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Vapors of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of chemical substances.[1] The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products, which are in general different from the reactants. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations in chemical synthesis in order to get a desired product. In biochemistry, series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes form metabolic pathways, by which syntheses and decompositions ordinarily impossible in conditions within a cell are performed.

Reaction types
The large diversity of chemical reactions and approaches to their study results in the existence of several concurring, often overlapping, ways of classifying them. Below are examples of widely used terms for describing common kinds of reactions.

Isomerisation, in which a chemical compound undergoes a structural rearrangement without any change in its net atomic composition; see stereoisomerism Direct combination or synthesis, in which 2 or more chemical elements or compounds unite to form a more complex product:

N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3

Chemical decomposition or analysis, in which a compound is decomposed into smaller compounds or elements: 2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2

Single displacement or substitution, characterized by an element being displaced out of a compound by a more reactive element: 2 Na(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → 2 NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

Metathesis or Double displacement reaction, in which two compounds exchange ions or bonds to form different compounds: NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

Acid-base reactions, broadly characterized as reactions between an acid and a base, can have different definitions depending on the acid-base concept employed. Some of the most common are:
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Arrhenius definition: Acids dissociate in water releasing H3O+ ions; bases dissociate in water releasing OH- ions. Brønsted-Lowry definition: Acids are proton (H+) donors; bases are proton acceptors. Includes the Arrhenius definition. Lewis definition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors; bases are electron-pair donors. Includes the Brønsted-Lowry definition.

Redox reactions, in which changes in oxidation numbers of atoms in involved species occur. Those reactions can often be interpreted as transferences of electrons between different molecular sites or species. An example of a redox reaction is: 2 S2O32−(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) + 2 I−(aq)

In which I2 is reduced to I- and S2O32- (thiosulfate anion) is oxidized to S4O62-.

Combustion, a kind of redox reaction in which any combustible substance combines with an oxidizing element, usually oxygen, to generate heat and form oxidized products. The term combustion is usually used for only large-scale oxidation of whole molecules, i.e. a controlled oxidation of a single functional group is not combustion. C10H8+ 12 O2 → 10 CO2 + 4 H2O CH2S + 6 F2 → CF4 + 2 HF + SF6

Organic reactions encompass a wide assortment of reactions involving compounds which have carbon as the main element in their molecular structure. The reactions in which an organic compound may take part are largely defined by its functional groups. Defined in opposition to inorganic reactions. Reactions can also be classified according to their mechanism, some typical examples being:
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Reactions of ions, e.g. disproportionation of hypochlorite Reactions with reactive ionic intermediates, e.g. reactions of enolates Radical reactions, e.g. combustion at high temperature Reactions of carbenes

Chemical kinetics
The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how the concentration or pressure of the involved substances changes with time. Analysis of reaction rates is important for several applications, such as in chemical engineering or in chemical equilibrium study. Rates of reaction depends basically on:
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Reactant concentrations, which usually make the reaction happen at a faster rate if raised through increased collisions per unit time, Surface area available for contact between the reactants, in particular solid ones in heterogeneous systems. Larger surface area leads to higher reaction rates. Pressure, by increasing the pressure, you decrease the volume between molecules. This will increase the frequency of collisions of molecules. Activation energy, which is defined as the amount of energy required to make the reaction start and carry on spontaneously. Higher activation energy implies that the reactants need more energy to start than a reaction with a lower activation energy. Temperature, which hastens reactions if raised, since higher temperature increases the energy of the molecules, creating more collisions per unit time, The presence or absence of a catalyst. Catalysts are substances which change the pathway (mechanism) of a reaction which in turn increases the speed of a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction to take place. A catalyst is not destroyed or changed during a reaction, so it can be used again. For some reactions, the presence of electromagnetic radiation, most notably ultra violet, is needed to promote the breaking of bonds to start the reaction. This is particularly true for reactions involving radicals.

Reaction rates are related to the concentrations of substances involved in reactions, as quantified by the rate law of each reaction. Note that some reactions have rates that are independent of reactant concentrations. These are called zero order reactions. Reactions and Energy Chemical energy is part of all chemical reactions. Energy is needed to break chemical bonds in the starting substances. As new bonds form in the final substances, energy is

released. By comparing the chemical energy of the original substances with the chemical energy of the final substances, you can decide if energy is released or absorbed in the overall reaction. Exothermic Reactions A chemical reaction in which energy is released is called an exothermic reaction. Exomeans "go out" or "exit." Thermic means "heat" or "energy." Exothermic reactions can give off energy in several forms. If heat is released in an exothermic reaction, the nearby matter will become warmer. The nearby matter absorbs the heat released by the reaction. The reaction between gasoline and oxygen in a car's engine is an exothermic reaction.

