of the Nizamiyah University and its branches. for he was an expert in the arts and sciences of his day.” Page 79 of 108 . a faithfully counselor of his patron and his eminent son. He freely takes his cue from the non-Arabic and non-Muslim sources. and a martyr at the hands of a murderer. he sat down to write a book which was as useful to a seeker of political truth in our own times as it was to his contemporaries.Political Science (Paper 1) India got a miserable shock and set-back due to perennial internal dissentions and conflicts. In fact he amrks an epoch in the history of Eastern learning and arts. “It is to the great credit of Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi that in the dark and uncertain epoch. the ailment of the caste system and the threats of a permanent conquests by outsiders. Sherwani pays tribute to Tusi in these words.

And as for the term Amir Mustauli (Governor by usurpation) it does not occur at all throughout his writings. the most experienced and the most competent of his people and to repose confidence in such of his subjects as deserve it and delegate to them a part of his duties according to their merit and worth. and it is unnecessary to indulge in controversy about the powers of the two offices. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi had to surmount all difficulties in regard to the coordination of Islamic principles in which he had an implicit belief with the Perso-Turkish thought and practice in politics in rogue. “In every age God the Almighty selects some one from among men and gives over to him the charge of the well-being of the world and the comfort and tranquility of the human race after duly furnishing him with the art of government. His political theory represents a phase of the development of the Muslim polity which was characterized by kingship. and it seems contradiction in terms that while trying to justify the hereditary king he should be using arguments already advanced in favor of an elected President. The first thing distinguishable about his exposition of the institution of kingship is that he is careful to make no reference to the Caliph as the head of the Muslim political community. He generally calls his ruler as Padshah. It is curious that the reason for the establishment of the kingly office as remarked by him should be identical with the set-up of the Imamat as given by Mawardi. He very often uses the title of Sultan for the Saljuq king.” (Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi) Functions of the King: According to Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi the essential functions which the king has to fulfill in human society are the following: 1. as against the constitutional structure of the Caliphate which was delicately interwoven since the ascendancy of Islam. His theory is that the king enjoys the right to rule over his subjects by virtue of divine appointment. 2. both being the terms of the constitutional law employed by the jurists to denote the legal superiority of the Caliph over the prince. It is the duty of a king to remain in constant consultation with the wisest. and to remark nothing about the constitutional relations of the Saljuq enter with the Abbasid Caliphs. He also makes him responsible for the peace and security of the land and endows him with all the necessary prestige in order that God’s creatures may live in peace and plenty and that justice and security may be the order of the day. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi was of the view that the ultimate object to which the king must canalize his energy and initiative for maintaining peace and order in the state. so that the people may live Page 80 of 108 . a Persian term used for the king.Political Science (Paper 1) Theory of Kingship Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi served many kings and he profoundly studied the monarchical system of government developing under the aristocratic rule of prince.

he does not regard him by any means as a law-giver. It is valid because it is de facto. for it has been ordained by Almighty God. Tusi lays great emphasis on obedience as the most essential duty of the people towards the ruler. The sovereign must remember that God the Almighty is pleased with a king only when he treats his people with kindness and justice. Justice. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi believed that “the king is endowed by God with wisdom and knowledge so that he can treat each of his subjects according to his worth and can give each a position according to his value. as on his subjects.H) and to pay due respect to religious scholars. People can find their way in its light and can come out of darkness. because legislation in the proper sense of the term has never been recognized as a human function in the Muslim legal theory. “It is obligatory for the king to seek knowledge of religious matters and to comply with and make arrangements to carry out the commands of God and the traditions of the Prophet (P. The first and foremost obligation of the king towards his subjects is to do justice.B. 4. a king must issue an instrument of instructions to all his subordinate officers and governors of the states enjoining them to treat the people well and extract only the dues allowed by the law of the land. He firmly believes it to be a religious duty. 7. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi said. and time and again. and who is taught to appear rather than become religious. But Nizam-ul-Mulk’ Prince is taught to believe sincerely in religious truths. His wisdom is just like a lamp that gives off abundant light.” Religion and politics are inseparably joined together.Political Science (Paper 1) with comfort under the shadow of his justice.U. “The state and religion are like two brothers. Unlike the Machiavellian Prince who is advised to handle religion merely as a useful instrument for achieving political ends.” The principles of conduct which he lays down for the king under the influence of this religious trend are in striking contrast with those prescribed by Machiavelli for his “Prince”. and are complementary to each other. as a principle of good government. 6. A human authority with absolute legislative powers has never existed in a true Muslim polity.” Tusi treats Prince as divinely appointed ruler. since he brings to them peace and prosperity after they have been deprived of it as a punishment for their obedience to God. so that an era of prosperity and progress may usher. The moral obligations he sets on the absolute authority of the king prevent it from growing into an oppressive despotism. and to exercise political power as an essential means of attaining them. Tusi said that the people must blindly obey every order and instruction of the prince without questioning the validity of his authority. he Page 81 of 108 . Nizam-ul-Mulk’s prince must work for the collective good of his people. 3. He emphasizes the importance of religious character of the king’s authority and it tones down the autocratic attitude of his monarch. Tusi was of the view. According to this theory there already exists a divine law (Shariat) which is theoretically as binding on the ruler himself. however autocratic he may be in practice. 5. vested with unlimited powers. According to Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi. occupies a predominant place in his concept of kingship.

“A state can continue to exist notwithstanding impiety. When the people pray for the welfare of the king. which can be attained through the kindness with which they treat the people and through justice which they administer to them. have surpassed all other monarchs in justice. his state grows stable and prospers everyday.” He was of the view that “The king should strive to seek the favor of God. generosity and courage.Political Science (Paper 1) lays emphasis on its importance for state and society. especially Nushirwan the Just.” __________________ Page 82 of 108 .” (Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi) Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi is greatly impressed by the Persian standards of justice that he believes that “Sassanian kings. but it cannot exist with tyranny.

Principle political works of Al-Ghazali are as follows: 1. all these things had a tremendous effect on his psychology. Al-Ghazali extensively traveled here and there to imbibe wisdom and intellect from every source. in the period of utter disillusionment. Munqidh Min ad-Dalal (Deliverance from Waywardness) 2. Iqtisad Fil-I’tiqad (Moderation in Belief) 8. In 1095. There have been many philosophers and scholars in Islam and other religions. Ihya-ul-Ulam (Renaissance of Sciences) 3. dividing his time between pious exercises and literary work. Fatihat-ul-Ulum (Introduction to Sciences) 6. Al-Ghazali won great fame and prominence because his philosophical doctrines and consequently as a great sage of the age. He left behind indelible impressions because of his immortal works and philosophical-cum-political doctrines which have still influence upon this modern age. which as a youth he could never remember. surnamed al-Imam-ulJalilm. He is one of the greatest and distinguished original philosophers not only in the history of Muslim philosophy but also in the history of human thought. Tibr-ul-Masbuk (Molten Gold) 4. coupled with murder of his patron Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi and the death of Malik Shah in 1092. he had discontinued his work of teaching in Baghdad. He was the intellectual adviser and chief canonist till 1091 when he was formally appointed to the great foundation of Baghdad. His closing years were chiefly devoted to pious contemplation and the study of the Traditions. Hujjat-ul-Islam and Zainuddin. Sherwani said. 1111. probably found no satisfaction in dogmatic predictions. but the distinct caliber of one of great philosophers ushered a unique era of knowledge of his age. Sirr-ul-Alamain (The Mystery of the Two Worlds) 5. Kimiya-i-Sa’adat (Alchemy of Goodness) 7. A beautifully complete and rounded life in which the end comes back to the beginning. Al-Ghazali was aptly considered a mujaddid and reckoned at par with the four Imams. he was called to the court of Nizam-ulMulk Tusi while still in his twenties.Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Al-Ghazali Al-Ghazali Introduction: Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmad. His mind continually in a state of doubt. who was invited back from Hijaz to preside over one of the great colleges founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi. Abul-Maali Muhammad al-Juwaini Imam-ul-Haramain. Kitab-ul-Wajiz (a hand book of Fiqah. He was accepted first as the pupil and the assistant by the Imam. “Baghdad did not see very much of Ghazali and it seems that deep thought. He died in Tus on 19th of December. He was educated at Tus proper in the early years of his career and later on he shifted to Jurjan. was born at Ghazzalah near Tus in 1058. Al-Ghazali remained in fretful years because of state politics which took a serious turn.” For about ten years. and then finally migrated to Nishapur to imbibe wisdom and philosophy by sitting at the feet of perhaps the most versatile genius of his time. canon law) Page 83 of 108 .

