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PESTICIDE & SPERM IMPACT RESEARCH – Murray Thompson 16 May
2008

TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS (September 2003, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES), pp.61-62
3.2.2.5 Reproductive Effects Some investigators have reported adverse effects in male reproductive organs following intermediate duration oral exposure to pyrethroids at dose levels below those eliciting clinical signs of neurotoxicity. Abd El-Aziz et al. (1994) reported that male rats, administered deltamethrin in oral doses as low as 1 mg/kg/day (the lowest level tested) for 65 days, exhibited significantly lower weights of testicles, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland than vehicle controls. Sperm analysis of treated rats revealed significantly reduced sperm cell concentration, live cell percentage, and motility index, and a significantly higher percentage of total sperm abnormalities, relative to controls. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced as early as 14 days following the beginning of treatment, remaining significantly lower 21 days after treatment ceased. Male fertility was tested at the end of treatment and 60 days posttreatment. At both time points, the percentage of successful matings to untreated female rats was 50% that of controls. Similarly, oral administration of cypermethrin to male rats at 3.8 and 7.7 mg/kg/day (El-Khalek et al. 1999) and fenvalerate at 20 or 100 mg/kg/day (Hassan et al. 1993) for 65 days resulted in reduced male reproductive organ weights and significantly altered sperm characteristics.
INTERNET SOURCE: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp155.html; accessed: 16 May 2008. =================================================================================

Impaired Semen Quality Associated With Environmental DDT Exposure in Young Men Living in a Malaria Area in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
NATALIE H. ANECK-HAHN,*{ GLORIA W. SCHULENBURG,{ MARIA S. BORNMAN,{ PAULINA FARIAS,§ AND CHRISTIAAN DE JAGER* From the *Environmental Health, School of Health Systems & Public Health, and _Andrology, Department of Urology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, and `Department of Urology, University of Limpopo, Medunsa, South Africa; and §Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

“WHO (1999) states that below 15% normal forms, the fertilization rates in vitro will be reduced. The study investigating exposure to DDT in malaria vector-control workers had a mean normal morphology score of 2.5% 6 1.8%, with 84% of the morphology scores being below the WHO (1992) and Tygerberg strict criteria. The Tygerberg strict criteria could be said to be inappropriately strict for epidemiological settings in which the aim is to detect more subtle effects (Dalvie et al, 2004b). A significantly high proportion of the participants in this study presented with teratozoospermia (99.5%), and the mean percent normal morphology was 4.13% 6 2.70%, which is well below the WHO (1999) reference range of 15% normal forms.”
Journal of Andrology, Vol. 28, No. 3, May/June 2007; Copyright E American Society of Andrology

‡ PIERRE AYOTTE.1.p9-DDE concentrations. and the percentage of sperm with morphological tail defects increased with higher plasma p. Canada. New York: Cambridge University Press.003. 1. resulting in unprecedented controversy (reviewed by Cheek & McLachlan.p9-DDE concentrations (b 5 28.\ VICENTE DIAZ SANCHEZ. a causal role of environmental toxicants in human male infertility has been lacking because observed effects have been the result of unusually high exposures.org/cgi/reprint/28/3/423. Me´xico DF.2 REFERENCE: World Health Organization.‡ ALBINO BARRAZA-VILLARREAL. ========================================================================== .andrologyjournal. Therefore.p9-DDE concentration (b 5 0. indicating adverse effects on testicular function and/or the regulation of reproductive hormones. Universite´ Laval et Direction de la Toxicologie Humaine-Institut de la Recherche en Sante´ Publique du Que´bec. either occupationally or as a result of industrial accidents. Environmental hormones and the male reproductive system.§ CHRISTIAN DOMBROWSKI. Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Que´bec. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm–Cervical Mucus Interaction. Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Universite´ Laval-Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Que´bec. Copyright q American Society of Andrology INTERNET SOURCE: http://www.trichloro-2. including the percentage of motile sperm. as assessed by plasma p. Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study CHRISTIAAN DE JAGER. ================================================================================= Reduced Seminal Parameters Breakthroughs in Andrology Associated With Environmental DDT Exposure and p. Universite´ Laval. Vol. P 5 . University of Pretoria. and the ¶Departmento de Biologı´a de la Reproduccio´n.” Journal of Andrology. BAILEY* From the *Centre de Recherche en Biologie de la Reproduction. Services de Biochimie Me´dicale et de Ge´ne´tique de Laboratoire. †Environmental Health. INTERNET SOURCE: http://www. Sainte Foy. P 5 .*† PAULINA FARIAS. Canada. Instituto Nacional de Nutricio´n. decreased with higher p. Pavillon St-Franc¸ois d’Assise. Based on these findings. Que´bec. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pu´blica. “ABSTRACT: In response to mounting concerns about the endocrine.andrologyjournal.\ FRANC¸ OIS ROUSSEAU.p9-DDE Concentrations in Men in Chiapas.017). 1998. ‡Centro de Investigacio´n en Salud Poblacional. De´partement des Sciences Animales. Que´bec City. South Africa.‡ MAURICIO HERNANDEZ AVILA. nonoccupational exposure to DDT.org/cgi/reprint/27/1/16.¶ AND JANICE L. §Unite´ de Recherche en Sante´ Publique. January/February 2006.§ ERIC DEWAILLY. the effect of DDT on male reproductive health should not be ignored. Cuernavaca Morelos. 1999.2bis(chlorodiphenyl)ethane (DDT) affects male reproductive parameters… Crude regression analysis showed that several sperm motion parameters. is associated with poorer semen parameters in men.05 for squared motility). Previously. 27.1. Que´bec. Me´xico. School of Health Systems & Public Health. accessed: 16 May 2008. Pretoria. City. Que´bec.38. This is the first epidemiological study demonstrating effects after nonoccupational exposures to DDT. Me´xico. No. this epidemiological study was initiated to test the hypothesis that nonoccupational exposure to the estrogenic pesticide 1. Canada.19:5).disrupting influence of environmental chemicals on human health. J Androl. Que´bec.pdf accessed: 16 May 2008. //Unite´ de Recherche en Ge´ne´tique Humaine et Mole´culaire. 4th ed.

