System Concept HRD

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HRD is mainly concerned with developing the skill, knowledge and competencies of people and it is people-oriented concept. When we call it as a people-oriented concept the question of people being developed in the larger or national context or in the smaller organizational context? Is it different at the macro and micro level? HRD can be applied both for the national level and organizational level.

HRD at Macro and Micro Level:
HRD as stated earlier is mainly concerned with developing the competencies of people. When we all see it as a people oriented concept then several questions come to the mind like should the people be developed in the larger and national context or in the smaller institutional context? Are they different at the macro level and micro level? As things stand now, HRD applies to both institutional (micro) as well as national (macro issues).The main objective however is to develop the newer capabilities in people so as to enable them to tackle both present and future challenges while realizing organizational goals. However, it is useful both at macro and micro levels.

Macro level:
At the macro level HRD is concerned with the development of people for the nation‘s well being. It takes health capabilities skills, attitudes of people which are more useful to the development of the nation as a whole. While calculating the national income and economic growth the prospective HRD concept examines the individual‘s potentialities, their attitudes, aspirations, skills, knowledge etc. and establishes a concrete base for economic planning. However, HRD‘s contribution at macro level has not gained popularity as yet. Micro Levels: HRD is concern for development in the organizations at the grass root level. Small wonder then, that HRD was well received by companies and managements as they realized its importance and foresaw its future contribution for the individual and organizational development. Generally HRD at micro level talks of the organizations‘ manpower, planning, selection, training, performance appraisal, development, potential appraisal, compensation, organizational development etc. HRD‘s involvement in all these areas is mainly with an objective to develop certain new capabilities in people concerned to equip them to meet the present job challenges and to accept future job requirements. HRD from organizational point of view is a process in which the employees of an organization are helped/motivated to acquire and develop technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge, skills and abilities, and mould the values, beliefs, attitude necessary to perform present and future roles by realizing highest human potential with a view to contribute positively to the organizational, group, individual and social goals.

There are three aspects, viz., 1. Employees of an organization are helped/motivated; 2. Acquire, develop and mould various aspects of human resources; and 3. Contribute to the organizational, group, individual and social goals.

The first aspect deals with helping and motivating factors for HRD.
These factors may be called â˜Enabling factors which include: Organization structure, organizational climate, HRD climate, HRD knowledge and skills to managers, human resource planning, recruitment and selection. The second

aspect deals with the techniques or methods which are the means to acquire

develop and mould the various human resources. These techniques include: Performance, appraisal, Potential appraisal, Career planning and Development, Training, Management development, Organizational development, Social and Cultural programs, and Workers’ participation in management and quality circles. The third

category includes the outcomes contribution of the HRD process to the goals

of the organization, group, individuals and the society.

Definition:
―HRD is the process of determining the optimum methods of developing and improving the human resources of an organization and the systematic improvement of the performance of employees through training, education and development and leadership for the mutual attainment of organizational and personal goals‖ (Smith) ―A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands‖ (Werner and DeSimone 2006) (Swanson and Holton, n.d) has also quoted definitions of HRD offered by some authors (McLagan; Gilley & England and Smith) as: ―HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development and organizational development to improve individual and organizational effectiveness‖ (McLagan). ―HRD is organized learning activities arranged within an organization to improve performance and personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and the organization‖ (Gilley and England),

―A series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioral change‖ (by Nadler and Nadler 1970)

Human resource development in the organization context is a process by which the

employees of an organization are helped, in a continuous and planned
way, to:
1.

Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles.

2.

Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and/ororganizational development purpose.

3.

Develop an organizational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork, and collaborations among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well being, motivation, and pride of employees.
HRD is a process, not merely a set of mechanisms and techniques. The mechanisms and techniques such as performance appraisal, counseling, training, and organization development interventions are used initiate, facilitate, and promote this process in a continues way. Because the process has no limit, the mechanisms may need to be examined periodically to see whether they are promoting or hindering the process. Organizations can facilitate this process of development by planning for it, by allocating organizational resources for the purpose, and by exemplifying an HRD philosophy that values human beings and promotes their development.

Benefits Of Human Resource Development To Your Organization:
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Systematic planning to support organizational mission Increased capacity to achieve the organization‘s goals
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Clear definition of each employee‘s work responsibilities and link to organization mission
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Greater equity between compensation and level of responsibility
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Defined levels of supervision and management support
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Increased level of performance and efficient utilization of employees skills and knowledge
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Cost savings through improved efficiency and productivity
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Increased ability to manage change

Over all look changes thinking phenomena changes.Similarly provision of health facilities will result in healthy Human Resource which willcontribute to the national economic development. improved skills.Important: Significance of Human Resource Development Human resource are the assets which do not find a place for mentioning in the balance sheet of a company. clean environment. engineers. Job opportunities would be created in the country. And even business environment will flourish in the state which creates many job opportunities. 2) Increase in Productivity: The batter education. machines. 3)Eradication of Social And Economic Backwardness: Human Resource development has an ample effect on the backwardness economy and society. will all have its positive effects. scientist. to run these units doctors. dams. It is important like other resources of production like a material. buildings bridges. Any investment made on training and development of people is sure to show the results in the years to come. and provision of healthy atmosphere will result in proper and most efficient use of resources (non-natural & natural) which will result in increase ineconomic production. some of the importance of Human Resource or Human Capital are. IMPORTANCEOF HUMANR ESOUR CE DEVELOPMENT Human Resource is the most Important and vital Factor of Economic Development or it can be said that humans are the agents of development. Some other benefits are:  Growth of organisation: . investment on the human resource.The provision of education will increase literacy which will produce skilled Human Resource. 5) Social Revolution: Because of Human Resource development the socio economic life of the peoples of a country changes drastically. good health. money etc. 1)Country Develops if The Human Resource is Developed: To enhance economic development the state constructs roads. power houses. etc. progressive thoughts are endorsed in to the minds of peoples. 4) Entrepreneurship Increase: Education. hospitals. are required.So if the state invests in a human resource it pays dividend in response. teachers.

 Development of Traits: HRD is associated with the development of total personality so that these can show and use their talent for the benefit of the organisation. The management should provide adequate opportunity for the development of human resource management for the development of their talents so that their development will benefits the organisational growth.  Good Relation: HRD manager stresses the need of coordination which is used for the benefits of himself and for the benefits of those who come in his/their touch. Thus they can develop their capability by which they can do their present job easily. finance. and marketing.  Growth of employees: HRD is associated with growth of employees. .  Creative Motivation: HRD manager motivates employees and improve their level of performance. In changing situation HRD must be viewed as the total system interrelated and interacting with other systems at work: production. checks monotony at work. HRD is associated with the following objectives:  Work Opportunity: HRD provides an opportunity and a systematic framework for the development resource in the organisation for full expression of their talents.Growth of organisation is associated with the development of its workforce.  Development of work culture: The need of HRD is felt as it improves the efficiency of employees.  Ability development: HRD makes capable employees. better communication. It helps employees to know their strengths and weaknesses and enable them to improve their performance.  Developing potentialities: The focus of HRD manager essentially is on enabling people to self-actualise through a systematic approach by which their existing talents are further developed. development of mutual cooperation and creativity of all the members comes into limelight.