His philosophy is an expression of his own personality. T. destruction and wars. it is the Soul’s experience. logical positivism and religious empiricism have profoundly influenced every age of philosophy and religion and even today. Debeer said. Prime Minister of Suljuqi Kings. it is for him more than Law and more than Doctrine. This anybody might see for himself by making a close study of Al-Ghazali’s influence on the West. about the end of the eleventh and beginning of the twelfth century of the Christian era. His liberalism and intellectualism completely dominated Western Philosophy and even Western thinkers preserved main elements of his great philosophy in their works. Dr. and consequently regarded the doctrines of Religion as merely the products of the conception of fancy or even caprice of the law givers. In the contemporary age of Al-Ghazali. But the religious problem he comprehended much more profoundly than did the philosophers of his time. According to them Religion was either blind obedience. It was his efforts to leave off his luxurious life and write most of his works from a mental point of vantage in Syria or Arabia or else in the seclusion of his paternal hearth and home. On the other hand. This controversy led to political cleavage and intransigents and wreckers mutilated all traits of progress and prosperity. AlGhazali. If the progress of the West consisted as it is said in breaking a similar shell within context of his own religion then quite a few hammer strokes therein were wrought by the hands of the Muslim thinkers of which the uppermost hand was the hand of Al-Ghazali. Poverty and wrangling had become regular features of the day. “These were intellectuals in their methods. like their Greek predecessors. while living in such surroundings had made a close study of the problems of politics. Europe was engulfed in perpetual controversy between Pope and the Emperor. Al-Ghazali as a great savant was decidedly superior to some of those who had gone before him. At that time. Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi. modern student of the political history seeks inspiration in solving all philosophical and political inquiries. or a kind of knowledge which contained truth of an inferior order.” Al-Ghazali’s philosophical analysis. Europe. East was at the pinnacle of glory and progress. which snapped all resources and economy.Political Science (Paper 1) Contribution of Al-Ghazali to Islamic Political Thought Al-Ghazali is undoubtedly an outstanding and remarkable political scholar in Islam. There was nothing but blood. This period is dubbed by one of the greatest of modern political scientists as “essentially unpolitical”. Page 84 of 108 . Al-Ghazali represents Religion as the experience of his inner being. He abandoned the attempt to understand this world. Al-Ghazali is definitely superior to Al-Mawardi in being analytical as well as comparative in his arguments. For while he had become conversant with the working of the political system when he was attending the court of his patron. It is certainly difficult to agree with unfounded and sweeping statement of Hitti that Al-Ghazali constructed such a scholastic shell for Islam that all its future progress became arrested within it. T. was in the abyss of degradation and political degeneration.

Even in oriental thought. His greatness lies partly in having successfully refilled the desired outlined by brilliant Islamic colors.” Page 85 of 108 . Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi and Al-Ghazali. Knowledge would be the richer and chains of thought more continuous if that artificial blank were to be filled by such giants of wisdom as Mawardi. AlGhazali’s place is certain.Political Science (Paper 1) Sherwani was of the view that “A student of the history of political theories is aware of the great gap which seems to exist between the decline of Roman thought about the beginning of Christian era till about the thirteenth century. constitutions unscientific and people lethargic and pleasure-loving. and finally to barbaric hues. although they were not destined to last very long. giving place once again. when thought seems dull.

Political Science (Paper 1) “Amir” of Al-Ghazali Al-Ghazali. Amir must also vigilantly watch that his judges. He puts forward the case of the Apostle of Islam. and the last for recreation and hunting. 3. setting apart one for prayers. strong will-power and must be well informed of the news of the day and the past history of the kings.) once sat and differentiate between right and wrong. Al-Ghazali relates how a learned man once told the great Caliph. 5. so that administration of the state must not become unwieldy and dogmatic. He appears to be particular about the duties and functions of the sovereign. perception. viceroys and other officers did their work well. loves for his subjects. diplomatic bend. foresight. and reverently expresses that he should have intellect. took meals with his servants. The Amir and good kings should used to divide their time in four parts. He enumerates the necessary qualities of an ideal ruler. another for state affairs. swept his house.) once sat and be truthful. it is chiefly in these qualities which go to make a ruler the shadow of God on earth. chess or hunting and says that the best mode of simple life be practiced. He should be wellversed in diplomacy and politics. mended his shoes. intelligence and experience. to beware that he was sitting where Hazrat Abu Bakr (R. The Amir. The ruler should make a point of taking advice from simple men of knowledge. 7. justice and counsel of the learned about the affairs of the state. harnessed his thoughts into a proper channel for an efficient and systematic government in order to bring about progress and peace in the state. Harun-ar-Rashid. after morning prayers. right proportion of things. He is very particular that the Amir should not pay head to the advice offered by his women Page 86 of 108 . where Hazrat Umar (R. renowned in East and West because of his versatile genius. a political philosopher. tied his camel. 2. where Hazrat Usman (R. The ruler must extend interviews to foreign ambassadors and envoys. ground his own corn in time of need and did his own marketing. Al-Ghazali strictly warns the Amir against too much indulgence in drink. the third for food and rest. milked his goat. chivalry.) once sat and be knowing and just.A. should go out riding in order to have investigation in person about wrongs done to his subject.A. secretaries. 6. He should then sit in court and permit all and sundry to have a direct access so that he might have first-hand information about any complaints. knowledge. who himself fed his cattle.A. where Hazrat Ali (R. Daily Routines and Duties of “Amir” Al-Ghazali says that the daily routines of an Amir should be following: 1. 4.A. He should n ot repeat the errors and failures of his predecessors.) once sat and be modest and bountiful. patches his clothes. He must learn the lesson from the past kings.

