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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022940773

HISTORY OF EDUCATION
IN

ANCIENT INDIA

BY

NOGENDRA NATH MAZUMDER,


Professor, Dacca Training College

M.A., B.T.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION
BY
E. E.

BISS,

I.E.S.

Principal, Dacca Training College

CO., Ltd. CALCUTTA, BOMBAY, MADRAS, LONDON

MACMILLAN

&

|. !:

I.'

FEINTED BY JYOTISH CHANDRA QllOSn AT THE COTTON PEESS 57, PAIRKISON ROAB, CAIjCjnTTA.

THE AUTHOR'S NOTE.


The general
worked out
work.
so
in

outline of the

book was
the

first

class-room

lectures.

It has

subsequently developed into

present

The subject-matter
feel it

of the

book

is

complex that I

should have been


to

undertaken by abler hands.

The main object of meet the demand for

this publication

is

small

Hand-hook
in

that will give a clear and systematic account


of the ideal and the system of education
ancient

India,

and also to remove some


'

grave misapprehension that seems to exist

about the Hindu ideals of education in the

minds of some eminent foreign

writers.

Dr.

Graves of the Ohio State University following Mr. Davidson remarks that ''despite all the Hindu's fineness of intellect and his India seems typically religion, idealistic
'barbarian'
".

It

is

really unfortunate

that

such a remark should have come from such


a man.

The

following pages,

hope,

will

IV

THE AUTHORS NOTE.


clearly

show

how

hasty, unjust

and unfound-

ed his remarks are.

The book has been read in manuscript as well as in proof by Mr. Evan. E. Biss, I. E. S., Principal, Dacca Training College,
to

whom my

gratitude

is

due for writing

the Introduction and for helping

me with

many

valuable criticisms and suggestions.

My

thanks are he

also

due to Professor

Satyendra Nath Bhadra,


permission

M.A.,
given

for

the
to

has kindly

me

reprint those

portions of the book which


his

appeared

in

Review and

to

my

friends

who have helped me with their suggestions. Nor must I omit to express my obligation
to

the various authorities

whom

have'

consulted and quoted from.

Training College,

Dacca
August, 1916.

j-

N. N.

MAZUMDER

INTRODUCTION.
Stung American
to indignation
writer,

by the remark of an and supported by the


enormous debt to

feeling that the

world's

India should at least be acknowledged, the

author of this

little

book has done good


setting

service to the cause of education by

forth in a compact form


ideals

an

account of the

and practices of the ancient Hindus

in relation to the

immature portion of their


the
correctness

community.
has referred
it is

Of
1

of

his

reading of the ancient authors to

whom

he

cannot pretend to judge, but


feel,

a comfort to

amid the many


in

diffi-

culties that confront us while the

thought of

the

West

is

spreading

the aged East, that

the grand

if

shadowy

figures of the

mighty

Rishis of the past can look

without dis-

approval on the principles and

methods of
perusal
is

modern
old and

education.

Indeed a
that

of

these pages reminds us that truth

never

never new,

it

is

not of this

VI

INTRODUCTION.
nation,

place nor of that


is

but that

it

ever

and

is

the rewarder of those

who

diligent-

ly seek

it.

We

must not be concerned with "English"^

or "Vernacular," or "Sanskrit," or "Ajajbic"

Education, but going beyond these external


limitations,

children
possible

we must seek of modern India

to introduce

th&

to

the

widest;

experience of their

world, so that

having become heirs of the past and the


present they
the future.

may become
far

the possessors of

However

the

education

of

the present day child


ahead,
it

may

look around and

must be rooted

in the traditions

of

the past, and Mr. Mazumder's

book should

be of great assistance to the


teachers of to-day as a

High School
and a safe

guide

guard

in this respect.

In studying the history of education in


ancient India one cannot but

be

impressed

with the attention that was paid to physical


training, to music
is

and to manual
this

arts.

It

to be

hoped that
in

book may prove an


of

encouragement to
experiment

teachers

to-day
in

to

these

directions

their

INTRODUCTION.

Vll

schools SO that the

work of the boys mayupon whife


his

have
they
I

in

it

not less of abstract ideas, but


direct experience

more of that

may

base their

trust

own abstractions. Mr. Mazumder will find


enthusiastic
interest
in

reward

for his

the

subject and for his keenness to discover

an

Indian basis for the modern education of


Indian children in a wide study of the work

he

is

now

offering to his colleagues of the

teaching profession and to the reading public

generally.

Training College,

Dacca
29th August, 1916.

Evan

E. Biss.

CONTENTS.
Chapter
I.

Paok
...
1

Factors in Education

II.

The Diffeken't Periods and their ... General Characteristics

-i

III.

The Caste System and


gogical SiaXIFICANCE

its

Peda...

25

I\^

Evolution' of Vedig Religion and


ITS

Ped.agogical Aspects

...

46
6(3

V.

Different Tvpes of Educ.\tiov

...

VI,

Hindu

Education
...

General
...

Characteristics
VII.

^0

Universities

in

Ancient
...

and
...

Medleval India
Al'l'ENDlX
I.

S9

Subjects cultivated

by

the
...

ancient
...

Hindus
II.

...

101

Arts

and

accomplishments

current

among men
III.

at the time of Buddha...


...

114
116

Sixty-four arts or Kalas

IV.

Rules regulating the conduct of the


disciple towards his preceptor
...

121

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


I

INTRODUCTION FACTORS IN EDUCATION.


:

The nature
dividual
inherited
s,

of

the

education

of an

in-

is

determined

not

only

by

his

powers and capacity but also in

great measure

by the environment

in

which he grows up.


in

Hence
shall

in

determining

the nature of the educatiou

of the

Aryans

Ancient India we

have to consider,

on the one hand, the original nature of the people who first entered it and on the other,
the nature of the country in which their
inherited capacities were called
into

active

development.
Effect of

Environment

The

Aryans

who

first

entered India were remarkable for

2
their

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

manly virtues and strength of intellect.. The Vedic Rishis not only composed hymns, and performed sacrifices but fought their Their wars and ploughed their fields.
martial spirit was for a long time kept alive

by the necessity of holding


the enemy.

their

own

against-

When
scope for

this

had been effected


left,

and resistance was broken, there was


very
little

tl^e

development of the
fertile
of'

manly
soil

virtues.

,The mild climate and

of the

country bringing the means


within easy

subsistence

reach

made

the

struggle for existence in India an 'easy' one.


Besides, the lofty mountains

and the
the

seas,

shutting the

country

off

for a

long time

from outside influences

gave

Hindu
in

culture a unique character.

Thus while

Europe

long cold winters,

conflict of interests

barren soil and between small countries,

have developed
pitch

in

the

Aryans there
the

'the

instinct of self-preservation' to

highest

and made them comparatively more 'active,' 'combative' and enterprising, the
peculiar'

environmental conditions of India


to

have tended

make her

people

more.

FACTORS IN EDUCATION.
'passive,'

'meditative'

and

'philosophical'.

Besides, the fusion

of the

Aryan element

with

the pre-Aryan population in the two continents has brought about changes
original nature of the

in the

Aryan

people.

Hence owing
tions of the

to

differences in

the condi-

countries

the

people in the
originally

two

continents,

though

they

belonged to the same stock and possessed


similar
virtues,

now

present such marked

distinctions in the

development of the human


conditions of the
affected

character.

The

different

two continents have thus not only


their
sciences,

the nature of the people but have influenced


arts
in

and literature as well

and hence while


or
less,

Europe

the

various

sciences and arts have been developed,


to

more

meet the material needs of the people and to enable them to hold their own
in

their

politicaland economic relations, in


in

India they had had their origin


'exigencies of religion,'
Eeferenoes
:

the

1.
2.

Max

Muller

India, What can


Literature.

it

teach us

A. A. Macdonell A History of Sanskrit

II

THE DIFFERENT PERIODS AND THEIR GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.


The
history of India,
like

the

history of
into

Europe, broadly divides


parts, -Ancient,

itself

three

Mediaeval

and

Modern

History. Ancient History begins from about B. c. 2000 and extends to about the middle
of the

seventh

century

a.

d.

Mediaeval

History embraces the period lying between

kingdom of Harsha (647 a.d.) and the rise of the British power in India which took place somewhere about the
the
fall

of the

middle

of

the

eighteenth

century.

The

modern period commences with the close of the media3val period and extends to the
present time.
1. The Ancient Period : Here two main epochs can be distinguished in the

history of ancient Indian literature

the one
;

extending from 2000

b. c.

to 200

b. c.

the

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
other embracing the rest of the period.
first

The

epoch produced only religious works and


in lyric

reached a high standard of merit


poetry.
in

It also saw the highest development It


is

law and philosophy.


produced
the

the period
the

which

successively

Vedic

Brahmanas with their sequels, viz. the Aranyakas, the Upanishads and the Sutras?The latest development is noticed in the Sutra literature which became perfect about the time of Buddha (6th century
B.

Hymns,

c).

The Upanishads show that the Indian mind even then attained the highest pitch
of
its

marvellous

fertility.

Some

of the

solemn

speculations

in

these

works

of

remote antiquity found repetition


productions of Plato and

in later

Kant

and the
" in

philosopher Schopenhauer (1788-1860) was


so

charmed with them that he


is

writes,

the whole world there


'

no study so bene-

The whole body


is

Style

of Vedio Worka composed in the Sutra divided into six classes called Vedangas. They are (i)

Siksha or phonetibs, (ii) Chhandas or metre, (iii) Vydkarana. or grammar, (iv) Nirukta or etymology, (v) Kalpa or religious,
practioea and
(vi)

Jyotish or astronomy.

e
ficial

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

and so elevating
It
will

as

that

of

the

Upanishads.

has been the solace of

my

life it
century

be the solace of

my

death."

Transition
b. c.

Period

In

the

third

when
in

Buddhism
India,

principal
lanojuaoje

religion

was the the Vedic

had dwindled down to Prakrit as


the different arts

may

be seen from the inscriptions of Asoka.

and sciences received considerable development in this

However,
epoch.

The curriculum of the University its most of Taxila which was then in flourishing condition, throws some light on
the nature of the
various
subjects
It
is

current

among men of the time. many as sixteen branches


taught
vated
in

said that as

of learning

were
the
culti-

the

different

Schools
the

in

University.
in

Medicine was especially


Taxila and
in

University

there were Schools of Painting, Sculpture,

Image-making and Handicrafts.


also

Astronomy

received

the greatest attention of the

people of the time.


as

Ujjain was then famous

the

seat of the

study of astronomy.

Veterinary Science was actively cultivated

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
in

the time of

Asoka and there were animal

hospitals in different parts of the country/

Ancient Period begins with the time of the Sungas (185 B. c.) when the Brahraanical reaction set in. During this period the vedic language became gradually modified into 'classical' Sanskrit and those who wrote Sanskrit works had themselves to learn the language as we do now. This epoch was a time of
exceptional
intellectual activity in the diff-

The Second Epoch of the

erent

fields

of literature

and

science.

It

embraced,
^achieved

in

general, secular
in

subjects

and

distinction

different

branches
court

of literature, in
epic, in lyric
in

national as

well as

and especially didactic poetry^


tales,

the drama, in fairy

fables

and

Tomances'.

The great Kalidasa whose works have made him immortal in the history of Indian literature lived in this age. The mathematical and astronomical sciences
>

'Surat,

"The auimal hospitals, which still exist at Ahmadabad, and many other towns in Western India, may be regarded
by the

as either survivals or copies of the institutions founded

Maurya monarch"
JEd.) P. 183.

V.

A.

Smith Early History

of India (3rd


e
-

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


the

received

highest

development
a. d.

in

the-

hands of Aryabhatta (born


Varaharaihira (died
sculpture,
an.d
a. d.

476) and

587). Architecture,
also

painting

were
and

culti-

vated

with

great

avidity

attained
also-

considerable

perfection.

Music was
(a. d.

encouraged.

The Guptas

320-455)

and the Great Siladitya (Harsha a. d. 606647) who flourished in this epoch were great
patrons
of learning.

Under the

liberal pa-

tronage of the latter the great university of

Behar rose to the most flourishHiuen Tsang, the Chinese ing condition.
Nalanda
in

pilgrim, says

that

10,000 students resided

here and received gratis education in thevarious sciences,

Grammar, Rhetoric^ Logic, Arithmetic, Geometrj'-, Astronomy


viz..

and Music. Medicine, Philosophy and theSanskrit and Pali prose and poetical literature were also
literary

studied here.

In

fact,

the

and

scientific subjects

reached such,

a high

degree of development that, saysin

Dr. Macdonell,
the
various

some of the

subjects, viz.^

scientific literature,

phonetics,

grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medicine

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.

and law,
notable
in

in

which the
their

Indians

achieved

results,

attainment was far

advance of what was accomplished by

the Greeks. the

The

nine

^ems connected with


also flourished

name

of Vikraraaditya

in this

epoch which may fairly be compared with the Periclean age of Athens or the

Augustan age of Rome, or, as Vincent. Smith says, with the Elizabethan or the
Stuart Period
in Engfland.

The

ancient period

not only
field

saw the
of Indian

highest development in the


literature

and science but


life

it

was a period of
in

national

and national vigour

every

sphere of activity, and

its civilisation

was

free from the artificial restrictions of

modern

when the sacred learning had not become the monopoly of the priests and when all the Aryans-

Hindu

society.

It was a period

were united as one caste and

still

entitled

to the religious and literary heritage of the

Aryans.

Professions and trades other than,


priests
;

that of the

were not looked upon


arts

with disfavour

nor the vocations requiring

manual

exertion.

The

were not then

10

EDDCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


divorced from
religion

a specialized study

and the men whose genius created them

were not of an
Besides,
in

inferior

calibre to the poets

and philosophers.
several

points the

Hindu

society

of the

time

showed a wonderful

resemblance to the modern institutions of


the rest of the civilized world
(i)
;

Early marriage of girls


rare.

The early
The Svay-

marriage of girls was then

ambara ceremony Hindu Epics and


that the

so

much

talked of in the

literature

shows clearly
girls

custom of giving away


is

in

marriage early
also

of later development.
girls,

It

shows that

in

ancient India as

in
in

modern Western
taking

society,

had some voice

the selection of their husbands. Examples


place after puberty are

of marriage
-also

furnished by our Sanskrit literature.


It must be Seclusion of women very outset that the absolute
:

(ii)

said at the

seclusion of
India.

women was unknown in ancient Neither the Rig Veda nor the Epics
sloka quoted from Lalita Vis-

furnish us with any example of this custom.

The following

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.'

11

tara shows that though covering: the fac6

with a veil was probably the usual custom, it was not strictly followed, for otherwise

Oopa, the pious wife of Buddha, could not have protested against the practice
:

"Rishis, noble-minded persons, those

who

can divine the secrets in the hearts of others,

the

assemblage

of

gods,

know

well

motives.
qualities,

So long as

my

behaviour,

my my
face

my
is

prudence remain undisturbed,


there for

what need
with a

me

to cover

my

veil ?"^

Our Sanskrit
-and restraint of

literature

and history also


not

siipport the view that the absolute seclusion

Hindu customs. In fact, the practice was unknown in India till the advent of the Muhamraadans, when partly in self-defence, partly in imitation

women were

of their

masters,

the upper classes of


to

the Hindu society began

seclude

their

5??n^^<!5t*jci: n^^iiffl

f*

II

Lalita Vistara XII. P. 182.

12

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

women. That this was so is clearly proved by the complete absence of the custom in
Maharastra where the rule of the Moslems. was brief. (iii) Social position of women and their Women generally had a very education
:

high social position.^

Considered as the inse-

parable partners of their husbands,

Hindu

wives always received the honour and respect

due to their
other

position.

