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LINKAGES BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABILITY/CHANGE, PASTORALISM, LIVELIHOODS AND AGROFORESTRY IN THE DRYLANDS OF UGANDA

By

JAMES WILLIAMS KISEKKA


Msc. FORESTRY

2010/HD07/3363U

INSTRUCTORS: DR. C. OKIA & DR. J.B.L. OKULLO

A PAPER PRESENTED AS THE FIRST ASSIGNMENT IN THE DRYLAND AGROFORESTRY COURSE UNIT, (FOM 71O3), OF THE FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURE CONSERVATION, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY 2010

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TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................... ii 1.1 Drylands in Uganda .........................................................................................................................3 1.2 Agroforestry ....................................................................................................................................5 1.3 Pastoralism ......................................................................................................................................6 1.4 Climate variability / change ............................................................................................................7 2.0 CLIMATE CHANGE, LIVELIHOODS AND AGROFORESTRY ..................................................7 2.1 Climate change and biodiversity .....................................................................................................8 2.2 Agroforestry as a remedy to climate change ...................................................................................9 3.0 CLIMATE CHANGE AND PASTORALISM IN DRYLANDS .....................................................10 3.1 Climate change and pasture land ...................................................................................................10 3.2 Climate change and animal diseases .............................................................................................11 3.3 Climate change and pastoral livelihoods .......................................................................................11 3.4 Climate change and pastoralists food security .............................................................................12 3.5 Agroforestry for better pastoral livelihoods ..................................................................................12 4.0 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................13 5.0 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................14

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1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Drylands in Uganda Jama and Zeila (2005) define drylands as arid, semiarid and hyper-arid areas in which annual evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall and in which agricultural productivity is limited by poor availability of moisture. For this report, the definition of drylands by Kakuru et al., (2004);Okullo et al. (2005) which refers to a dryland as anywhere in Uganda where rainfall is a problem because of amount, distribution and unreliability, will be adopted. Drylands occupy 41% of the earths land surface, are home to 35% of its population (Mortimore et al., 2009), and are characterized by low (100-600 mm annually), erratic and highly inconsistent rainfall levels (IFAD, 2000). More than 30% of the worlds drylands are found in Africa where they cover 65% of the continental landmass (1.96 billion ha), in 25 countries. In eastern and central Africa, the Arid and Semiarid Lands (ASALs) occupy significant areas; 75% of Kenya, 50% of Ethiopia and Tanzania, 30% of Uganda and 20% of Rwanda (Jama and Zeila, 2005). However, Jama et al. (2006) reported that drylands occupy 80% of Kenya, 67% of Ethiopia, 50% of Tanzania and 40% of Uganda. A notable increase in the extent of drylands is manifested for Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda in a period of just one year (2005 - 2006). It could be imperative, therefore, to conclude that drylands are expanding, probably in response to climate change and its effect; some of which are desertification and land degradation. According to Okullo et al. (2005), Ugandas drylands occupy what is commonly referred to as the cattle corridor, an area stretching from the North-East (the rangelands from Moroto and Kotido), through Luwero and South to Masaka and Mbarara (through Central to South-East of the country). Kakuru et al., (2004) reported that it covers many districts stretching from Kotido, Moroto and Katakwi in the North-East through Nakasongola and parts of Luwero in the Central to Rakai, Mbarara and Ntugamo (Fig.1). These areas are mainly rangelands and they cover approximately 84,000 sq. km. (about 40%) of the total land area. In these areas, semi-arid and dry sub-humid conditions prevail. They receive low and unreliable rainfall (450 - 800 mm) and drought is a common recurrent phenomenon, thus the vegetation is sparse (Kakuru et al., 2004; Okullo et al., 2005). The drylands are
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considered to be the second most fragile ecosystem in Uganda, after the highlands (Kakuru et al., 2004). It can be noted that the definition of drylands in terms of amount of rainfall received can vary according to localities as evident above, where the rainfall range; (100-600 mm annually) reported for East African drylands, in general, by Jama and Zeila (2005) is lower than that; (450 - 800 mm) reported for Ugandas drylands by (Okullo et al., 2005).

