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TI A00

Technical Information
This file contains Technical Information of the KaRo System. The data sheets are continuously updated and available by email at info@KaRo.cc or by fax using the fax order. You can get to the documents by the navigation of the Acrobat Bookmarks or direct by a click on the page number in the index. CONTENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Basics System descriptions Calculation and Planning Installation Charts and Forms Diagrams 7. Formulas

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TI

Index

Technical Information
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G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G06

Basics, General Information


Thermal Comfort Humidity and Dew Point Lifetime Behaviour of Polypropylene Energy- and Cost with KaRo KaRo Technique Cost of KaRo Ceiling

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K01 K02 K03 K04 K05 K06 K07 K08 K09 K10 K11

Short Description
Plaster KaRo Ceiling Metal KaRo Ceiling Plasterboard KaRo Ceilings Pre-fabricated KaRo Panel KaRo Wall Pre-fabricated KaRo Wall KaRo Floor Heating KaRo Modernisation panel KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel Plug In Coupling KaRo Skin

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B01 B02 B03 B04 B05 B06 B07 B08 B09 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14

Calculation and Planning


Before lay-out of KaRo Ceilings Lay-out of KaRo Ceilings Heating with KaRo Calculation of KaRo Ceilings Control of KaRo Ceilings Fire Protection Example of KaRo Ceiling Before lay-out of KaRo Floor Lay-out of KaRo Floor Before lay-out of KaRo Wall Lay-out of KaRo Wall Heating Water Quality for KaRo Tolerances of KaRo Mats Secondary Stations

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Index TI Technical Information

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M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 M07 M08 M09 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16 M17 M18 M19 M20 M21 M22

Installation
KaRo Mats Thermal Welding KaRo Plaster Ceilings KaRo Metal Ceilings KaRo Plasterboard Ceiling Dew-Point Sensor Pressure Test Converter Technical Data Room Temperature Control Pre-fabricated KaRo Panel Double panelled Plasterboard Ceiling KaRo Floor Heating Fixing of KaRo Mats with Butyl Tape KaRo Glue KaRo Glue Solvent KaRo Thermal Paste Fixing of KaRo Mats with Tape KaRo Mats on Gypsum Boards Tacking KaRo Mats KaRo Wall Start of Secondary Stations KaRo AquaStop

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T01 T02 T03 T04 T05 T06 T07 T08 T09 T10

Charts and Forms


Chart KaRo Cooling Ceilings Chart KaRo Heating Ceilings Calculation of Cooling Load Cooling Capacity of KaRo Ceilings Protocol Pressure Test Combustion Heat of Polyprop Chart KaRo Floor Heating Chart KaRo Wall Heating Quick Lay-out for KaRo Wall Heating BK12 Quick Lay-out for KaRo Cooling Ceilings BK12

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D01 D02 D03 D04 D05 D06 D07 D08 D09 D10 D11 D12

Diagrams
Cooling Capacity KaRo Ceilings Cooling Capacity KaRo Plaster Ceilings Heating Capacity KaRo Cooling Ceilings Heating Capacity KaRo Plaster Ceiling Permissible Heating Capacity Ceiling Permissible Heating Capacity at Window Pressure Loss of long KaRo Mat U10 Pressure Loss of short KaRo Mat U10 Pressure Loss of long KaRo Mat G10 Pressure Loss of short KaRo Mat G10 Pressure Loss of long KaRo Mat S10 Pressure Loss of short KaRo Mat S10

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Index TI Technical Information

D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30

Pressure Loss of long KaRo Mat S15 Pressure Loss of short KaRo Mat S15 Pressure Loss Connecting Hose Pressure Loss KaRo Pipe DA 20 Pressure Loss in KaRo Elbow Flow Speed in Pipes Heat Transfer Ceiling/Room Average Surface Temperatures at the Ceiling Underside Heating Capacity of KaRo Floor Heating Pressure Loss of the KaRo Panel GK12 Frequency Dew Point Outside Air Average Heat Transmission of Buildings Basic Capacity of Cooling Ceiling Heat Volume Water Volume Cooling Capacity of KaRo Wall B12 Heating Capacity of KaRo Wall B12 Heating Capacity of the KaRo Wall Pressure Loss of KaRo Mats 600 x 600

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F01

Formulas

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TI-Fax

TI-Order

Order you Technical Information


Order Fax +49 30 474 114 35

Following you will receive a selection of our technical information. In the enclosed list of contents all available Technical Information (TI) are listed. Please ask for the requested information. You simply have to fill out and sent this fax. The requested information will be sent to you by post. Please fill in the requested numbers:

Basics, General Information


G G G

Calculation, Construction and Planning


B B B

Assembly and Installation


M M M

others

Name und Address


Company To the attention of Street Zip code / City Telephone / Fax .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. .................................................................. ................................ / ...............................