He says that the Amir should have a limited source of income which does not provide him possible opportunity to indulge in luxury and debauchery. Although we meet with the qualifications stipulated by Al-Mawardi they are partly modified to meet the general political situation and the particular case of AlMustazhir. It has always been considered one of the foremost duties of the Caliph. He regards Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz as a model of justice. Ability to wage jihad is conditioned by the possession of power and courage. equality and simplicity.” Simplicity of the “Amir”: Al-Ghazali persistently lays stress that the ruler should be simple in his habits. He wants to think of them not as independent rulers but as the loyal servants of the Caliph. Beyond any praise such was the greatness of AlGhazali in those fretful days that in spite of the great honor bestowed upon him. Al-Ghazali warns that the ruler must not show them any favoritism. who once wanted his monthly salary in advance to buy the Eid clothes for his daughters but desisted from drawing it from the state treasury because he was reminded by Finance Minister that there was no certainty of his living for the month for which he wished to draw his pay. but instead must appoint nepotism or people on merits.” (Sherwani) __________________ Page 87 of 108 . But the sages of ages became the source of instrumental change of destinies. and quotes the instance of Umar who actually divorced his favorite wife when he was elated to his exalted office for fear of being influenced by her in state affairs. and he would desist from doing anything which might result in the disintegration of the state through the lack of these factors. Oppression and tyranny was normally the salient feature of king’s life and the ruler had to become totalitarian in order to create effective subjugation over the people. Al-Ghazali seems to have rightly realized that time had changed since the early days of Islam. and besides honest work there was something else. 8. But Al-Ghazali faced with a young Caliph and a powerful Seljuq master. Complete arrest from freedom and political subjugation were the normal orders of the day.Political Science (Paper 1) favorites. Rosenthal said. explains away its absence in AlMustazhir by pointing to the Shawka. They played a vital role in liberating the people from enslavement and cruel yoke. he replied that he did not want anything from any of God’s creatures. He says that Amir must spend his life according to the income at his disposal. the force and power of the Seljuqs which guarantees the najda required of the Caliph. “Al-Ghazali proceeds to enumerate the virtues by which the Imam must be distinguished in order to lead men entrusted to his care to the goal which the Sharia has set for men. Al-Ghazali quotes the Apostle that God would be kind and compassionate to rulers who are themselves meek and kind to their people. a certain amount of prestige which is wanted to exert a psychological influence on the people and keep law and order in the hand. and should not abundantly and lavishly spend so that the economy of the country may not be disturbed. “In spite of those lofty ideals.

the North African Muslim of the 14th century. Then he moved on to the court of the Prince of Bejaya near Constantine. He gave us the following works: 1.Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Ibn-e-Khaldoon Ibn-e-Khaldoon Introduction: Abu Zaid Abd-al-Rahman Ibn-e-Khaldoon. as well as Arabic Grammar and Rhetoric from eminent scholars and by dint of his sharp diligence and intellect. In 1374. Ibn-e-Khaldoon made great contributions in the field of knowledge and learning and his works are still widely read by every student of political philosophy. He learnt the Quran by heart. Sultan of Granada. Kitab-al-Ibrar…. After returning Africa he was tired and weary of perennial wanderings and he took refuge in African Desert and compiled his world-famed Prolegomena giving finishing touches to it about the middle of 1377.. In 1382 he went to Cairo where he lived the rest of his life. He is distinguished for considering history as a science worthy of study and not merely a narration of facts. who wielded an abysmal influence on the posterity. he was taken in service at the age of twenty by the ruler of Tunis. 2. a great philosopher and a man of strong convictions of his age. the introduction to this work entitled Muqaddamah. Abu Ishaq II. During fourteenth century. al-Taarif 3. after which he returned to his native town of Tunis a quarter of a century after he had left it. He died as judge in Cairo on March 17. Young Ibn-eKhaldoon took full advantage of the scholastic opportunities which were abundantly available there. perhaps the first scientific historian of world and one who has left an indelible mark on the sciences of historiography and sociology. later as the head of a political mission to Pedro the Cruel. was undoubtedly the first to introduce a most scientific method in the political study of the history of human civilization. 1406. now secretary of state of Fez. king of Castile who was staying at his ancestral town of Seville. He was a versatile genius. he used to deliver lectures. He was reverently buried in Sufi Cemetery outside Cairo’s Nasr Gate. studied the Traditions and Maliki Jurisprudence. he occupied a distinct position and high status as a Chief Justice a number of times and during the intervals. Tunis was the cradle of learning and knowledge. then crossing the straits of Gibraltar as a fief holder of Muhammad bin Yousaf. extensive enough to take the whole of the first volume. Ibn-e-Khaldoon belonged to an Andalusian family which had migrated from Seville to Tunis on the expulsion of Moors on the conquest of Spain by Ferdinand III of Castile. It was one of these humble families that Ibn-e-Khaldoon was born in 1332.It is a universal history written in seven volumes. he again went to Granada but it was not long before he was expelled back to Africa. At Egypt. It was about the author’s views with regard to the nature and method of history. and he raised to be a man of remarkable knowledge as well as of profound historical and political acumen. Histroy of the Berbers Page 88 of 108 . The restless spirit that was in him made him roam about from one capital to another.

having no relation with historical facts. it is Islam that emerges as the sole objective for all human endeavors. He made political enquiries into the various historical events of the early period of Islam with impartiality and analytical mind of jurist. traditional philosophy demands the study of man and society as they really are. thus standing on the social and Page 89 of 108 . Boding. the religious law and the character of the Islamic community prove that he was a true disciple of the Islamic Platonic tradition of political philosophy. atomism and logical nominalism. The ideal for him is the Islamic state as it existed under the first four Caliphs. 3. In his postulating the Asabiya as the principal driving force of political action. Hegel and Marx were profoundly influenced by his political theory composed in his immortal work “Muqaddamah” which extensively deals with a great variety of subjects. Ibn-e-Khaldoon was greatly reverenced as a sage of the age and his contemporaries envied him for his steadfastness and political acumen for combating political abuses and ills that prevailed in all ages of thoughts and philosophies. and supplies the frame work of directing such a study and utilizing its results.” Ibn-e-Khaldoon seems to be the only great thinker who not only saw the problems of the relation of the history and the science of society to traditional political philosophy but also made full endeavors to develop a science of society with the framework of political philosophy as based on its principles. when political discussion meant nothing more than a rough and ready formulation of the functions of the ruler. Almost all the eminent western philosophers like Machiavelli. But his empiricism is manifest in his analysis of the Muslim empires of his own day. while Europeans scholars discovered him only in the last century. Ibn-e-Khaldoon discussed various Islamic political institutions in the light of the history of the early Islamic state.Political Science (Paper 1) Contribution of Ibn-e-Khaldoon to Islamic Political Thought Ibn-e-Khaldoon wielded a deep influence on his succeeding political philosophers due to his systematic study of political theory in a dark age. According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon. He upholds the practicability of Islamic laws in the state and considers the Sharia state as definitely superior to the Power state. stylistic and doctrinal evidence introduced in this study establish this point beyond any reasonable doubt. “The biographical. Rosenthal was of the view that importance of Ibn-e-Khaldoon was not recognized in his own time. and that his study of Prophecy. In his political thinking. Montesquieu. In his projection of Islam into a universal human civilization. He left behind a treasure of knowledge which will work as a store-house for the posterities. and until the seventeenth century did Muslims writers take any notice of him. Adam Smith. Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s importance consists in a number of novel insights of permanent value and significance: 1. In his distinction between rural and urban life and the necessity of the latter for the emergence of civilization and a state in the strict sense of the term. It has been shown that he articulately though cautiously. Mohsin Mahdi says. 2. He contemplates little of the Siyast Madaniya for he considers the philosophers ideal state as the visionary product of utopian thought. defended the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle against NeoPlatonism.

