This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
professor that believed government attempts to regulate the economy interfered with natural economic laws. Instead, the laws of supply and demand should dictate the economy. He saw natural resources as unlimited – humans should exploit nature for their benefit. Wrote the Wealth of Nations in 1776. While he believed that the government should largely stay out of economic affairs, he did believe in the state providing schools, armies, navies, and roads, as well as undertaking certain commercial ventures too expensive or risky for private enterprise.
Agricultural Revolution “During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the pace of the agricultural revolution quickened. The development of scientific agriculture, the introduction of new crops, the enclosure of agricultural land, and increasing mechanization expanded agricultural production and ended the specter of famine in Europe. Fewer farm workers were needed to produce food for Europe’s growing population, and surplus agricultural labor migrated to the new industrial towns to find employment in the factories.” -- Viault, Modern European History, pg. 256 Several important people contributed to the new developments: o Jethro Tull: invented the seed drill o Charles Townshend: promoted crop rotation and planting of crops that nourished the soil, such as clover and turnips o Robert Blakewell: scientific breeding of cattle and sheep o Cyrus McCormick: invented and patented the reaper In addition to technological developments, new crops were being introduced to different parts of the world. The potato, originally from the Western Hemisphere, became a staple in Ireland. During the eighteenth century, peas and new bean varieties diffused to Great Britain from the Netherlands. The enclosure movement, which had begun in the 16th century, intensified during the agricultural revolution. Landowning aristocrats and country gentry built stone walls around land that had once been free-access grazing land and woodland areas. This resulted in an increase in the number of large and medium-sized farms, as well as increased crop production. Anarchism Denounces capitalism for exploitation of labor and favored abolition of private property. Anarchism goes further than Marxism, stating that the state itself is an instrument of exploitation and repression. Thus, the state must be removed. See “Pierre Proudhon” and “Michael Bakunin.” While there have never been any successful anarchist revolutions, anarchists have been successful in committing acts of violence such as assassinations of major political figures. For example, President William McKinley of the United States in 1901. Bolsheviks Meaning “majority,” Bolsheviks were Lenin’s followers after the split in the Russian Social Democrat Party. Lenin favored a Marxist revolution in the sense of further industrial development. He also thought that a small, professional, nondemocratic revolutionary party that was organized and elite would best be able to resist penetration by police spies. This group
of people would be substituted for Mars’s proletariat as the instigators of revolutionary change. Bourbon Restoration After Napoleon was defeated, the Bourbon line in France was reinstated with Louis XVIII. Charles Talleyrand was an influential force in having the Bourbons recognized as the actual rulers of France. This period is marked by extreme conservatism and the reinstating of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics. Bourgeoisie The members of the middle/merchant class. Charles Dickens He wrote novels set in industrial England that depicted the poor living conditions the working class and peasants had to endure. By writing about such subjects, he was hoping for the middle class to begin social reform. Charles Lucas A French reformer who exposed the horrible conditions in prisons and demanded change. However, such reform came slowly because of the expense of constructing new prisons as well as the overall lack of sympathy for criminals. Classical Economics Economists who championed the doctrine of laissez-faire. o Adam Smith – first major advocate, published The Wealth of Nations in 1776 o Thomas Malthus – population growth was outstripping the food supply, thus, war, famine, and disease were designed to limit the human population o David Ricardo – the Iron Law of Wages: wages should be neither too little or too much and like other commodities, is subject to supply and demand Communist Manifesto Published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Sets forth the major ideas of what they termed “scientific socialism.” Ideology in the publication known as Marxism. Discusses dialectical materialism and economic determinism. The existence of social classes leads to class struggles, which ultimately produce social change. Such class struggle can be found throughout the history of the world. Concert of Europe Following the overthrow of Napoleon, the governments of Europe came together at the Congress of Vienna to discuss further action that would conserve the balance of power in Europe. Led to action that would “stamp out liberalism.” Das Kapital In which Karl Marx further develops his ideas, analyzing and critiquing the capitalist system. He claimed that under the capitalist system, workers created wealth by making products out of raw materials, but received only a small fraction of this wealth in the form of wages. While this wealth was not evenly distributed in a classed society, it would be entrusted
to the community and evenly distributed in the classless society after the revolution.