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TI-G01

Basics, General Information

Introduction into "Thermal Comfort"


1. General
Thermal comfort is a decisive criterion for good health, because the human body has permanent thermal exchange with the surroundings through radiation, convection/conduction and transpiration. If through metabolism more heat is produced than necessary, surplus heat must be passed on to the surroundings. If there is a thermal deficit, the thermal looses must be reduced and the heat production must be raised. The thought that human beings prefer different thermal surroundings, because of their age, sex or their regional origin, and therefore well-being would only be a subjective matter, is from a scientifically point of view not the whole truth. On the contrary, comfort is depending upon factors, which influence one another. An optimal coordination of theses factors to another cause that 95% of all human beings will feel comfort in the same way. These influences can be classified if the are depending upon the human being or the room they are in. The 7thparameter: the external work (in W/m2) can be neglected, because for most of the activities it is close to zero. For the mentioned factors a PMV-index (predicted mean vote) is calculated. PPD-index (predicated percentage of dissatisfied) is belonging to it. The PPD-index shows the value in percentage of the probable dissatisfied people. Even at best situations there will be always 5% dissatisfied people.

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%


Standard climate conditioning system baseboard vair supply without cooling ceiling Cooling ceiling in combination with baseboard air supply

2. Influences of Thermal Comfort according ISO 7730


According ISO 7730 the thermal comfort is calculated by means of an extensive equation. In this equation (according investigations of Prof. Fanger 1) the following values are considered. Room air temperature in C Average radiation temperature of surrounding surfaces in C Relative air velocity of the room air in m/s Partial humidity pressure of the room air in Pa Thermal transmittance resistance of clothing in m K/W Metabolic rate in W/ m for the surface of the human body

Diagram 1: Statistical percentage of possible dissatisfied people according Prof. Fanger

1) Prof. Ole Franger , Kopenhagen

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TI-G02

Basics, General Information

Humidity and Dew Point


1. General
Absolute Moisture X X = mD / mL From equation 1 and = m/V follows: X= 0,622 pD / ( p - pD ) The total mass of 1 kg of moist air is 1+X ! For dry air X = 0, for pure damp X is infinite. 2.2 Saturation Moisture X Air can only take up moisture until its partial pressure pD is equal to the temperature depending saturation pS. At pD > pS moisture will turn into water (fog) X= 0,622 pS / ( p - pS ) 2.3 Dew Point When air is cooled down, the damp pressure pS and therefore the saturation moisture reduces. The dew point is reached, when the saturation pressure pS is equal to the damp pressure pD . Therefore: pS = pD or X = X (equation 4) 2.4 Relative Moisture =X/X The relative moisture prescribes how far the humidity is away from saturation or in other words, the relative moisture is the ratio between damp pressure to the saturation pressure. The value is expressed in percent % . = pD / pS (equation 5) (equation 3) (equation 2)

Humidity is the local and timely changing contains of steam in the air, which depends upon the regional climate, if not also influenced by individual usage of the rooms (kitchen, laundries etc.) Humidity must be considered regarding comfort as well as for functioning of the system.

2.

Basics

Air and steam in the atmosphere form a mixture, which contents behave like gases. For the mixture of both the Dalton law (1820) is true Each component i of a mixture of ideal gases in a definite volume V acts as if fills the whole volume by itself. It is under partial pressure Pi which results when the isothermal expansion of its volume Vi acts by the pressure P to the total volume V. Example Humidity: with p= pL + pD p pL pD V VL VD mD mL RD RL = = = = = = = = = = (equation 1)

p VD = pD V= mD RD T und p VL = pL V=mL RL T und V= VL + VD

Total pressure Partial pressure of the air Partial pressure of the damp Total volume Volume of air Volume of damp Masses of damp Masses of air Gas resistance: damp = 461 J/kg K Gas resistance: air, = 287 J/kg K

3.

Influence of Humidity to Comfort

2.1 Absolute Moisture X The absolute moisture represents the denseness of water in the air volume.

Next to temperature of the room air, the surface temperature of room enclosure areas and the velocity of the room air, the humidity is another to the room relating which is of importance for the thermal (see page G01)

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Basics, General Information TI-G02 Humidity and Dew Point

If the humidity in the room rises to such an extent that the portion of transpiration in the regulating mechanism of the temperature budget can not be kept up, the state of comfort can not be reached, even if other thermal values are within their limitation.

5.

Technical Solutions for Controlling the Dew Point

4.

Influence of Humidity to the System Safety

Moist air condenses at cold surfaces because of the saturation pressure being a function of the dew point temperature in dependence of the air pressure. (equation 3). This indication influences the application of a cooling ceiling decisively. Is the surface temperature kept below the dew point, there is the danger that condensation occurs. The dew point temperature must be seen in relationship to climatic zones of the location. According to DIN 4710, for our longitudes a yearly average of 60 to 90 hours are assumed, where a outdoor situation with dew point temperature above 16C will occur.

Basically the supply temperature should have a minimum of 16C. Therefore the time frame, in which theoretically the humidity in the room is the same as the humidity of the outdoor air, is restricted to 4% of the yearly working hours (depending on the location). It can be assumed though, that many building materials such as gypsum, plaster, masonry, concrete, carpeting, wallpaper etc. will slow down the rise of the humidity. To exclude this rare case a temperature sensor is installed at the coolest spot in the room. According to experience this spot is in the furthest corner away from the window directly next to the supply line. In case that the dew point is reached, this sensor actuates a setting valve in the return to the closed position preventing that further water can flow into the cooling circuit. (also see B05; Regulation of KaRo heating- and cooling ceilings). This simple way of regulation is enough to safely avoid condensation in the standard condition. At higher humidity in the room because of individual situations or at other related climate situations, dried air must be let into the room by means of a base (board) air ventilation. The incoming air is conditioned according the moisture, which has to be carried away.