In fact,

among no
of the

ancient

nation

on

the face

globe, as says

Mr. Dutt, were they morein India.

honoured than

As
who
years.

to the learning of

women we

cherish

the picture of the

cultured lady

Visvavara

composed
to

hymns which have been


us

handed down

through thousands

of'

The

celebrated conversation between'

Yajnavalkya and his learned wife Maitreyi

on the eve of his retirement to the forest


dicates clearly that

in-

women were

then 'consi-

dered as the intellectual companions of their


husbands'.

Weber also supports the view by saying that women in ancient India took an;
'

Manu

III 55-60.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
active
life

13

part in the very stirring intellectual

of the period

and plunged with enthusithe mysteries


of specula-

astic tion,

ardour

'into

impressing and

astonishing

men by
opinions'.''

the depth and loftiness of their


Besides,

the

following lines quoted from

show clearly that girls even at the time of Buddha were taught to read and write and became accomplished in several ways
Lalita Vistara
:

Gautama says, "I shall need the maiden who is accomplished in writing and in composing poetry, who is endowed with
good
qualities"

and "well-versed
Vatsayana's

in the rules

of the Sastras".^
In
fact, in

Kama

Sutras

we

find a list of 64 arts^


for

which were appropriate

young

ladies.

Sanskrit literature and the

history

of the later period also support the

view that the girls in ancient India received


proper education.
Lastly,

we

find the great

Vedantist
in the

Sankaracharya

who

flourished
a. d.

beginning of the 9th century

"

of Indian Literature p. 22. Lilita Vistara (Edited by R. L. Mitra) XII pp. 199-200. Ibid pp. 186-189. Also see Appendix.

Weber The History


14
EDTJUATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.
all

preparing himself with

the care to argue

with Svarasvati, the learned wife of pandit

Madana.
in ancient

All these prove conclusively that


India there was no dearth of eduin
:

cation

among women

cultured societies.

(iv)

idols

The worship of Idol-worship had not at that time been introduced.


came
into existence later in the
(a. d.

The

practice

Puranic period
in the

300

a. d.

1000)

when

absence of high ideals people found


its

the necessity of
its

introduction.

introduction indicates

that

Even so the Hindus


the
reli-

even then realised that education in


gious sphere should proceed
to the abstract.

from

the concrete

It

is

interesting

to

record

here what Abul Fazl,

the author of ^2/ eew


:

Akbari writes on the point "They (the Hindus), one and all, believe in the unity of
the God-head
;

and although

they

hold

images in high veneration, yet they are by no means idolators, as the ignorant suppose. * * * * the images are only representations of celestial beings, to

whom

they turn

themselves whilst at prayer, to prevent their

thoughts from wandering."

/GENERAL; CHARACTERISTICS.
2.

15

The Mediaeval Period:

We

have

found that the Ancient Period catne to a


close with the fall of the

kingdom of Harsha
as

(647

A.D.).

This marks the beginning of the


period

mediaeval

which,

we have

seen,

extends to the middle of the 18th century.

This period ushered in all the characteristics which now mark off Hindu society from
the modern institutions
civilized world.

of the

rest of the
(i)

The

chief

of these were
idol

the rigid caste system,

(ii)

worship,

{in) the early marriage of girls, (iv) seclusion

of

women and

(v)

want of

literacy

among

women. The Mediaeval Period,


the
first

like the

Ancient
;

Period, also divides itself into

two epochs

extends from

a.d.

647 to 1200, while

the second embraces the rest of the period.

After Harslm there remained no supreme


authority in northern
India to restrain the
disruptive forces which were ready to operate
there.

Consequently

the

different

states

assumed independence and became engaged in unceasing internecine war. Learning, however, did not sink to a low ebb. Yasovarman

16

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


reigned in

who
A.D.

Kanouj

in the

8th century

encourafjed Sanskrit learning.

He

was

the patron o? Bhavabhuti, the famous author


of

Malati Madhava.
that five
to

This together with the

story

Brahmins were sent from

Kanouj
-customs

Bengal to revive orthodox Hindu

shows that Kanouj was a centre of Brahmanical learning. Again, the


there,

great Vedantist scholar Sankaracharya (9th

century
Benares.
tion^

a. d.)

is

said

to

have studied at

Further, the Ghoserabau inscripthat one

states

Biradev after having


all

completed the

study of

the different

Vedas repaired (in the 9th century a. d ) to Kanishka Mahavlhara in the neighbourhood study. It thus of Peshwar for farther appears that Kanouj, Benares and Peshwar
were the seats of learning
in

those days.

But

for four centuries (9th to

12th century

of learning was in Behar where, besides the Nalanda Univereven then, sity which did not disappear arose on the Ganges the famous monastery This was founded by of Vikramasila.
A.D.) the principal seat
*

See Gauralekhamala or the Inscriptions of Gaur.

GENERAL CHAEACTERtSTICS.

17

Dharmapala and
tery

is

said

to have included

107 temples and six colleges.

This

monas-

was the centre of Tantric Buddhism and disappeared with the advent of the Muhammadans in a.d. 1200. Navadwip in Bengal became a seat of Hindu learning ^loder the Sen kings of Bengal. Jayadeva,
the famous author of the Gitagovinda^ seems

have been the court-poet of Lakshmana Sena, the last king of Bengal. Navadwip, however, survived the shock of Muharato

principal seat of
after

madan attack and is still renowned as the Hindu learning organised


the

ancient manner.

Also,
it

reference to Ayeen-Akbari,

from a appears that

Benares was a famous seat of Hindu learning even


in the

16th century.^

Thus it appears that the torch of learning was kept burning in the middle ages
in the various parts

of India.

But, says

V. A. Smith, 'literature although actively


cultivated

and

liberally patronised at
far

many

local courts,

sank

below the level attain-

ed by
1

Kalidasa.'

This epoch was, however,


F.

Ayeen Akbari translated by

Gludwin

p. 560.

18

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


productions
:

remarkable for the


notable commentaries

of a

fewa.d.

Kumarila (about

700)

wrote a commentary on the Karma;


Sutras of Jaimini. reformer

Mimdmsd
Hindu
brilliant

The great Sankara who gave tho


its final

Vedanta philosophy

form, wrote his

commentaries

on

the

Vedanta
written,
culti-

Sutras and the Bhdgavatgitd. Another com-

mentary on the Vedanta Sutras was


by Ramanuja (about
a.d. IIOO).

The

vation of sciences, however,

did not

cease.

Mathematics seems to have been actively

we find the great Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara (born


cultivated, as

1114) flourishing in this epoch.

He

wrote

several books on Algebra and Astronomy.

The second epoch


period
(a.d.

of

the

mediaeval

1200-1764) marks the rise of


the
fall

the

Muhammadans and

of the

Hindu
in

Kinofdoms
2eal of the

in northern India.

The
the

religious

Muhammadans made them,


towards

general,

intolerant

Hindus.^

^ The emperor Akbar, however, encouraged Hindu learning and patronized, Hindu scholars. His great-grand son Dara also took an interest in the religious and philosophical works of the

Hindus.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTlCa.

19

With the withdrawal of the patronage of


the kings and the forfeiture of temple lands,
schools,

monasteries

and

priests

were

left

without income.
learning

Hence Sanskrit and Hindu


little

made very
was

progress in northern

India for a very long time.


therefore,

This period

a striking contrast to the

ancient period.

But

as the

ancient period
in

saw the highest development


literature, this

Sanskrit
for

epoch was remarkable


it

the

highest

distinction

attained

in

Vernaparts

cular literature in
India.
lyrics
in
*

the

different

of

Vidyapati wrote

many
;

beautiful

the dialect of Behar


in

Chandidas
in

wrote similar Works

Bengali

and

Raj-

putana, Mira, Bdi, a princess, wrote beautiful

songs which were extremely popular.'

.The achievements of the Hindus in the field of literature in the Middle ages thus compare very unfavourably indeed with what their ancestors had attained in this field in the past ages but they far outshone

them

in point of the perfection

they reached
This
is

in sculpture and architecture/


' Also see V. Edition p. 358.)

borne
(3rd

A.

Smith

Early

History of

India

20

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


fronti

out by the following quotation

Havell's

The Ideals of Indian Art

(p.

132).

"The
tury
tional.
A.D.

art of India

up

to the fourth

cen-

was purely
spirit

eclectic

and

transi-

The

of Indian

thought was
the form

struggling to find definite artistic expression


in sculpture

and

in

painting, but

of expression

was not

artistically perfected

until about the seventh or eighth centuries,

when most
ing
of

of the great sculpture and paint-

India

was produced.

From

the

seventh or eighth to the fourteenth century

was the great period of Indian Art, corresponding to the highest development of Gothic Art in Europe, and it is by the
achievements of this epoch, rather than by
those
place

of
in

Mogul Hindustan,

that

India's

the art-history of the

world will

eventually be resolved."

The
rity,

different arts, says the

same authoin

continued

to

be cultivated

India

with much vigour till the 17th century when Aurangzeb expelled all the Hindu
artists

and craftsmen

whom

his father

and
to

grandfather had the good-will

to attract

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
the service of the state
art of the
;

21

consequently, 'the

Moguls

in
it

India was struck with a

blight from which

never recovered'.
the

In the

field of religion
thfe

mediaeval

period marks

steady

rise of

the modern

supremacy and the corresponding decline of Buddhism which has gradually become merged in the former. The
to

Hinduism

period also saw the exaltation of the priests

and the introduction of the

caste- rules in

modern rigid form. Hinduism was largely due


their

This revival of
to the influence

of 'the foreign

immigrants into Rnjputana

and the upper Gangetic provinces' who had established their power in northern India
during the
first

epoch of the Middle Ages.


to

These foreigners yielded


assimilative

the wonderful

power
in

of

became Hinduized.

Hinduism and rapidly Those amonorst them


the

who succeeded
admitted

winning chieftainship were


into

readily

frame-work of
or

Hindu
Like
with
all

polity

as

Kshatriyas

Rajputs.

converts,

they espoused Hinduism

exceptional zeal

and

directed

their;

whole energy to the perpetuation of the

22

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

supremacy of the Brahmins who gave them


an exalted position
in society.

We
priestly

therefore see that besides the foreign

domination which characterized this period,

monopoly

in its closest

form was the


it

prominent feature which marked


the ancient period.

off

from

two had on the reaching. The domination of the priests added to that of the Musalman rulers serV^ed to make the Hindus generally docile, gentle, peaceable and less ambitious and enterprising.

The effect that these Hindu character was far-

Hence

instead

of adding
lost

much

to

their heritaore the

Hindus

most of what

had been transmitted to them.


civilisation

The Hindu
to

during the period was therefore


progressive and education,
less

not very

great extent, became a more or


Recapitulation of the Past.
3.

formal

The Modern Period : This


aofe

period

inaugurates an
to the patient

Thanks researches of the European


of regeneration.
later researches

and Oriental Scholars who have not only


cleared

up the mists making

possible but have created

in

the people of

GENteBAL CHARACTERISTICS.

23
ancient

India an intense desire to


civilisation.

know her

Besides,
of

under the vivifying

influences

modern civiHsation and the

fostering care of the British

Crown the new


all

India

is

not only becoming conscious of her


life

national

but

is

trying to revive

that

was best in ancient India. The present age may, therefore, be called the age of Renaissance of

Hindu Education.
from Indian

The following
Policy
the retention

extract

Educational
that

(1913)

shows

clearly

and furtherance
of
instruction

rather

than the suppresindigenous systems


present
policy

sion of the ancient and

marks the

of the British Government.


"

The Government

of India attach great

importance to the cultivation and improvenient of oriental studies.


interest

There
in

is

increasing

throughout India

her ancient

civilisation,

and

it is

necessary to investigate

that civilisation with the help of the

medium

methods of research and in modern ideas. * * * While relation to making provision for scholarship on modern lines, the conference drew attention to the
of
western

24

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

necessity of retaining separately the ancient

and indigenous systems of instruction.


world of scholarship,
suffer

The
would

they thought,
if

irreparable

loss

the old type of

pandit and maulvi were to die out before


their profound

knowledge of their subjects


to the world;

had been made available


encouragement
needed
result.

and

rather

than
such

reform

was

to

prevent
*

an unfortunate

The Government of India

hope to see the adoption of measures that are practicable for the maintenance and furtherance of the ancient indigenous systems of
learning."
References
:

1.

A. A. Macdonell
Literature.

History of Sanskrit

2.

A.

Weber The
ture.

History of Indian Litera,

3.
4.

E
E

C.

Dutta

Civilisation in Ancient India.


of

5.

B. Havell-The Ideals of Indian Art. V, A. Smitli Early History of India.

6.
7. 8.

Max Muller The Laws


Elphinstone
E. L. Mitra

Manu.

History of India.

Lalita Vistara.

9.

Indian EJucational Policy, 1913.

Ill

AND
still

ITS

THE CASTE SYSTEM PEDAGOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE.


when the Aryans wer&
the Rishis did not

In the vedio times

in the Sutlej valley

form a separate and exclusive class. Each Rishi was a priest, a warrior and a cultivator and society was therefore then marked

by the absence of those rules and


present complex

restrictions-

which form the distinctive feature of the

Hindu

society.

But even
ways of
gift

then some families obtained pre-eminence by


their
special

knowledge of
sanrifices
;
.

the

performing religious
of composing
in

and their

hymns

others again excelled

military prowess.

In course of time the


Sutlej and

Aryans crossed the

moved down

While they were settling down here society was becoming complex and their culture material in it
the valley of the Ganges.
different phases

began to show considerable^

26

EDUCATION JN ANCIENT INDIA.

development.-

In

fact,

the religious cere-

monials which represented one of the phases


of their culture,
attained such

complexity

that certain Rishis had to devote more or


less

exclusively

all

their time

and energies

to the efficient carrying out of religious duties

and the handing down in their families. So

of the sacred tradition


to

keep pace with the

growing needs and complexity of society differentiation became a necessity. Hence


the Indo-aryans like Plato, made an
intelli-

gent application
division

of the

principle

of the

of

labour

and became gradually

-divided into

four classes or castes according

to their occupation

and innate
sloka

qualities

as

appears from
^''gigsl?!^"
si.

the

quoted

below
(Gita
iv

JTJIT

WZ

<i^**ilfWTT3!:"

13) or "the four fold division of castes

was

created by

me

according to

the

apportion-

ment of
prakriti

qualities

and

duties.'"

According to
(lTirf?l)

the

Hindu philosophers

which determines the temperament of an individual is made up of


three
constituent
principles

or gunas

viz.,

goodness or purity (^T^ Sattva), passion or

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


activity
<lity
(^gf*.

27
stoli-

Rajas) and darkness or

(rUT*.

Tamas).
quantities

These are not conjoined


but
in

in

equal

varying
in

pro-

portions,

one or other being

excess in

different individuals.

Hence the temperais

ment
to the

of an individual

determined according

predominance of goodness, passion or

darkness.

Thus
artificial

the

castes

which

now

appear as
cases by
ficance
in

and are marked


of

in nbost

the

absence of their true signi-

respect

guna

and

karma,

developed naturally

in ancient India to repre-

sent the different phases of the civilisation of

the early Indo-aryans.

For a long time caste distinctions did not become rigid and intermarriage was permitted.
this out
"wrsTwif

The

following

slokas

will

bear

'gfw ^R^

^m

<T3^

or ''inform

me

of the

maiden who

pos-

sesses these qualities,

whether she be the

28

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


of

Brahmin, a Kshatriya, St Vaisya or a Sudra for my son (Gautama) is not particular about family or lineage his mind delights in merit, in truth, and in
daughter
a
;

;:

virtue".