Conclusion: The organisational effectiveness can be reflected through better quality. higher profits and more EPS (earning per shares) and more market price of shares. political. Performance Appraisal . these can be used at any time when these are needed. higher productivity.  Human Resource Information: HRM manager in general keeps all records to employees working in his organisation. This explains the increased role of HRD managers in modern industrial organisations which are working in the most uncertain social. team work for it is used for the effective cooperation and coordination of each employee which ultimately checks industrial unrest. OD tries to maintain good relations throughout the organisation. It informs them about future promotions and how to get these promotions. So HRD helps the employee to grow and develop in the organisation. 4. It makes them more efficient in their present jobs. culture and effective work plan which always result in more profitability. qualifications and skills. 2. Organisational Development (OD) HRD also involves Organisational Development. technological and international complex and competitive environment. Features of Human Resource Development HRD The nature / scope / characteristics or features of HRD are as follows :1. It also solves problems of absenteeism. 3. cost reduction.  Organisational Growth: HRM manager is responsible for developing health. It helps the employees to plan and develop their careers. It also prepares them for future higher jobs. low productivity and resistance to change. economical. Training and Development HRD involves training and developing the employees and managers. internal conflicts. Scope. Career Development HRD also involves career planning and development of employees. It improves their qualities. Develop team spirit: HRD manager develops the spirit of teamwork.

career planning. . This is because continuous changes happen in the organisation and environment. 6. and economics. Development of human resources never stops. Proper placement gives satisfaction to the employee. training. is achieved from HRD. potential appraisal. Continuous in Nature HRD is not a one time affair. etc. Financial and non-financial rewards are given. Therefore. Potential Appraisal. HRD uses all these subjects for training and developing the employees. 11. it uses many different subjects. Integrated use of sub-systems HRD system involves the integrated use of sub-systems such as performance appraisal. etc. etc. That is. training. 5. potential appraisal. It uses education. suggesting new ideas. Placement HRD places the right man in the right job. Key Element for solving problems Now-a-days an organisation faces many different problems. They also play the role of an HR systems designer and developer by assisting the HR management in designing and developing HR systems in an organization to increase its performance. 8. 10. These problems can be solved only by knowledge. These problems are caused due to the economic. It is a continuous process. It informs the employees about their strengths and weaknesses. At present the HRD Professionals acts as:   Strategic adviser to help the decision makers on issues related with HRD. communication. Role of HRD professional: With change in the organizational environment the role played by the HRD professionals has also undergone a change. Promotions and Transfer HRD also gives promotions and transfers to the employees based on performance appraisals. 7. etc. HRD is a key element for solving problems in the organisation. technological and social changes. Motivation by Rewards HRD also motivates the employees by giving them rewards for performing and behaving better. 9.HRD conducts Performance Appraisal. skill and creative efforts. This knowledge. It also advises them about how to increase their strengths and how to remove their weaknesses. etc. skill. Placement is based on performance appraisal. psychology. Multidisciplinary HRD is multidisciplinary. management. and it increases the efficiency. etc.

intervention strategies. One of the steps you can take instrengthening an HRD system is to make sure that all staff has a currentand up-to-date job description that provides them with information abouttheir general duties and responsibilities.  The role of a coach or a performance consultant is played by them when they advised line managers about the appropriate intervention designed to improve the performance of the group or an individual. . The result is more efficient work teams.  The role of organization design consultant is also played by them when they advised the management on work systems design and efficient use of available human resources.  HRD Professionals act as researchers when they assess the human resource development practices and programmes with the help of appropriate statistical procedure to find out their effectiveness and then they communicate the results to the top level management. When developing an integrated human resourcemanagement system.   They also prepare materials and other learning aids for these programmes.   Setting Work Priorities: You should also review your organization's personnel policies. They also act as organizational change agents by helping the management in designing and implementing change strategies to transform the organization. update them as needed. and make the updatedinformation available to all staff. you should review your organization's job classifications and related salary scales to ensure thatsalaries are appropriate to the level of responsibility and arecompetitive when compared with local economic conditions.  Responsibilities of Human Resource Development:   Fairness in the workplace One important managerialresponsibility is making sure that all managers and staff apply personnel policies on a day-to-day basis and distributetasks and responsibilities fairly and equitably amongemployees.  HR professionals work as instructional designer or learning programme specialist when they identify the needs of the employees and develop and design the required learning programmes. An HRD professional dons the role of career counselor when he assists individual employees in assessing their knowledge and skills to development realistic career development plan for the employee. The job description provides thesupervisor with a starting place in developing a work plan with theemployee. quality management and change reports.

 Providing Meaningful Work: Communicating to employeesthat their work matters is an important element in an HRDstrategy. B/ Culture (Attitude): . organizedtraining is only one vehicle for staff development.   Staff Development Responsibility Making staff development apriority is an importance component of a comprehensiveHRD system.    HRD Professionals will face challenges in the coming time are… A/ Technology (skill): Whatever changes world has seen in last 100 years more than those changes world is seeing in lastten years. Other staff development strategies include:     On-the-job learning through mentoring relationships. A well-managed program of training and staff development can broaden the skills and competencies of your staff and reap many pay-offs. Engaging in systematic planning and taking stepsto make sure that people's day-to-day work directly supportsthe priorities of the organization is critical to meeting yourorganization's objectives. Cross-functional assignments. ATM machine has replace pay order in a bank . Additional job assignments.Same way. These can all provide the challenge and opportunity neededfor personal and professional growth as well as increase theknowledge that people have in common and expose them tonew ways of thinking and doing. These objectives represent thestrategic areas in which your organization has decided tofocus in a given year.LEARNING are the best examples in the distance learning. Membership in task forces and committees. as identified during your organization'sannual planning process. Video Conferences and E. Technical presentations and discussions at staff meetings. new technology is changing old technology of the training world also. Awork planning and performance review system can improveindividual staff performance and increase staff motivation.  Encouraging Good Performance: An important element of a workplanning and performance review system is holding joint work planning and performance review meetings on aregular basis. If you use the system as the basis for creating a staff development plan. Formal. Web COURSE. if needed. This system allows both the supervisor and theemployee to evaluate performance and to plan ahead fortraining or other career development activities. it will also help you align staff development efforts more closely with your organization'sgoals.