In the concept of the parallel existence of the state founded by a prophetic law-giver. cohesive and spiritual motive power. Page 90 of 108 . cultural and religious. as distinct from the state built on power in response to the human need for political association and the desire of strong personalities for domination. In his basic recognition of the vital part which religion should play in the life of the state. 6. military. 4. 7. 5. Arising from the last point. especially if it transforms the Asabiya into a durable. In his realization of the casual interdependence of the several factors of social life in the power state. in his definition and analysis of the Islamic country.Political Science (Paper 1) in the climate of Islam and looking out towards humanity at large. as a composite structure whose law is a mixture of Shariah and political law. economic.

for the individual’s own attitudes and beliefs are considerably conditioned by the social environment in which they are placed. With the expansion of Islam during the seventh-eighth centuries and the production of a vast and varied historical literature.B. These reports were first transmitted orally and when written records were gradually introduced. and ascertain the competence of the authorities who transmitted these reports and used the science of biography (Ilm al-rijal) and of authority criticism (al-jarh wal-tadil) as their main tools.H). was of the view that history is not a rational discipline and that human reason does not play significant role in it. is analytical but he does not fail to supplement it with historical data. the seeds of historical thought contained in the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Holy Prophet (P. historical literature got its birth and religious. historical environments and administration were destroyed under the wheels of time and fully realized the factors responsible for the rise and fall of Islamic states. political. Laws of Sociology: Ibn-e-Khaldoon was undoubtedly a sociologically minded historian. are directed to contemplate the vicissitudes of earthly life. religious and other cultural conditions. moral and practical aspects of history were greatly stressed for the expansion of Islamic influence over the whole world.U. from primary sources or eye-witnesses. these were accepted at first merely as aids to memory. and he fully knew that a number of states quite distinct in culture. As to the method they demand and command veracity and exactitude in transmitting historical information derived. He was conscious of the originality of his work and claimed himself to be discoverer for the first time of the laws of national progress and decay. whenever possible. The historians took pains to learn about. the rise and fall of the kingdoms and the Judgment of God upon the nations are revealed in their fortunes and misfortunes. dialect. by the inspiring source of history. queens and dynasties or prepare the chronicles of war and pacts among states but to describe the facts of vise and fall of human civilization. The aim of history for him is not merely to narrate the stories of kings. The methods of argument that he adapts to a large extent. its growth and decay. Historical Approach to the Science of Politics: His political theory developed as part of his description of human civilization. Ibn-e-Khaldoon also considered history as a science. Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s Views on History: Ibn-e-Khaldoon had seen considerable political ordeals and vicissitudes.Political Science (Paper 1) Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s Historical Approach to the Political Science With the ascendancy of Islam. Tabri. a famous Muslim historian. History as a profession started in Islam with the search for and the collection and transmission of individual reports about specific events. The sociological laws operate with regard to masses only and would not be significantly determined with reference to single individuals. under different geographical. Ibn-e-Khaldoon held that all political institutions are closely associated to the socio-economic conditions of a Page 91 of 108 . economic. It is essentially the record of human society. Muslims.

Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s science was new.” Natural Society: Herbert Spencer regarded moral improvement merely as an existence of the biological concept of adaptation. He signifies the influence of physical environments on political institutions which reflect the character of people as molded by geographical environments.Political Science (Paper 1) time and that they are quite at in with the environments of a particular age. a scholar of sociology and political economy. independent and was not dealt with by any previous thinker with such originality. “Ibn-e-Khaldoon is a philosopher as much as Auguste Comte. Physical Environments: Ibn-e-Khaldoon is predecessor of Montesquieu. extension and profoundness. Ibn-e-Khaldoon preceded him in propounding a theory of organic state. historian of civilization. Thus he is placed as philosopher. social. forms of Government and the other public institutions and their development in Muslim States. They have life of their own which normally does not exceed a period of 120 years for each dynasty in its capacity as a ruling nation. “Dynasties have a natural life span like individuals. His philosophy of history is not a theodicy as Hegel’s. He explains that the people of fertile zones are stupid in mind and coarse in body. realizing the influence of physical environments and climatic conditions on the habits and characters of people.” __________________ Page 92 of 108 . He said. Thomas Buckle or Herbert Spencer. both mental and physical. economic and physical circumstances. “Bedouins are more courageous than other and the decline sets in life of a dynasty when people indulge in luxury and ease-loving life due to abundance of food and also development in arts and crafts. Professor Schmidt says. He said. and that the influence of abundance upon the body is apparent in matters of religion and divine worship. He devotes a major portion of his work on the enquiry of the influence of food and climate upon human things. and social well-being in terms of the law of the survival of the fittest. That is why he makes political enquiries pertaining to religious. It is worthwhile to discover the glimpses of Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s views in the works of every western philosopher. He was the first Muslim philosopher cum-historian who contributed to the study of political institutions.” Ibn-e-Khaldoon had already stressed on moral improvement in terms of biological concept of adaptation in the course of his discussion on problems concerning the transformation of nomadic life together with its variations in the various aspects of social behavior.

he begins to use his authority for the satisfaction of his other desire in other words. During the first stage. He is still their chief rather than their master and king. The same is true of religion. solidarity based upon familiarities and religion continues to be essential for the preservation of the state. that carry out his wishes. and the ruler owes his position to his noble ancestry and the respect of his fellow tribesmen. they are able to consolidate their authority and satisfy the subjects becoming the slaves of these desires. He has to accommodate their sentiments and desires and to share his power with them. and an organized administrative bureaucracy. Page 93 of 108 . The crafts. he starts to collect the fruits of authority. The impersonal organization of the army and bureaucracy take care of the protection of the state and the development of the various institutions of a civilized culture. independent and creative. power and assistance. The second stage in the development of the period of consolidating the ruler’s power is to create absolute kingship. since the subjects will then obey the ruler and his directives more willingly convinced that in doing so they are praying to God. This is the period during which the ruler forces the ruled to build the institution necessary for a civilized culture. since religion means the obedience of all to God and the religious Law. He spends lavishly on public works and one beautifying the cities in imitation of famous civilized states. The stages in the development of the society and the state are following: Stage 1. The first three stages are powerful.Political Science (Paper 1) Stages in the Development of Society and the State During the period of establishment. Natural solidarity and religion are checked so far as they mean the sharing of power. Natural solidarity becomes increasingly superfluous. There are new activities to be carried out and new political relations to be created. The state has finally reached the stage where it is able to satisfy man’s craving fro luxuries and his pride in possessing them. Stage 2. solidarity is still largely based on a community of sentiments. Thus a third stage of luxury and leisure follows. This is a period of rest and self-indulgence in which men enjoy the comforts and pleasures of the world. the fine arts and the sciences are greatly patronized to be flourishing for the satisfaction of the new ruling class. Stage 3. He enriches his followers who start living a luxurious life. solidarity becomes more effective in establishing the state. The ruler who is establishing a state with the aid of a religious passage cannot act as a master and a king. The ruler concentrates on the organization of the finances of the state and goes on increasing his income. When aided by religion. The people generally acquire the habit obeying their new ruler. His role is dependent on their number. As the ruler’s lust and aggrandizement for attaining absolute power is satisfied with the full concentration of authority in his hands. Solidarity is replaced by a paid army. which satisfy the increasing desires of the ruler. and are used at the discretion of the absolute ruler. Economic progress and prosperity usher a new era of development.