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Basics, General Information

Duration Time Behaviour Polypropylene


1. Polypropylene
KaRo heating- and cooling mats are made from PP-Random-Copolymer. This material is especially suitable for water carrying pipes the surfaces do not swell. PP has an extraordinary resistance against many different aggressive chemicals (-> DIN 8078 appendix). PP can take up high temperature loads and can take, without any problem, duration temperatures up to 60C. For this reason it is used successfully for floor heating systems and for drinking water supplying. Since KaRo heating- and cooling systems are operated with substantially modest temperatures in comparison to conventional floor heating systems (standard this would be up to 45C for heating and 16C for cooling), the actual strain on material of the KaRo pipes is clearly lower. evaluated in the Duration time for internal pressure behaviour. The diagram below shows the duration time behaviour for the material used in the KaRo heating- and cooling mats, supply lines and pipes. The particular functions, in relation to temperatures, show the progress for the allowable comparative-tension in time duration until material failure.

3.

Life-span

In order to express the life span for KaRo capillary tubes, the tension in the capillary tube must be determined and compared with the allowable comparative-tension at the actual instance. The actual tension in the tube (tension of the tubes wall) is determined from the tube sizes and from the internal pressure according to the following equation: V = pi (da - s )/ (2 s) with pi - Internal pressure da - Outer tube diameter s - Wall thickness of the tubes

2. Duration Time for Internal Pressure Behaviour


Quality measure for the life span of plastic pipes is expressed in the Duration time for internal pressure behaviour according DIN E 8078 (1994). In this a multitude probes of plastic materials are tested at different temperatures and different pressures to the point of burst. The statistics of the resulting measurements is
Allowable comparative tension PP
16 14 12 20C 10 comparative tension 8 (MPa) 6 4 110C 2 0 1 10 100 1000 time (h) 10000 1 100000 10 25 Root at 0,4 MPa Capillary tube at 0,4 MPa

For the KaRo capillary tube a tension is calculated of only 1.04 MPa, this at a normal operating pressure of 0.4 MPa. The allowable comparative tension at 20C and 50 years although is still 9.4 MPa. This shows, that even after 50 years there is the assurance of 9 times against material failures.

95C

1000000 50 Years

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TI-G04

Basics, General Information

Energy- and Cost Consideration to the KaRo Cooling Ceiling


1. General
Modern office- and business premises must be cooled nearly all year because of the their extremely good thermal insulation and the internal loads from the office- and computer techniques. Considering the limitations for the permissible air velocity and the turbulences in the room, conventional air conditioning in many cases cannot sufficiently cope with the high cooling loads or only with high technical expenditure. These systems are comparatively uneconomical and have disadvantages such as draft- and noise annoyances. The KaRo cooling ceiling however creates wellbeing all-around while being an economical solution..

3. Energy Consumption + Energy sources with KaRo Cooling Ceilings


The energy consumption costs with cooling ceilings are without a doubt lower than air only systems1. The energy consumption of a KaRo cooling ceiling depends mainly on the type of technique, which is used for the cold-water preparation. In addition only little energy is consumed for the regulating technique. The necessary cooling capacity is given by the location, the type of building and utilisation of room/building, and can be determined by a cooling load calculation. For the cooling water generation different energy sources can be utilised. The particular technique is not only distinguished by the investment costs, but mostly by the operation costs. A frequently used method are cooling towers, which operate by open cooling, in combination with cooling units powered by electric energy. This combination secures low costs for the cold water preparation during a long period of the year and the cooling unit only goes into operation if open cooling is not possible, on very hot summer days. KaRo cooling ceilings can be utilised evidently dependable with low energy consuming techniques, alternative energy sources like quell water, cooling through open waters (lakes etc.) or through earth coolness. Since the KaRo cooling ceiling operates with mild temperatures (6/12C in the primary circuit of the cold water circuit), these natural energy sources can be used by a relatively low technical effort. The cost advantage of these systems can be clearly seen. In comparison to air only systems the cooling ceiling offers another substantial cost 1.

2. Cooling capacity of the KaRo Cooling Ceiling


KaRo radiation cooling ceilings provide 60% of the cooling through radiation and 40% through convection into the room. In this case the cooling ceiling takes exclusively the sensible (dry) cooling load out of the air. The necessary hygienic air exchange to vent the latent (moist) cooling load can be done in the simplest way through the open window or with a more comfortable solution through a base (board) ventilation. Depending upon the ceiling construction, pregiven intake temperature of the cooling water (for KaRo ceiling normally 16C) and difference to the room temperature (27C) the KaRo cooling ceiling by itself reaches a cooling capacity higher than 83 W/m2. This capacity normally covers all demands on a cooling system for normally used office facilities. In the combination cooling ceiling with a temperature controlled base (board)- or mixed ventilation decisively higher cooling capacities can be achieved and at the same time comfort is assured through the fresh air supply.

The hauling costs for air with conventional systems in some cases reach up to 50% of the energy costs. To transport the same amount of energy trough the media water, less than 10% of motive power is needed with KaRo ceilings.