( Time) Dignity of individual.) D/ Knowledge. Jack Welch) E/life style and trends. Life style of knowledge worker is change (e. Trust. Creditability. ( e . HRD professional has to inspire knowledge workers to perform in the above environment.HRD Professionals have to understand new habits first than start imparting training to bring a change in the habits of knowledge workers.invariant attributes of a successful corporation are an open environment. (Nelson Mandela. Bill Gates. Leadership in top management is dramatically changing. g : J I T S . World wide valuesare coming in to formality. HRD Climate & Its Elements: The HRD climate of an organisation plays a very important role in ensuring the competency. Meritocracy and fairness and justice. The HRD climate is both a means to an end as well as an end in itself.) Knowledge on leadership was different in the year 2000 and leadership is differently demonstrated in the year 2007. The HRD climate can be created using appropriate HRD systems and leadership styles of top management. Leadership by exampl e s . C/ Values (Behavior): Principle centric leadership is a trend in business houses and corporate governance. . (E. which is demonstrated by the world at different places.Simple rule.( e. stake holders. customers and society –at large are the new practices.World has become a small global village. Imagination. simple rules.(Including information) Knowledge enhancement for a HRD Professional will be a biggest challenge as he has to understand the new philosophy. F/ Global practices. G/ Environment: The only context –invariant and time.G. Retention of an employee. ( J u s t I n T i m e w i t h S m i l e ) . c l e a r conscience. E ach country is now moving towardsg l o b a l p r a c t i c e s . We find cultural changes in each country and benchmarking on a global scale is the only way to compete internationally.g. are the exemplary values seenon the front side of the business world. Time .. speed. motivation and development of its employees.g. suppliers. Relationship with employees. H R D p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a s t o m e e t c u l t u r a l Challenges.( Habit) New generation is a smart and fast and transparent generation. Vendors. accountability and excellence in the execution is a current environment. Call centre). Global rules are to be learnt well by a HRD Professional to conduct an effective session.

the extent of member‘s dedication or commitment to organisational purpose. Climate is the atmosphere in which individuals help. air HRD CLIMATE AND ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE HRD climate is an integral part of organisational climate. as temperature. It can be defined as perceptions the employee can have on the developmental environment of an organisation.The term ‗climate‘ is used to designate the quality of the internal environment which conditions in turn the quality of cooperation. the development of the individual. This developmental climate will have the following characteristics (Rao and Abraham. and the efficiency with which that purpose becomes translated into results. Climate is the composite or generally prevailing weather condition of a region. judge. It influences morale and the attitudes of the individual toward his work and his environment. constrain. 1986): — A tendency at all levels starting from top management to the lowest level to treat the people as the most important resource — A perception that developing the competencies in the employees is the job of every manager/supervisor — Faith in the capability of employees to change and acquire new competencies at any stage of life — A tendency to be open in communications and discussions rather than being secretive (fairly free expression of feelings) — Encouraging risk-taking and experimentation — Making efforts to help employees recognize their strengths and weaknesses through feedback . and find out about each other. reward.

They should have realisation that organisation is their organisation. reward management. Motivator role of Manager and Supervisor : To prepare Human Resource Development Climate. And whenever we talk about development at organisational level effort is needed from top level to bottom level. Means whatever amount is invested that should be based on development of employees. etc. Manager and Supervisors have to help the employees to develop the competencies in the employees. Top authority should not have thinking in their mind that their task is to only take decisions but they should also emphasized on proper implementation of decision by adopting various controlling technique. Bottom level workers have to work with dedication. What is needed to Develop Organisational Climate in Organisation Top to Bottom effort : Organisation is considered to be complete organisation after including top authority to bottom line of workers. employees will work for the well being of . career planning. training. Top management should trust the employees that after making huge effort to develop employees. To help the employees at lower level they need to updated properly and they need to share their expertise and experience with employees. Manager and Supervisor‘s responsibilities are more or we can say that they are the key players. Bottom level workers should have loyal mind-set towards their organisation. job-rotation. potential development. Faith upon employees : In the process of developing HRD Climate employer should have faith on its employees capabilities.— A general climate of trust — A tendency on the part of employees to be generally helpful to each other and collaborate with each other — Team spirit — Tendency to discourage stereotypes and favouritism — Supportive personnel policies — Supportive HRD practices including performance appraisal.

Components of HRD Climate:The organizational climate consists of:- . Nature of employees should be helping for management and for its colleagues. Organisation can utilize and develop employees more by assigning risky task. Feedback : Feedback should be taken regularly to know the drawbacks in system. Any kind of partial behaviour should be avoided. and also willingness to work as a team. Management and Managers need to give equal importance. Top management‘s philosophy should be clear towards Human Resource and its well being to encourage the employees. Encouraging and risk taking experimentation : Employees should be motivated by giving them authority to take decision. This will help to gain confidence in employees mind. Those people who are performing good they need to appreciated and those who are not performing good they need to be guided. Clear communication process will help to establish the HRD Climate. Supportive personnel management: Personnel policies of organisation should motivate employees to contribute more from their part.organisation and for human being also. Team Spirit : There must be feeling of belongingness among the employees. This concept is risky but gradually it will bring expertise in employees to handle similar situation in future. Employee will trust on management and he can express his opinion freely which is very good for HRD Climate. It will help to develop confidence in employees mind. They should be always read to help to customers too. Free expression of Feelings : Whatever Top management feels about employees they have to express to employees and whatever employees think about top management it must be express in other words we can say that there should not be anything hidden while communication process. Helpful nature of employees : Whenever we talk about 100% effort then we have to talk about employees effort too. Feedback will help to remove the weakness. Discouraging stereotypes and favouritism : Management need to avoid those practices which lead to favouritism.

positive or negative. people will not know what the work process is. and who can Assist in solving problems that may arise. attitudes. The most effective work culture is one that supports the organizations HR strategies by aligning behaviors. who is responsible for what. Before any HR strategy is designed there must be a clear understanding of the organisation. The structure enables the people‘s energy to be focused towards process achievement and goal achievement. processes and methods with the desired results. Employee must have a clear definition of not only the work structure but also the role used to organize the work. its current values.  Organisational CultureOrganisational culture is the pattern of beliefs. and customs that exists within an organisation. so that employee‘s faith in organisation. If the structure and the role is not clear. its structure. From recruitment to retirement whole process should be according to employees expectation and ability of employer. Organizational culture may result in part from senior management beliefs or from the beliefs of employees. whom to go for help and decision. Their demands must not be ignored. It is not just achieving results but the methods through which they are achieved that are critical to long-term success. It can affect the ability or willingness of employees to adapt or perform well within the organisation.  HR Processes- The HR system of an organisation should be comprehensive enough to take care of employees from the time they join till the time they leave HR. ELEMENTS OF HRD CLIMATE The elements of HRD climate can be grouped into three broad categories — 1) General climate. its people as well as its goals and vision for the future. Organisational StructureAn organization‘s structure is actually a ‗snapshot‘ of a work process. Organizational culture can be supportive or unsupportive. frozen in time so that it can be viewed. knowledge. 2) OCTAPAC culture and 3) HRD mechanisms The general climate items deal with the importance given to human resources development in general by the top management and line manager . Process should be very clear and impartial. but a feeling of belongingness be created.