In this phase the ruler destroys what his ancestors have brought together. The length of this period depends upon the power and extent of the achievements of the founder of the state. continue to spend more and more on their pleasure. starting form the outlying regions. They think that their luxurious life and the various advantages of civilization have always been existed and will continue to exist for ever. During fifth stage. who humiliated and impoverished have lost the drive to conquer. The ruler had destroyed the communal pride and loyalty of their kinsmen. Excessive taxes and fear of invasion weakens the hopes of ruled. how their predecessors struggled to achieve them. With the decrease of economic activity and the depopulation of cities. the state is already starting to decline and disintegrate. Despondency becomes so common and it reigns the day and consequently it freezes all economic activities. the mercenary troops and civil bureaucracy begin intriguing to wrest the actual power from the ruler. Rosenthal was of the view “The fifth phase is one of extravagance and waste. They increase taxes and these in turn discover economic activity and lead to a decline in the income of the state which makes it impossible for the ruler to support his new followers. the next stage is a period of contentment in which the ruler and the ruled are satisfied and complacent. In this phase. princes. The entire population physically weakens and living in large crowded cities become subject to disease and plague. Their successes. Stage 5. so that they are filled with hatred against him and agree among themselves to desert him. For he is generous towards his intimates and liberal at his banquets in order to win the scum of the people. leaving him but the insignia and the name.” Further. he spoils (his chances) with the noble and distinguished among his people and with the followers of his predecessors. comfort and the gratification of their desires become a habit with them. The very process of establishing it had destroyed the vital forces of solidarity and religion that were responsible for its existence. the habits of comforts and luxury generate physical weakness and moral vices. They imitate their predecessors in enjoying the pleasures of life. The elite and the aristocrats forget the courageous manners of primitive life. he loses point of his troops because he spends their pay on his pleasure and prevents them from getting to know him personally. for the sake of lust and pleasure. or it may continue to decline until it withers away like a wick dying out in the lamp of which oil is gone or goes under the subjugation of foreign power. __________________ Page 94 of 108 . In this way. Luxury. In the capital of the state. The fifth and last stage of waste and prodigality is setting in.Political Science (Paper 1) Stage 4. Having reached its zenith. to whom he entrusts great tasks which they are unable to undertake. They are powerless before an outside invasion by a strong civilized state or by united primitive people. having known only the life of luxury and surrounded by a prodigal entourage. the state begins to disintegrate. the natural ageing of the dynasty (that is the decay) sets in and a chronic disease gets hold of it without remedy or release until it collapses. generals and the discontented kinsmen of the ruler become independent. the state has reached old age and is deemed to be slow or nearing death. Moreover. Finally an external invasion puts an end to the life of the state.

His theory of labor. “The part of the income that is obtained by a person through his own effort and strength is called profit. the methods and kinds of property. and many other notable thinkers. they would be I an advantageous position in the selling and purchasing of the commodities. the social task of labor. He was an original economist who understood the principles of political economy and applied it skillfully and intelligently. the value of the resulting profit and acquired (capital) must also include the value of the labor by which it was obtained. A portion of the value whether large or small. When a particular person enjoys its fruits by spending it upon his interest and need. it is called sustenance. exerted a marked influence on the writings of classical economists.” Role of capital and labor in Economy: Ibn-e-Khaldoon depicts a vivid picture of the role of capital and labor in an economy. without labor it would not have been acquired. Thus injustice would be brought about in the society which is disastrous for the dynasty.U. If the profit results from something other than a craft.Political Science (Paper 1) Ibn-e-Khaldoon as a Father of Political Economy Ibn-e-Khaldoon has rightly been claimed as the forerunner of a great many Western scholars such as Machiavelli. If the rulers indulge in trade activities. Gibbon. and have thus spent. and have thus destroyed. Montesquieu.B. The Muslim genius made an enquiry into the various aspects of economic activities and recorded their political significance in respect of their good and bad effects on the state.” Ibn-e-Khaldoon severely condemns the engagement of rulers in the commercial activity because it creates hurdles in the development of a free competition in economic field. and its division into free and paid labor. Long before Adam Smith.H. and its bad effects about political forces and social classes. There is hardly any other thinker with whom he might not be compared. He was of the view that taxation must be equitable and just. which is most essential for the circulation of wealth in the society as a whole. Boding.” Ibn-e-Khaldoon praises Islamic economic system which prescribes Zakat. He thus talks about state’s work in economic field. Ibn-eKhaldoon foresaw the interconnection of political and economic institutions. and about law of supply and demand. He devotes special chapters to the question of Government finances and other business affairs. When justice and equity are lacking in Page 95 of 108 . To establish the superiority of Islamic economic system. Ibn-eKhaldoon defines the term sustenance and profit as. in which he defines profit and sustenance and the role of labor in the fixation of the values of the commodities. long before it was known to Western research. Kharaj and Jizya. Thus it is the part of the profit that is utilized. comes from the labor. Taxation Policy: Among the economic problems his discussion first elaborately starts with taxation. “The great Muslim historian was able to discover in the Middle Ages the principles of social justice and political economy before Considerant. Marx and Baconine. As a practical politician he had full knowledge of the ways and means to collect the Government revenues. by virtue of their political control on the commercial activities. Stefan Colosio said.): “The only thing you possess of your property is what you ate. or what you gave as charity. he quotes the saying of Holy Prophet (P.

The extra labor works for luxuries and luxury goods and crafts etc. As profit is the value realized from labor. The great injustice which he mentions is buying the people’s property at cheaper rates and selling it at higher rates. profits are diminished. with prosperity as the prize. Ibn-eKhaldoon extensively deals with the injustice to the people and is of the view that it brings about the ruin of civilization. At the end of the dynasty. Income and expenditure balance each other in every city. because attacks on people’s property remove the incentive to acquire or gain property. All the strata of the society in the large city is affected. Salaries and Allowances: The deductions in services and allowances decrease expenditures of those affected which ultimately affects the incomes of so many others from whom they used to buy things. craftsmen and merchants. the inhabitants are Page 96 of 108 . Standard of Living: The prosperity and business activity in different cities differ in accordance with the difference in the size of their population.Political Science (Paper 1) taxation policy of a Government.” A balanced budget is essential for sound economy and is the key to stability of the political order. people are equally poor because their labor does not pay for their necessities and does not yield them a surplus which they can accumulate as profit. which are light in their distribution and these are the limits beyond which one must not go. provides an incentive to work hard.” A rural economy based on agriculture. namely Zakat. As labor is the fundamental source of profit or income. In less populated cities or remote towns. Production thrives income and expenditure of the inhabitants multiply and more and more population pours into the city. larger the labor. But as soon as autocrats assume power and urban life. people’s incentive slackens and thereby the business dwindles. which follows the ways of religion. villages and hamlets. When capital is decreased. “In the beginning of dynasty taxation yields large revenue from assessments. Ultimately this proves to be a death blow to the state. This involves taking the capital of the people and this making them unable to do the cultural enterprise. “In the beginning of the state. The reason is that the state. This involves a decrease in a business activity and monetary transactions and thus leads to diminishing tax revenues of the state. makes greater demands. He said. since the incentive has been taken away from all those engaged in the economic life of the state. taxes are light in the distribution but considerable in their total and vice versa. He disapproves such procedures by a state. Ibn-e-Khaldoon said. with a simple standard of living and light taxes. larger the labor the more will be the value realized from it. which leads to prosperity. It is most destructive to civilization. the higher the profit. Kharaj and Jizya. it is inviting its own ruin. heavier taxes are levied upon farmers. If both are large. taxation yields small revenue from large assessments. only demands the obligation imposed by the Shariah. with a much higher standard of living. Even beggars and poor differ in large and small cities. Production and profits decline.

Political Science (Paper 1) prosperous and the city grows. __________________ Page 97 of 108 . prices of food stuff and hoarding etc. crafts. It is meager as compared with others. mufti. The idea is that Ashe life obtained only through the things (that go into making a living) and that they are considered with some exaggeration. so it is with the countries. astrology. profit. His remarkable exposition of labor. that more populated countries are poor and less populated ones are advanced. preacher. But as far as cities in a given country are concerned. he has very intelligently analyzed the reasons for the low wages of dealing with religious matters. population and their correlation with prosperity and civilization has stood the test of time. He compares this process with the udders of cattle. as profit is value realized from labor. which causes profit and prosperity. “It should be known that livelihood means the desire for sustenance and the efforts to obtain it. teachers. He said. Livelihood is information from Ashe life. because demand for their services is not high. He gave the examples of the populated countries such as Egypt. oppression and fiscal pressure. Besides he deals with various other and economic problems such as high and low prices. agriculture. Ibn-e-Khaldoon showed the depth of great thinker and political economist. springs stop flowing because they require labor. Technological changes were not occurring in his time. his construction is as valid as it was in his time. It should be noted that Ibn-e-Khaldoon’s thesis is that higher population brings much labor and much value is realized from it. education and musical etc. Ibn-e-Khaldoon concludes that the favorable conditions and much prosperity in civilization are the result of its large size. Syria. While dealing with comparative wages. search for buried treasure and the various public servants who receive their shares from public receipts vitiated by injustice. Ibn-e-Khaldoon was of the view that the wages of the teachers and religious officials are lower. Apparently it may sound strange today. He said. in all these matters. they flow only if dug out and water drawn. muezzin etc. he does not explicitly elucidate the role of productivity of labor.” Livelihood: His derivation of livelihood is interesting. exploitation or ignorance i-e. alchemy.” Among productive activities he included medical services. and China as being more prosperous as compared to the less populated regions which were less prosperous. “With the decrease of population sustenance of a country disappears. As is the case in cities. the value of labor profits differs according to the needs or particular kind of labor. He gives the definition of profit as the value realized from human labor. “Now the common people have no compelling need for the things that the religious officials have to offer. But Ibn-e-Khaldoon excludes activities such as based on fraud. whereas Adam Smith excluded services from his definition of real national product. India.” So their share is in accordance with the general need and demand of the population for them. value. the place of life. he said. prayer leaders.

