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Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

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Simplest proof is to show it is a euclidean domain, under norm. Write R = Z[i]. Given z, z ∈ R, z, z = 0, need to show z = qz + r, where |r| < |z|. In C, is is possible to ﬁnd q0 such that z = qz.

√

Points of R lie on a square lattice in C, so we can ﬁnd q such that |q − q0 | ≤ |r| = |q0 − q||z| so that |r| < |z|.

2 . 2

Thus

Given any ideal, choose an element in it of minimum non-zero size. This generates the ideal (can use contradiction argument with (z) on z = qz + r), so R is a PID. √ √ Generalizations. Similar argument works for Z[ −2], as 3/2 < 1, so it is also a PID. √ √ With Z[ −3] this geometric argument fails. Though, it can be “ﬁxed” by letting ζ = 1+ 2 −3 and looking at Z[ζ] = Z + Z ζ, which follows from ζ 2 = ζ − 1. More About Gaussian Integers. Let R = Z[i]. If p ≡ 3 (mod 4), then p = a2 + b2 is not possible, implying p does not split in R, i.e. p is irreducible and hence a prime of R. This ring has 4 units (the 4th roots of unity), Z[ζ] has 6 units (the 6th roots of unity), and other quadratic rings have only the two trivial units 1 and -1. If p ≡ 1 (mod 4), then p splits, so exactly half the primes split in R, and the factors are primes of R. Moreover, eveyr prime of R arises in this way. In addition, R is a UFD implies the resulting a and b from p = a2 + b2 are unique up to units. √ In Z[ −5], part of this works in the same way: 1/2 the primes split into prime ideals and the other 1/2 do not split. But of the 1/2 that do split into prime ideals, only half are principal, so in total 1/4 split into elements. √ √ Ideal generated by two elements. For instance, 6 = (2)(3) = (1 + √ −5)(1 − −5) still has √ unique factorization with deeper prime ideals, (2, 1 ± −5), (3, 1 ± −5).