Lallta Vistara

Chap XII.

^i^Kfrr TR
or

^" ^TW* ^Ts^^^


acquire
inferior

II''

"one

should

with faith good


person^

knowledge even from an

learn excellent virtues even from one of the-

lowest caste and receive a gem of a


even from a Besides,
loio

woman

family."

Manu

II. 238.

the members of the warrior and

industrial classes

had access to the literary


like

schools
class.

kept by the members of the higher


Naj',

many Kshatriyas
were

Janaka,
versed

Jaibali

and Ajatasatru^

so

in the sastras that the

Brahmins often went


in the

to

them to receive instruction wisdom (?rai^TT)- But owing


ties of

Divine

to the difficul-

the Vedic literature the Kshatriyas,


avail

in

general, did never


privileges
to

themselves of
so-

these
'

any great extent,

Upanishad by Hirendra Nath Dutta pp. 58-79.

THE CASTE STSTEM.

29

that the charge often brought against the

Brahmins
literature

as having

withheld their sacred

from any but their own caste has


foundation.

hardly

any
it,

Far from

with-

holding

Brahmins had always been make its study obligatory on all the Aryans and as the sloka quoted below
the
striving to

from

Manu

will

show,

severest

penalties
it

were threatened on those who neglected

or " that twice born,


the

who
falls,

not having studied

Veda,
the

applies

himself to other (and

worldly study) soon


to

even while living,


II. 168,

condition of a Sudra and his descen-

dants (after him)."

Manu

show clearly that in those days learning and good qualities were the
These
facts

passport to the highest honour and to the

highest caste though learning without

self-

control was depreciated as the sloka quoted

below

will

show

'30

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

or " a brahmin

who knows

only Gayitri, but


is

who
who

is

thoroughly self-restrained,

better

than he
is

who knows
and
sells

the three Vedas, (but)

not self-restrained,

who

eats all (sorts

of) food,

everything
118.

{i.e.

prohibited

things)".

Manu II

Hence

the Brahmins

who devoted

their

time and energies to the study of the Vedas^

gave religious instruction, presided at sacrifices and were self-controlled, were held in
the highest esteem. Again, though the study
of the
as

Vedas was enjoined on


from the

all

Aryans yet

appears

following sloka the


of each and the cor-

respective occupation

responding training were held to have been


far

more important

seniority of Brahmins is from knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from (sacred) valour, that of Vaisyas from wealth in grain

or

" the

(and other goods), but that of Sudras alone

from age."

Manu

II. 155.

The

early

Hindu philosophers impressed

THE
this because like

fiASl'E

SYSTEM.

31

the

modern philosophers
ititere'sts

they were afraid that the


the interests of the society.
spirit of the

of

the,

individual might, otherwise, be absorbed

in

one's
is

far

Thus in themodern educators who hold that own method though in itself inferior, better than an ideal borrowed, we have
(xviii.

in

the Gita

47)

'

or

" one's

duty, though defective,

is

better

than another's duty well performed.


does not incur sin."

Per-

forming the duty prescribed by nature one


In

fact,

it

would be absurd

if in

every
ta

other thing as in teaching we

were

impose any particular duty or method on any particular individual without any consideration of

what

really suits his


;

own

tastes

and ways

of doing things

for,

without understiideni^,

valuing the worth of imitation to the


it

may

be said that the success of an indivi-

dual in anything depends mainly upon the


intelligence with

which he works.

"It

is,""

32
says
that,
skilled

EDUCATION IN ANCIENl' INDIA.

Herbert
having
artisan

Spencer,
the
will

"a

trite tools,

remark
an
un-

choicest

botch his

work;

and
best

bad teachers
methods.

will

fail

even

with the

Indeed,
in

the

goodness

of the cause of
the

method becomes
failure
;

such a case a

as,

to

continue the
tool

simile,
in

perfection
-ciplined
results."

of the

becomes

undisin

hands a source of imperfection


^

Again
vocation
itself
all,

let

us see what

may happen
may

if

an

individual belonging to one class follows the

of another which
is

be good in
First of

but for which he

ill-fitted.

such a
bj'

man may

ruin himself and his


effort
;

family

making such an

or

if

he

succeeds only partially, he will become unfit


for

the duties

-and at the
-a

which belong to same time not quite fit

his family

to

become
whose

recognized

member

of the

society

calling
duties

he has adopted.
of his

Thus giving up the own family or class of which,

with his better intelligence, he might be a


"very

useful
>

member, he not only becomes


Spencei- Education

p. 83.

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


unfit
for

33

either

but actually

becomes

burden to the family or


belongs.

soci'ety to

a which he
Gita the

Hence we have
:

in the

warning

or

"one's

own

duty,

though
well

defective, is

better than another's duty

performed.
is

Death
others

in
;

(performing) one's

own duty

preferable
is

(the performing of the) duty


in. 35.

of

dangerous."

In

fact,

an individual should not give up

the duties of his

own

class

but rather should


such

keep himself

in active

touch with them and

receive himself or

give his children

education and training that he or his family


and,
if

possible,

his

relations

may

rise to
maj''

such a position that he or his posterity


easily

take to the duties of a better class

and continue doing so without causing any


inconvenience to himself or his family
to satisfy the last
;

for,

condition the

individual

must have not only sufficient means but social and hereditary influences certain making him fit for carrying on work on the3

34

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


lines.

new

Again, though our philosophers


to be careful to

warned us

change our duties

for those of a better class yet the Platonic

ideal did not

remain unrealized and no

in-

separable
orders.

barrier

was
if

set

up between the

On

the other hand, as the following

slokas will show,


class

a child of the inferior


characteristic of a
:

possessed

qualities

superior class, he was admitted to that class


"'S'S ^ra

If^

ffTfT

T ^mzn^ T ^ ^Jj^

or

"0 honoured

Jaksha, hear (me), doubtless

the actions alone and

not lineage,

perusal

of sacred books and Vedic learning are the

determinants of brahminhood."

Mahdbhdrata Banaparva Chap. 312

SI.

103.

or "what
in

is

noticed in a Sudra does not exist

a Brahmin.

A Sudra

is

not necessarily

a Sudra nor a Brahmin

Brahmin,

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


Sharpa, only he
is

35
in

called

a Brahmin,

whom

such (characteristics of a Brahmin)

actions are found and

Sharpa, where these


designate

are lacking

one should

him a
180.

Sudra."

Mahdbhdrata Banaparva

Chap.

or

"if in

an individual there appears worth


class,

other than that characteristic of his

he should be designated accordingly." Srimathbhagbata Canto VII Chap. XI.


All these go to show that in India there

was in early times a much freer possibility of change among the social ranks than is
usually supposed.

This elastic
to

condition

of society answered democratic

the flexibility of a

curriculum
is

which

the

present

Western world
society,
in

so very anxious to provide

to secure the efficiency of citizens.

Hence
but
the

ancient India,
castes

was an organic

whole,

the

representing

different phases of its culture.

All that has been stated above proves

,36

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

conclusively that agreeing with the tendency

of the modern world

there was in

ancient

India sufficient scope for the development


of one's

own

individuality.
vxts

In

fact,

6y

the system of caste alone

self-realisation
service.

made compatible
it

with

social

Thu
those

may

well be said here that

even

in

early times the


social
efficiency,

Indo-aryans saw that, for


the individual should be
lines

allowed to develop along the


greatest power.

of his
follows

From

this

there
it is

the pedagogical principle that


tion of education to

the func-

determine the line of


individual and
in

the greatest power of each

then to prepare him for service


direction.

that

This

is

the

formulation of the

ancient Indian ideal of a liberal education.

In

fact,

in

ancient times the greatest


discover the apti-

care used to be taken to

tude and

fitness (

^rf^^fK

of an individual

to receive any particular kind of education.

The

teiachers tjien

thoroughly realized that

' 1. Lectures on Hindu Philosophy (2nd year) by Mahamohapadhaya Chandra Kanta Tarkalankara pp. 245 and 248. Also see Srimatbhagbat Canto VII. Chap. XII. 13. 2.

Also Cp, The Religions of India, by Rev. Allan Menziesp. 46.

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


disastrous results

37
if know-

were sure to ensue

ledge were to be imparted without any consideration

what suited one's tastes and ways of doing things. Thus we have
of

or "this highest mystery in the Vedanta,


delivered
in

a former age, should not be

given to one whose passions have not been


subdued, not even to the son or disciple
is
if

he

unworthy." Svatasvara Upanishad


Also, "Let no

VI 22.

man preach this most secret doctrine to any one who is not his son or his pupil or who is not of a serene mind. To him alone who is devoted to his teacher
only and endowed with all necessary may he communicate it."
qualities,

Maitrayana Brdhmana Upanishad

VL

29.

or "(the goddess

of)

learning

coming to a

am your treasure, guard me. Do not impart me to a spiteful man, then I shall be strongest." Manu II. 114.
Brahman
says
:

"I

38

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

z(^ g

fk^

f^ra?f fl-si-t*ir<*u*i

"But impart me

to
is

that

Brahmin who
self-

guards his treasure,

never careless, and

whom you may know


restrained
celibacy."

to be a pure and

student observing the

vow of

Manu

II. 115.

or

"Even in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda should rather die with his
it

knowledge than sow

in

a barren

soil."^

Manu
of

II. 113.

Further, the fact that the different sons.

Pandu were made

to specialize in

the

different branches of arts

and sciences also


Again, the

bears out the view just upheld.

method^ adopted by Vishnu Sarma who had


Vishnu Sarma found that the princes had an inordinateSo he told the princes that thenceforth they would do nothing but fly pigeons, feed them and look after them in the pigeon house. The princes were naturally very glad. As the number of pigeons increased they had toname and count them. Vishnu Sarma was clever enough to put peculiar red marks on the wings of the pigeons and called
*

liking for rearing pigeons.

them ^,

19, T, etc.,

(I, 2,

3 etc.)

The princes thus learned the

THE CASTE SYSTEM.

39

the charge of the ignorant and vicious sons


of king Sudarsana of Pataliputra (Patna),

modern principle of method to the nature and needs of the child was not unknown in
also

shows that the

suiting matter and

ancient India. Lastly the sloka quoted below


clearly establishes the fact that in prescrib-

ing method our philosophers, like the educators of the present

century,

used to take

into consideration the capacity


(

and

fitness

^rf^^TR ) of the 'educand'

Gita VI.
or
*'

3.

to the sage

who

wishes to rise to devois

tion action (without attachment)


letrters of

said to be

syllables into words.

the alphabet and to join the letters into syllables and The foundation of a knowledge of Arith-

metic was laid in counting the pigeons, in telling

how many

there

were in two or three adjoining cots, how many remained in the cots after so many were on the wing. By this strange method were taught not only notation, numeration, addition, subtractioa etc. but also something of engineering and housebuilding and drawing which were required in planning and constructing the dove cots. Not only this, but even ethics and politics were taught in this fashion, as the tales of Panchatantra and Bitopodesa^
testify to this day.

40

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

the means and to him,

when he has

risen to

devotion serenity
Indeed,
it is

is

said to be the means."

a bad poHcy to

spend time

and energy

in

out of a citizen
excellent soldier.

making an indifferent priest who could have become an

Hence the

fact that

the

study of sacred literature was withheld from


the Sudras does not go to show the narrowmindedness of the Brahmins but argues that

even

in

those
into

early

days,

they got an

insight

one

of

the most important

modern pedagogical
"Vedas only
tradition

principles.

The Sudras

were, in general, denied

the study of the

because they had neither any


aptitude for acquiring the

nor

language and

spirit of

the Vedic literature.

Here

it

may

be said that this was not the

distinctive feature of the early

Hindus alone
in

even worse features could be traced

the

Greek
^'slaves

system.

According to Aristotle

and artisans cannot attain to citizenship and hence not to the good life, since it
is

not possible to care for the things of virtue while living the life of the artisan or
Plato's

the slave."

system also was none

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


i:he less aristocratic in this respect.

41

He

held

that the philosophers only should


rulers,
"the

be the

for

a philosopher was he
'this

who knew
for.

highest good and

longing

the

supreme good' was, according


found only in a few.

to him, to be

Again, in ancient India the struggle for


existence

was not at

all

keen and there was

very
the

little social

and economic pressure.


or
less

So
from

people

were more

free

anxiety as to the immediate future. Besides,

an individual in any class had his place, purpose and value in regard to
the society so
feel

assured that he did not at


sity of

all

the neces-

changing his own vocation.^


consequence through
racial

As

natural

habit

the occupation of each class became to a


.^reat extent hereditary.

Hence the Brah-

mins who devoted their time and energies

Vedas and the sciences and to the acquioriginating therefrom sition of a knowledge of sacrificial rites, gradually acquired a practical monopoly
to the study of the
of
'

higher learning.
Industrial Arts of India

It
by

is

urged now that

Sir George Birdwood.

42
this

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

has led to the rigidity of the existing^

caste system, which for a long time to


'is

come
for

likely to be the curse of India.'

But

this the

Brahmins are not much to blame.

For, besides the causes mentioned above, the


peculiar isolated and fortified position of the

country shutting out for a long time


side influences tended to

all

out-

make the vocations


more or
loss

hereditary.
less

These,
for
in

therefore, were

responsible

the

of elasticity

which existed
is

ancient

India and which

so urgently needed under the political and


India.

economic condition of modern


fact, until late
*so

In

the Brahmins did never place


caste-

strict

an interpretation' upon the

system, for though the causes

mentioned
true

above tended
spirit

to

make men

forget the

of the
it,

caste

system and to produce


always existed strong
;

rigidity in

there

reactionary forces to stop the tendency

the-

highest culmination

of these

latter

forces
eftbrt&

was manifested in Buddhism.

The

of Nanak, Kabir and Chaitanya against the


rigidity of the caste system in the mediaeval

period also bear this out.

In

fact,

it

was-


THE CASTE SYSTEM.
only

43
foreign

when the Aryans came under

influences that hygienic considerations

and

the fear of spiritual contamination through


suggestion as well as

the desire to preserve

the purity of their blood led the Brahmins

make the caste rules strict.^ Though the caste system in form has many defects it serves
to
function.

its

present

at least

one

As

a fence protects the growing


so
it

tender
child

plant,

protects

the growing

of the

individual

society from being


influences.

affected

by alienating
is

Indeed,

"the caste system

a splendid organisation.
is

Its wonderful persistence

the proof of
life
is

it."^

It saved society once though its


fled

now
it

having

lost

its

true significance with

respect to guna and karma.

Even now

checks revolution in the Hindu society which

by

its

wonderful power of assimilation grathe

dually adapts itself to

new

situations

without losing
>

its individuality.

Thus says R.

C. Dutta,

historian of Ancient India

may

"However much, therefore, thedeplore the commencement of the

caste system,

he should never forget that the worst results of

that system were

unknown

in India until after the

Mahommedan
1. p. 156.

conquest."

Civilisation in Ancient

India Vol.

44
It

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

must be stated here that the caste system in its natural form exists more or less everywhere in the world. The distinction that is made between the different ranks of
society sufficiently illustrates this.^

Lastly,

it

is

interesting

to

note

the

strange parallelism that existed between the


caste

system of India and the mediaeval


institutions.

European

The

clergy,

the

knighthood and the people of Europe

in the

Middle ages answered


of India.

some respects to the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas


in

Learning
the
clergy
it

in

Europe, as in India,

for a long time flourished


care

under the fostering

of

and so strong

was

their

hold upon

that during the deve-

lopment of the national system of education,


the State has often had to the church to secure the
fight

hard with
of the

full

control

^stem
1

of education.
Sir

Thus writes
exists,

institution,

of course,

Monier Williams" Caste, as a social in all countries, and in England

operates with no slight potency."