Switzerland. Victor H. Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN. Ltd. Grant Number: TW00623 “ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that human semen quality has declined over the past decades and some of them have associated it with occupational exposure to pesticides. most of these studies have not been associated with a reliable exposure level and have been designed mostly as cross-sectional studies. The present work evaluates. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila.interscience. WHO Human Reproduction Program. sperm seasonality. In addition. ========================================================== . México email: Mariano E. Mexico-USA. Funded by: CONACYT. Cebrian-Garcia 1 Departamento de Salud Ambiental. Mexico. Cebrian-Garcia (mcebrian@cinvestav. Grant Number: 96349 UC-MEXUS. Javier Moran-Martínez 1. in a longitudinal follow-up study. The results revealed that the poorest semen quality was found among the subjects with the highest OP exposure and the highest urinary OP levels. A total of 139 semen samples from 52 volunteers were assessed. Delegación Gustavo A. CP 07300. Seasonal variations in sperm concentration and sperm count were registered. Grant Number: 28403-M. Revised: 9 October 2007. México 3 Sección de Toxicología. México DF.” Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons. México DF. Centro de Investigación Biomédica. accessed: 16 May 2008. Col. Instituto Politécnico Nacional # 2508.com/journal/117352750/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Guadalupe Ocampo-Gómez 1. Accepted: 10 October 2007 INTERNET SOURCE: http://www3. NIH/Fogarty International Center Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health. México 2 Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.wiley. CINVESTAV. Cebrian-Garcia. PO Box 14-740. Mariano 3* E. Urinary OP levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The results showed a significant decrease in total sperm count among subjects with the highest exposure to OP. Facultad de Medicina de Torreón.. Received: 27 September 2007. spermatogenesis time and the changing OP exposure level in men highly exposed to OP. However.3 Organophosphorus pesticide exposure decreases sperm quality: association between sperm parameters and urinary pesticide levels Rogelio Recio-Vega 1. Further studies assessing the effects of OP on male reproductive health should be controlled by the variability in human sperm parameters.mx) * Correspondence to Mariano E.F. México. the study examined the association between OP urinary levels and sperm parameters in exposed and unexposed workers. the effect of organophosphate pesticides (OP) at three occupational exposure levels on semen quality. Zacatenco. México D. Sección de Toxicología. Madero. Av. Borja-Aburto 2.