The items dealing with HRD mechanisms measure the extent to which HRD mechanisms are implemented seriously. which means taking a closer look at what is happening in and around in the HR scenario of the various organization. It is essential to work on because directly or indirectly this environment affects the organization and the employee. which can turn a threat. . Openness is there when: employees feel free to discuss their ideas. Proactivity. Authenticity is the tendency on the part of people to do what they say. career planning. performance rewards feedback and counselling. Collaboration is to accept interdependencies. • It gives HR professionals time to anticipate opportunities in HR area and time to plan optional responses to these opportunities. Confrontation is bringing out problems and issues into the open with a view to solving them rather than hiding them for fear of hurting or getting hurt. etc. • It enables the entry of the latest national/international HR developments. Importance of looking at the organisation climate are: Looking at the organizational climate. Job-rotation. to be helpful to each other and work as teams. These three groups were taken with the following assumptions: a) A general supportive climate is important for HRD if it has to be implemented effectively. Proactivity is encouraging employees to take initiative and risks. Such supportive climate consists of not only top management line management‘s commitment but good personnel policies and positive attitudes towards development. Importance are: • Environmental factors of HR are prime influencing elements of change in HR strategy. • It forms a basis of aligning the organisation strengths to the changes in the environment. Trust is taking people at their face value and believing what they say. potential appraisal. b) Successful implementation of HRD involves an integrated look at HRD and efforts to use as many HRD mechanisms as possible. Confrontation. These mechanisms include: performance appraisal. employee welfare for quality work life.The OCTAPAC items deal with the extent to which Openness. or to develop strategies. • It helps HR professionals to develop an early warning system to prevent threats emerging out from HR scenario. Trust. Autonomy. Authenticity and Collaboration are valued and promoted in the organisation. Autonomy is giving freedom to let people work independently with responsibility. c) OCTAPAC culture is essential for facilitating HRD. activities and feelings with each other. training.

The more prosperous an organisation is the more it can afford to spend on research and the more it can afford to risk and be adventurous. Organisation size : An small organizations there are few levels of management. generalizations and hypotheses relating to human behaviour. Leadership Style : An organisation leadership style plays a profound role in determining several aspects of its culture. that emphasise equity and objectivity in appraisals policies that emphasise sufficient resource allocation for welfare and developmental activities. bureaucracy. They are – self-awareness. 2) Personnel Policies: Personnel policies that show high concern for employees. . or it may be opposite. Hence these organisations have a different type of climate than what are in big organizations. low warmth and support and so on.Measuring HRD Climate Economic condition – An organisation‘s economic condition influences its culture in several ways. participation. policies that emphasise a collaborative attitude and trust among the people go a long way in creating the HRD climate. employee‘s security and growth. WHAT CONTRIBUTES TO HRD CLIMATE? The following factors may be considered as contributing to HRD climate: 1) Top Management Style and Philosophy: A developmental style a belief in the capability of people a participative approach openness and receptivity to suggestions from the subordinates are some of the dimensions that contribute to the creation of a positive HRD climate. low reward orientation. There are two theories of behaviour (Theory X and Theory Y). There are few dimensions on which it can be checked. these are generally more amenable to democratic and participative functioning than big organisations. low individual autonomy. like goal directed leadership. Managerial assumption about human nature : Every act on the part of the management that involves human beings is predicated upon assumptions. equity. risktaking. More open communication system in small organisations. An authoritarian style may make the organisation‘s culture characterized by high position structure. Managerial values and ethos: The feeling of managers about norms and values what is good and what is poor as management practice.

Organizational Effectiveness: The HRD outcomes influence the organizational effectiveness. competitors. processes. which in turn. 5) Attitudes of Personnel and URD Staff : A helpful and supportive attitude on the part of HRD and personnel people plays a very critical role in generating the HRD climate. If line managers are willing to spend a part of their time for their subordinates. career development systems. performance planning. Processes.3) HRD Instruments and Systems: A number of HRD instruments have been found to generate a good HRD climate. job rotations. risk-taking. If the personal behaviour of any of these agents is not supportive. contribute to HRD climate. 4) Self-renewal Mechanisms: Organisations that have built in self-renewal mechanisms are likely to generate a positive HRD climate. These instruments may vary depending on the size of the organization. rewards. potential development systems etc. development climate. communication policies. the HRD climate is likely to be vitiated. Particularly open systems of appraisal with emphasis of counselling. where they tend to give their best to the organization enthusiastically. role analysis.  A Schematic Presentation of Linkages between HRD Instruments. etc. etc. the competitive policies etc. Such HRD processes should result in more competent. HRD matrix: The HRD matrix shows the interrelationship between HRD instruments. training. satisfied and committed people that would make the organization grow by contributing their best to it. technology. job enrichment programmes. informal training mechanisms.  HRD Processes: The HRD instruments lead to the generation of HRD processes like role clarity. potential development.  HRD Outcomes: HRD instruments and processes make people more committed and satisfied. dynamism in employees. Outcomes and Organizational Effectiveness . the support and commitment of the top management. depends on a number of variables like environment. counseling. it is likely to have a positive impact. outcomes and organizational effectiveness. 6) Commitment or Line Managers: The commitment of line managers to the development of their subordinates is a very important determiner of HRD climate. the internal environment.  HRD Instruments: These include performance appraisal.