Figure 1: Map of Uganda Showing Extent of Drylands (Extracted from Okullo et al., 2005)

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1.2 Agroforestry Jama et al. (2006) define Agroforestry, as a land use system in which trees and shrubs are grown in association with crops or animals in the same land unit. These components can be managed using different ways called Agroforestry systems. These are; Agrisilvicultural: This system involves simultaneously growing crops and trees on the same piece of land. Some commonly used agrisilviculture systems include alley cropping and hedgerow cropping. Silvopastoral: This system involves raising livestock on improved pastures grown in association with trees. Some commonly used systems are alley farming and live fences. Agrisilvopastoral: This system involves a three-way mixture based on a combination of crops, trees and animals. Such a system requires skillful management, and can be sustainable even in harsh environments and fragile soils. Agroforestry has the potential to arrest land degradation and rural poverty in the drylands through its service and productive functions. Service functions include soil fertility maintenance through erosion control and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), watershed protection, maintain ecological stability, conservation of bio-diversity and carbon sequestration. Agroforestry has the potential to increase carbon sink capacity thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. Productive functions include high value fruits for income and nutrition security, supply of high quality fodder for livestock, wood for household energy, timber/poles for construction and income generation. In many parts of Africa, farmers traditionally practice agroforestry. Trees are planted in agricultural or silvopastoral systems to provide shade, windbreak, medicines, or to meet household energy needs. Traditional agroforestry system takes the form of trees scattered on crop fields, woodlots, homestead tree planting and multi-storey home garden (Eyasu, 2002).