com/cgi/reprint/63/10/649?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=sperm+pyrethroid&andorexa ctfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT. Controls were selected from the same maternity services as those of the cases and were born alive without congenital malformations. accessed: 16 May 2008. 151 cases of anencephaly of more than 20 weeks’ gestation were selected between March 2000 and February 2001. Results: The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the ARP had a greater risk of anencephaly (OR = 4. Exposures were analysed with emphasis on the three months before and one month after the last menstruation periods (acute risk period (ARP)). a food frequency questionnaire. Information was obtained from both parents by means of a general questionnaire. J Blanco-Mun˜oz. as well as exposure prior to the abovementioned period (non-acute risk period (NARP)). Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis of the effect of maternal exposure to agricultural work on anencephaly and suggest that exposure of the father to pesticides in the periconceptional period or prior to this can also increase the risk of having an anencephalic child. respectively).03.05 to 19.bmj.1136/oem.57.73 to 8. The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater in those who applied pesticides irrespective of whether it was done in the ARP or the NARP (OR = 2. and OR= 2. (anencephalic : adjective.50. A M Garcı´a “Aims: To evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly in three Mexican states.96). 11th Edn. and a specific questionnaire on occupational exposure to pesticides. 95% CI 1.) Methods: A paired case control study (1:1) was done based on records of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Neural Tube Defects in Mexico. V H Borja-Aburto. doi: 10.64.” Occup Environ Med 2006.08. Medicine having part or all of the cerebral hemispheres and the rear of the skull congenitally absent. 95% CI 0. H Va´zquez-Grameix.63:649–656. 95% CI 0.4 Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly M Lacasan˜a.2005. I Romieu.58 to 7. ============================================================================== . C Aguilar-Gardun˜o.023333 INTERNET SOURCE: http://oem. (Concise Oxford.

Michailov M1. prevention of motor dysfunctions leading to infections. 2 National Institute of Laser Sciences.7%). Innsbruck. renal destruction/hypertension. 2Urol. vas-deferens (Vd) and ureter (U) are model preparations in medical physiology [Table].e]. Univ. Giza. Seidenbusch W4 1Inst. Important differences in degree of inhibitory effects between CY/DE on CES of D-Vd are evident: DE 1-10 _M had augmentory effect on CES10-Vd (113. acute/chronic intoxication. Haerlin U1. 4Inst. Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory. 1-5/min) and contractions to electrical neurogenic (TTXblockade) stimulation with 10 and 100 Hz. also specificpathological effects dependent on chemical structures (CY/DE) and organs (D-Vd). metabolization-cumulation) incl. 3Freie Univ.Physik. 3 ms. CY induced transformation of electrical spike into a burst-plateau activity (vesical myocytes). Giza.1-1 nM) [4d. Muenchen. Hofstetter A2. Dokki. Nashwah Kamal 1 Mammalian Toxicology Department.1-100 _M on spontaneous (phasic) (SPC.5 Ultimate source of the following: ScienceDirect. excitable at different frequencies) [3b. Egypt. Cairo University.c].0 _5. November 2006. Conclusions: Pathophysiological motor reactions are a sensitive indicator for functional disturbances on toxicants (human D reacted to Hg 0. deltamethrin (DE) 0. Different effects CY/DE on CES10/100 support results about existence of two sets of postganglionic neuro-vegetative effector regulation of Vd (incl. Yahia Badr . Pyrethroids induce general. Exp. Egypt 1 2 2 1 . Magour S3. UROLOGY 68 (Supplement 5A).1-10 _M) on SPC/D-U. using for examination xenobiotics-effects. Klinik. Univ. Germany. Ministry of Agriculture. with low and high pyrethroid. Austria Objective: Progressive increase of human exposition on chemicals demands evaluation for functional urogenital disturbances.com MP-04. Results: Present experiments demonstrate negative chrono-/inotropic pyrethroidaction (0. Agricultural Research Center. 3 s (CES10/100) were recorded. fuer Umweltmedizin c/o ICSD. Methods: Effects of cypermethrin (CY). Evidence of toxic effects is given in a comparative statistical evaluation for high concentrations. Berlin.and thermosensitivity.27 Xenobiotics in genito-urology: pyrethroid-induced functional disturbances in vesical detrusor and vas deferens Neu E1. Mona Abd El-Aziz . Guinea-pig-detrusor (D). Further experiments are necessary to examine pharmacodynamics (invasionelimination. Germany. page 78 ========================================================================== P23-16 In vivo genotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide “cypermethrin” in rat liver cells by Comet assay El-Hussein Naguib El-Khatib . Germany. human.