The major ones are discussed below: 1. The targets are based on job related criteria that best determine successful job performance. Performance Appraisal: performance appraisal have become increasingly important tools for organizations to use in managing and improving the performance of employees. in making timely and accurate staffing decisions and improving the overall quality of the firms products and services. To meet this performance appraisal are set.HRD Mechanisms or Subsystems: Many HRD mechanisms are available to develop the competencies of employees and improved the overall organizational climate. The appraisal process is the formal way of evaluating the employee‘s performance. Its purpose is to provide an accurate picture of post and future employee‘s performance. Where possible actual performance is measured directly and .

raters or supervisors should use HRD orientated appraisals as a mechanism to: a. The subordinates should be assisted in planning their careers within the company. Do they have any chance to grow while building the organization brick by brick? Since managers have information about the growth plans of the company. Major changes are discussed at all levels to promote understanding and commitment among employees. Potential appraisal is different from performance appraisal which shows an employee‘s current performance in his existing role. Understand the strengths and weaknesses of subordinates and help the subordinates overcome the obstacles in the way. The term ‗performance‘ refers to one‘s skills. They are made known to the employees. accept responsibilities and face challenges with confidence and courage. They increase employees‘ confidence and employees‘ feedback that their efforts are being adequately rewarded. Here the rater tries to give both positive and negative sides of the employee performance. not necessary that each one of them would scale new heights every year but atleast they are aware of the opportunities and get ready . however. the long term growth plans of a company are not kept secret. To be useful. Encourage subordinates to meet problems head-on. Appraisals help an organization communicate its expectations regarding performance and connection between performance and reward to employees. Career planning is a process of integrating the employees‘ needs and aspirations with organizational needs. It is. d. The feedback is offered through an evaluation interview. potential appraisal needs to be carried out at regular intervals. ―The objective of potential appraisal is to identify the potential of a given employee to occupy higher positions in the organizational hierarchy and undertaken higher technologies. Potential Appraisal: the term ‗potential‘ refers to the abilities possessed by an employee but not put to use currently or the abilities to assume challenging responsibilities in future assignments. abilities in meeting the requirements of the job which one is holding currently. (ii) performance data relating to various previous roles played by an employee. Using a wide variety of techniques. b. If the employee is required to play a completely different set of roles at the higher levels. Career Planning: a career is a sequence of positions held by a person in the course of a lifetime. they need to transmit their information to their subordinates. The process is used to strengthen the effort performance linkage. Plan for effective utilization of the talents of subordinates.‖ The appraisal is carried out on the basis of (i) supervisor‘s observations. Career programmes and HR programmes are linked to the degree that they help each individual meet individual and organization requirements. c. specialists select an appropriate method to measure an employee‘s actual performance against the previously set targets. 3. The immediate concern of employees would be to find out where do stand in such a road map. In the HRD system. A good potential appraisal system helps management to pick up a suitable candidate for a given job and offer additional training. (iii) performance on roles in simulating to a new position.objectively. Uncover difficulties faced by the subordinate while handling assigned task and try to remove these hurdles. 2. if necessary.

therefore. then employees are likely to reduce their efforts. 4. unions & govt. require continual upgrading. focusing on the personal growth of the employee. The future is uncertain when full of surprises. Organisation Development: Organizations are never perfectly static. Career planning doesn‘t guaranty success. They keep on changing. Rewards : People do what they do to satisfy needs. focused on an entire organization or a large subsystem. Both training and development focus on learning. They choose to behave in way which will maximize their rewards. facilities & benefits offered to employees by the employers. pride in doing a job etc. Instead. Now days organizations also use team based rewards to motivate empowered work teams to exceed established targets. A systematic planned way of managing this change is through the process of OD. The most obvious reward is pay but there are many others. 7. employees are rarely prepared to encash the opportunities that come their way. managed from the top. Employee development on the other hand is a future oriented training process. aimed at enhancing organizational health and effectiveness and based on planned interventions made with the help of change agent or third party who is well versed in the behavioral science. job titles etc. Reward could be linked to performance as well to motivate high achievers to do well. It includes various services. Training is a learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job. OD may be defined as a change effort that is planned. organizations have to motivate their employees to get ready for all kinds of future challenges. training should be planned to meet the specific needs of the organization and its employees.for greater challenges ahead. The purpose is to improve the living standards of workers & thereby improve the quality of work life. Employees voluntarily extend a . If rewards are allocated completely on non-performance factors such as seniority. But without it. Training and Employee Development : Training has gained importance in present day environment where jobs are change rapidly. Employee welfare & quality of work life (QWL): The term employee welfare means ―the efforts to make life worth living for workmen‖. promotion and benefits offered by management. 5. nor should they depend on faddish techniques just because they are popular now and are followed by our next door neighbor. Intrinsic rewards come from their job itself such as feelings of achievement. To survive and grow in a competitive environment. Employees‘ skills and abilities. Extrinsic rewards come from a source outside the job including pay. Training programmes should not be designed as quick fixes for organizational problems. It is not easy to fight the force of change without adequate preparation and training. 6.

etc. reserved category.  Co-determination: In this method. evaluating & implementing employee ideas.  Open door policies: Where open door policies exist. QWL means having good working conditions. good leadership & interesting. good wages & benefits. challenging jobs. HRD system focus on employee welfare & QWL by continually examining employee needs & meeting them to the best possible extent. 8. It is a way of empowering employees by giving them a greater ‗say‘ in the decision making process. education.  Self-managed work teams: These are employee groups (also called autonomous workgroups) with a high degree of decision-making. preferably in a computer containing the following details:  Personal data: Identification. representatives of workers meet mgt in a formal way to discuss & vote important decisions that affect the lives of workers. the information is generally stored in a central human resource data bank. changing job market trends.  Socio-technical systems: These are interventions in the work situation that redesign the work. responsibility & behavioural control for completing their work. the types of benefits offered have been expanding in line with competitive pressures.number of benefits to employees in the hope that these indirect compensation plans motivate employees to perform better. place of origin. Quality of work life (QWL) efforts are systematic efforts by organizations to give workers a greater opportunity to affect the way they do their jobs & the contributions they make to the organization‘s overall effectiveness. QWL efforts include the following:  Employee involvement: Here employees are given the opportunity to participate in the decisions that affect them & their relationship in the company. Over the years. employees are free to walk into any manager‘s office with their problems & seek solutions to such problems. . Human resource information system: Human resource information system (HRIS) is a method by which an organization collects. the workgroups & the relationship between workers & the technologies they use to perform their jobs.  Suggestion programmes: It is a formal method for generating. maintains & reports information on people & jobs.. The team is usually given the responsibility for producing an entire product or service.  Quality circles: These are small group of employees who meet regularly to find. analyse & solve quality & other work-related problems of a particular department/section/area. employee expectations. union demands & legislative requirements.