He was born at Sialkot. He is widely respected because of his philosophy and poetry which enlivened the nation. He obtained PhD degree from Munich University by writing a thesis. He again went to London and did Bar-at-Law from Lincoln’s Inn. as a lecturer in the subject of Philosophy for about five years. Pakistan. and this very vision became crystal reality in his pronouncement in the annual session of the League in 1930. and later elected unanimously of the President of All-India Muslim League.A. Asrar-e-Khudi (Secrets of Self) 3. He later left for England in 1905 for higher studies. He vigorously advocated the two nation theory and demanded a separate homeland for Indian Muslims. He did M. He resigned after a year and half from professorship and continued his legal practice. he came to Lahore for higher education. He received his early education in Scotch Mission College. He actuated the Muslims of India from political slumber to champion their cause for separate country within India. Payam-e-Mashriq (Message of the East) 5. Iqbal has given an ever-inspiring treasure of knowledge and philosophy through his works. which have immortalized him on the pages of existence. in Philosophy from Government College Lahore in 1899 and served the Government College. living in a state of vertigo to win their liberty from the usurpers. Sialkot and after his elementary schooling. where their religion and culture could flourish without any fear of chauvinism. Ramooz-e-Bay-Khudi (Mysteries of Selflessness) 4. As poet he is considered to be the poet of Prophets for all ages. He returned to India in 1908 and was appointed as Professor of Philosophy in the Government College Lahore. a renowned city of Pakistan. Dr. Dr. Along with professorship he enrolled himself as a practicing barrister at the Lahore High Court. He was elected as Member of the Punjab Legislative Council. His works have been translated into many foreign languages so that the students must properly be benefited in their future researches by his thoughts and philosophies.Political Science (Paper 1) Muslim Political Thought---Allama Iqbal Allama Iqbal Introduction: Allama Muhammad Iqbal is a figure of legendary greatness amongst the scholars and poets of the modern age and his political thought has won a great deal of attention and respect amongst discerning students of political philosophy. Allama Iqbal’s declaration for Pakistan echoed throughout the world and it became the instrumental in re-awakening and the enlightenment of Muslims to combat all forces for the achievement of a separate homeland i-e. His works are detailed as under: 1. The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. He entered into practical politics and joined his efforts with freedom-champions to liberate the Indian Muslims from the clutches of the Hindus and subjugation of the English. Bang-e-Dara Page 98 of 108 . Development of Metaphysics in Persia (Thesis for PhD) 2.

Allama Iqbal was a sensitive sage of his age and he saw the prevailing political ills in India. but “it was only when he realized that most of the political leaders of the Muslims were lacking political acumen and foresight that he started taking active interest in politics. His dynamism is proverbial. Ilmul-Iqtisad (Economics) Iqbal as a Muslim Political Thinker Allama Iqbal a great supporter of freedom and pioneer of Muslim movement in the sub-continent recklessly strived for the achievement of his noble ideals. Along with other members of League. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (collection of lectures) 8.Vahid) Allama Iqbal was a member of the Committee of Muslim League formed in London in 1903 by the Rt. While participating eagerly in Page 99 of 108 .A. so that Islamic culture and heritage be protected from all penetrating evils. Armughan-e-Hijaz 13. Iqbal became secretary of that branch of the Muslim League which functioned under the President-ship of Sir Muhammad Shafi. his mysticism is extraordinary and his simplicity is an example for his followers. Zaboor-e-Ajam 7. He is loudly applauded everywhere due to his greater contributions leading to the ultimate establishment of Pakistan.” (S. Iqbal took keen interest in the objective working of the Muslim League but did not participate actively in politics from 1910-1923. The Hindu and the English were the two domineering forces in the sub-continent and all fundamental privileges for Muslims were completely denied. In 1924. he was elected as a member to the Punjab Legislative Assembly. Allama Iqbal joined the National Liberal League of Lahore but not finding it very effective resigned from it later on.Political Science (Paper 1) 6. Zarb–e-Kaleem 12. he appeared before the Simon Commission which was appointed by the British Government to report on the introduction of further political reforms in the sub-continent. Javed Namah 9. He kindled fire in them to fight for their basic rights. Ameer Ali. our thinker took deep interest in the political situation and problems as no sensitive and intelligent young Indian could fail to do. Bal-e-Jibraeel 10. He gave new inspiration to the Muslims who were politically unconscious and ignorant. In order to liberate the Muslims from cruel subjugation. In 1926. On his return from England. Pas Che Bayad Kard Ay Aqwam-e-Sharq 11. Hon. Indian Muslims were tied in the chains of enslavement and subjection and he strived for the whole nation with his virulent speeches and thought-provoking declarations for making unanimous efforts for liberty and emancipation. Secretary of Muslim League: In 1928. and inculcated ideals for the complete liquidation of the dominators.

at least of North-West India. Allama Iqbal attended the Second round Table Conference in London and served as the representative of the Minorities Committee. Iqbal undertook the work for the Punjab Parliamentary Board.” Allama Iqbal’s contributions to Islam and Muslims are unparalleled in their characteristics and his followers interwove the practicability on the basis of his ideals. which was to conduct elections. “To me he was friend. “If it were to provide that interplay between the individual and the society in which the individual lives. Iqbal was invited to attend the Third Round Table Conference. he was unanimously elected to preside over the Annual Session of the Muslim League held in Allahbad. “I would like to see the Punjab. Gandhi and other Hindu leaders at the conference and convinced more than ever.” Round Table Conference: In 1931. Rushbrook Williams said. Jinnah was facing a very hard time. In 1930.” Iqbal’s Contributions: No one today denies that Iqbal placed a very vital part in the founding of Pakistan. But in the midst of all this darkness there shone a flickering light in Lahore and this was Iqbal who stood steadfast by Jinnah in those trying days and helped him to charter the course of Indo-Muslim politics. guide and philosopher and during the darkest moments through which the Muslim League had to go he stood like a rock and never flinched one single moment. that the only solution of the political troubles of the sub-continent was a division of the country.” On March 24. but had he been alive he would have been happy to know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do. “Iqbal is no more amongst us. Nehru were. In his historic presidential address. Mr. Iqbal was perhaps not a politician in the strict sense in which Mr. He returned to Lahore on 30th December 1931 most disappointed at the attitude of Mr. All Muslims of the world are Page 100 of 108 . which Iqbal knew to be essential for the highest development of both. when the Pakistan Resolution was passed by the Muslim League at Lahore. Muslim politics was in turmoil and chaos as at that time Mr. When Allama Iqbal died as a broken heart without seeing the fulfillment of his ideals. Jinnah sent this message to his son. While the Conference was in progress. Jinnah said. Iqbal grew so dissatisfied with its proceedings that he resigned and returned to India. the foundation of a consolidated NorthWest Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims. at the inspirations of Mr. Iqbal was also interested in all-India politics. and made some important contribution to the deliberations of the conference. Self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire. It was the part of Allama Iqbal’s greatness that he not only formulated conception of an Islamic State in India and outlined its physical boundaries but laid down the characteristics which a state must have. North-West Frontier Province. In 1929 he attended the Muslim Conference held in Delhi under the Chairmanship of Sir Agha Khan.Political Science (Paper 1) Punjab politics. 1940. but he could see further than almost any other of his contemporaries could. Mr. Iqbal said. Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Jinnah. In 1932. In 1936. Jinnah or Mr.