1 source: journal HLH Bd.45(1994) - Wirtschaftlichkeitsvergleich des Khldeckensystems mit VVSSystem, Dr.Marten Bruck, Dr. Franc Sodec

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Basics, General Information TI-G04 Energy- and Cost Consideration to the KaRo Cooling Ceiling

Comparism of Energy Costs


35 30 25 20 cooling ceiling 15 10 V=8m3/(hm2) for cooling 5 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 spezific cooling load W/m 2 air conditioning w ith variable volume flow rate VVS w ith open cooling w ithout open cooling

Even if the KaRo ceiling is operated in combination with a baseboard ventilation for achievement of high comforts the energy consumption is still distinguishably lower since exclusively only the air for the hygienic air exchange must be moved.

Energy costs/(m 2*a)

4. Investment Costs
The investment costs for a cooling system is determined by the volume of the cooling load, the building conditions, the architectural desires, the technique of the cooling system and by the demands of comfort. For high cooling loads and large buildings, the KaRo cooling ceiling is the appropriate solution to provide comfortable room climates. The modest room requirements for the KaRo capillary mats and water circuit, very seldom require additional space for maintenance- or installation channels. Also for this reason KaRo cooling ceilings are outstanding for the renovation of rooms or buildings. For new construction, at the same height of eaves and because of the low construction height of the KaRo ceilings in comparison to a system, which requires an air channel network, it is sometimes possible to gain a full storey, whereby investment costs can be saved.

KaRo heating- and cooling mats can practically be installed into any type of ceiling without any problem. Without much additional expenditure it is possible to install capillary tube mats into nearly any type of ceilings. A comparison of investment costs between the KaRo cooling ceiling and a traditional air conditioning system is possible when the room and demand for comfort are accurately specified. Basically it can be said, that the combination cooling ceiling with a mechanical air ventilation, at high cooling loads, require less investment costs and lesser room than the traditional air conditioning systems.

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Basics, General Information TI-G04 Energy- and Cost Consideration to the KaRo Cooling Ceiling

Comparison of Investment Costs


1600 1400 1200 Investment Costs DM/m2 1000 800 installation costs 600 400 200 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Specific Cooling Load W/m2 variable volume flow rate Costs and volume of cooling load cooling ceiling

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Basics, General Information

Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique


1. General
Advantages: Successful since more than 15 years More than 750.000 m2 of mats installed Healthy room climate Low operating costs Free in choice of ceiling design Simple and safe installation Similar to what blood vessels in the human body do, the water carrying KaRo capillary tubes are distributed through the room surfaces. Thereby the water cools or heats the surfaces, which again emit the coolness or heat to the room by radiation or convection. The resulting room climate is comfortable and healthy. There will be no noticeable air movements and therefore dust will not be whirled up. The capacity of a cooling ceiling is determined by the difference between operating room temperature and average ceiling surface temperature as bigger the difference, the higher the cooling capacity. KaRo heating and cooling mats can be laid directly beneath the surface because of its little outer diameter of only 3.35 mm. This is the decisive advantage of the capillary tube technique in comparison to other pipe systems, because the supply temperature of the cooling water on all systems can not lowered to any desired temperature (in order to avoid condensation the supply temperature normally is limited to 16C!). Because of the narrow distance of one capillary tube to another (10 mm or 15 mm) a very uniform surface temperature is achieved. The KaRo system reaches an average ceiling surface temperature of approx. 20C already with an average water temperature of 17C. The same is true for the wall and floor heating. For cooling as well as for heating, the KaRo system can therefore be operated with water temperatures, which are close to the desired room temperature. The diagram Capacity comparison for cooling ceiling systems, a comparison of a capacity metering by an independent tester, shows clear advantages of the capillary tube system.

The capillary tube technique for heating and cooling for rooms has been successful in the market for more than 15 years. Meanwhile 750.000 m of capillary tube mats have been installed for cooling ceilings or for surface heating in Europe, mainly in Germany and in Switzerland. For the homeowners and user of the rooms, at first the comfortable and healthy room climate along with low operating costs in comparison to standard air conditioning systems, are the main reasons for choosing cooling- and heating ceilings with KaRo capillary tube mats. Architects praise the nearly unrestricted possibilities of design for ceilings and implementations with the use of KaRo mats. Not the least the KaRo technique is the best suited for the installer for low costing and true time installation work because of its simple and safe connection techniques.