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1.3 Pastoralism Pastoralism has been described as the sharp symbiotic relationship between local ecology, domesticated livestock and people in resource-scarce, climatically marginal and often highly variable conditions (Davies and Nori, 2008). However, for the case of this report, the definition of pastoralism by Davies and Roba (2010) as the extensive livestock production in the rangelands in which livestock (herd) mobility is a central management tool, will be adopted. Pastoralism in Africa evolved in response to long-term climate variability, and is by its very nature a form of adaptation to climate change. The Sahara entered a period of prolonged desiccation approximately 7000 years ago. With no reliable supplies of permanent water, pastoralism enabled people to adapt to an increasingly arid and unpredictable environment by moving livestock according to the shifting availability of water and pasture (Brooks, 2006). Davies and Roba (2010) report that Archaeological evidence from the Sahel suggests that pastoralism in Africa may have evolved 6000 years ago as an adaptation to climate changes, and particularly increased aridity, and that it spread in parallel with the increasingly unpredictable and arid climate. In dry and sub-humid lands, pastoral livelihoods continuously adapt to a limited, highly variable and often unpredictable resource endowment, and depend on a wide range of biodiversity, not simply for livestock production but for a wide range of goods and services that enable household survival and development. The capacity to adapt is crucial to sustainable livelihoods and where this adaptive capacity has been weakened it has led directly to failed pastoral livelihoods and degraded rangeland environments (Davies and Roba, 2010).According to Hesse and Cotula (2006), pastoral systems though diverse, display the following common characteristics: Livestock depend on natural pastures for their diets, and rainfall is the most important factor determining the quantity and quality of pastures and water. Herds are composed mainly of indigenous livestock breeds. Livestock represent more than just economic assets - they are also social, cultural and spiritual assets, and define social identity. Natural resources are managed through common property regimes where access to pastures and water is negotiated and dependent on flexible and reciprocal arrangements.
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Pastoral systems are dependent on maintaining a delicate and constantly changing balance between pastures, livestock and people, and when the fine balance is upset, as it is with climate change, the effects on the pastoral way of life can be dramatic (WISP, 2007). For example, if there are too many animals, the family herd will not find sufficient pasture, and there is a danger of over-grazing if livestock mobility is constrained. If there are too few animals or the family is too large, subsistence requirements will not be met. If the family is too small, livestock may not be properly managed and, crucially, if quality and quantity of pastures decrease dramatically (e.g. as a result of drought), pastoralists may lose their livestock and face destitution (Hesse and Cotula, 2006). 1.4 Climate variability / change The definition for the term climate change and related concepts often varies from person to person, and the interpretations also vary over time. The term is often used to include the occurrence of medium term changes in weather patterns, increased climate variability and more frequent climatic extremes (i.e. droughts and floods). However, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), an authoritative voice on climate change issues, refers to climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity (IPCC, 2007). The IPCC (2007) reports that this definition differs from that in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, where climate change refers to a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. In most drylands, climate change implies increased temperatures, higher evaporation rates, sporadic rainfall patterns and increased seasonal aridity, all of which are major determinants of drylands ecological processes (Ehlers and Kreutzman, 2000). They further state that although long-term impacts of climate are difficult to predict and vary from one location to another, most climate change models predict rising temperatures and decreasing rainfall in many dryland areas. 2.0 CLIMATE CHANGE, LIVELIHOODS AND AGROFORESTRY The drylands are considered marginal due to poor soil quality (shallow and stony soils with poor water holding capacity), inadequate and erratic rainfall and short growing period usually between 1-4