philosophy and metaphysics are unprecedented. speeches and work will ever vibrate against evil. Page 101 of 108 . which changed the political attitudes of other sovereigns. His selfless services and devotion in the field of poetry. slavery and subjugation. His message through his statements.Political Science (Paper 1) indebted to our great thinker and pay gratitude for his relentless fight for a separate homeland. which ushered a new era of literature and knowledge.

temporarily focus her vision on herself alone. said. as an independent Islamic state. until all are strong and powerful to form a living family of republics. and focused the light of his inquiry on the causes of economic and cultural subjugation to which the Muslims of India had been systematically subjected since their first abortive struggle for independence in 1857. according to the nationalist thinkers.Political Science (Paper 1) Iqbal’s Concept of an Islamic State Allama Iqbal’s greatness as a versatile poet and his originality and profoundity as a renowned thinker can never be denied in any age of human thought and philosophy. is not so easy as to be achieved by a merely symbolical over lordship. to Page 102 of 108 . The eternal presence of the Poet of the East in Pakistan is felt with deep reverence and respect more than a visionary poet or merely an academic philosopher. strongly defended his idea of the creation of Muslim Empire within the sub-continent of India. It is truly manifested in a multiplicity of free independent units whose racial rivalries are adjusted and harmonized by the unifying bond of a common spiritual aspiration. Khawaja Abdur Rahim was of the view that Universal brotherhood is an ideal good for human evolution which Islam came to establish. Nor can countries like Pakistan. “For the present every Muslim nation must sink into her own deeper self. His greatness in these fields can attract no controversy. purely as an interim and transitional phase of the growth of universal brotherhood of man. Iqbal was in fact a philosopher of traditional as well as modern thought who had made a careful study of human affairs. on the map of globe. He is the creator of the very conception of the state of Pakistan. had many causes but name so potent as the one that has reference to the vision which Iqbal had about the political future of the Indian Muslims.000. A true and living unity.” Allama Iqbal in the name of Ijtehad. It was in his presidential address at the annual session of All-India Muslim League in 1930 that he spelt out the broad outlines of a plan under which the Muslims of India were led to aspire to an independent state in which they would be free to follow their own way of life. in the presence of One God. It seems to me that God is slowly bringing home to us the truth that Islam is neither nationalism nor imperialism but a League of Nations which recognizes artificial boundaries and racial distinctions for facility of reference only and not for restricting the social horizon of its members. Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan. when millions of Muslims coming from distant parts of the world congregate. The poet. and stand shoulder to shoulder in spite of the local loyalties they may owe to the lands whence they come. The birth of Pakistan. the former President of Pakistan. “It is common fallacy to believe that the concept of Pakistan was formed in a poet’s dream. Muhammad Iqbal. Allama Iqbal said. and the symbol of which phenomenon every year is held aloft by Islam for the rest of the world to see on the day of pilgrimage at Mecca. both of East and West.” The state of Pakistan exists to fulfill higher Muslim aspirations in the modern world history. which was very akin to its approximation to the Western conception of the term “state”. 364737 square miles. was no idle dreamer. population 80. Dr.000 spring from the nebulous realm of poetry alone.

Political Science (Paper 1)

begin with, it must be made to serve as a stepping stone to the final phase of Muslim history, as a sort of a platform from where we are to appeal to the rest of the humanity to listen to the Divine Oracle which says that all humanity is one and the various communities into which it is divided is merely for the purpose of identification and the division has no other deeper meaning. The philosophy of colorless cosmopolitan must not be accepted. For the uplift of universal brotherhood of mankind, Pakistan should not emphasis the growth of the distinctive and cultural features. It is rather to stress that the historical evolution of our national life in all its uniqueness is an important condition precedent for the full realization of the ideal of brotherhood of man. We have to love Pakistan and develop the distinctive features of Pakistan’s culture. Allama Iqbal was of opinion that the rehabilitation of Muslim history could take place provided in Pakistan, future homeland of Indian Muslims; historical task will be approached, for development of national culture with an eye on ultimate goal of universal history. In Islam the idea of territorial frontiers has no ultimate juridical significance, because fundamentally the earth belongs to the God and is the inheritance of the righteous ones. The discords and the conflicts which are presently infesting the world peace and are threatening to mount up to a point where another global war may breakout with consequences too terrible to contemplate, are ultimately traceable to the rigid adherence to the concept of absolute national sovereignty. No nation is prepared to surrender any part of its sovereignty in favor of the creation of super national authority; that is so simply because the state in our own day has become an idol which is to be worshipped to the utter neglect of our reverence for that element of transcendence which gives to the human history, a universal background. Much of the chaos and disorder that one notices is the social, economic and political. Life in Pakistan ultimately reflects the crisis of a character which has taken place in our interior consciousness. It is here that an attempt that healing has to be initiated. Ethics but not Economics lay down the primary force for the redemption of man. All strength, even material strength is ultimately possible and durable only upon a moral basis. __________________

Page 103 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

Iqbal’s Conception of Khudi (Ego)
The conception of Khudi has been the most important contribution of Iqbal to the realm of political thought. It was not due to the fact that he was the first to treat the subject before him such eminent minds as Nietzsche, Fichte, Bergso and William James had dealt with the subject from the various angles of vision. Iqbal’s originality lay in the fact that the whole concept of Khudi underwent a radical change and assumed a realistic interpretation under his masterly pen. To Iqbal, Khudi or ego does not signify pride or arrogance, but the spirit of self affirmation of one’s potentialities and their proper utilization. Every object of the universe exhibits this spirit in some way or other. Even the Creator of this universe could not help expressing His ego and created this world in order to be known. One Hadith alludes to this fact in these words: “I was a hidden treasure. I wished that I may be recognized, therefore I created the whole creature.” Thus man being the highest creature, should have spirit of “I-am-ness” in its perfection, and should assimilate and absorb in himself the attributes of God and thus become His vicegerent (naib) on earth. This implies that a limited authority has been given to every man to fashion his life according to ego. Ego must then consist in creating desires and wishes and trying to realize them, by the authority vested in every man. Iqbal said,

‫خویشتن را چوں خودی بیدار کرد‬ ‫آشکارا عالم پندار کرد‬ ‫صد جہاں پوشیدہ اندر ذات او‬ ‫غیر او پیداست از اثبات او‬ ‫در جہاں تخم خصومت کاشت است‬ ‫خویشتن را غیر خود پنداشت است‬
When the Self awakened itself, it revealed the world of concepts. A hundred worlds are hidden in its being; its not-self comes to being from its selfaffirmation. It has sown the seeds of hostility in the world by imagining itself to be other than itself. Allama Iqbal believed that the philosophy of self-denial was developed by the weaker nations in their days of decline and degradation. The criticism of Nietzsche against Christianity was based on the fact that the Christians having a defeatist mentality believed that paradise was to be given to the weak and the humble few and not to the wealthy and the strong.
Page 104 of 108