2. Technical Principle
Advantages: Uniform cooling through radiation and convection Healthy; through barely noticeable air movements High cooling capacity, because of the capillaries laid close beneath the surface With 16C supply temperature, approx. 20C surface temperature is reached. Energy savings through utilisation of alternative energy sources. Top in comparison with other systems. Little pressure loss /m2 Little installation expense

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Basics, General Information TI-G05 Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique

Capacity Comparision of Cooling Ceiling Systems 120

100 B specific capacity [W/m] 80 D C 60 F E 40 A

20

0 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Temperature difference room average water temperature [K]

Source: S+G 10/93 - Comparative capacity metering on cooling ceilings of different brands Author Dr. Bernd Glck- ROM

A - two in meander shape laid metal pipes, which are connected by a k-shaped crimp on the long side of the metal panel. The panels are fixed with clamps to the water carrying pipes. B - two units with 11 venation blind slats. These slats form current channels wherein a convection current is developed. Sheet metal cassettes of which approx. 20% perforated are fixed directly beneath the units as a closed cooling ceiling. C - Capillary tube mats with a distance of 12,5 mm between the capillary tubes, glued to sheet metal panels of which 20% being perforated. D - Copper pipes (pipe diameter = 36,7 mm2), meander shaped, laid onto sheet metal panels of which 20% being perforated, then covered with plasterboard. E - meander shaped bent metal pipes (outer diameter 12 mm) with pipe distances of 85 mm, with half of their circumference laid in thermal contacting profiles. The Wilhelmi ceiling panel with Mikropor lamination, front faced fixed with clamp bars and with magnet strips on the thermal contact profile, provide the contact between the panel and the thermal contact profile. F - Aluminium plates with integrated water carrying channels. These cooling plates are laid in Willhelmi sheets type Mikropor,

fixed to the sheets with brackets and magnet strips.

down-hold

Alternative energy sources or also open cooling via outside air are sufficient for longer time periods of the year to maintain comfort. It saves energy costs and natural resources. Compared to other systems, comfort is improved, since the KaRo system reacts very fast to load changes. Continuing heat emission time through heat accumulation, as this is known from normal floor heating systems, will be very short because of the non-existing building masses above the capillary tubes. Another advantage of the KaRo capillary tube technique, compared to the meanders made of metal pipes, is the modest pressure loss/m2 of active ceiling surface. In the KaRo mats the required water volume for the cooling capacity is distributed to a great number of capillaries (depending on the mat type this could be up to 96 tubes/m width), while for the metal pipe meanders only one pipe dia- meter is available. Even for mat surfaces of 8 m2 a flow speed of only 0.2 m/s is reached in the capillary tube. In a meander made of copper tubing DN 10mm , for the same surface, already a critical flow speed of 1.15 m/s is reached. A low flow speed, even under consideration of the substantially small diameters of the KaRo capillary tubes, results into lesser pressure loss. Therefore lesser motive power is reP.2 TI-G05

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Basics, General Information TI-G05 Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique

quired with the KaRo systems for the circulating pumps. Metal pipe systems avoid this eventual disadvantage mostly through the fact that smaller surfaces (seldom more than 1 m ) are connected directly to a connection of the supply line. But through this the expense for the installation and for the connecting parts will be comparatively higher than with the KaRo technique.

3. Liberty of Design
Advantages KaRo mats are flexible and are fit for all building designs KaRo mats must only be laid on metal cassettes Load per unit area only approx. 800 g/m2 No reinforced sub-constructions required Dry-build boards must only be covered with KaRo mats KaRo mats can be embedded simply in plaster KaRo dry-build units are available for the advanced dry-build construction Little thermal expansion because of small temperature differences KaRo mats for floor heating

brickwork or to a plasterboard surface. The mat itself is fixed by means of gluing, nailing, tacking or with dowels. After this a thin layer of plaster is applied. The capillaries are close beneath the surface, so that a high efficiency is reached. The main pipes which the capillary tube for supply- and return line lead into, are installed in wall slots or ceiling cavities and will then be connected to the water circuit. A danger of inadequate adhesion of the plaster, also at the state of heating, is not given since operating temperatures of the water are mostly only at 30C (not more than 45C) and the plaster material is not harmed and the thermal expansion of the capillaries will be taken-up by the plaster without any problem. The use of KaRo mats for floor heating or cooling is especially suitable for renovation. The KaRo mats simply are laid on top of an a layer which is able to support load (raw concrete or floor tiles) possibly insulated to the layer below, fixed and covered with a thin layer of screed . The surface can be done with tiles or floor coverings. Different to standard floor heating systems the KaRo system leads the heat from directly beneath the surface to the room. The heating system therefore reacts very fast with water temperatures seldom higher than 28C.

Through the small dimensions of the KaRo capillary tubes the mats are very flexible and can be fit without any problem to nearly any building component. Even vaults and triangle shaped surfaces can be covered with KaRo mats. KaRo capillary tube mats can be laid on top of metal cassette units, it doesnt matter of which brand they are. With a load per unit area of only approx. 800g/m2 (filled), the sub-construction of the ceiling units is not affected. The KaRo mat is therefore also suitable for renovation of suspended metal ceilings. But also dry-build construction boards from plaster or fibrous plaster can be covered simply from the top with KaRo mats. The construction boards are prepared with the capillary tube mats at the building site and installed as usual. KaRo also offers a dry-built unit (a sandwich type sheet consisting of plasterboard with hart foam insulation and an integrated KaRo mat) especially for drybuilt purpose. This unit is available in all construction boards standard sizes. It is particularly suited for installation of large surfaces, where the borders and the cutouts on the inactive ceiling units are just cut to size at the building site. The embedding of KaRo- heating and cooling mats into ceiling or wall plastering can be done without any problem no matter if plaster is being applied to pre-mixed concrete,