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months. Drought and crop failure are common problems making rain fed agriculture problematic in these areas. Temperatures are high leading to high rates of evapo-transpiration (Jama et al., 2006). Jama et al., (2006) reported that low and erratic rainfall and soil fertility depletion are the fundamental biophysical limitations responsible for declining productivity in drylands. This leads to a reduction in the vegetation cover of the areas in question, thereby causing land degradation through aggravating the rate of loss of top soil. Eyasu (2002) noted that the likely impacts of climate change will add to these existing stresses and aggravate the effects of land degradation. Also, increased temperature levels are expected to cause additional loss of moisture from the soil, reduced and more intense rainfall and higher frequency and severity of extreme climatic events, such as floods and droughts. These factors are already leading to a loss of biological and economic productivity and putting drylands population at risk of short- and longterm food insecurity. Njoya (2009) reported that Climate change, therefore, jeopardizes the livelihoods of agro-pastoral communities living in drylands as their livelihoods depend on natural resources such as pasture and water. Climatic changes are happening in Uganda, with more erratic rainfall in the March to June rainy season bringing drought and reductions in crop yields. On the other hand the rainfall, especially in the later rains towards the end of the year, is reported as coming in more intense and destructive downpours, bringing floods, landslides and soil erosion (Oxfarm, 2008). Such floods were evident in Northern Uganda, especially the Teso region, in 2007. Many people were affected (some displaced and lives lost by the floods and water-borne diseases that broke out after the floods) and crops destroyed and animals lost. The end result of this was a general reduction in the overall productivity of the drylands as crops and animals are destroyed. 2.1 Climate change and biodiversity Climate change will impact negatively on biodiversity from the ecosystem to the species level. As weather patterns change, the boundaries of some habitats and ecosystems will shift, with some ecosystems expanding to new areas whilst others become smaller, contributing to a sharp acceleration in extinction rates. In other cases ecosystems may remain spatially intact, but climate change will
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disrupt their functioning for example by changing species composition or influencing water and nutrient cycling. The outcome will be significant shifts in the areas suitable for different species with large geographical changes in species composition and in some cases projected total loss of suitable climate for some species (McClean et al., 2005).That translates into a loss of vegetation that is food to the animal component of agro-pastoral systems, and also a reduction in the ability of such affected areas to support both plant and tree growth components of agro-silvicultural systems. Also the disruption of the functioning of ecosystems affects the organisms therein, thereby causing their death. 2.2 Agroforestry as a remedy to climate change Various researchers and institutions have reported that Agroforestry plays an increasingly important role in carbon sequestration by increasing the tree cover of an area. Practices like tree domestication and landscape mosaicsor mixed-use landscapes including trees, crops and animalshelp in both adapting to and mitigating the effects of climate change (WAC,2010). Livestock also play a role and there are several good grazing techniques, such as using grazing to stimulate grasses, providing adequate recovery time following grazing and adapting grazing patterns to the impacts of climate change on the plant community. The IPCC (2007) estimates that restoration of grasslands and good grazing land management can globally store between 100 and 800 Megatonnes of CO2 equivalents per year. If managed correctly these techniques could lead to healthier grasslands, which in turn could increase livestock productivity. Stoorvogel and Smaling (1990) pointed out that Soil fertility depletion is the primary cause of food insecurity and low income of farmers in Africa, and they attributed this situation to continuous cropping that gradually depletes the soil of its nutrients and renders it less fertile, thereby resulting into poor yields. The ultimate effect of reduced yield is farmers opening-up virgin land in the woodlands for crop farming, thereby depleting these areas as well. However, through agroforestry, soil fertility can be restored. ICRAF (2003) reported that planted fallows can increase the amount of available nitrogen in the topsoil in the order of 100 - 200 kg N ha-1 within 0.5 2 years. An example was cited in Western Kenya; where nitrogen- fixing tree species like Crotalaria grahamiana, Sesbania sesban and Tephrosia vogelii were used to replenish the soil nutrients.