.. ratings of behaviours in a group.It bridges the gap between job requirements and employee‘s skills.   Recruitment data: Entry date. promotions.They are designed to work together in an integrated system.Feedback and performance coaching helps the development of the individual as well as interpersonal relationships. etc. Each of the subsystems described contribute to the achievement of overall HRD goals. security needs. Appraisal data: Appraisal on each job. grade in leadership tests. They are all inter connected & independent parts. contributes to the achievement of overall HRD goals performance appraisal helps an individual to develop his current role capabilities. Performance & potential appraisal helps an employee develop his role capabilities & prepare himself for future changes.The contribution of these HRD subsystems to various development dimensions is shown in the bellow table.when . It should be remembered that the subsystems discussed above should not be viewed in isolation. Training improves his learning abilities. grade in aptitude tests.. The HRD mechanisms described above should not be viewed in isolation . record of incentives received. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SUBSYSTEMS TO HRD GOALS The subsystems described already. although they may cast in an organization that does not have an overall HRD plan . Rewards & welfare amenities enrich the life of employees & help them carry out the assigned tasks with zeal & enthusiasm. Welfare amenities. absence & sickness data. etc. It enables an employee to do his current job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job . Organization development aims at developing team spirit and selfrenewing skills. This information is put to use whenever there is a need to identify employees for certain special assignments. When viewed in isolation. Miscellaneous: Health status. they do not offer the synergistic advantages of a well developed HRD system. current training assignment. commitment to overall goals. OD promotes the collaborative spirit & selfrenewing skills. knowledge and behavior . Training helps an employee to improve his job knowledge and skills. Experience data: Placement history. Potential appraisal focuses on identifying the employee‘s likely future roles with in the organization.   Training data: Nature of training received at each level. rewards and incentives improve the quality of life of employees and make the work place a stimulating one for employees . personal problems. etc.the collective benefits of integrated mechanisms may not accrue to an organization . tasks performed grade wise. Feedback & performance coaching helps him correct mistakes & improve interpersonal relationships.

They must formulate the HRD policies keeping organizational requirements in mind and implement these wholeheartedly. It must take the organization forward by anticipating changes and preparing people for . It must focus on developing human resources at various levels (problem solving capabilities leading to increased employee productivity) and commitment. in mind. THE CONTRIBUTION OF HRD SUBSYSTEM TO DEVELOPMENT DIMENSIONS Development dimensions Individual Training Feedback Individual present role Individual in regard to likely future roles Potential appraisal in the and HRD subsystems Mechanism Career planning Rewards Training Rewards Training and development Feedback and Potential appraisal and development coaching performance Performance appraisal performance coaching Performance appraisal Feedback and Performance appraisal Training Training Organization development Training Training Team rewards and performance coaching Dyadic relationships Teams & teamwork Collaboration Self-renewing capability and health of organization among Feedback Organization development Organization development Performance appraisal different units/teams performance coaching Principles in Designing HRD Systems In order to realize the benefits of integrated HRD systems. skill levels. Focus of the HRD System: The system must be designed keeping various contextual factors such as size. top management must invariably observe certain principles which are categorized below: Management Support: HRD requires consistent support from managers working at various levels. support for function. technology. each subsystem is inter-linked to other subsystems and offer rich benefits to an organization when they are well integrated.these are viewed in isolation .

He may deal with HRM when choosing a benefits plan. payroll issues. Internal experts and external consultants could be judiciously used to offer training to various departments/ persons. Various aspects of HRD should be introduced in a gradual way. HRD By contrast. Functioning of the System: The system must provide for appropriate feedback from various departments at regular intervals. The HR department created for this purpose must have proper linkages with outside systems as well as internal subsystems. industrial psychology and driving productivity gains would all be the province of HRD. In the work life of an employee. but they more often consider the workforce needs of the company as a whole. but then meet with HRD for his performance review. They would also be involved in hiring and firing. The system must be reviewed periodically so as to find out the progress and effectiveness of the programme. These types of tasks can be described as routine and administrative. HRM and HRD functions will be carried out by different professionals. It is better to quantify the various aspects of HRD and arrange for storage of data in computers. Collaboration . Parallel Functions In a large organization. after a thorough review of the organization‘s size. budgeting. HRM and HRD may seem to have parallel but separate functions. with subsequent phases built one over the other. Therefore training needs. Line managers must be actively involved in all the above steps. but then receive a training plan from an HRD executive. HRD Function: HRM The types of tasks that might come under the human resources management category include compensation. Professionals working in this area do sometimes concern themselves with the individuals‘ needs in an organization. It must be properly integrated with other long range functions such as corporate planning. Structure of the HRD System: The system must have a distinct identity of its own. headed by a senior manager taking care of the implementation process. its needs and level of sophistication. benefits management and day-to-day employee relations. Each stage should be planned carefully. etc. human resources development concerns itself with strategic thinking about the workforce.future challenges. Human resources professionals from this category would be involved in any dispute that an employee has with management. A new employee may be recruited by an HRM officer.

Employee involvement programmes requiring fundamental changes in work expectation. for example. HRD and HRM must collaborate closely. The human resource development professional involved in the organization development intervention acts as an agent of change. The main functions and of HRD are:- 1. working closely with employees.Training development Training and development is aimed at improving or changing the knowledge skills and attitudes of the employees. 3. or a particular dissatisfaction with workplace conditions. procedures and reward systems are aimed at improving the effectiveness of the organization. These issues can then be taken up and addressed at a strategic level by HRD personnel. Career development It is a continuous process in which an individual progresses through different stages of career each having a relatively unique set of issues and tasks.Organization development OD is the process of increasing the effectiveness of an organization along with the well being of its members with the help of planned interventions that use the concepts of behavioral science. developmental activities focus on preparing the employees for future job responsibilities by increasing the capabilities of an employee which also helps him perform his present job in a better way. He often consults and advising the line manager in strategies that can be adopted to implement the required changes and sometimes becomes directly involve in implementing these strategies. While training involves providing the knowledge and skills required for doing a particular job to the employees. HRD executives may brief HRM staff on changes to be made in hiring practices. reporting. Both micro and macro changes are implemented to achieve organization development. Career Planning and career management. to assess his capabilities and skills in order to frame realistic .In order for a large organization to function productively. the HR activities focus on the development of the employee through methods like coaching and counseling. HRM executives. After the employee becomes proficient. While the macro changes are intended to improve the overall effectiveness of the organization the micro changes are aimed at individuals of small groups. often with the help of counselor and others. in order for a strategic HR change to be implemented. Career development comprises of two distinct processes. In the same way. Whereas career planning involves activities to be performed by the employee. may notice a trend in needs for training. 2. These activities start when an employee joins an organization in the form of orientation and skills training.