Reaction of Hydrogen and Chlorine
Breaking Bonds Hydrogen and chlorine are diatomic. Diatomic molecules are two atoms bonded together, The bonds joining these atoms must break before the atoms can react with each other. Making Bonds A new substance, hydrogen chloride, forms as new bonds are made between hydrogen atoms and chlorine atoms. Hydrogen chloride is also a diatomic molecule. The reaction of two or more elements together results in the formation of a chemical bond between atoms and the formation of a chemical compound (see our Chemical Bonding module). But why do chemicals react together? The reason has to do with the participating atoms' electron configurations (see our The Periodic Table of Elements module). In the late 1890s, the Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. These elements, along with radon, were placed in group VIIIA of the periodic table and nicknamed inert (or noble) gases because of their tendency not to react with other elements (see our Periodic Table page). The tendency of the noble gases to not react with other elements has to do with their electron configurations. All of the noble gases have full valence shells; this configuration is a stable configuration and one that other elements try to achieve by reacting together. In other words, the reason atoms react with each other is to reach a state in which their valence shell is filled. Let's look at the reaction of sodium with chlorine. In their atomic states, sodium has one valence electron and chlorine has seven.



Chlorine, with seven valence electrons, needs one additional electron to complete its valence shell with eight electrons. Sodium is a little bit trickier. At first it appears that sodium needs seven additional electrons to complete its valence shell. But this would give sodium a -7 electrical charge and make it highly imbalanced in terms of the number of electrons (negative charges) relative to the number of protons (positive charges). As it turns out, it is much easier for sodium to give up its one valence electron and become a +1 ion. In doing so, the sodium atom empties its third electron shell and now the outermost shell that contains electrons, its second shell, is filled - agreeing with our earlier statement that atoms react because they are trying to fill their valence shell.

Sodium Chloride This trait, the tendency to lose electrons when entering into chemical reactions, is common to all metals. The number of electrons metal atoms will lose (and the charge they will take on) is equal to the number of electrons in the atom's valence shell. For all of the elements in group A of the periodic table, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number (see our Periodic Table page). Nonmetals, by comparison, tend to gain electrons (or share them) to complete their valence shells. For all of the nonmetals, except hydrogen and helium, their valence shell is complete with eight electrons. Therefore, nonmetals gain electrons corresponding to the formula = 8 - (group #). Chlorine, in group 7, will gain 8 - 7 = 1 electron and form a -1 ion. Hydrogen and helium only have electrons in their first electron shell. The capacity of this shell is two. Thus helium, with two electrons, already has a full valence shell and falls

into the group of elements that tend not to react with others, the noble gases. Hydrogen, with one valence electron, will gain one electron when forming a negative ion. However, hydrogen and the elements on the periodic table labeled metalloids, can actually form either positive or negative ions corresponding to the number of valence electrons they have. Thus hydrogen will form a +1 ion when it loses its one electron and a -1 ion when it gains one electron. Reaction Energy All chemical reactions are accompanied by a change in energy. Some reactions release energy to their surroundings (usually in the form of heat) and are called exothermic. For example, sodium and chlorine react so violently that flames can be seen as the exothermic reaction gives off heat. On the other hand, some reactions need to absorb heat from their surroundings to proceed. These reactions are called endothermic. A good example of an endothermic reaction is that which takes place inside of an instant '"cold pack." Commercial cold packs usually consist of two compounds - urea and ammonium chloride in separate containers within a plastic bag. When the bag is bent and the inside containers are broken, the two compounds mix together and begin to react. Because the reaction is endothermic, it absorbs heat from the surrounding environment and the bag gets cold. Reactions that proceed immediately when two substances are mixed together (such as the reaction of sodium with chlorine or urea with ammonium chloride) are called spontaneous reactions. Not all reactions proceed spontaneously. For example, think of a match. When you strike a match you are causing a reaction between the chemicals in the match head and oxygen in the air. The match won't light spontaneously, though. You first need to input energy, which is called the activation energy of the reaction. In the case of the match, you supply activation energy in the form of heat by striking the match on the matchbook; after the activation energy is absorbed and the reaction begins, the reaction continues until you either extinguish the flame or you run out of material to react.

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