David Ricardo Used Thomas Malthus’ concepts into the Iron Law of Wages. If wages were raised, more children would be produced. These children, in turn, would enter the labor market and expand the number of workers, thus lowering wages. As wages fell, working people would produce fewer children, causing wages to rise. Thus, wages would always tend toward a minimum level. As a result, employers should pay workers a minimum amount. Determinism Inevitably, events are a result of previous actions/events and are independent of human will, as proposed by G.W.F. Hegel. Thus, the history of the world was fixed from the beginning of the universe, with only unimportant chance events occurring that did not ultimately change the meaning of history. Dialectical Materialism “He [Karl Marx] wrote that ‘the mode of production of material life determines social, political and intellectual life processes in general’; that is, he claimed that it was what humankind produced and who owned it that determined the nature of society. Material factors were more important than religions or other ideologies in shaping society.” -- “A Call to Revolution: The Challenge of Socialism.” Marx combined a materialist interpretation of historical development with the theory of the dialectic, resulting in dialectical materialism. Dictatorship of the Proletariat The class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie would become more intense and lead to the proletarian revolution, in which the proletariat would destroy the power of the bourgeoisie. After the proletarian revolution, the leaders of the proletariat would establish a temporary dictatorship responsible for eradicating the last elements of the bourgeoisie, reorganizing the economy by establishing the social ownership of the means of production and distribution, and reeducating the proletariat to work in behalf of the interests of society. With this new classless society, there would be no exploitation of one class by another and no class conflict, which would lead to harmony. Edward Bernstein See “Revisionism.” Elizabeth Fry An English prison and social reformer who was also a Quaker. Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels, son of a wealthy German industrialist, was critical of the conditions of the working class. He met Marx in France and the two collaborated until Marx’s death in 1883.
G.W.F. Hegel Argued that the development of change is a result of a ‘clash of opposite forces’ from which a new situation is produced, with struggle as essential to the process. He illustrated this idea in terms of conflict between cultures or races. He contended that change in history occurred as the result of a dialectical process, which involved a series of conflicts. The established order (thesis) encountered a challenge (antithesis), producing a conflict that would end in a compromise: a new ordering of society (synthesis). The synthesis would then become the new thesis and the process would begin again. Jeremy Bentham He began the retreat from laissez-faire capitalism, believing that the government should intervene on behalf of the disadvantaged. (See “Utilitarianism”) Bentham believed that government could assure happiness for the greatest number of people by permitting them the maximum possible amount of individual freedom. However, if pains suffered by the many exceeded the pleasures enjoyed by the few, the government could justifiably intervene to redress the balance. His ideas led to the creation of the twentieth-century welfare state. John Howard Prison reformer. John Wesley Leader of the Methodist movement, which took place during the Romantic period. He sent a message of repentance and good works through his sermons in open fields near western English towns and cities. He and his brother, Charles, began to organize Methodist societies. This religion stresses inward, heartfelt religion, and the possibility of Christian perfection in this life. Emotion played an important role in Methodism. Karl Marx The most influential socialist thinker of the nineteenth century. Born in western Germany and a student of philosophy. While he had brilliant ideas, no university would accept him because of his reputation as a radical. He became a journalist for a radical newspaper in Prussia, but the newspaper was later suppressed by censors. When he moved to Paris, he met with Friedrich Engels. Would later publish The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Lenin/Stalin Lenin originally studied to become a lawyer, but more interested in Marxism, he became involved in radical activities. When he was exiled in Western Europe, he published a Russian-language Marxist newspaper which was smuggled into Russia. He and his followers, all Russian Marxists, split from the Russian Social Democrats and became known as Bolsheviks. Stalin was Lenin’s successor and developed the doctrine of socialism in one country. He felt that the Soviet Union could survive and develop its socialist society even if the
world revolution did not occur in the near future. After he came to power, he forced industrialization.
Leo XIII Pope Leo XIII expressed his concern about economic and social issues in his letter Rerum Novarum. He condemned socialism, especially Marxism, for its atheism, as well as for its opposition to the private ownership of property and doctrine of the class struggle. However, he also disliked laissez-faire capitalism because it regarded labor simply as one commodity among many. He insisted on the moral obligation of employers to pay their workers a living wage and defended the rights of workers to form labor unions in order to improve their conditions. Louis Blanc He felt the first step to a socialist society was political reform – creating a French republic based on universal manhood suffrage and establishment of a workers’ party. This party would soon gain control of the government and could nationalize the railroads and use profits of railroads and tax revenues in order to create a social workshop in every area of industry. The social workshops would be owned and managed by workers who would share in the profits. Better items would be produced at a lower cost than in privately owned factories. These social workshops would drive privately owned factors into bankruptcy, which would be converted into social workshops. In the end, all industry would consist of social workshops. Louis XVIII The brother of Louis XVI, he ascended the throne to begin the Bourbon restoration after the overthrow of Napoleon. “Manchester School” The term used to refer to radical liberalism in the form of economics. This includes laissez-faire economics, free trade, government withdrawal from the economy, and free capitalistic enterprise. It is mainly influenced by the Classical Ricardian School (Ricardo’s ideas, such as the Iron Law of Wages) Materialism Only material objects are real, which is the antithesis of Romanticism. Since God cannot be seen or touched, God is not real. Mensheviks A more moderate, democratic faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party. Meaning “minority,” Mensheviks were followers of Julius Martov. Michael Bakunin A Russian radical who was a proponent of revolutionary violence. He believed that the revolutionary movement should be led by secret societies of committed radicals. Once the workers had been lead in a seizure of power, the state would be destroyed and a new social order created based on a loose federation of autonomous
communities. Pierre Proudhon Wrote What is Property? in 1840, denouncing property as theft. He believed that the people who do the work should own the property, rather than capitalists. The state should be replaced with a voluntary, cooperative society of peasants, shopkeepers, and artisans.