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3.0 CLIMATE CHANGE AND PASTORALISM IN DRYLANDS Climate change is ranked among the main drivers affecting ecosystems and biodiversity (SCBD, 2007). Mobile pastoralists are amongst those most at risk to climate change, yet they are amongst those with the greatest potential to adapt to climate change, and they may also offer one of the greatest hopes for mitigating climate change (Davies and Nori, 2008).While climatic fluctuations have always been a defining feature of dryland areas, and pastoralists have developed resilient livelihood systems to cope with difficult climates, global climate change is raising new challenges for pastoral systems in Africa and elsewhere (Hesse and Cotula, 2006).

Davies and Roba (2010) report that climate variability will severely affect pastoralism through its effect on both the quantity and the quality of natural resources, reducing the carrying capacity of rangelands and the availability of water for livestock as well as changing plant species compositions in a manner that may favour less palatable species. The gross adverse effects of these events will be decreased production of crops and fodder for livestock, shortage of water and decrease in other natural inputs to local livelihoods. Ehlers and Kreutzman (2000) also noted that Climate change will induce a shift in drylands species distribution and reduced productivity of many pastoral lands. As stated earlier, climate change will result in an increase in temperatures in the dryland regions. As a result, these areas will become drier, and existing water shortages will worsen. In addition, rainfall will become more unreliable and unpredictable thereby causing more extreme weather conditions such as longer and more frequent droughts. Where this happens, the delicate balance on which pastoral systems depend is undermined. 3.1 Climate change and pasture land The quality, quantity and spatial distribution of natural pastures are mainly shaped by rainfall. Therefore, changes in rainfall patterns will result in increasingly scarce, scattered and unpredictable pastures. Also, the number, distribution and productivity of permanent pastures and water points, which are so critical for livestock survival during the dry season, are bound to decline. Scarcer resources, coupled with current levels of population growth, are likely to lead to stronger competition among pastoral communities and between them and other groups - possibly resulting in conflict and
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even violent clashes. As a result, access to pastures becomes more difficult, leading to loss of livestock and of livelihoods. 3.2 Climate change and animal diseases The impacts of climate change on livestock disease are uncertain, with both positive and negative outcomes projected. Certain pathogens may be reduced by heat and drought, such as Trypanosomiasis and worms, although the same circumstances will lead to congregation of animals around water holes, increasing transmission of diseases (Davies and Roba, 2010). Climate change will influence livestock diseases through the effect on life cycles and transmission of pathogens, through the impact on vectors and on vector habitat, and through the impact on host immunity, which can for example be suppressed by exposure to ultra violet radiation. 3.3 Climate change and pastoral livelihoods Pastoral households are those in which at least 50% of household gross revenue (including income and consumption) comes from livestock or livestock-related activities (Swift, 1998). Pastoral societies of Africa inhabit drylands environments which exhibit wide variations in rainfall amounts from year to year. Davies and Roba (2010) noted that the effect of climate change on pastoral livelihoods is complex and not necessarily only negative. Higher temperatures will induce negative impacts through increased evapo-transpiration and possibly through change in species composition. In some areas however, more rainfall is predicted and this could improve the natural resources available to pastoralists. Elsewhere, rainfall is predicted to decline, which could render some rangeland resources less productive, but could equally render marginal areas less suitable for crop production and more suited to livestock keeping (Davies and Roba, 2010). In the longer term, pastoralists are likely to further diversify their livelihoods, both within the pastoral system (i.e. increasing reliance on more drought-resistant species such as camels) and out of livestock production. However, efforts to diversify out of livestock production are likely to be constrained by the difficult environment characterizing pastoral areas in Africa. Over time, pastoral groups will shift out of drier areas that are no longer viable, to zones that are more humid and have more predictable rainfall patterns. Existing land tenure arrangements and services in these areas will come under increased strain, exacerbating relations between communities and fuelling conflict.
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3.4 Climate change and pastoralists food security Dependence on the market for a substantial part of their food supplies makes pastoralists vulnerable to changing prices of the products they sell (live animals, milk, animal products like hides, skins and wool) and the cereals (food) they buy (Swift, 1998). Cereal prices change in response to such supplyside factors such as the success of the harvest, remaining farmer and trader stocks, prospects for the current cropping season; and demand-side factors which include urban and pastoral needs, and livestock prices; which change in turn according to such supply-side factors as the success of the breeding season, alternative sources of pastoral nutrition, herd-owners expectation about pasture availability in the forthcoming dry season, and demand-side factors such as seasonal live weight and condition of the animals, and cash income of purchasers such as farmers and urban people (Swift, 1989). For pastoralists whose livelihood depends on livestock, drought conditions cause malnutrition or diseases of livestock due to unavailability of sufficient fodder and deterioration in pastoral lands. This causes a reduction in number of animals available for sale, and also a drop in the prices of those animals due to reduced quality. Yet, food prices will increase due to poor harvests that are characteristic of drought conditions. As a result, pastoralists will be rendered un-able to buy the expensive food stuffs, thereby reducing their food security. 3.5 Agroforestry for better pastoral livelihoods With the adoption of agroforestry, however, pastoralists will not have to shift from their drying areas but will instead be equipped to rehabilitate such areas so as to improve their productivity. A success story is given by Pye-Smith (2010), in which farmers in Tanzania were able to restore vegetation and productivity in the Shinyanga; a region that had been heavily degraded. It is reported that decades of deforestation and inappropriate land management had turned Shinyanga into the Desert of Tanzania, and that the region was suffering severe drought and even soil erosion. However, by establishing and managing enclosed fodder reserves; known to the local farmers as ngitili, productivity has been improved. One of the farmers reported that the ngitili provides him with firewood and construction poles, as well as protein for his dairy cow and a plentiful supply of pollen for his bees. I get more milk

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from my cow than I used to, he says, and when my cattle have been feeding in the ngitili they put on weight quickly and fetch a better price in the market. With the increased animal quality and milk yields, pastoralists are ensured of better prices and more money from the sale of the animals and milk, thereby improving their economic status which consequently makes them able to buy food stuffs no matter their price in the market. They are also provided with a rich source of protein for their families. In the long run, pastoralists are rendered food secure. 4.0 CONCLUSION The threat of climate change has brought - and will continue to bring increased land degradation to the already marginal lands inhabited by pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. Climate change is already having a devastating impact on the lives of the people in the dryland regions of Uganda, for example, through causing food insecurity and loss of lives as earlier seen in the Teso region. However, the restoration and good management of drylands through practices like agroforestry could contribute to both adaptation and mitigation for climate change, as well as increasing food security, protecting biodiversity and reducing risk of drought and flooding. Good management practices include restoring organic matter to soils, reducing erosion and re-establishment of vegetation cover. Pastoralists in the Drylands of Uganda could also live to tell such stories as those told by their counterparts in the Shinyanga region of Tanzania, if they, too, embrace good management practices.