The Department must ensure that staff members are not too many because if they exceed this amount. These compensation packages can come in the following ways. . then the organisation will increase value consequently being on the right pathway to achieve its organisational and departmental goals and objectives Improvement of Compensation Packages One of the major functions of the HR department is to motivate employees. If this function is performed well. It is important that the organisation ensures that all the employees under its wing are just enough to increase value to the organisation. The HR department needs to evaluate performance of employees and those who have exceeded expectations should be compensated for their actions. This function involves evaluation of ability and competency of potential employees in relation to what the Company needs. This can be done through rewards especially for those who have done well.Equities . Career management generally focus more on the steps that an organization that can take to foster the career development of the employees. It must plan adequately to ensure that staff members are not too few either.Provision of Flexible Working Hours .Awards . One important aspect of this is planning for employees in the organisation. This is because this function ensures that the Company under consideration selects the most skillful and competent person from a sea of applicants at that time. otherwise they will be overworking those who are already in . Positive aspects of Roles and Functions of the Human Resource Department Recruitment of Employees This is one of the most fundamental roles of the HR department.Holiday Offers . Career management involves the necessary steps that need to be taken to achieve that plan. Research has shown that rewarding employees for good performance is the number one incentive for keeping up this trend. then the organisation stands too lose.Salary Increments .End of Year Bonuses .Straight forward Promotion Schemes and Career Developments Planning in the Organisation The Human Resource Department is placed with the responsibility of ensuring that it plans adequately for all the organisation‘s future engagements that will involve people.career plan. This role falls under the Staffing role of management.

Personnel function. HRD has productive functions which do not merely respond to organizational requirements but anticipates them and prepares the people and the organizations to face future challenges with confidence. developing potentialities of people. day to day plans. developing trust etc). however. Problems in Planning Sometimes the HR Department can employ people who may not contribute towards organisational principles. fostering innovation and creativity. The personnel function views higher morale and improved job satisfaction as the causes of improved performance. This function of the department ensures that people in the organisation have a general direction which they are working towards. Points of difference HRD and Personnel: Personnel Function: . is the responsibility of all managers in the organization. operating procedures etc. the Human Resource may make deals that eventually cause problems. Problems in Remuneration In the process of trying to motivate members of staff to perform better. creating autonomous work groups. HRD versus Personnel Function: The traditional personnel function is a service oriented activity.place The HR department is also bestowed with the responsibility of planning future organisational goal in relation to people or clarifying these same goals to staff members. incentives. responding to the needs of the organization as and when they arise. Organisations that have a clear direction are always more effective.) it tries to focus on motivating factors (job enrichment. Such a practice showed that the HR department had exercised bad judgement in its staffing function. those members of staff will be more result oriented rather than just working for the sake of it Negative Aspects of Functions and Roles of the Human Resource Department There are a number of problems that arise as the department goes about its activities Problems in Recruitment The department may sometimes be unable to adequately coordinate and incorporate all the employees needed in the Company‘s operations. Instead of concentrating on maintenance factors (wages. creativity and opportunities for development as the main motivating forces. On the other hand. HRD on the other hand regards job challenges. HRD is wider in scope as it tries to develop the whole organization instead of focusing attention on people alone. traditionally is viewed as the primary job of personnel department HRD.

HRD Process: A frame work for the HRD process: 1) Need assessment 2) Design 3) Implementation 4) Evaluation Need assessment phase: HRD intervention are used to address to some need or gap with in org. 4) Exclusive responsibility of personnel department 5) Emphasis is put on monetary rewards 6) Improved performance is the result of improved satisfaction and morale 7) Tries to improve the efficiency of people and administration. job tasknad employee performance. 3) Proactive function. This information can be used to. how to empower people in all respects etc. A need either a current deficiency . 4) Responsibility of all managers in the organization.1) Maintenance oriented 2) An independent function with independent sub functions 3) Reactive functions responding to events as and when they take place. 6) Better use of human resources leads to improved satisfaction and morale. Points of distinction: (1) orientation (2) Structure (3) Philosophy (4) Responsibility (5) motivators (6) Outcomes (7) AIMS HRD (Human Resource development): 1) Development oriented 2) Consists of inter dependent parts. 7) It tires to develop the organization and its culture as a whole. Identifying needs involves examine an organisation .its environment.such as poor employee performance or a new challenge that demands a change in the way the organisation operates. trying to anticipate and get ready with appropriate responses.   Establishing HRD priorities Defining specific tranning and objective . 5) Emphasis is on higher order needs such as – how to design jobs with stretch pull and challenge how to improve creativity ad problem solving skills.

from of their cost issue willingness. location. The design phase also involve selecting and developing the contain of programme. programme length. then its depend on the senior mgr. supervisor.how much they . covering participant. job aids. Microsoft PowerPoint. stimulation. The material used such as books. conflict between participants etc. regular job duty etc. etc. Careful evaluation provides information on participant‘s reaction on the programme. film . this means choosing the most appropriate setting programme.have the hr professional. the fillowing activity are typically carried out during this phase. then its fully depend on hr professional. online or some other method. Dose not have the hr expertise.role play. The technique used such as lecture . Issue to be resolve including lead time to notify potential participant. Scheduling the programme may not be easy as it looks. Using these individual arise the cause of host issue. If org. it is imp to translate the issue identified in that phase in to clear objective of HRD programme. Implementation phase: The goal of this phase is to implement both the above phase( need assessment & design). This is where the effective of the HRD intervention is measured. this should also facilitate the development of clear lesson plan concerning the what should be done in HRD programme. Selecting who deliver programme Selecting the most appropriate method /methods for conducting programme Selecting and developing programme contain Scheduling the trainng programme Once the assessment has been completed.  Implementing /delivering the programme Evaluation phase: This is the final phase of HRD process. on the job .video . Like . and resolving the problem that may arise like . Delivering programme always face many challenges such as executing the programme as planned . ability and availability to trained. web based. Establishing evaluation criteria Designing phase: This phase involves the designing the hr programme or intervention.        Selecting the spefic objective of the programme Developing an appropriate lesson plan for the programme Accuring/deloping the appropriate material for the trqainne to use.if the intervention involves some type of training or development programme.if org. co-worker or out side consultant. missing equipments.The programme should be deliver to using the most appropriate methods.creating an environment that enhances learning . discussion . Selecting the proper person to deliver the HRD programme is also an imp decision and it can be difficult to depend on the available resources. in class room.

that is both bottom line impact . weather the programme improve the organisations effectiveness. HRD professional are increasingly being asked to provide the evidence of successes of their efforts using a variety of ‗ hard‘ and ‗soft‘ measure . . This information allows managers to make better decision about various aspect of the hr effort such as.learned weather they use what they learned back on the job . as well as employee reaction.     Continuing to use a particular technique or vender in future programme Offering a particular programme in future Budgeting and resources allocation Using some other hr /managerial approach. (like employee selection or changing work rule) to slove problem Determining the programme effectiveness    Keep/change provider Offer it again? What are the true cost? Can we do it another way It is imp that HRD professional provide the evidence that HRD programme improve individual and organisation effectiveness.

recording the work performances at regular intervals and reporting the deviations if any from those. He can also frame rules and regulations which have to be followed by workers during their work. As a Manager . 5.A Supervisor is called a linking pin between management and workers. As a Guide and Leader . an operative manager.A supervisor has to plan the daily work schedules in the factory. 4.An important role of supervisor is to enforce discipline in the factory. As a Mediator . As an Inspector . For this. He is the spokesperson of management as well as worker. the work includes checking progress of work against the time schedule. he plays a role of an inspirer by telling them. in fact. . He is. As a Planner . 3.A factory supervisor leads the workers by guiding them the way of perform their daily tasks. 2.It is righty said that a supervisor is a part of the management team of an enterprise. At the same time he has to divide the work to various workers according to their abilities.Role of line Mgr & Supervisor in HRD: A supervisor plays multiplinary role at one time like - 1. In fact.