Proletariat The working class, depicted by Marx as being exploited by the capitalists. Forced to work for cheap wages and live in shoddy tenement houses, the working class’ plight soon prompted social reform. Revisionism Doctrines of Eduard Bernstein, who questioned Marx’s views toward capitalism. He argued that the standard of living in Europe was on the rise, ownership of capitalist industry was becoming more widespread through stockholding, and the members of the working class were now able to vote. He felt that social reform through democratic institutions replaced revolution as the path to a humane socialist society. A changing of fundamental Marxist ideas. Robert Bakewell The first person to introduce the scientific breeding of cows and sheep for greater productivity/profit. Robert Fulton An American engineer that is credited with developing the first commercially viable steamship, which sped up shipping and lowered transport costs. Robert Owen He became a partner at one of the largest cotton factories in Britain at New Lanark, Scotland. As a firm believer in the environmentalist psychology of the Enlightenment, he felt that if people were placed in the correct surroundings, they could be improved. He also thought it was possible to create a humane industrial environment while still realizing profits. At New Lanark, he gave workers good quarters, recreational possibilities, and provided children with education. There were several churches and the factory gave rewards for good work. He called for a reorganization of industry based on his own successful model. Robert Peel Helped steer the Catholic Emancipation Act through Parliament, which allowed Roman Catholics to become members of Parliament. Sponsored legislation in 1828 that placed police forces on London streets, which came to e known as “bobbies.” These forces were not armed and they were distinguished by an easily recognizable uniform.
Repealed the Corn Laws in 1846 that removed the tariffs protecting the domestic price of grain. This marked the lowering of British tariffs and was accompanied by a program to modernize British agriculture and make it more efficient. Royal Society of London The “scientific think tank” where new ideas regarding technology were circulated and scientific research was encouraged. It is the world’s oldest scientific society. Saint-Simon Count Henri de Saint-Simon was an early utopian socialist who believed that modern society required rational management. Private wealth, property, and enterprise should be governed by an administration rather than its owners. His ideal government consisted of a large board of directors organizing and coordinating activity of individuals and groups to achieve social harmony.
Scientific Socialism Friedrich Engels referred to the system that Karl Marx proposed as “scientific socialism” in order to contrast it with utopian socialism. He saw this new theory as more concrete than the idealistic principles of the utopian socialists. Squires The squires were wealthy landowners who went into agriculture for profit. This eventually ended in farms that were more productive (profitable). Surplus Value The remainder of the created wealth produced by skilled workers – the surplus value became the possession of capitalists. The Enclosure Acts The squires, in order to gain more land for farming and livestock breeding, passed a series of laws that allowed them to usurp what was once common, shared land, from the peasant class. Without land and room for their own animals, hundreds of thousands of peasants migrated to the new world or went to cities to work in industrial factories. Thomas Malthus The condition of the working class cannot be improved. Since population increased on a geometric scale and food increased on an arithmetic scale, population would outstrip the food supply. Additionally, if wages were raised for the working class, workers would produce more children, who would consume the extra wages and more food.
Thomas Newcomen Invented the first steam engine. However, it was very heavy and generally only used in mining operations, such as to operate a pump to drain water from coal mines. James Watt improved Newcomen’s work in 1769 with a more portable type of engine that was adapted for textile-mill use and for transportation.
Upton Sinclair Pulitzer-Prize winning American author whose life experiences resulted in his adoption of socialist ideas and themes. Lived from 1878 – 1968. Utilitarianism Application of the principal of utility (the greatest happiness for the greatest number) would overrule the special interests of privileged groups who prevented rational government. Use of reason and utility would result in justice being realized. Utopian Socialists Their ideas advocated the creation of ideal communities and questioned the structures and values of the existing capitalistic framework – thus utopian socialist. However, they do not necessarily follow the above description. Another factor was their discussion and sometimes practice of radical ideas regarding sexuality and the family. This caused them to lose the support of people who would have agreed with their economic ideas, but were unsympathetic to their views on free love and open family relationships. War Communism The economic, social, and political system enforced during the Russian Civil War by Lenin. Political and economic administration became highly centralized, with all major decisions coming from the top in a nondemocratic manner. The banks, transport system, and heavy industry were controlled by this government. War communism aided the victory of the Red Army, but generated domestic opposition to the Bolsheviks.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.