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5.0 REFERENCES BROOKS, N. (2006) Climate Change, Drought and Pastoralism in the Sahel. Discussion note for the World Initiative on Sustainable Pastoralism, Nairobi. CAMPBELL, D.J., (1977). Strategies for coping with drought in the Sahel: A study of recent population movements in the Department of Maradi, Niger. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Clark University, Worcester. CCCD (2008) Climate Change and Drylands, Commission on Climate Change and Development (CCCD), Krftriket. DAVIES, J. AND NORI, M. (2008) Managing and Mitigating Climate Change through Pastoralism, Climate Change, Energy Change and Conservation, Policy Matters 16. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Nairobi. DAVIES, J. and ROBA, G. (2010) Compilation of Experiences in the Field of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, Soil Management and Pastoralism in Dry and Sub-Humid Lands. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Eastern and Southern Africa Region, Nairobi. EHLERS, E. and KREUTZMAN, H. (2000) High Mountain Pastoralism in Northern Pakistan, Stuttgart. EYASU, E. (2002) Farmers Perceptions of Soil Fertility Change and Management. SOS Sahel and ISD, Addis Ababa. HESSE, C. and COTULA, L. (2006) Climate change and pastoralists: Investing in people to respond to adversity. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London. ICRAF (2003) Improved fallows for Western Kenya: an extension guideline. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. IFAD (2000) Sustainable Livelihoods in the Drylands: A discussion paper for the eighth session of the commission on sustainable development. International Fund for Agricultural Development. United Nations, New York. IPCC (2007)Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change (2007) The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M and Miller, H.L. (Eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and New York.
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JAMA, B. AND ZEILA, A. (2005) Agroforestry in the Drylands of Eastern Africa: A Call to Action. ICRAF Working Paper No. 1. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. JAMA, B., EYASU, E. and MOGOTSI, K. (2006) Role of Agroforestry in Improving Food Security and Natural Resource Management in the Drylands: A Regional Overview. Journal of the Drylands 1(2): 206-211. KAKURU, W., OKIA, C. and OKORIO, J. (2004) Strategy For Agroforestry Development In Ugandas Drylands. Paper presented at the Drylands Agroforestry Workshop 1st-3rd September 2004. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) Headquarters, Nairobi. MCCLEAN, C.J., LOVETT, J.J., KU, W., HANNAH, L., HENNING SOMMER, J., BARTHLOTT, W., TERMANSEN, M., SMITH, G.F., TOKUMINE, S. AND TAPLIN, J.R.D. (2005) African Plant Diversity and Climate Change. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 92 (2). MORTIMORE, M., ANDERSON, S., COTULA, L., DAVIES, J., FACCER, K, HESSE, C., MORTON, J., NYANGENA, W., SKINNER, J., and WOLFANGEL, C. (2009). Dryland opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development, IUCN, London. NJOYA, A. (2009) Building Climate Change Resilience for African Livestock West and Central Africa Region, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, Younde. OKULLO, J.B.L., KAKURU, W., and OKIA, C.A. (2005) Potential of Agroforestry in The Drylands of Uganda. Staff publications 2005,Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Makerere University, Kampala. PYE-SMITH, C. (2010) A Rural Revival in Tanzania: How agroforestry is helping farmers to restore the woodlands in Shinyanga Region. ICRAF Trees for Change no. 7. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. SCBD, (2007) Biodiversity and Climate Change, IBD 2007 Booklet, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. STOORVOGEL AND SMALING (1990)Assessment of Soil Nutrient Depletion in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1983-2000. Report 28. The Winand Staring centre for Integrated land Soil and Water Research, Wageningen. SWIFT, J. (1989) Why are rural people vulnerable to famine IDS Bulletin, 20 (2), 8-15.

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SWIFT, J. (1998) Factors influencing the dynamics of livelihood diversification and rural non-farm employment in space and time. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham. UNFCCC (1992) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Article 1, Rio de Jineiro. WAC (2010) Climate Change and Agroforestry, World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved from http://www.worldagroforestry.org/blogs/admin/climate-change-and-agroforestry, 2010. WISP (2007) Pastoralists as Shrewd Managers of Risk and Resilience in the Horn of Africa, Policy Note No. 04, World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, Nairobi. October,

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