Hinduism

pp. I5I-I52.

THE CASTE SYSTEM.


:-l.

45

IV

EVOLUTION OF VEDIC RELIGION AND ITS PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS.


The
religious

thought of the

Hindus,

in

ancient times, passed through different phases


-which

may be
age.
in

styled its childhood,

and old
settled

manhood The primitive Aryans who

the Indus valley were deeply im-

pressed with the most imposing manifestations

of nature.

These they
their
praise.
in those

deified

and

worshipped,

performing sacrifices and comin

posing

hymns

Thus the
days were

activities of the

Aryans

largely

perceptual or concerned with that

which affected their

immediate
stage

interests.

But during the next

of development

of their thought the mind of the great rishis


passed beyond the natural

phenomena

to

the consideration of their cause and purpose.

The

distinctive feature of the period

was the

importance

attached

to
in

sacrifice.

The

Brahmins

were busy

elaborating cere-

EVOLUTION OF VKDIC RKLIGION.

47
of

monials
worship.

and

supplementing
in the

manuals

But

next stage of develop-

ment of the

religious

thought of the Hindus,


to

which may be called the old age of thought

some impatience appears


with the elaborate
the thinking
rites

have been
sacrifices

felt

and

which

men

regarded

as

useless.

Hence they began


of
the
universe

to speculate on the origin

and the nature of the

Supreme Being.
incorporated
in

The thought
the

that

was
find

thus set upj ended in the belief that


teachings

we
of

the

Upanishad.^
ness of

They show the


its

utter useless-

all ritual

performances and condemn

every act which has for


only Universal Being
their beginning,
life

motive a desire or
is

hope of reward and preach that God


;

the

all

things else have


in

and end

Hira^

and

hence to realise the existence of the Infinite

srerft^ i7^l u" ^ftftrm: f^i ^Qc)<lg or " Is Brahman the cause ? Whence are we born ? Whereby do we live, and whither do we go ? 0, ye who know Brahman,
(tell

^Tf

us) at

pleasure."

whose command we abide, whether Svatasvatara Upanishad I. 1.


is

in pain or in

or " All this universe indeed

Brahma

from

Him

does it

48

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


unity between the

in the finite, to see the

individual self and the eternal self and


to attain
one's
eternal

thus

bliss^ by the extinction of

own

desires and

actions

became with
of
life.

the Hindus, the

Summum honum

It has been mentioned above that in the


last stage in the evolution

of the
is

religious

thought of the early Hindus


belief that

found the

by

total extinction

of one's

own
think

desires

and
bliss.

actions

alone

can

one attain
of

eternal

This

may

lead one to

that the early Hindus emphasised a


inaction.
laid

life

On
in

the contrary,

we

find distinctly

down

our sastras that when a


desires)

man

abandons actions (hence

merely as
of

being troublesome, through fear of bodily


affliction,

he does not obtain the

fruit

abandonment
proceed
;

by making such passionate


;

into

every one adore

Him is it dissolved in Him it breathes. So Him calmly " Chhandogya Upanishad.

let

" who is eternal in the non-eternal, who is life of the living, who though one, fulfils the desires of many. The wise who perceive Him within their self, to them belongs eternal peace,
not to others " Kathapanishad Fifth Valli

13.

EVOLUTION OF VEDIC RELIGION.

49^

abandonment.^
a
life

Thus

far

from encouraging
quoted below will
in order to

of

inaction

our philosophers em-

phasised,

as the

slokas

show, that the individual


to

be able
fit

give up

all

desires

and thus become

for the last stage must pass through a stage

of active

life

or "a man does not attain freedom from


action merely by abstaining from action, nor
does

he

rise

to perfection

by mere renuncia4.
I

tion (of activity)."

Gita III.

^Itow f% ^fwfi^feffT

5R^^:
II

or

^t^^fSr^sftr^uaiiJT ^Hwl% "by action (without attachment) alone


also to the protection of

did Janaka and the rest attain to perfection

and having an eye

the masses (to the duties) thou shouldst perr

form

action."

Gita III 20,

Gita III. 22:

lic^T V^M
4

an^"

^^

ani'BSIil

^=T

II

Gita XVIII.

8.

^0

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

Gita III. 23.


or "there
to do in
is

nothing,

son of Prithi
worlds,

for

me

(all)

the three

nothing to
Still

acquire
I

which has not been acquired.


in

do engage

action, for should I at

any

time not engage without sloth in action,

men

would follow

in

my

path from

all sides."

Gita VI.
or "to the sage
tion

3.
,

who

wishes to rise

to
is

devosaid to

action

(without attachment)

be the means, and to him, when he has risen


to devotion, serenity
is

said to be the means."

Besides,
it is

it is

said that in the early stages

impossible for an individual

to

remain

"nobody ever remains even for an instant without performing some action
inactive, as
for

;,

helplessly

is

every one driven to action


of

by the energies (gunas) born


(PrakritiV'

nature

Gita

VL

3.

In the above slokas we find an emphasisI-

EyOLTJTION OF VEDIC RELIGION.

^1

on doing actions
actions are

for their
.

ing 'attachment' and hence


characterized

own sake abandon'fruit.' Such


not only by
self-

control but by love and sacrifice for

beings.

Hence according
stage in
the

to the

Hindu
desires

philosophers
is

cessation of one's

own

the last

process of development which

can be attained by the identification of one's

own
one

will
ie.,

and

interests with the

life

around

by love and
that the

sacrifice for beings

and

not by separation from them.


therefore,

It appears,

Hindus

thoroughly

understood that self-realisation of the individual depends entirely

on self-expression and

on the assimilation of the spiritual forces


that are about him.

With the Hindu


were originally pure
contracted by their
;

pihilosophers

all

souls

but they have become


acts.

own

Hence by
free.

doing good deeds and through the mercy of

God

they

will

expand and become


like the
self-realisation

The

Hindus, therefore,

saw that complete


sible

modern educators, was pos-

only through finding one's


to

own

rela-

tions

the

world around one and

thus

52

KDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

realising that all things


life

have their beginning,

and end
final

the

So according to them emancipation was possible only


in

God.

through an active and harmonious

lite.

i.e.

"from communion with one's fellow men and


with the beauty and truth of the universe."

From what

has been said above

it

follows

that the stage of final emancipation

presup-

poses a stage of self-active and self-controll-

ed
is

life

of action.

Now

since the

individual

born with good as well as bad impulses, the second stage should be preceded by a
should go through a training enabling him to discharge
in

stage

which the individual

successfully the duties of a

householder

in

first and second phases of Hindu religious thought were antagonistic to the teachings of the

manhood.

Hence,

though the

Upanishad, the early Hindus did not reject them. On the other hand, they made it a
general rule that to attain the last stage the individual must pass through the other two

each stage preparing for the next higher. Accordingly, it has been laid down that
"let a

man become

a householder after he

EVOLUTION OF VEDIC RELIGION.

53

has completed the studentship,

let

him be
after

a dweller in the forest after he has been a householder and


let hira

wander away

he has been a dweller in the forest" (Jabala Upanishad, 4).^ Similar ideas also occur
in

Manu "He who


:

after

passing from

order to

order,

after

offering sacrifices
ascetic

and subduing
being tired

his senses,

becomes an
death."

with (giving) alms and offerings of food,


gains
bliss after

VI.

34.

let

of)

"when he has paid the three debts, him apply his mind to (the attainment final liberation he who seeks it without
Also,
;

having paid

(his

debts) sinks downwards."

VI.

'

35.

The Hindus from


held that each

a very early time

have

man
first

is

born a debtor

that he

has obligations
the gods

to the sages

who were the


:

founders and fathers of his religion


ly, to
first
:

second-

thirdly, to his parents.

The

debt he repays as a student by a careful

study of the vedas.

The second he repays

54

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

as a householder through the performance of

a number of sacrifices.

The

third

debt he

repays by offerings to the Manes and by

becoming himself the

father of childreti. paid


all

When
for
final

man
is

has thus

the three
fife

debts he

considered free

and becomes

applying himself to the attainment of


liberation.^

What

the early

Hindus
e.

meant was that one should not


the freedom
forest
life

anticipate
i.

of the third stage


fulfilled

of the

without having

the duties

of the student and the

householder.

They

were afraid that


satisfied

if

the desires remained un-

and uncontrolled, the mind miijht


In
fact,

become contaminated.
''the

they say,
;

hermitage
virtue

is

not the cause of virtue


only

the
'

arises

when

practised".'^

This principle corresponds to the modern theory which


to the society in
:

makes the child responsible


reasons
it

which he
child
is

puts forward are

(1)

The modern

lives. The what he is

potentially because of the culture of his ancestors, and (2) he realizes his own nature in and through the society in which he is

brought up.
society

Hence the individual, as he receives freelyfrom the must add to it something for its conservation and

progress.
^ Laws of Yajnavalka III, 65. Herein the Hindus anticipated Aristotle who holds, 'Virtue does not consist in the, knowledge of the good, but in the functioning of the knowledge'.

EVOLUTION OP VEDIC RELIGION.


1

5S

-Similar sentiments occur in the


also
:

Mahdbhdrata

"

Bharata, what need has a self-con-

trolled
forest

man

of the forest, and

to an uncontrolled

man

what use is the ? Wherever a


is

self-controlled

man

dwells, that

forest,

that

is

an hermitage" {Santiparva).
fact,

In

what, according to the early


realise one's

Hindus, was required was to


identity
only

with the Self

in

the universe not


practically.

intellectually,

but

So
in-

the Hindus have laid down that the


dividual

go through a training ^nd then through a life of trials and action* Here by overcoming passions and desires and becoming pure in mind and body, the
should
first

individual
forest
life

should prepare himself for the

where perfect freedom and eternal


considered
different-

bliss reign.

The

early Hindus, therefore,

education

as a

life

process

and

duties were assigned to each stage in such a

way

that their due performance in any stage


for

might prepare the individual


higher.

the next
dis.

In order to prepare himself for

56

EDUCATION IN ANCJlENT INDIA.


self-actively the duties of
first

"barging

manhood^
life

the individual must in the

stage of

chant the hymns and study the

vedas to

become acquainted with the moral precepts and life's duties and must learn self-control by subjecting his mind and body to a course of discipline.^ Again, to make
himself
fit

for

the

third

stage,

as

has

been shewn before, he had to perform


fices
life

sacri-

and to participate
of

fully in the active

manhood being self-controlled and self-active. During this period his whole life was controlled by the rules laid down in
the Dharma-Sastras.

These rules regulated


;

every sphere of his activity


social life

hence not only

was regulated by his domestic and them but his studies, enjoyments, trades and the political life as well. The Hindus thoroughly recognised the categorical nature of
their social laws
tarily

and regulations and volunfirst

submitted to their fetters in the

and second stages of


'

their life in order they

The

early Hindus emphasised not asceticism but a life ot

self-control

and an avoidance

of extremes.

See Gita VI. 16-17 and XVII 16-19, Vishnu Part XII, 17. Also Manu H. 100 and 224.

Purana Third.

EVOLUTION OF VEDIC RELIGION.

57"

might in the third stage trammels of society and


perfect spiritual freedom.^

rise

above
a
life

the
of

live

To sum up
early

then,

it

appears that the

Hindus held that the individual should take the steps ivhich their ancestors had taken
reach
the

to

highest pinnacle
life

of

religious

thought.

Accordingly the

of the indivi-

dual was divided into three

broad stages

corresponding to the three stages in the evolution of the vedic religion


;

in the first stage,

the mind was opened and disciplined and the

body made

fit

to carry out the orders of the

mind

in

the second, the individual put the

principles he

had learnt

into

practice

and

realized their true nature

and that of the


its

things of the world and

round of duties

and thus becoming pure in mind and body, in the third, he turned his attention inward to recognize the true and intimate relation between the individual and the eternal self
' Slokaa 26 and 29 (Gita III) as well as the dififerent Upanishads show that instruction in the early Hindu system was far from being dogmatic. It has been shewn in the last chapter that the system afforded sufficient scope for the

development of individuality.

58
in

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

origin and the

which was found the explanation of the meaning of existence. Hence


of education
individual

with the early Hindu philosophers as with


Froebel " the purpose
expand the
life

was to
until it

of the

should comprehend this


participation in
activity."

existence through

the all-pervading spiritual

26), " Let no wise

Hence we have in the Gita (III. man unsettle the mind of


i.e.

ignorant people attached to action "

the the

Oita forbids the wise to thrust


individual

on

the divine

wisdom
it.

before

he

becomes
he
his

fit

for receiving

It urges that

the individual should perform action so that

may learn by own self This

doing the true nature of

goes to show that the


in

Hindu system was not


instruction

favour of dogmatic

and aimed at the development of

the personality of the individual.'

The

ideal

of the
is

Hindus,

as has been

stated before,

to find out

the relation

of

the individual self to

God, as

this is "the

1st Frasna. 2 Vrigu Valli. Also Clihandogya Upanishad Satyakama Jabala.


Also op. The Giba III 29. Prasna Upanishad
Taittiriya Upaniahad

EVOLUTION OP VEDIO RELIGION^


only

59

way

satisfaction of

pletion
fication

which we can conceive the human aspirations, the comof human knowledge, the sanctiof human life." In fact, to know onein

and the universe was the problem of the Hindu educational theorists. This implies and necessitates the fullest development of personality. The complete realisation of this ideal was, as we have seen, possible to the individual in the
self la relation to society

third after

stage of

life

only when he reached


fulfilled

it

having conscientiously
of the

the

duties

student

and
from

householder.

In this stage, according to the Hindus, the


individual

becomes

free

all fetters

of

law, of custom and of tradition

and enjoys

life

of perfect spiritual freedom and eternal

bliss.^

We
rather

thus see that the Hindu System


than at his suppression.

aims at the perfect freedom of the individual


clear that

Now, it is Hindu philosophers instead the


an 'expression to the hostility to

of giving

individuality' as has been suggested


'

by some
p',

Max MuUer Lectures ou

the origin of Religion

365.


60
writers^

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

aim at a greater development of


In
fact,

individuality.

instead of suppress-

ing their individuality,


real

"they attain their

individuality,

infinitely

beyond
so
will

these

little selves v^rhich

we now think of
individuality

much
be-

importance.

No

be lost
will

an

infinite

and eternal individuality


Pleasure
in little

realized.

things will cease.


little

We
in

are finding pleasure in this


this
little

body,

individuality,

but
be

how much
when
thia
?

greater the pleasure will

whole universe appears as our own body

If there be pleasure in these separate bodies,

how much more when all bodies are one ? The man who has realized this, has attained
to

freedom, has gone beyond the dream and


in his real nature.""

known himself

So not
and
in-

only does identity with


the cessation of
all

God which demandsinterests

selfish

motives 'not imply the

loss

of individuality

but

it

is

the

only means

by which

dividuality can be conserved and developed.'


1
"

Swami

Monroe A Brief Course in the History of Education, p. Vivekananda The Science and Philosophy

21.

of

Keligion pp. 183-89.

EVOLUTION OF VEDIO BELIGION.

61
it

From
not a
life

what

has

been

said

above

appears that the ideal of the Hindus was


of inaction and

contemplation but

the attainment of divine

wisdom through
like

self-controlled

and

self-active life of action.


ideal,

Hence the Hindu


Greeks of
''the

that

of the

old, included the two-fold ideal

of

man
is

of action' and 'the

man

of wisdom.'

This

seen also from

the slokas quoted

below.

or

" all

who
(i. e.
;

worship what

is

not real

knowledge
darkness

work only) enter into blind

those
{i.e.

who

delight

in

real
it
9.

knowledge

without work) enter, as

were, into greater darkness." Isopanishad,

*'but

he who knows at the sametime both knowledge and not-knowledge (i.e. action)
immortality

overcomes death through not-knowledge and


obtains

through knowledge."
Ibid 11.