4. Easy Installation and Safety


Advantages: Sizes made to order Special mats for larger ceiling installation Simple installation through quick-action couplings or thermal welding KaRo mats supplied with adhesive tapes Capillary tubes self-venting Safety since pressure tested No corrosion through separated system Repairs of damages without any problem KaRo mats can freeze without any damages

KaRo heating- and cooling mats are fabricated in different versions, made to order in requested dimensions. At the building site the mats are installed according to an accurate ceiling pattern and connected to the waterlines. Tailoring of the mats at the building site is not necessary. For larger ceiling installations like lamps, speaker boxes or air vents, KaRo offers specially manufactured mats. Small cutouts (for light spots or sprinklers) are done simply by moving some capillaries to the side. Depending on the version the KaRo mats are connected by means of thermal welding or with flexible hoses which are supplied with

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Basics, General Information TI-G05 Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique

quick-action couplings and can be connected to the factory prepared supply lines with the cold- or warm water circuit. KaRo mats for plaster ceilings are supplied as per request with adhesive tapes. Before plastering the installer just peels off the protective foil from the adhesive tape and glues the mat to the raw ceiling. KaRo capillary tubes are self-venting because of their small inner diameter. Through the laminar current in the tubes, the air is being transported out of the system even if the mats are installed with a vertical downward flow. Therefore at installations a descent must not be taken into account. Automatic vents though must be included in the supply lines of the piping. The manufacturing of KaRo mats is covered by a strict factory quality standard . Each KaRo mat is pressure tested with 20 bars for a time of 10 minutes. According to regulation the responsible installer has to make an additional pressure test after completion of the installation. On principle KaRo heating- and cooling mats are operated in closed circuits. The mats circuit (secondary circuit) is connected to the circuit of the water preparation and heating unit via a stainless steel heat exchanger. Only non-corroding components (brass, stainless steel or plastic materials) are installed in the secondary circuit. Through the system separation a reliable avoidance of sludge and clogging of the capillary tubes secured During heating operation fall-out of waterdissolving minerals will not occur, since heating temperatures are never above 45C. The system separation protects the system even at failures and will prevent from emptying. Should a failure occur, even with the safety measures laid out in the system and a capillary tube is damaged, the damage is only limited. Water will only drain from the damaged capillary tube until pressure equalisation with the environment is reached. For this reason the maximum possible amount of leakage is determined by the size of the expansion tank. Normally not more than 5 litres. Repairs of damaged capillary tubes are easily done through soldering/welding with a welding plate ore a soldering iron (see Technical Information M01). The active ceiling area and therefore a lesser performance is hardly noticeable. KaRo heating- and cooling mats stand up to the tough building site conditions. Wilful damages excluded, the mats can even
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be walked on during installation processes. The mats, pipes and supply lines can be laid at temperatures down to +5C. Once filled with water the KaRo mats will not take damage even when freezing.

5. Polypropylene contra Copper and Steel


Advantages: Physiologically harmless Resistant against aggressive chemicals No special demands for the water quality Durability even at 60C Duration of life more than 50 years Non-polluting No poisonous gases in case of fire Recycling is not a problem

KaRo capillary tube mats, pipes, supply lines and fittings are made from Random Copolymer type 3 according DIN 8078. This plastic material is a highly pure material with excellent properties regarding durability and compatibility to the environment. The polypropylene used for the KaRo mats meets the VII, Polypropylene, of the Deutschen Bundesgesundheitsamtes (BGA) (German health department) and is physiological harmless. This polypropylene can therefore also be used for cold/hot drinking water lines. Polypropylene is resistant to a great number of chemicals, even against aggressive ones. An extensive list of chemical resistances can be found in the contents of annex 1(add sheet ) to DIN 8078. KaRo mats are filled with regular tap water, because polypropylene itself is non-corrosive. Manufacturer of copper pipe systems themselves state for their systems: Because of differing water qualities it might be necessary to do water treatment; especially when the contents of chloride is higher than 50 mg/litre and a risk for germs exists. Generally checks of the water quality are suggested every year, for recording number of germs and amount of oxygen 1 For copper, along with cold oxygenise water, corrosion is possible at critical conditions, which could cause pipe damages already at short operating times. Polypropylene can be operated up to temperatures of 60C without any problem. Quality measure for the duration of life for plastic materials generally, is the duration time internal pressure behaviour according DIN E 8078 (1994).

Brochure Carrier Cooling Ceiling, Carrier Comfort


Ceiling 56AA, 1996 P.4 TI-G05

Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc

Basics, General Information TI-G05 Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique

According to this the duration of life for the KaRo heating- and cooling mats, pipes, supply lines and fittings are extremely (according G03 more than 50 years). Polypropylene is used for floor heating systems successfully for more than 20 years. Against beginning resistances coming from the supplier of metal pipe systems, plastic materials dominantly succeeded in the marked. According to the magazine BmK 2/93, the market share for copper pipes for floor heating systems, 1993 was already estimated to be below 10%.

The environmental compatibility of plastic materials especially for polypropylene is superior to copper and steel. In an environment analysis according to the method of results oriented comparison (VENOB) of the technische Universitt Berlin 1994 the pipe systems of different materials were examined. The diagrams above show the environmental behaviour in conclusion.

Standardized dimensionless Environmental Characteristics

Plastic min.