Cristina Fatigoni a.260 ===================================================== In vitro genotoxic effects of the insecticide deltamethrin in human peripheral blood leukocytes: DNA damage (‘comet’ assay) in relation to the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and micronuclei Milena Villarini a. cypermethrin induced a clear significant positive dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in the rat liver cells exposed to cypermethrin as compared with controls. Giuseppina Scassellati-Sforzolini a.07. depending on the genetic system or the assay used.*. is extensively used in agriculture. Rossana Pasquini a. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the potential genotoxic activity of deltamethrin. Spain “Abstract: Deltamethrin. Italy b School of Medicine. It is generally noticed that all pesticide treatments yielded statistically significant (p < 0. a clear induction of DNA was observed. Via del Giochetto.6 “The Comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis. “SCGE”) is a simple method for measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. a synthetic dibromo-pyrethroid insecticide. I-25124 Brescia. 7 or 14 days after administration of single oral dose 1/30.1016/j.c a Department of Hygiene. Uni6ersity of Perugia. 1/10 or 1/5 LD50 of commercial formulation of cypermethrin. E-28040 Madrid.0001) DNA damage. The results of the present work suggested that Comet assay might be a suitable and sensitive endpoint in genotoxicity evaluation of pesticides. Silvano Monarca b.toxlet. which is widely used in Egypt in pest-control programs in agriculture and in public health as well. The assay has applications in testing different chemical and physical agents for genotoxicity and monitoring environmental contamination with genotoxins. Massimo Moretti a. In conclusion. The in vitro genotoxicity of deltamethrin has been evaluated by assessing the ability of the insecticide to damage DNA (as evaluated using the single-cell microgel-electrophoresis .2006. Data on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of deltamethrin are rather controversial. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide “cypermethrin”. But the effects in the SCGE were generally decreased with time after treatments. Complutense Uni6ersity of Madrid. Single liver cell suspensions were prepared and a Comet assay was performed. I-06126 Perugia. Alberto Vicent Rodrı´guez a. Massimiliano Marcarelli a. its low animal toxicity and its lack of persistence in the environment. With the SCGE assay. Italy c ‘Erasmus’ Fellowship (ICP-94 -I-1265 :12). but we confirm that various tests should be used for detecting the mutagenic activity of pesticides. Uni6ersity of Brescia. Male rats were sacrificed 1. forestry and in household products because of its high activity against a broad spectrum of insect pests (both adults and larvae).” doi:10. Via Valsabbina. Faculty of Pharmacy.

386 ± 0.” © 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland.and single-strand breaks. The frequency of SCE and MN were not statistically increased in deltamethrin-treated cells as compared to controls.01). Then numerical CA of chromosome X. Y and 18 were investigated by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).∗ a Institute of Toxicology. Lichun Xua. P < 0. Nanjing Medical University. Senping Chenga. accepted 5 August 1998 ======================================================== Genotoxic effects on human spermatozoa among pesticide factory workers exposed to fenvalerate Yankai Xiaa. The results showed the significant differences in the percentage of sperm abnormality between fenvalerate-exposed group and the external control group (P = 0. lower deltamethrin doses were tested. All treatments were conducted with and without the presence of an external bioactivation source (9S9mix). is able to induce DNA damage (double. a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. China b “Abstract: Fenvalerate. in the presence of metabolic activation (_S9mix). Nanjing 210029. China Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.530 and r = 0.124±0. respectively (P < 0. Qian Biana. which was significantly higher than those in the internal (0. Lin Songa. The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.140%) (P < 0. the frequency (mean ± S. alkali-labile sites and open excision repair sites) as revealed by the increasing tail moment values observed with increasing doses.01). P < 0. is widely produced and used worldwide. because of cytotoxicity.01).195±0. particularly numerical chromosome aberration (CA).024). However.131% in fenvalerate-exposed group. Jiayin Liu b.D. Moreover. In aneuploid parameters. both with and without S9mix.326 ± 0. All rights reserved.742 ± 0.01). Shoulin Wang a.01) but also between disomic frequency of sex chromosomes. Xinru Wang a. we found the positive correlation not only between nullisomic frequencies of these chromosomes and numerical CA rate (r > 0.135%) and external control group (0.536. respectively (P<0.094% and 0.) of sex chromosome disomy was 0. we firstly examined conventional semen parameters.7 or ‘comet’ assay) or induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in human peripheral blood leukocytes. as compared to ‘comet’ assay. aneuploidy rate and sperm abnormality in all donors (r = 0. We also found the nullisomies of sex chromosomes and chromosome 18 were significantly higher than those in the external control group and two control groups. The frequencies of aneuploidy and numerical CA we detected also showed significant differences between exposed group and control groups (P < 0. The results indicate that deltamethrin.01). Nanjing 210029. To explore fenvalerate-induced genotoxic effects.068%).563 ± 0. the progression and motion parameters of the spermatozoa among 12 fenvalerate-exposed workers and 30 donors of the internal and external control groups. and the frequency of chromosome 18 disomy in fenvalerate-exposed group (0. Ltd. .069%) was significantly higher than those in the internal and external control groups (0.70. Wei Wub.05 and/or P < 0. Received 13 March 1998.

” © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. accepted 24 May 2004 Available online 2 July 2004 ================================================================= .8 Our findings suggest that fenvalerate or its metabolites induced morphologic abnormality and genotoxic defects of spermatozoa among fenvalerate-exposed workers by causing numerical CA in spermatogenesis as a special and potential genotoxic agent. received in revised form 21 May 2004. All rights reserved Received 4 April 2004.

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