Motivation . 4. This involves providing proper sitting place. There are different monetary and non-monetary incentives which can inspire the workers to work better. complaints. He communicates the policies of management to workers also passes instructions to them on behalf of management.A supervisor proves to be a linking pin between management and workers.The supervisor can handle the grievances of the workers effectively for this he has to do the following things :a. As a Counselor . . Recording the actual performance against the time schedule.A supervisor plays an important role by providing different incentives to workers to perform better. c. a supervisor should be concerned with performing the following functions 1. he communicates workers problems and brings it to the notice of management. Linking Pin . By taking worker problems on humanitarian grounds. Grievance Handling . Planning and Organizing . reporting it to top management. He can be in direct touch with workers. By winning the confidence of the workers by solving their problems. Leadership and Guidance .A supervisor is the leader of workers under him. This can be done not only by listening to the grievances but also handling the grievances and satisfying the workers. If not independently solved. This all helps in increasing productivity. c.A supervisor plays the role of a counselor to the worker‘s problem. building good human relations. Checking of progress of work. He has to perform this role in order to build good relations and co-operation from workers. 3. Therefore. b.Controlling is an important function performed by supervisor. Finding out deviations if any and making solutions d. we can say that effective and efficient supervision helps in serving better work performance. b. He leads the workers and influences them to work their best. Provision of working conditions .A supervisor plays an important role in the physical setting of the factory and in arranging the physical resources at right place. On the other hand. This will involve a. Controlling . lighting.6. to workers. Therefore.Supervisor‘s basic role is to plan the daily work schedule of the workers by guiding them the nature of their work and also dividing the work amongst the workers according to their interests. etc to the management. 6. 5. he has a close contact with the workers and therefore can interact the problems. 7. water facilities etc. In this way. suggestions. 2. aptitudes. He also guides the workers by fixing production targets and by providing them instruction and guidelines to achieve those targets. skills and interests. creating a congenial and co-operative environment. His main responsibility is here to provide healthy and hygienic condition to the workers. ventilation.

High Stability 10. They are normally in the lower layers of the management hierarchy and the employees who report to them do not themselves have any managerial or supervisory responsibility. Higher productivity.The supervisor here has to be conscious about the environment of market and competition present. Introducing new work methods . and f. output. implementing penalties and punishments for the indiscipline workers. Typically their management responsibilities would include: * people management * managing operational costs * providing technical expertise * organisation work allocation and rotas * monitoring work processes * checking quality * dealing with customers/clients * measuring operational performance. 9. He can also try this best to keep on changing and improving to the physical environment around the workers.A supervisor can undertake many steps to maintain discipline in the concern by regulating checks and measures.d. . d. Front line managers are usually promoted from the ranks of employees and are unlikely to have formal management education. If he cannot tackle it independently. strictness in orders and instructions. Factors like cost. High Morale of Workers. Improving human relations. This will result in a. All these above steps help in improving the overall discipline of the factory. performance. Satisfying working condition. Line managers: Who are front line managers? Front line managers are managers who are responsible for a work group to a higher level of management.A supervisor has got an important role to report about the cost. Enforcing Discipline . 8. etc can be reported continually to the management. e. quality. c. Therefore he can innovate the techniques of production. b. keeping an account of general discipline of factory. quality and any such output which can be responsible for increasing productivity. He can shift the workers into fresh schedules whenever possible. Higher Profits. he can take the help and advice of management to solve it. Reporting .

it cannot be delivered by HR. They found that where employees feels positive about their relationship with their front line managers they are more likely to have higher levels of job satisfaction.In many organisations front line managers now carry out activities which were traditionally within the remit of HR such as coaching. commitment and loyalty which are associated with higher levels of performance or discretionary behaviour. Some managers can permit and encourage people to be . In many cases they also carry out recruitment and selection in conjunction with HR. The role of front line managers The people and performance research carried out by a team at Bath University1 found that front line managers played a pivotal role in terms of implementing and enacting HR policies and practices. The areas where front line managers make a significant difference to people management practices are: * performance appraisal * training. To do this successfully. coaching and guidance * involvement and communication * openness – how easy is it for employees to discuss matters with their front line manager * work-life balance * recognition – the extent to which employees feel their contribution is recognised. The front line manager role is crucial in a number of respects: * in enabling the HR policies and practices. although the process may be designed by HR. The qualities and skills needed from front line managers The Bath research found that front line managers exercise a strong influence over the level of discretion that an individual has over how they do their job. Discretionary behaviour is defined as that which goes beyond the requirements of the job to give that extra performance which can boost the bottom line. performance appraisal. this part of the front line managers role must be given at least as much recognition as other operational areas and they must be allocated time within their work schedule to carry out the people management side of the job. and discipline and grievances. involvement and communication. These are all areas where. or bringing them to life * in acting upon advice or guidance from HR * in controlling the work flow by directing and guiding the work of others.

front line managers need to: * build a good working relationship with their staff. listen. The Bath research found that organisations which had a strong shared culture with guiding principles for behaviour which were embedded into practice over time were more successful. Generally front line managers are more likely to display the positive behaviours associated with higher levels of performance from those they are managing if: * they have good working relationships with their own managers * the are provided with good career opportunities and supported to progress their careers * they experience a positive work-life balance * they are allowed to participate and feel involved in decision making * there is an open organisational culture which enables them to air a grievance or discuss matters of personal concern * they are given a sense of job security. It is not enough to educate front line managers in the behaviours required.responsible for their own jobs whereas others can stifle initiative through controlling or autocratic behaviour. be fair. respond to suggestions and deal with problems * help and support employees to take more responsibility for how they do their jobs by coaching and guidance * build effective teams. They need to lead. organisations must also ensure they are developing the environment and culture in which front line managers are actively encouraged and permitted to exhibit the behaviours above. . Managing front line managers Well-managed front line managers are more likely to go on to lead high performing teams. Many of the qualities and skills which are associated with higher quality front line management are around the behaviours of front line managers. The Bath research found that the relationships front line managers experienced with their managers and with senior management generally made a significant difference to their willingness to display discretionary behaviour in their own management activities. To encourage the kind of discretionary behaviour from employees associated with higher performance. communicate. ask.

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