Political Science (Paper 1)

Iqbal and Nietzsche: Despite the high price he bestowed upon Nietzsche and acceptance of his influence, the fact remains that Iqbal was never completely a follower of Nietzsche. Iqbal profited from many great thinkers and renowned Sufis, but in keeping with his own philosophy of Khudi he never completely became an imitator of any. The influence of Western thought apparent in Asrar-iKhudi contains not only the philosophy of Nietzsche but also ideas of the German philosopher, Fichte, and of the French Jews, Bergson. Allama Iqbal has delineated in his famous poem, Asrar-i-Khudi that there are three stages in the development of Khudi. The first stage is called Obedience, the second Self-Control and the third is called Divine Vicegerency. In the first stage the self is likened which is taken directly from Nietzsche, while the other tow are taken from Islamic philosophy and literature. Allama Iqbal states in his famous lecture entitled, “The Human Ego” that there is in the history of modern thought one positive view of immortality. This view deserves some consideration, not only because Nietzsche has maintained i.e. with prophetical fervor but also because it reveals a real tendency in the modern mind. Allama Iqbal said, “The Quranic view of the testing of man is partly ethical, partly biological. I say partly biological because the Quran makes in this connection certain statements of a biological nature which we cannot understand without a deeper insight into the nature of life. It mentions, for instance, the fact of Barzakh, a state perhaps of some kind of suspense between Death and Resurrection. Resurrection appears to have been differently conceived. The Quran does not base its possibility, like Christianity, on the evidence of the actual resurrection of an historic person. It seems to take and argue resurrection as a universal phenomenon of life, in some sense true even of birds or animals.” According to Quranic view: 1. That the ego has a beginning in time, and did not pre-exist its emergence in the spatiotemporal order. 2. There is no possibility of return to this earth. This is clear from the following verses: “When death overtook one of them, he said, Lord! Send me back again, that I may do the good that I have left undone. By no means, these are the very words which he shall speak. But behind them is a barrier (Barzakh), until the day when they shall be raised again. "(23, 101) 3. That infinite is not a misfortune: “Verily there is none in the Heavens and in the Earth but shall approach the God of Mercy as a servant. He has taken note of them and remembered them with exact numbering: and each of them shall come to Him on the day of resurrection as a single individual.” This is a very important point and must be properly understood to have a clear insight into the Islamic theory of salvation. It is with the irreplaceable singleness of his individuality that finite ego will approach the infinite ego to see for himself the consequences of his past actions and to Page 105 of 108

Love individualizes the lover as well as the beloved. it has to struggle with its environment and to conquer it. Allied with Faqr is the element of courage. Iqbal means an attitude of mind which enables a man to endlessly strive spurning delights and rewards. to harness them to his best advantage and benefit. Mr. Its highest form is the creation of values and ideals and the endeavors to realize them. “According to Iqbal. Faqr: By Faqr. because they took stability. the things external to him and save himself from being subjugated. no submission to forces of evil or to desire to give in except to conviction. the ego has to maintain a constant state of tension and thereby attain immortality. Once an individual is able to achieve this attitude of mind. for nothing else would satisfy the nature of the seeker. In the second place. it depicts selflessness and abnegation and ascendancy over one’s natural environment and a sense of complete detachment from worldly affairs and rewards.” 2. life is a forward. By this conquest it attains freedom and approaches God. or natural objects.” According to Iqbal the following factors and forces fortify the human ego or personality: 1. In other words. an individual should subjugate and exploit to his benefit. permanence and integrity are the essence of ego. Helpers of Ego: Allama Iqbal maintains that stability. “It means the desire to assimilate. Love: Iqbal explained the word Love in a letter to Prof. By attaining freedom and immortality the go conquers space on the one hand and time on the other. Nicholson. A dewdrop vanishes with the sunlight. It is true that as against God man is helpless. who is the ideal to which all life aspires. The ego has to help in the upward march of humanity by leading to the birth of a higher type of man. The human ego has a definite mission on earth in the two main diversions. 3. Justice Anwar-ul-Haq said. In the first place. man is quite powerful. while a drop which remains in a sea shell becomes a pearl. namely. there is no limit to what he might attain in the way of development of personality and spiritual strength. both physical and moral. Similarly. Iqbal calls upon the younger generation to live dangerously and courageously. Who is the freest entity. He said. a drop of tear disappears after a while. but as against other creatures. to absorb.Political Science (Paper 1) judge the possibility of his future. Courage: Both physical and moral courage means overcoming and combating all obstacles and hurdles with no failure of nerve. The effort to realize the most unique individuality individualizes the seeker and implies individuality of the sought. except the attainment of worthy ends. assimilative process and in essence is the continuous creation of desires and ideas. the superman or the perfect man. ‫آئین جواں مرداں حق گوئی و بے باکی‬ ‫اللة کے شیروں کو آتی نھیں روباھی‬ Page 106 of 108 .

Nasab-Parasti: Races. fraud or theft. He even goes to the extent of deprecating inheritance of worldly good as he feels that it hurts the ego. anything not obtained by foul means like cheating. Iqbal advices avoidance of borrowing. communities. These are: 1. 3. who’s self prompts him for freedom. Creative and original activity: Iqbal is opposed to mimicry and copying others slavishly. whether physical or mental.Political Science (Paper 1) The code for men of courage is spontaneous truth and fearlessness. Tolerance: For other people’s views and manners represents the strength of the high order and its cultivation is greatly beneficial to human society. Beggary: Not used in the limited sense but all that is achieved without personal effort and it is in every form inimical to ego development. jealousy and timidity is a positive danger for ego. acquiring things or ideas through one’s personal efforts and struggles. Succinctly. Brave people knew nothing about cunningness. lawful and rightful acquisition. Kasb-e-Halal: In a world where selfishness and aggrandizement are playing vital part in human life. nations. As against these positive factors there are certain negative forces which are constantly at work to weaken the ego and stultify the human personality. Enslavement and mental torture of man. 6. It stifles the growth of ego which needs freedom for its normal development. All economic and social parasites which flourish on society under various high-sounding names are beggars. In fact these weaknesses Page 107 of 108 . insistence on kasb-e-halal is of the utmost significance. It robs man of efficiency and happiness. 2. tribes. 5. 4. castes and families take pride in their superior racial characters come to destroy the peace and tranquility of the world. 4. Blind imitation is of no avail and must be discouraged. Even in the field of ideas. Iqbal is strongly opposed to all these weaknesses in human character. Iqbal insists that the individuals should constantly exert him to acquire things which he wants to enjoy. which retards the development of one’s ego. anger. anxiety. Slavery: It completely arrests the freedom of man. Fear: Fear of persons and objects (except God) in all its different phases such as worry. It also sustains and strengthens the human ego. distorts character and lowers man to the level of a beast and weakens the human ego. Every kind of slavery.

who are fortunate to have the stage of Iqbal’s philosophy. While man has made enormous strides in the development of scientific techniques and is on the verge of conquering space and outer space. It is imperative for us. “These basic elements in Iqbal’s concept of Khudi were explained to the younger generation of this country in which hope lies for the future. Who knows that the salvation of the world may yet lie with those who imbibe the teachings of Iqbal and of the Quran which is the source of Iqbal’s inspiration?” __________________ Page 108 of 108 .Political Science (Paper 1) develop due to the failure of the individual to practice or inculcate in him the positive elements for the development of character and personality. Justice Anwar-ul-Haq says. I am not sure whether he has made progress in conquering the basic elements in his own nature. In fact humanity at large could benefit immensely by the adoption of these ideals. to understand this philosophy and to try to act upon it in our daily lives. Mr.