63
It
is

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


interesting

to

note
the

how an

emphasis

has heen laid here on


knowledge
icith action

combination

of

and on

the corresponding'

'pedagogical 'principle that no real abstraction


is possible unless in

and through
be

the

concrete

experiences.

Lastly,

it

may

noted that though


on, given

the old religious ideas have, later

place to a complicated system of polytheistic


doctrines,

the teaching underlying

all

of

them

is still

expressed in the formula ekam

eva advitiyain (one only without a second).

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OP
RELIGION.
It

may

be noted here that from what

has been said before,


pedagogical

may

be inferred

a few
value.

principles

of no

mean

By

prescribing that the

individual

must

pass through the different stages or asramas,

the Hindus hold that every individual will

have to take the steps which their ancestors

have taken to come to the highest pinnacle


of religious thought. This corresponds almost

PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF RELIGION.


to
the

63

what

is

called

the Parallelism between

Individual and ihe


as

Race Development.

Again,

assigned to

we have seen, the Hindus have each asrama the culture material
This principle sounds

of the corresponding stage of development of their ancestors.


like the

modern Culture Epochs Theory which

demands that the arrangement of the matter of instruction must be determined by the
historical stages of

human

culture as well as

by the stages of development of the race. Again, by holding that only by active participation was one able to attain selfrealisation

they anticipated another imporviz.

Learn btf Thirdly, the Hindus have held that doing. duties must be done for their own sake without any hope of a reward in this or
tant pedagogical principle
future
life.'

Now
their

the

activities

that are

pursued

for

own sake .become

the

'self-active

representation of the

inner

^r" aiWT ^^ ^^
or,

?taitn: gvfT^*t=IcT:

II

Gita

xviii. 9,

("when

prescribed

action

ia

performed,

aban^pnjng attachment and to be^performed, that


ia

fruit also, merely because

it

Aryuna ought
!'

4eemed

to be a great aba,iidonment."

64

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

representation of the inner from inner necessity

and impulse.'

In

fact,

the

training

the Hindu boy received during his pupilage

was intended to develop


attitude of

in

him such an

mind and habit that he might perform self-actively, successfully and easily
life.

the duties of manhood in the second stasfe

of

Thus from the emphasis the Hindus on doing one's duty for
must
always
be self-initiated.

laid
its

by

own
it

sake emerges the principle that one's action

Hence

appears that the early Hindus had, like


Froebel, for their motto self-control and selfactivity.

Lastly in holding that each stage

of

life

was preparatory
of
continuity

to the next higher

one, the
principle

Hindus had given expression


that
is

to the

so

much

emphasised by the modern educators. Again it will not be out of place here to mention
that Kapila, the founder of the
first

Sankhya

phi-

propounded the doctrine losophy of evolution which now plays such an imof
all

portant part

in

the

pedagogical

world.

He

says,

"there

cannot be production of
;

something out

of nothing

that which is


PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF RELIGION.
not cannot be developed into that which

65
is.

The production
exist (potentially)

of
is

what does not already


impossible, like a horn

on a raan."^
cal ideas

Thus the principal philosophiunderlying modern pedagogy are


the religion and philosophy of the

found

in

Hindus.

And inasmuch

as different systems

of pedagogy correspond to different systems


of philosophy, the history of

Hindu pedagogy
field to

presents
explored.

to

our enquiry a vast

be

Eeferences : 1.
2.

3. 4. 5.

The Gita. The Upanishads. The Laws of Manu. What do we mean by Education
Lectures

Welton.

on

the

origin

of

Eeligion

Max
6.

Muller.

Hinduism

Sir

Monier Williams.

A Brief Course in the History of Education

Monroe.
Vishnu Purana.
Education of
'

Man by

Froebel.

Sir Monier Williams

Hinduism.

V DIFFERENT TYPES OF EDUCATION.


ELEMENTARY EDUCATION.

Elementary Education
that a child
in

We
India

have seen
generally

ancient

followed the occupation of his father.


in

Now

a system

where the child followed the

occupation of the parent, his training was


necessarily

provided by a universal system

of apprenticeship.

Hence

in

every respect
that were

the training of boys was secured by actual


participation in

those

activities
life.

required of thera in adult

So primary

schools, in the modern sense, probably did

not exist in the earliest times.

But we
schools

find

from
of

Laiita

Vistara

that

for

elementary education did exist at the time

Buddha

(6th century

b. c.)

who

follow-

ing the usual custom of the


'the

world went to
well
all

writing

school'

to

practise

figures, writings, calculation

and everything

'

ELEMBNTART EDUOATlbif.
'to tifain

6f'

he had already learnt and


children in

numerous

the foremost path, and to bring

other millions to the path of truth.'


it

Thus

appears that such schools furnished the

rudiments of the arts of reading, writing

and arithmetic together with moral precepts


and besides
these, since the early centuries

of the Christian era the pupils had been;


taugfht fables and the niti-sastras

the most
under the
note

important of which

is

the Pancha-tantra.

The
in

schools

for

elementary education,
be
held

general,
in

used

to

trees
in

the open air or during bad vveather,


It
is

covered shedsi
that

interesting

to

hei"e'

a modern

system of teaching

the letters of the alphabet


knowi),
as
in

was also then


each
a
sentence

the teacher
association
letter.,'

then' taught

of

them

with
'

beginning with the

In later times we find that


schools the older students

in

elementary

were often used:

by the teacher to teach the younger pupils


and
it

was from India that

thi^

cheap system
the

of raianaging a school known as

moni-.

Lalita Vistara (B, L. liitra) p. 184.

6.8

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

torial system

was introduced

into

England by

Andrew

Bell.

THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY


SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.

In the earliest times there was no school

The head of each who performed sacrifices and composed hymns which he transmitted to his son. But later on, when the religious
to

impart education.

family was a rishi

ceremonials were

beginnings

to

increase in

complexity

and
it

the

literal

sense

of the
people^

hymns was becoming


in

foreign to the

became necessary to take and establishing their sense. "To attain these objects" saya Weber, "those most conversant with the
general,

precautions for securing

were obliged to give instruction to the ignorant, and circles were formed around
subject

them of

travelling

scholars,

who made
to

pil-

grimages from

one

teacher

another

according as they were attracted by the

fame of
1

special

learning".^

Some

of the.

WeberThe

History of Indian Literature p. 21.

SJlCONDARy EDUCATION.

69

centres

of

learning

were established by
retired to
forests
in

learned Brahmins
their

who

old

age.

Besides such institutions,

higher schools for the study of religious

works and practices were held at the courts


of enlightened and learned kings like those

of the Videhas,
the Panchalas.

the Kasis, the Kurus and

The
In the

subjects

taught

in

these

schools

included both secular and


earliest stage

spiritual subjects.^

both the branches were

taught by the Diksha Guru or the boy's


spiritual guide.
later on,

But

the

office

of the tutor,

became

differentiated into those

of

the Diksha

Guru and Siksha Guru.


in

The
all

former initiated the pupil


religion,
The

the secrets of

while the latter took charge of


different

'

(i)

Vedas, Itihasa, Furana, Grammar, the


logic,

rules for sacrifices for aacestors, the Science of numbers, the

Science of portents, the Science of time,


logy, the

ethics,

etymo-

Brahma Vidya,

the different angas, the Science of

weapons, the Science of demons, astronomy, the Science of Serpents or Poisons. Chhandogya Upanishad (The tale of Narad and Sanat Kumar). (ii) Vedas with their Angas and Upanishads, archery, various religions, ethics, dialectics, politics and the 64 arts (See appenThese were attributed to Baladev and Krishna Srimat -dix)

Bhagavata.

Also see Vishnu Purana Part III Chap.

VI

28-29.

70

EDUCATION JN ANCIENT INDIA.

the secular subjects.


also

The sacred laws which


precepts for
also the

formed a part of the curriculum of these

schools included 'not only the

the moral duties of

all

Aryas but

special rules regarding the conduct of kings

and the administration of justice'.

As

long as the various angas^ consisted

of short simple treatises there existed only

one type of schools called the Vedic Schools.

But
jects

as the materials for each of these

sub-

accumulated and the method of their

treatment was perfected, the Vedic Schools

became differentiated into the Vedic Schools and the Special Schools of Science. The

members

of the former devoted their energy


full

only to get a

and accurate knowledge of


little

the sacred texts but took very

care

to

understand the subject-matter, so that they

became 'living libraries' but without any power to make any real use of their learning while their rivals, though they restricted
their learning
to

only a few branches of

' These are, Siksha or phonetics, Chhandas or Metre, Vyakarana or Grammar, Nirukta or etymology, Kalpa or religious,

practices and Jyotish or astronomy.

SECONDARY EDUCATION.
science,

71

taught their curriculum thoroughly

and
tual,

intelligently.

So

in time,

the Vedie

schools ceased to be the centres of intellect

and were supplanted by the

special,

schools of science.

The curriculdm
astronomy.

of these

schools included the science of the sacrifice,

grammar,

law

or

Again, in

course of time there developed by the side of


these a class of institutions called Special

Law

Schools which gave a thorough training

in the different duties of

men.
seats

The most important

of learning,

however, were the Parishads or Brahmanic


Colleges^ answering to the Residential Universities of Europe.

These were originally


Brahmins,^ but the
till it

conducted

by

three

number gradually increased


Brahmins

was

settl-

ed that a Parishad ought to consist of 21


well versed in Philosophy,

TheOr

logy and Law.^

Unlike the later Buddhist

or modern European Universities they were


situated in places far
"

away from the din and


2.
'

'

Brihat Aranyaka Upanishad VI. Manu XII, 111.


'

Civilisation in Ancient India Vol.

(p.

163)T-by R. 0.

Dutta.

72
hustle

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


of the town.

The students were not


board and

only given free tuition but free

lodging as well, the expenses under various

heads being met from the endowments made by the kings, princes and the rich of the
land,

who considered

it

a sacred duty to help

liberally those interested in education.

ORGANIZATION.

According to the Hindus the period from birth to the fifth year of a child was regarded as the time for play.^ After which'^
or at any rate from the 8th
for study

year the time


child

commenced.

The
as

had

to be

initiated before

he began to study.
it

the initiation ceremony

Hence marked the


was
consilife.

beginning of a boy's spiritual

life,

dered as the momentous event in his

The time

for

initiation

was generally

fixed

Vishnu Purana Part


*

I,

XII,

18.

Manu

II 37.

ORGANIZATION.

7?
the

at the 8 th, 11th and the


case of a Brahmin,

12th year in

Kshatriya or a Vaisya

boy

might take place between 8 and 16 in the case of a Brahmin, between 11 and 22 in the case of a Kshatriya and between 12 and 24 in the case of a
respectively.^
it

But

Vaisya.^

The

initiated

house of his

boy was then sent to the spiritual teacher or Diksha


fostering care he

Guru
lectual

so

that under his

might receive

his spiritual, moral

and

intel-

training.

Here he

lived as a religi-

ous student for


or four vedas.

12, 24,

36 or 48 years accordthree,
in

ing as he wished to master one, two,

The

training he received

the house of his guru was intended to open

mind by making him acquainted with moral precepts and life's duties and to develop in him such an attitude of mind and habit that he might become fit intellectually,; morally and physically for the life to come or in other words, the whole course was
his

intended

to

train the

will.

Hence, he spent
the evening*
lli;

a few hours
'

daily, generally in

Mann

II 36.

Ibid 38.

Vishnu Parana Part

XI, 96.

74

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

in receiving lessons in the secrets of religion;

and

in the various sciences

and

arts.

While
to hira
in

the proper ideals

which form the second


will,

phase of training the

came

from the moral and pure

atmosphere

which he was brought up.


in

But to develop

him habits of action i.e. to enable him to act Up to the knowledge of right and ideals
he possessed (which
will-training),
is

the

third

phase of
very-

the

teacher

from the

beginning

taught

him

purity of habits,
sacri-

customary conduct, attendance on the ficial fire and sandhya devotions (69).

The
sun-rise

religious student

had

to rise

before
in

and engage himself every day


in a

duly

muttering

pure place the Gayitri during

both the twilights with fixed attention after

having made his ablution and become pure


(222).

Also he had to
fire,

collect

wood

for

the

holy

beg food of his

relations, sleep
offices as

on

a low bed and perform such


please
his
(108). Besides,

might

preceptor until his return

home
In

he had to wear simple clothes


(57).

(44)
fact,

and avoid eating to excess


in

order to be able to form habits of

ORGANIZATION.
self-abnegation and
live

75

self-control

he had to

life

of Brahmachari. Accordingly, the

religious student

was advised to avoid taking

honey, meat,

sweet scents, garlands, sweet

all

and pungent drinks, intercourse with woman, sour gruel or acid liquid, and the killing
or injuring of animals (177)
;

and to refrain
painting the

from smearing the body with


la,

oil,

eyes with collyrium, using shoes or an umbreldesire for enjoyment, anger, covetousness,

dancing,

singing and playing

on

musical

instruments (178). He was further enjoined to forbear from gambling, petty quarrels

calumniating people, speaking


wistfully at

lies,

looking

doing harm to others.

women, embracing them, and Besides, he had to lie


and should always
(180).^

down

alone

in all places

remain physically pure

Thus the

life

of the student in the house of the preceptor

was one of
and to reside

discipline,

and

the fact that


drill

the student had to go through this,


in the

house of the preceptor

shows that the Hindus even then understood that "religiqu and morality are not matters
Manu.
II.

76

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

of the intellect merely

that they cannot be


;

so

much

learnt as practised

and that the

atmosphere or environment to which a child is accustomed in early years is the most


powerful agent in shaping and forming his
religion

and moral

beliefs."

When
ticeship

the pupil thus finished his appren-

he was allowed to return to his

paternal home.
his

He
l.

then married and began

household

life.

Method
found
in the

The

following description

15th chapter of the Pratisakhya

of Rig Veda, gives in brief the method of


teaching that was in vogue in the schools of
ancient India.

The

pupils then used to embrace the feet

of their teacher at the


of a lecture.

beginning and end

This practice corresponds to

the modern practice of rising and saluting a


teacher

when he

enters and leaves the class.

It appears

from the

description

that

the different words

of a question (prasna)

were
sary,

first

pronounced

by the teacher and


These,

repeated

by the

pupil.

when

neces-

were explained by the teacher.

The

ORGANIZATION.

77

students then had to repeat the question once

more it by

after

which they went on learning

heart, pronouncing every syllable with

the high accent.

Thus the

recital

was not

mechanical

as

attention was constantly re-

quired for the modification of the accents.

The

lectures continued during about half

the year, the term beginning generally with


the rainy season.^

There were, however,

many
given.
2.

holidays

on

which no lectures were

According to Bachaspatimisra, ^n^RIT (hearing of words) ^p^ (apprehension of


meaning), g;^ (reasoning leading to generalisation) ^-gdmfH (confirmation by a friend
or teacher)

and

"^jn

(application)

are

the

five steps for the realisation of the

meaning
Curiously

of a religious

truth

(?rx^^i?n)-^

enough
'

from the teacher's point of view these


when the

correspond almost to the Dewey's steps.*


se.ssion in

Curiously enough this corresponds to the time our colleges begins now.

' Mahamahopadhaya K. Tarkalankara Lectures on C. Hindu Philosophy (1st year) pp. 299-301. ' Dewey How we think. The following sloka gives steps

similar to those of the Herbartians.

7'8'

EDUCATION IN ANCIKNT INDIA.

Dewey's
V ;

steps.
its location.