Plastic max.

exposure to air exposure to w ater

Copper

Impact of soil

Steel

50

100

150

200

250

300

Expenditur of energy for production

Plastic min.

Plastic max.

Copper

Steel

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

Expenditur of energy [MJ]

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P.5

TI-G05

Basics, General Information TI-G05 Advantages of the KaRo Capillary Tube Technique

Polypropylene is a highly pure hydrocarbon material. With its properties this material can be classified in the group of plastic materials minimal. The results of this study show significant advantages for the plastic materials against the standard pipe materials concerning environmental properties. Fire behaviour of polypropylene is harmless. When Polypropylene is burned it changes to water and carbon dioxide. According DIN 4102 part 1 polypropylene belongs to the material group B2 normal flammable. Neither while polypropylene is burning or at the extinguishing phase, whether neither poisonous gases nor acids will be formed, as this is would be the case with PVC. Further comments to burning behaviour, as also comments to fire rating of capillary tube mats as given by the Amtlichen Material Prfanstalt fr das Bauwesen beim Institut fr Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz an der TU Braunschweig can be found in the technical comments of B06. KaRo capillary tube mats, supply lines and pipes, normally are not a set out to UV-light during installed situation. Shipment of the goods will be done UV light protected in cartons or foil packaging.

Polypropylene can be totally recycled without energy waste. At KaRo all the PP-production waste is ground-up and used again for plastic moulded parts. Large plastic material producer such as Hoechst AG are setting-up recycling systems. In the city of Knappsack is a recycling unit where PP-material (up to 5.000 t/year !) is recycled. Should, in any case, normal assorting of PP- material and recycling not be economical, than polypropylene can still be burned in trash burning units. Even at a trash depot polypropylenes behaviour is neutral. PP does not dissolve in water and therefore does not harm underground water or soil.

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P.6

TI-G05

TI-G06

Basics, General Information

Standard KaRo Ceiling Constructions and approx. Costs


1. General Remarks
ity. During hook-up of the metal cassettes the connections between supply lines and mats are made with flexible hoses. Openings in the metal cassettes of up to 50 mm are possible by just bending the capillary tubes around the openings. For larger openings KaRo offers special pre-fabricated mats with cutouts. Cooling ceilings, as a metal cassette ceiling Capacity: 83 W/m Standard cooling capacity Prices: 180,- to 450,- /m

The large assortment of KaRo products offers many possibilities for installation. Technical solutions and the extent of work involved are differing. Costs, which are mentioned at this point, are true for standard installation variations and should only be used for approximate costing. Costs are further influenced by the expense of cold-water preparation and the regulating technique in dependence to the active ceiling area. Because of so many differing offers average costing can not be ascertained. Standard-installation variations of KaRo capillary tube mats. Embedding in metal cassette units Equipping standard-dry-build panels Usage of KaRo dry-build units (sandwich sheet from plasterboard and insulation panel with integrated KaRo mats) Installation of KaRo mats in plaster (fixed to the raw concrete or to the suspended plasterboard ceiling)

(prices depend upon type and brand of the metal cassettes)

3.

Equipping Standard Dry-build Panels

Equipping the plasterboard panels with KaRo mats is described in Technical Remarks M05. KaRo mats are pre-fabricated according dimensions of the ceiling and supplied to the building site. The plasterboards are then equipped according to the layout scheme. For better thermal conduction the capillary tubes are painted with a thermal conduct paste. Then the boards are pre-drilled according the layout scheme. The construction for the suspended ceiling, made from CD-profiles, is fitted in 300 mm screen distances according to standard dry-build regulations. The supplyand return lines are installed in the ceiling cavity. The plasterboards equipped with the KaRo mats are positioned at the ceiling, the supply lines connected to the waterside with flexible hoses and fixed to the suspended ceiling at the pre-drilled positions with building screws. For larger installations non-equipped inactive plasterboards are used. Small cutouts in the ceiling are done in the same manner as with metal cassettes.

2.

Installation of KaRo Mats on top of Metal Cassettes

The steps for installation are thoroughly described in Technical Remarks M04. Before installation the KaRo mats are laid into the cassettes. For a perfect heat transfer, the mats should be glued-in or should be covered with a mineral-fibre insulating mat. In the last case the acoustical insulation is already predetermined. Standard insulation thickness is mostly 40 to 60 mm. If the metal cassette is furnished in the swing down version, the insulation sheet should be secured with clamping brackets. An insulating panel increases the cooling performance in case of a totally enclosed ceiling with an additional heating source in the ceiling cavity (water carrying piping, covers for light fixtures etc.). The supply lines are laid into the ceiling cav-

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P.1

TI-G06

Basics, General Information TI-G06 Standard KaRo Ceiling - Constructions and approx. Costs

Cooling ceiling as equipped dry-build panel. Capacity 70 W/m standard cooling capacity Prices 150,- to 180,- /m

5.

Installing KaRo Mats in Plaster

The installation of KaRo mats in plaster is explained in Technical Remarks M03. The KaRo mat type K.S15 is fixed to the raw concrete ceiling with butyl adhesive tape or with dowels. M13. A bonding layer must be applied to the raw concrete for plastering type MP75 or similar is used. The plaster thickness should be 12mm 15mm . The main pipes for the mats are laid in wall slots. Direct welding of the main lines with the piping does the connection of the mats. Cooling ceiling embedded on the raw concrete ceiling. Capacity 80 W/m standard cooling capacity Prices 65,- to 120,- /m

(prices depend upon type and expense of the dry-build ceiling)

4.