^rsranl
j^

(2) (3)
(4)

ai^
^af^

^
2.

problem and ^

\
J

Suggested solutions aud


selection of a solution

^^ciMlfH

(5)

^TT

3.

Action (application)
:

Teachers' course^

In the

Hindu

sys-

tem an individual before he was allowed to become a teacher, had to pass through the recognised curriculum and to fulfil all the duties of a Brahmanical student (brahma<;harin).

Discipline

Discipline

system was generally mild.


II)
lays

Hindu Sloka 159 (Manu


in

the

down

that a teacher should give

instruction for

the benefit of his students,

without doing injury (by way of punishment)


to them, and

But when a

pupil

by using sweet and mild words. committed grave faults

he was beaten with a rope or split bamboo -on the back part of his body only, and never on the noble part.
It

He who would strike him


thief.^

otherwise would incur the guilt of a


is

interesting to

note here that the

'

Pratisakhya of Rig Veda Chap. XV. Manu VIII299-300.

OKGANIZATION.
rules laid

79

more or modern educators

down by Chanakya^ correspond less to those laid down by the


:

"^ra^c[ ij^^^Tfw (^aicmlt^

?nf^
up
till

or

"the son

is

to be brought

the 5th

year,

he should be governed the next ten


friend."

years; as soon as he attains the 16th year,

he should be treated as a
References
:

1.

2.

HINDU EDUCATION.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
1.

The modern educators recognize two


in

factors

education

(i)

internal
all

and
in

(ii)

external.

The

first

includes

the congeni-

tal tendencies

and innate capacities or


child.

one
the
is

word, the potentialities of the

These
for,

determine his future possibilities;


not there
is

teacher cannot develop in him that which


in

the child potentially.

The second

the child's environment.

This includes not

which through the forces of suggestion and imitation operates


only his social heritage

on him and unconciously tends to shape his language, manners, customs and beliefs, but
also

those influences which are consciously

and designedly brought to bear upon him by the adult portion of the community. These
external influences, therefore, chiefly
deter-

mine the amount and direction of his develop-

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
:

8
ins-

inenfc.

We

have seen that

in

imparting

truction the early


oonsiderrttion

Hindu
tastes

teachers took into

the

and innate

ten-

dencies of the individual.

They, also, clearly

saw the
lias

far-reachingf effect the second factor

on the child in his education.


form,

Hence

as

soon as mind began to


translated from his

the child was

home to an atmosphere where he could breathe freely moral health and strength and which was, therefore, most
favourable to the development of a spiritual
life

which concerned the Hindus more than


else.

anything

Indeed the cheerfulness and

calmness of the school environment, the peace


that reigned there and the orderly and pure
life

lived

by every one there, were stimulating

to a healthy
fact,
.

and pure

life in

the student.

In

the

principle

underlying the system


the same as

that was

thus inaugurated by the Hindus


is

about 3000 years ago

that

which urges the modern educators


the system of Residential

to advocate

Universities.

But
pre-

as the student lived in the house of his

ceptor as one of his family and breathed there

the atmosphere of hip


6

own home,

the ancient;

82

EDDCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

Residential system was free from

most of

the defects and

artificialities

which take from


to the credit

the value of modern

Boarding Schools and

Residential Universities.

Hence

of the early Hindus

it

must be

said that the

idea of the Residential system in its


less perfect form,

more or
in the

was conceived and realized was conceived

in India long before it

outside world.

our

tols.

The system still survives in The pandit or teacher keeping a tol


teaches
free

not only
allows
2.

the students gratis but

them

board and lodging.

Social efficiency has from time

immebeen

morial been set up as the aim of education.

The

term, however, has

not always

used in the same sense.


point of view
a
socially

From

the modern

efficient

man

is

he who

is

not a drag on his society and


efforts of

who

far

from interfering with the

others, contributes to the progress and development of the society from which he has freely received nourishment for his body and

Thus this aim now includes not only the bread and butter aim but the moral one as well. Let us see how far the ancient Hindu
soul.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.

83

system of education

realized this aim.


first

To

understand this we need

to

know what

the daily duties of a householder then were

They were
the Vedas,

(i)

the study and teaching of

(ii)

offering oblations to the


(iii)

manes

or spirits of his ancestors,

offering oblato living

tions to the gods, (iv) offering food

creatures and (v) receiving guests.

We have

seen that the

Hindu

religious student receiv-

ed at school a thorough and practical training


in

the study of the Vedas, in performing

sacrifices

and

in

every other duty connected


education

therewith.

Besides, he received

and training in the various sciences and fine and mechanical arts. Thus in the Hindu
system the
life

outside

was reproduced
a fact

in

miniature in the school

emphasized

modern educators, specially by Prof, Dewey of Chicago and it may be said that the pupil was made fit for 'a practical, successful, efficient, useful and happy life of
;

by

action'.
3.

Again, as the development of the


concerned, the
else,

spiritual side
than.'

Hindus more

anything

the moral purpose com-

84
pletely

EDUCATION IN ANGIENT INDIA.

dominated the
student.

school

life

of the
also,

Hindu

The Hindu teacher


of his disciple.
to

therefore,

took the greatest possible care

to train the will

Hence the

Hindu boy had


and to make
orders.
his

go through a course of
to

discipline which helped to form his mind

body

fit

carry out its

Through abstinence and forbearance

the student developed in himself the virtues

of fortitude and control of temper and passions


;

through attendance on the preceptor

and doing everything that contributed to his happiness, he was taught self-abnegation,
patience,

endurance, loyalty and devotion.

In short, the system helped the boys to form

temperance in thought and of giving expression by deed to the ideas of harmonious and virtuous
habits, of courtesy, of
arid action,

conduct

in life.

Further,

\ye

have seen that the Hindu

boy received at school the preliminary training in religious practices and principles.
this respect his training

In

was

in

accordance

with the principles laid down by modern

GENERAL CHARACTKBISTICS.
thinkers.
a.s

85
said tha|;

A
is

modern

writer^ has

the child

incapable of forming abstract

religious

conceptions,

the

training

during
rather

this period "should be of the heart

than of the head and perhaps even more of


the hand
i.e.

a training in doing,

or, in

other

words, taking part in religious forms".


in

So

initiating

the

child

early

to

religious

forms and practices the Hindu system met


the demands of the nature of the child
this direction
in

most effectively. Again during the adolescent period when


manifest

the sex and other allied instincts

themselves and
instinct

when the dawning parental impels the youth to act not merely
good of the world, the
self-sacrifice.

for self but for the

Hindu student
in self-control

received a thorottgh training


It
is

and

this

marked contrast with the secular education given in most of our modern^ Indian schools and which enabled
training which stands in
.

the
^

Hindu

in ancient times to lead a


life

purer and

mor,e self-cputrplled
Kirkpatriok
course

than hjs brethren of


that

Fundamentals of Child Study.


is

'Of

it

in just this training

the ''tublie
>
,

School" in England excels.


86

EDUCATlbN IN ANCIENT INDIA.


Besides, this training

the present day. a

made

Hindu

feel,

quite

unhke

his

modern succesIndeed, the


its

sor, that a day without a few guests in the

house was a day spent in vain.

Hindu system
ing to the
life

fulfilled

most successfully
at a
all

mission in giving a religious and moral train-

Hindu student
'is

period of his others for

which

the time of

the

development of genuine
4.

religion'.

The

peculiar

merit of the Hindu


precepts

system

was that the

were not
This
elFective.

taught only but reduced

to practice.

made the system more


'authenticated'
life

practical

and

Further, the teacher in the

and
all

'illustrated'

Hindu System in his own

the theme of

the sacred writings, and

thus used to hold up before his disciple a


living

model which he could easily imitate


or unconsciously through cons,*

consciously

tant association.

This fact made the teacher

a prominent figure in the

Hindu System
The
teacher's

a feature greatly emphasised but not always


realized in the present system.

influence on

the disciple

was enhanced a

thousand-fold

by the

fact that the

Hindu

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.
student and his
preceptor
ties,

87-^

were bound not


the

by any economic
ship

but by those of friend-

and

affection.

Hence

Hindu

teacher's personality influence


his

exerted a far-reaching
in

upon his disciple mind and character.


Again,
it

moulding
that

5.

must be

said

the

Hindu System presented one more aspect


which
is

emphasised by
in

the

upholders of
that

education

a Democratic

Society viz.

education should be

as far as practicable free


p. 29).

and compulsory (vide


6.

Further,
the

it

may

be said that like


religion,

Froebel

Hindus urged that

industry and temperance should mark their

system of Education.

must be said that the condition of things has since changed so considerably
Lastly,
it

that to pursue the system at present in detail


will

be neither possible nor desirable, though


shall surely

by embracing its spirit we our life and character.^


'

exalt

It is good sign that in certain quarters e.g. at the Owrukut Hardwar) and Satyabddi (in Orissa) some attempt is being made to combine the traditions of the ancient Rishis with modern scientific methods. Sir James Mestoa the mo3t
(in

88

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


The
Institutes of

References : 1.
2.

Manu.

Vishnu Purana.
Srimat Bhagvatgita.
C.

3.
4.

K. Tarkalankara
Philosophy

Lectures on Hin,du

5. 6.
7.

W. B. Pillsbury Essentials of Psychology. Max Muller India, what can it teach us ? Max Muller Lectures on the Origin of
:
:

Religion.
8.

Kirkpatrick
Study.

Fundamentals

of

Child

9.

Froebel

10.

W.

C. Bagley

The Education of Man. The Educative process


:

Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces thus remarks about the Gurukul School "I have been more than rewarded by visiting one of the most wonderful, interesting and stimulating institutions. Here we have a band of ascetics, devoted to their dutj', and working in the wilderness following the traditions of the Ancient Rishis, combined with the most modern scientific methods, and working practically for nothing, and a, set of students of strong physique and obedient, loyal, faithful and devoted, extraordinarily happy and
:

extraordinarily well.
* I

will

not talk of the political aspect of the question where

politics are

unknown."

VII

UNIVERSITIES IN ANCIENT AND

MEDIEVAL INDIA.
ANCIENT PERIOD.

We
it

have seen that north-west India was ^


earl}'

the cradle of

Hindu
long

civilisation.

Hence
of

had been

for a

tinne

the

centre

Hindu learning. Kashmere and Badarikasram long enjoyed the reputation of having
controlled
it.
:

In the 6th century b. c, Takshasila however, the chief centre of learning seenned
to

have

been
It

transferred

to

Takshasila
quarters
of

{Taxila).

was the
learning.

head
It
is

Brahmanical
in

said

that

sixteen branches of learning were taught here

the different schools

each of which was


professor.

presided over by a special

There
image-

were schools of painting, sculpture,

making great grammarian

and handicrafts

at Takshasila.

Panini

The and Chanakya

{Kautilya), the minister of Chandra Gupta,

90

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


education in the
to

are said to have had their


university.

The student here had

pay

for his education.

The

university was specially reputed for


it

the success
physician

attained in medicine.

The

royal

Jivaka

who had cured

the king-

Bimbisara of Magadha and also the great

Buddha
studied

himself of some painful diseases, had

medicine

here

under

the

great

Rishi professor, Atreya.

He had

been in the

university for seven years after which he had


to undergo an examination in which he

was
the
,

asked to describe the medicinal use of

all

vegetables, plants, creepers, grass^ roots etc

that could be found within a radius of fifteen


miles

round

the

city
for

of Taxila.

Jivaka

examined

them

four

days

and then

"submitted the results informing his professor


that there was hardly a single
did not
possess

plant

which
form

some medicinal property."


us
to

The above some idea


the time.

description enables

of the

system of examination of

Universities in Ancient India by

Bahadur.

(Tlie

Rai Sarat Chandra DasHindustan Review, Maroh, 1908).

THE

USIV'BRSITIES.
its

91

The

university maintained

reputation

for several centuries

and

was

in

the

most

flvurishing condition even in the 3rd century

when Asoka the Great, was the reigningEmperor of India. In describing the condiB. c.

tion of India during

Asoka's reign Vincent


sons of people of
all

Smith

writes,

"the

the upper classes, chiefs,

Brahmans,
as

and
to

merchants
of

flocked

to

Taxila,

University town, in order to study the


Indian
arts

circle

and

sciences,

especially

medicine."

As
learning

the

wave of
east and

civilisation

travelled

towards the

south, the seat


to

of

was

transferred

the

various

vlharas which had arisen in the different parts


of the

country since

the time of Buddha.

These viharas developed from the groves called Aroma where under the shelter of trees spiritual training was publicly imparted and where the Buddhist monks then called Anogarika resided. In fact, education in those days was spread at hotrie and abroad

by the Buddhist monks.


cltistered together in

Wherever they

monasteries or viharas

92

EDUCATION IN
university

ANCIEN'i' INDIA.

grew

up and each of these


principal o? a. modern

viharas

was presided over by a Kulapati


th.Q

corresponding to
college.

The university of Sridhanya Katak Sridhanya Katak which was situated on the
:

banks of the Krishna in both Brahinanical and


great

Vidarbha (modern
Buddhist
learning

Amaraoti) attained celebrity as the seat of


during the time of siddha Nagarjuna.

monastery of

The Du-pong near Lhasa


siS colleges

which contains a university with

was erected

after its model.


:

Nalanda

The

university

which long
the most

enjoyed the reputation of being

renowned seat of learning


of Asia,

in

ancient India

and attracted students from different parts

was

that

located

in

the

great
all

Vihara of Nalanda.
over

It was then

known
glory

Magadha by
it

the

name

of

Dharmaganja.
its

When
}vas

was at the height of


resort

and
wg.s

the

of foreign

students and

scholars numbering
in

10,000
th^e

Europe

the

darkest

watch of

long night pf
schools

the

middle ages.

The

Saracenic

THE UNIVEBSITIKS.

93

and Arabic learning


founded.
It

also

had not yet been


existence
for

had

been

in

seven

centuries

when the Chinese


it (in

traveller

Hiuen
It is

Tsang
Gupta,
to

visited

the 7th century).

said that four kings viz. Sakraditya,

Buddha
efforts

Tathagatagupta
great

and

Baladitya

successively had devoted their


this

pious

architectural

work^

Its

genuinely historical period, however, begins

with the time of Baladitya who flourished


in the

middle of the 5th century

a.d.^

The great

college stood in the middle and

was surrounded by eight other halls. The resided in the courts which laj^ bej^ond priests
these.

The

observatories

stood

within

the premises.

Its three grandest buildings

were called Rdtnasagara, Ratnadadhi and


Ratndranjaku.
nine storeyed

Of
and

these
in
it

Ratnadadhi was was located the

library then considered the largest in India.^


'

Civilisation

in Ancient India

R. C.

Dutta : Vol. II pp.

148-49.

;Daoea Review Vol,


S. Datta),

2 No. 7 Oct., 1912 (University of


.

Nalanda by

S. C. Das's Universities in

Ancient India.

94

EDOCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


principal of the

The

monastery when Hiuen

renowned

Tsang resided there was Silabhadra, the disciple of Dharmapala/


Curriculum
;

The

education

imparted

s,t

Nalanda was both religious and secular. Again, not only the Buddhist canonical
books,

but the doctrines of

all

the eighteen

sects of

Buddhism and even the Vedas and


;

other works were studied

and no attempt
discourage

was even made to

stifle

or

the

literature or learning of the rival sects. The subjects taught here were (i) Grammar, (ii)

Logic,

(iii)

the
(iv)

Science!

Tantric),

of Medicine {specially Philosophy and Metaphysics^

and other miscellaneous subjects


poetical literature.^

which

in-

cluded probably Sanskrit and Pali prose and

It

is

not too

much

to suppose that in a

university like Nalanda where

the utmost

freedom of intellectual exercise was allowed,


all

the subjects should

have attained con-

siderable dovelopment.
'

However, its greatest


I,

Daooa Review Vol.


Ibid Vol.
I.

No

9 Deo. 1911.

No. No.

4,

July 1911 'and Vol.

No.

5.

August,

1911.
"

The University
Ibid Vol.
1,

o
9,

Nalanda by
Deo., I91I.

S. liutta.

THE UNIVERSITIES.

95
in

and most
field

brilliant
;

achievements were

the

of Logic

'schools' of

and it is said that of the Nalanda the most difficult were


Logic.
:

the

Schools of Discussion or

The

biographer of Hiuen Tsang says

"Of those
Schools

from abroad

who wished
the

to enter the

of Discussion,
difficulties

majority beaten by the


;

of the problems withdrew

and

those

who were deeply versed in old and modern learning were admitted only two or
Organisation
\

three out of ten succeeding."

The

University of NaUniversities

landa like the modern

Tibetan

was a monastic university.


rule,
it

Hence, as
China,

admitted those who embraced molife.

nastic

Monks

from

Tibet,

Central Asia,

Bokhara, Corea found free


subjects

board, Iqdgiug and instruction here.^

Each of the
the
six

was taught and


of

discussed by a sep'arate professor in one


.

colleges

comprising the university.

Those a,mong the venerable


*

monks

who
it

."

Th^ laud

in

the possession of the Nalanda monastery


,

contained mpr^ than 200 villages.

by kings of many Aprili.1915. Page

generationfe."
11.

They were ]bestowed upon Dacca Review Vol. 5, Nd.

1,

96
mia^ht

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

have

distinguished
abilities,

themselves by
old

eminent intellectual
noble

age and

character were Like the professors of modern universities


selected as professors.

each professor in the Nalanda University-

had charge of one subject


also

only.

The students
one or more

attached

themselves to
as

professors
specialize

according
in

they wanted to

one or more subjects.

But a
in

general average knowledge was required


all

the principal subjects.


It will be noticed here that the curriculum

of Nalanda excludes

all

technical sciences.

It therefore was a deterioration from Taxila

where the curriculum was more


this

varied.

But

was in appearance only, for the greatness of Nalanda lay not so much in the variety
as in the depth of learning
scholars.

acquired by

its

Again, there

is

nothing strange in

the fact that the technical arts should have

been excluded from the curriculum in the

in

Nalanda University considering that a monk it had no care about food, lodging or
gratis.

clothing which were supplied to him

In fact the monks of the great monastery

THE XTNIVBRSITIBS:

97

had hardly any secular care and their whole endeavour was given to intellectual and
spiritual
>

improvement.
university
rose to

The

eminence under
exist

Siladityd's patronage, but after his death it

began to decline and continued to about the end of the 9th century.

till

MEDIEVAL PERIOD.

Odantapuri

During

the

declining

period of the University of Nalanda another

monastic college was erected at


{Bihar) by oneGopala orLokapala
to

Odantapuri

who

is

said

have ascended the throne of Bengal about


A.D.

730

It

contained a

splendid

library

of Brahraanical and Buddhist works,

which

was destroyed at the sack of the raonastry ^nd the massacre of its monks by the Muham-

madans

(in a.d.

1197)

who

dealt a death-blow

to .the Buddhists, and their religion^^

Sakya.:
\yhich

^The

great monasljery of Sakya


,s6at
,

became the

of the first grand

Jieirarbhy
''\

of .Xib^t

(aboiit

1202,

a. D.)

and

"

y.

A'.

3mith.the.Early History

of Ipdia (3rd Editfon).

^8

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

followed Odantapuri in the details of monastic


discipline

and education, was built after

its

model,

Vikramasila
(a.d.

Gopala's son Dharraapala


monastery
at

800)

erected another

Vikramasila in Bihar. With this monastery the University of Nalanda is said to have had intercourse for some time. The monastery
of Vikramasila was for

long the renowned

centre of Tantric Buddhism and attracted numerous students from abroad. Like Nalanda the monastery of Vikramasila

possessed a

university with six colleges.

These were placed under the supervision of


six

door or dvara pandits during

the reign
colleges,

of king

Bhaya

Pala.

Four of these

stood at the four gates of the monastery


to

which pupils had free access


of
study.

for

the

purpose
called

The

central

building^

'the

House
The

of Science' was used

by

the monks for studying the Pragna Paramita


Scriptures.

theology

in

two pandits who taught the Central College were called

the Ist and 2ndi 'pillars of the University. The resident pupils received their food gratia

THE UNIVEKSITIES.

99

from the {our Satras

(free

boarding hostels)

which were established inside the monastery at the four gates and were endowed by the
princes and nobles of the country.

The University worked


four

successfully for

centuries

and

disappeared

with

the

advent of the Muhammadans.

During the period of the revival of vedic Hinduism the principal seats of Hindu
learning

were at Kanouj and Benares in

northern India.

Under
first

the Sen Kings of

Bengal

(a. d.

1119-1200), Sanskrit learning


in Mithila

was carried on
Navadwip.
survived the

and then

in

The

latter

place

fortunately

shock

of the

Muhammadan

attack and during the mediaeval period gave


birth to a long succession of great scholars,
like

Raghunath,

Raghunandan

and
civil

Sri

Chaitanya.
(i)

The

subjects taught here were

Logic,

(ii)

Smriti or works on

and

religious' usage, (iii)

Jyotishov Astronomy, (iv)

Grammar^ (v) Kavya or Literature and (vi) Tantra, But the greatest achievements of the
university were in the field of logic.

In the Deccan Vijayanagar waa for a

100

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


a. d.)

long time (14th century

the refuge and


it

centre of literary activity; and

appears from

Ayeen Akhari that even at the time of Akbar Benares was a centre of Hindu learning and

was

in its flourishing condition.

Both Benares and Navadwip are still renowned as the principal seats of Sanskrit
learning organized after the ancient manner.
References
:

1.

Universities in Ancient India

by Eai
(The

Sarat

Chandra

Das

Bahadur
1906).

Hindustan Review, March,


2.

Civilisation

in Ancient India
II.

by R.

C.

DuttaVol.
3

Nalanda University by Sukumar Dutta.


Dacca

Review July,

1911,

August,
1912.

1911. December, 1911


4.
5. 6.

and October

Seal's life of

Hiuen Tsang
and
Painting

Takakasu
Indian
Sculpture

by

E. B.
7
8.

Ha veil

9.

Ayeen Akbari translated by . Gladwin. Visha Kosh (Bengali) edited by Nogendra Nath Basu ^ The Early History of India by V. A.
Smith.

APPENDIX

The

following

is

list

of the subjects

that w.ere cultivated by the ancient Hindus.

VEDIC LITERATURE.
I.

The Vedas including (i) The Samhitas. The Brahmanas. (ii) (iii) The Upanishads. (iv) The Sutras.
;

SANSKRIT LITERATURE.
1.

Belles- Lettres
(i)

Epic Poetry
a.
b.
c.

Itihdsa.

Purdnas.

Kdvyas.

(ii)
(iii)

Dramatic Poetry,
Lyrical Poetry.

(iv)

Ethico-Didactic Poetry,

(v)

History and Geography.


102
2.

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


Science and
(i)

Art

Science of Language.
a.
b.
c.

Grammar.
Lexicography.
Metric,

Poetics

and

Rhetoric.
(ii)
(iii)

Philosophy including Logic.

Astronomy, Geometry,
Arithmetic,

Algebra, Tri-

gonometry.
(iv)

Medical Science.

(v)

Art of war, Music, Forma


tive

and Technical

arts.

3.

Works
worship.

of

Law, Custom and Religious

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOME OF THE SUBJECTS CULTIVATED BY THE ANCIENT HINDUS.

In modern times material needs more

than spiritual absorb

the

interests of the

people and the various sciences and arts also

have been developed, more or


their
to

less,

material

needs and

to

meet enable them


to

hold their

own

in

their

political

and
a
of

economic

relations.

But
for

in ancient

India,

where the struggle

existence

was

comparatively easy one

the

energies

the people were directed into

a diflferent
an}'^

channel and religion more than


else

thing

became
also

their

all

absorbing

interest.

It embraced

not only worship and prayer


subjects
as

but

such

philosophy,

morality,

law

and

government.
all

Hence

literature, science

and art

originated from

the exigencies of religion and served religious


purposes.

The Science of Phonetics : It


in India

arose
ib

when

the Brahmins

thought

104

EDTJCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

necessary to preserve the accurate pronunciation

of their hymns.
it

It as

is

so perfect that
as

though
century

had

its rise
it

early

the

fifth

b. c.

has not as yet, says


its

Max

Muller, been surpassed in

analysis of the

elements of language by any representative


of phonetics.

Grammar
the vedie

It

grew

up

in

India

in

connexion with the study and recitation of


texts.

The

subject

made such
eminent
Panini's

wonderful
authorities

progress
like

here

that

Max

Muller and Weber are


of
it.

eloquent in

their

praise

work
joyed

is

the magnificient edifice of the Indian

science of language.
it

Max

Muller has ensays,

so

much

that he

" In

grammar, I challenge any scholar to produce from any language a more comprehensive collection and classification of all the facts
of a language

than

we

find

in

Panini's

Sutras."

In metre, the success of the Metre Hindus was great. According to Max the observations made by the ancient Muller,
:

Indian authors and their use of the technical

MATHEMATICS.

105

terms give a clear confirmation of the latest


theories

of

modern

metricians.

The same

authority says that metres

were connected

with music and dancing which originally


subserved
religious

purposes

and

sub-

sequently helped the development of


in India.

Drama

Story-telling

About story-tellingMax
of the
fables

Muller

says,

''

some

of the

Panchatantra or Httopadesa are excellent specimens of what story-telling ought to be."

Arithmetic

The decimal
.

notation with-

out which Arithmetic as a science would

have been impossible, was the wonderful


invention
of
it

the

Hindus.

The

Arabs

borrowed
it

from the Hindus and introduced

into Europe.-'

Algebra : In

Algebra

the

Hindus

attained to a high degree of proficiency quite

independently. Aryabhatta (476 A. D.) was

the

first

writer on Algebra.

He

was succeed-

ed by

Bh^skarfi,charja (1114).

There are

solutions of remarkable problems in


'

Bh^skara

Dutt

Maodonell A History of Sanskrit Civilisation in Ancient India.

Literature and R. C.

106

EDCCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


in

which were not achieved


17th

Europe

till

the

and

18th

centuries.

Besides,

the

Hindus were the first to make an application of Algebra to astronomical investigations


and to geometrical demonstrations
;

and the

manner of
able that
it

their conducting

it, is

so remark-

has received the admiration of

many a modern European mathematiciani^. Geometry took its rise in Geometry


;

India from

the construction
It,

of

the altars

and their enclosures.

however, did not

make much progress


sented by Algebra,

here.

As

soon as

it

was

found that geo^netrical truths could be repre-

Geometry gradually fell out of use. The elementary laws of Geometry that the Hindus had discovered were introduced into Europe where the science has
received
its

highest development.
:

Trigonometry
was the
first

This
in

subject

peculiar invention of the Hindus.

man

India

to

was the Bh^skara write on

Spherical Trigonometry.

Astronomy ;-Astronomy,
metry, received
its

like

Geowas

inspiration from religion.

The

subject

in

its

elementary

form

ASTRONOMY.
cultivated

107
vedic

even

in

the

times

distinct advance, however,

was made through

the discovery of the planets.

The

earliest

Hindu astronomer
bhatta (476
a.

of eminence
d.)

was Aryaits

who

boldly maintained
axis

the rotation of the earth round

and

explained the true cause of eclipses of the

sun and moon.


Zodiac.

In his Golnpada he gives; us


calculation
is

the names of the twelve divisions of the Solar

His

of

the

earth's

circumference

not wide of the mark.

He

was succeeded by Varahamihira (505 a. d.), the author of Brihat Samhita. He, again,
was followed by Brahma Gupta, the writer
di Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta.

He

described

the calculations of lunar and solar eclipses,, the


positions

of the

moon's cusps and the


stars;

conjunctions of the planets and

After
the

Brahma Gupta came Bhaskara


last star of

(1114),

Indian astronomy. His Siddhanta

Siromoni has enjoyed

more

authority in

India than any other astronomical work ex-

cept the Surja Siddhdnta.

A.ttev Bhdakara^^

Hindu astronomy ceased to make any further progress and became merged in astrology.

108

EDUCATION. IN ANCIENT INDIA.

During the eighth and ninth centuries the Arabs were disciples of the Hindus, They translated Aryabhatta's Surja Siddhanta and afterwards made
in the Science.

much
art

progress

Medicine
illnesses

The

healing

had
in

its

beginning in the vedic times.

Reference of
the

and healing herbs are found

Atharva Veda. Not only did the Hindus thoroughly understand animal anatomy but, they showed wonderful skill in the treat-

ment

of snake-bite.

They gathered
the
of plants

valuable
pro-

information regarding
perties of minerals,

medicinal

and animal
deter-

substances and their chemical analysis and

decomposition.

Their

method of

mining the origin and nature of diseases was remarkable and bespeaks a very keen
observation.

In Surgery the
attained a special
to

Indians seem
proficiency.

to

have
"the

'According

Susruta,

says

Dr

P.
is

C.

Roy,
sine

dissection of dead bodies

qua non

to the

student of Surgery and this high

authority lays particular stress on knowledge

ABTHA-SASTBA.

109

gained from

experiment and observation."^


present day
the
.

Even

at

the

European

surgeons have borrowed from the Hindus


the operation of rhinoplasty or the formation

There were many writers on the subject of medicine but the most
of
artificial noses.
;

important were Charaka and Susruia.

Their

works were translated into Arabic at the close of the eighth century and were introduced by the Arabs into Europe where they
continued to exert their influence down to
the 17th century.

Music
numerous

This science may

be

traced to

the vedic times.

Vedic literature contains

allusions to musical instruments.

The
the

earliest

mention of the names of the


is

seven notes of the musical scale

found in

Chhandas and the

Sikshot.

Here only
the scholia

fragments of the writings cited

in

of the dramatic literature have been preserved.

Some

of these writings

were rendered
the Hindus

into Persian

and Arabic;
:

Artha-Sastra
attained
'

-In this also

great achievements.a..

Chanakya's
p.^

P. C.

Roy

fiiBtoiJy

oJ'Hiddu Ohfem'istry,

106

110

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


is

book

the most remarkable of the books on

the subject.

Technical Arts
the Hindus
in the first centuries

The
b. c.

achievements of
were great. Even
a.d.

in this direction

and

technology

{Varta) was amply patronised and the Government had a special department to see to it.

The Indians from


enjoyed
licate in

the earliest times had of de-

celebrity in the production

woven fabrics, in the mixing of colours, the working of metals and precious stones,
of
essences and
in
all

in the preparation

manner

of technical arts.
rules
laid

Law: The

down

in

the

Grihya and Dharma Suiras show clearly that the Hindus attained^^distinct achieve-

ments

in this

branch of science.

Painting,
:

Indian art, ture geometry, received


religion.

Sculpture
like
its

and Architecastronomy
inspiration

and
from
the

It w?is used, says

Ha veil,

'for

interpretation of the

esoteric

teachings of

philosophy and
early times,j as
,

religion'i^
it is

It was not in the no w, a specialised study

fOJbe

IdeaU ofjndian Art p. J76.

NATURE STUDY.
divorced from religion and ignored
universities.

Ill

by the
part

It

was an

integral

of

national

life

and thought.
in

In portrait-painting the Hindus seemed


to have
excelled

the olden times.

In

sculpture, they
reliefs

attained such celebrity that

carved upon stone depicting various


still

scenes are
able

regarded as the most admirof the

monuments
greater.

Hindu intellect. The


in architecture

achievements attained
still

were

Nature

Study

^The
of

Hindus
nature.

were

pre-eminently

observers

But

while the modern scientist studies her ways

and means to make her serve the material needs of mankind, the Hindus dived deep
into her secrets for the

intimation she gave


life.^

them

of a higher spiritual

The whole
in

of the Yoga system had

its

origin

the

study of nature.

It arose from the study of

the habits of frogs, serpents and tortoises.

The 'Hindus emphasised the study df


nature so thkt' the individual might be -led
'

Ibid

pp 107-108

f 58-163
'
,

M ,.8rimat; bhagvftt

Canto <yll,; 32^ Markehdeo Furan chap. XXV'II

112

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


in

to" believe

the

existence

of
all

God by
things.

realising the spiritual nature

of

In fact, his deep religious

instinct

inspired

the Hindu to seek in every aspect of nature


a symbol of worship

and an attribute of the


found expression in
Literature.

Divine.

His intense feeling of reverence and


all

a.biding love of nature

and developed
Thus,
those
says

Hindu Art and


" It
to recognise

Havell,
refuse

seems to
the

me

that

who

intense
is
(^f

love of nature with which

Hindu thought
of

penetrated must miss entirely the beauty


the

great

Hindu
as

poets,

Valmiki and

Kalidasa,

well

as

the beauty of

Hinda

Art."

The Vaisesika system of Physics was the first attempt made iu India Kanada
:

to inquire into the laws of matter and force,

of combination and disintegration.


says Dr. P. C.
self,

Kanada,
of,

Roy,

'chiefly

occupied him-

with the study of the properties

The atomic theory, as propounded by him, has many points in common wi|;h that of philosopher, Democritus. "the Greek His
matter.

theory of the propa&a4;ioh of sound canliot

PHTSICS.
ffiil

113

to excite our

wonder and admiration even

at this distant date.


his statement that
d%fferent forms of the

No
light

less

remarkable

is

and heat are


as

only

same essential substance".


the cause
of

He

also speaks of gravity

falling.
Eeferences
:

The History

of Indian Literature Weber.

2.

A History
A

of Sanskrit

Literature

A.

A.

Macdonell.
3.

Civilisation in Ancient

India E.

C. Dutta.

4. 5.
6.

History of Hindu Chemistry- P. C. Eoy. The Ideals of Indian Art E. B. Havell.

The

Positive

Sciences

of

the

Ancient

Hindus Dr.
7.

B. N. Seal.

Srimatbhagvat.

8.

Markendeopuran.

II

The

followingr list ofives us a fair idea of

the arts and occomplishmeuts current

among

men
B.C.)'

at

the time of

Buddha (567 B.C. 487


:

Leaping, running, Physical Exercise wrestling, archery, quick walking, jumping,

swimming, riding and boxing.

General Sciences and Arts

Writing,

book-writing, arithmetic, poetry, grammar,

knowledge of vedic glossary, Nigamas, Puranas, Itihds, Vedas, Nirukta (lexicography),


Sikshd (phonetics) Chhanda (metre), yajna
ritual

and ceremonial, Sankbya, Yoga and Veishashika doctrines, logic {Heiuvidya)


political

economy

(.4r^Aaw/(i^a) ethics, surgery


cries of animals

{^Asura),

knowledge of the

and

birds, guessing,

divining others'

thoughts,

explaining enigmas, explaining dreams,know-

ledge of the characteristics of women, men,


horses, cattle

and
'

story-telling,
Laliia Vistara.

AESTHKTICS.

115

Aesthetics
songs,

Playing
;

on

the

Vina,

music, dancing, dramatic exhibition, reciting

symphony.

Hand- work
ineedle-work,

Lac-ornaments, wax-work
leaf-cutting,

basket-work,

dyeing

cloth, tinting jewels.

Other
sing, art

accomplishments: Hair of decoration, pantomime,

dresraas-

querade.

ITT.

The
Siitra

following

list

of sixty-four

Arts or

Kalds,^ which appears in Vatsyayana's

Kama

enables us

to

form some idea of the

accomplishments
appropriate for
centuries
I.

which

were
ladies
in

considered

young
a-d.

the

first

b.c.

and

Literary accomplishments. Reading and elocution. 1.


2.

Lexicography and
Filling

Versification.

3.
4.

Exercises in enigmatic poetry.

up of stanzas of which a
is told.

portion
5.

Guessing unseen
held in a closed

letters
fist.

and things

6.
7.

Use of secret language. Knowledge of languages.


Solution of riddles.

8.

9.

Solution of verbal puzzles.

10,
'

Mimicry.

ladies alono were reootnmended to practise them. S'ridhara makes Baladeva and Krishna learn these accomplishments from their tutor S'andipani, but many of them are

Young

obviously feminine and would not suit a man.

SIXTT-FOUR ARTS,
II.

117

A.

Domestic Arts.
(i)
(ii)

Tailoring or sewing.

Making bows,
thread.

sticks etc.

with

(iii)

Bed making.
Prestidigitation,

B.

Culinary Art.
(i)
(ii)

Ornamental Cookery,
Preparation of beverages,

(iii)

Arts relating to Toilet, Dress, Luxuries or Comforts,


C.
(i)

Marking the cheeks


the
ears

before

with

sandal

and

other pastes.
(ii)

Display of jewellery on the


person.

(iii)

Perfumery,

(vi)

Making
Making

of

ornaments

of

flower for the head,


(v)

of necklaces and gar-

lands etc.

(vi) Staining,

dyeing and colourcloth and

ing of the teeth,

the body.

118

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.


(vii)

Making
pomades
Coiffure,

use
etc.

of

unguents^

(viii)

(ix)

Changing the appearance of


fabrics.

III.

Manual work and occupations.


(i)

Drawing,
Pictorial Art.

(ii)
(iii)

Scenic representation.

(iv)

ModelHng.

(y)
(vi)

Wood

carving.

Making ornamental
the flour
flowers.

designs

on

with

rice-meal

and

(vii)
(viii)

Making beds of flowers. Making artificial flowers


threads.

with

(ix)

Making of flower

carriages.

IV.

Recreative arts.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Making
Making

fountains.

Jugglery.
twist

with

spindle

(Tarku).

SIXTY-FOUR

AR:v8.

J..19

(iv)

Cock-fighting, quail- fighting, rannfighting etc.

(v)
(vi)

Teaching of parrots to talk, Devising different expedients

for

making the'same
(vii)
(viii)

thing.

Tricks,

Dice-playing,

(ix)

Incantations to

attract

per&ons

and things,
(x)
(xi)

Assuming various
Kuchumara.

forms,

Tricks as taught by

Scientific arts.
(i)
(ii)

Setting Jewels.

Decoration of houses.
Testing of silver and
jev?els.

(iii)

(iv)

(v)
(vi)

Knowledge of metals. Colouring of gems and


Ascertaining the

beads.

existence

of

mines from external appearances.


(vii)

Gardening, botany

etc.

(viii)

(ix)

monograms, logographs and diagrams. Lapidary art.


of

Making

120
VI, A.

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

Music
(i)
(ii)

Vocal music.
Instrumental music.

(iii)

Jaltaranga

or

'playing

on

china cups containing varying quantities of water to


regulate the tone.'
(iv) Tattooing,

B.
C.

Drama Acting
Etiquette
Physical Exercises.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

VII.

Juvenile sports.

Physical Exercise, Dancing,

(iv)
Eeferences

Art of Warfare.
Lalita Vistara

: (1)
(2)

by R. L. Mitra.

Srimatblidgvata.

IV

Rules regulating the conduct of the


disciple
1.

towards his preceptor.


controlled his body,

Having

speech,

organs (of sense) and mind he

(the disciple)

should stand with joined hands looking at the


face of his preceptor.
2.

(Manu

II. 192)

Let him always keep


his

his right

arm

out of his upper garment,

behave decently
sit

and keep

body well covered and

down
down.

facing his teacher

when asked

to sit

(Ibid II. 193>


3.

In

the presence of his preceptor he


less,

should always eat

wear a

less valuable

dress and ornament.

He

should rise earlier


(Ibid

and

lie

down

later (than the former).

II. 194).
4.

He

should

not

receive

orders ^or

converse with (his preceptor) reclining on a

bed or sitting or while eating or standing


or with an averted faee^
(Ibid II. 195)

122
5

KDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA.

He

should do (that)
is

standing up, if

his preceptor

seated on a seat, advancing


is

towards him

when he

standing,

going

up to him it' he is walking and running after him when he runs. (Ibid 11 196) 6. Going round to face him if his face is turned away, going up to him when he is at a distance' but bending towards him while (he is) lying down or standing in a lower
place.
7.

(Ibid II 197)

When
of his

his preceptor

is

nigh,

his

bed

or seat should always be


sight

low.

And

within
sit

preceptor

he should not

carelessly.
8.

(Ibid II. 198)

He

should not utter the

mere name
back,

of his preceptor
(without any

behind

his

even

epithet

of honour)
gait,

and he

should not

mimic

his

speech and

deportment.
9.

(Ibid II. 199)

A disciple should
from

cover his ears or

depart elsewhere

the

place

where

(people) censure or defame his preceptor.


(Ibid 11. 200)
'

10.

He

should not serve the preceptor


another) ^while he

(by the, intervention of

RULES OF CONDUCT.
stands aloof, nor

123
is

when he
is

(himself)

angry,

nor

when

woman

near

if

he

is

seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he

should get down and salute his preceptor.


(Ibid II. 202)
11.

The

disciple should not sit

with his

preceptor to the leeward or to the windward


(of him).

And

he should not say anything


behind his back.
(Ibid II 203)

(regarding his preceptor)

INDEX.
Abul Fazl
;

14
;

Adolescent period
Aesthetics ; 115 Ajatasatrn 28 Algebra 105 Aniiiraoti 92
; ; ;

85

Caste System 25 44 Central College 98 Chaitanya 42, 99 Chanakya 79


; ; ;
;

70 Anogai'ika 91 Arabs 109 Architecture 110 Aristotle ; 40, 54 Arithmetic 105


:

Angas

Chandidas ; 19 Charaka 109 Chhandas; 109


;

Clergy; 44
Coniiiination action ; 62
of

knowledge with
;

Aroma ; 91 Arts, sixty-four ; 116-120 Artha sAstra ; 79, 109 Aryabhatta ; 8, 107 Asuka ; 91 AstroHoniy ; 106 Artha Viilya ; 114 Aiharva Veda ; 108
Atomic Theory ; 112 Atreya; 90 August an age 9 Aurangzeb 20 Ayeen Akbari ; 14, 17, 100
; ;

Continuity, Principle of 64 Curriculum, democratic ; 35 at NaJanda ), 94 Culture Epochs Theory 63


; ;

Dacca Review
Das.
S. C.
;

93-95

93

Debts ; 53 Democritus ; 112 Development of personality Dewey ; 77, 83 Dharniaganja ; 92


pala ; 17 Sastras ; 56 Discipline 75, 78 Division of labour 26 Drama ; 105
; ;

59

DhHrma Dharma

Bachaspatimisra ; 77 Baladitya ; 93 Benares ; 16, 100

Dupong

Bhababhuti ; 16 Bhagavatgita ; 18 Bhaskara ; 18, 105 Bimbisara ; 90


Biradeb ; 16 Birdwood, Sir George j 41 Boarding Schools ; 82

92 Dutta, Hirendra Nath ; 28 R. C. ; 12, 43, 71, 93 Dvara Pandit ; 98


;

Brahma Gupta
Brahinachari
;

107
;

75
;

Bhahma Sphuta Siddhanta


Brihat Samhita 107 Buddhism, Tantric 17
;

Education, compulsory ; 29, 87 not dogmatic 58 ,, Elementary ; 66 ,, liberal ; 36 ,, Secondary 68 ., 9 107, Elizabethan Enviroument, effect of 1-2
; ; ; ;

Biihler

79

Flexibility

35

126
Forest life 55 Froebel 58, 87
;

INDKX.
Karma Mimamsa Sutra
Kasis 69 Kirkpatriok
; ; ;

18

Gayitri

30, 74
;

Knight-hood
; ;

85 44

Gautama

13
; ;

Geometry 106 16 Ghoserabau


Gita, quoted
50. 58, 63
;

Kshatriyas 21, 28 Kulapati 92

26, 31, 33, 39, 49.

Kumarila ; 18 Kurus 69
;

Gitagovinda

l7

Lakshmana Sena
Lalita
Vis-tara
;

17
11, 28,

Golanada

10"

66.

67,

Gopa;

11

INDEX.
Painting ; 20, 110 Panchalas 69 Panehatantra 67, 105
; ;

127
;

Self-realisation

51
;

Pandu

;
;

38
;

Sidhanta Siromoni Siksha; 109 Silabhadra 94


;

107

Panini 89, 104 > Parishad 71 Periclean ago 9


;

Siladiiya

8
;

Smith, Srmiti

V A
;

17, 19, 91, 97.

99
;

Peahwar
;

16
; 1 1

Phonetics 10.3 Physics '2 Physical Exercise ; 114 Plato 5, 26, 40 Platonic Ideal 34 Pragna Paramita Scriptures Prakrit; 6 Pralsriti 26, 50 Pratisukliya 76, 78 Punishment 78
; ; ; ; ;

Special Law Schools ; 71 Spencer, Htrbert, quoted

32

Sridhanya Katak ; 92 Srimatbhagbata 35, 69


;

Slory-telliiig
;

105

Surgery 108 Surya Siddhaiita ; 107 Susruta 108, 109


;

Svaraavati

Svayambara

14 10

Tamas
QuestioD (Prasna)
;

76

Raghunath 99 Raghunandan 99
; ;

Rajas

27
;

Ramanuja

IS
;

27 Tarkalaukara, C. K 36, 77 Taxila 6, 89 Teacher's personality ; 87 Technical Arts ; 110 Tol; 82 Trigonometry ; 106
; ;
;

Ratnadadhi ; 93 Ratnaranjaku 93 Katnasagara ; 93


Religion (Mediaeval Period) ; 21 Renaissance, age of 23 Residential Universities ;|8I Rhinoplasty 109 Roy, P. C. ; 108, 112
; ;

Universities

89-100

Upanishad

Brihat Aranyaka ; 71 Chhaiidogya ; 48; 58


Isa; 61

Jabala

53

Katha; 48
Maitrayana Brah-

Sakya
Satraa Sattva

97
;

mana; 37
Prasna ; 58 Svatasvara ;
Taittiriya
;

Sankaracharya ; 13, 16 Sankhya Philosophy 64


; ;

,37,

47

99 26
;

58

Schools, of Discussion ; 95 of Science ; 70 ,,

70 Sohopenhaiier ; 5 Sciences and Arts (general) Sculpture ; 20, 110 Seal, B. N Il3 Seclusion of women ; 10 Self-preservation ; 2
;
;

Vedio

H4

Vaisyas ; "44 Vaisesika 112 Valmiki; 112 Varaharaihira ; Varta; 110

8,

107

Vatsayana ; 13 Vedas ; 30 Study of ,, Vedanta Sutras

40
18

128
Vidarbha ; 92 Vjdehas ; 69 Vidyapiti 19
;

INDEX.
Visvavara
;

12

Vijayanagar
Vikramasila

99
;

Vikramaditya
;

68 Williams, Sir Monier Writing School 66


;

Weber

12,

44

16,

98
72, 73

Vina; Il5 Vishnu Parana 56, Vishnu Sarma 38


; ;

Yajnavalkya

12,

54

Yasovarman

15
;

Zodiac, Solar

107

v^^Kfff^'i^f^:,.

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