Utilisation of the KaRo Dry-build units.

Instructions for installation of KaRo dry-build units are given in the Technical Remarks M11. The KaRo dry-build unit is manufactured in standard dimensions of 2000 x 600 mm. They are suitable for installation of large connected surfaces. For the border area and for build-ins the inactive boards are tailored at the building site. KaRo dry-build units are screwed to the CDprofiles of the suspended ceiling support construction. The supply lines for supply and return are laid into the ceiling cavity. For the installation of the dry-build units the water connection from the base to the supply line is done with flexible hoses. Cooling ceiling with the dry-build unit. Capacity 64 W/m standard cooling capacity Prices 150,- to 180,- /m

A second variation is to tack plasterboard directly to the KaRo mat type K.S15. In the plasterboard surfaces slots of 150 mm are left blank. Through theses slots the mains are lead to the ceiling cavities and are connected to the piping by welding a process. The slots then are closed with plasterboard strips. A bonding layer is applied to the ceiling surface. At the end a layer of plaster (MP75) approx. 10-12 mm thick is applied. Cooling ceiling plastered onto a dry-build panel. Capacity 80 W/m Standard cooling capacity Prices 130,- to 200,- /m

(Prices are depending upon the installation expense for the dry-build panels )

Ceiling in-lays can be made up to diameters of 100 mm, only by pulling the capillary tubes apart. For larger in-lays the ceiling areas are kept empty.

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P.2

TI-G06

TI-G07

Short Description

Free Cooling
With KaRo substantial energy savings can be regained with free cooling.

4. Energy saving with free cooling


The dew point of the outside air is for many hours of the year substantial lower than the interior temperature Figure 3. During these hours no energy for the chiller is needed. This situation can be for more than 50% of the cooling period.

1. Free Cooling by ventilation


With conventional air condition systems the free cooling can be done with the ventilation of fresh air. As long as the dry bulb temperature of the outside air is substantial lower than the temperature inside the building the cooling can be done just by ventilation without the cooling machine.

City

Altitude m

2. Free Cooling with KaRo


With KaRo the free cooling is done by using the cooling tower to cool the KaRo water. As long as the dew point temperature of the outside air is substantial lower than the room temperature inside the building the cooling can be done just by running the KaRo Ceiling direct by the cooling tower without the cooling machine.

Athens Berlin Istanbul Lissabon London Madrid Moskau Paris Rome Valencia Cleveland Los Angeles New York San Francisco Hongkong Singapore Chungching Sydney Melbourne

110 40 70 100 40 650 140 50 50 25 205 165 130 50 15 10 230 40 30

Out side air temperature Dry bulb Dew point Difference C C K 37 22 15 32 21 11 27 19 8 34 22 12 34 22 12 36 22 14 31 21 10 32 21 11 36 23 13 33 24 9 35 32 35 29 36 36 36 35 35 24 21 24 18 30 28 27 23 23 11 11 11 11 6 8 9 12 12

Cooling with a chiller

1 KaRo Ceiling 2 Chiller 4 Cooling tower

Max. Temperatures from some cities for designing in summer

3. How does it work?


A plate heat exchanger is installed in a bypass to the cooling machine. As long as possible the KaRo water is cooled directly from the cooling tower via this heat exchanger. The chiller is not running.
h/a

2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000 500 0 Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature

Figure 3: Annual hours in Berlin with outside temperature exceeding 15 C. Free Cooling with KaRo
1 KaRo Ceiling 3 Heat exchanger 4 Cooling tower

Only when the capacity of the cooling tower is not big enough the bypass is closed and the chiller is cooling the KaRo water and the cooling tower is used for the chiller.

04/2002

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TI-G07

TI-K01

Short Description

Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats


1. General
Modern office- and business premises must be climate controlled nearly all year long because of their high thermal insulation and their internal loads from computers and office appliances. At the heating period they have comparatively low heat consumption. The energetic cost saving solution is a KaRo heating- and cooling ceiling. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be directly fixed to the raw ceiling and then be plastered. Even already suspended plasterboard ceilings can be made very easily into economical heating- and cooling ceilings. This arrangement can also be used for renovation of historical protected rooms. Through the combined function of the ceiling the investment costs for heating system installations can be minimised. possible. For the generation of heating water the same advantages are true. In connection with solar collector systems, and even with standard techniques a significant energy saving is already reached, because respectable heating performances are achieved with considerable low supply temperatures (below 40C).

2. System Description
The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are simply embedded into the ceiling plaster. Since the capillary tubes are positioned directly beneath the surface (the ceiling construction is thinner than 15 mm !), the surface will heatup or cool-down fast. The time reaction of the ceiling is less than 15 minutes.
Plastered ceiling with BEKA heating- and cooling mats

3. Cold Water-/ Heating Water Technique


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are tied up in zones to the piping as a circuit and connected to the heat- or cooling supplier. The connection via a storey-distributor is recommended. For the cold water preparation different techniques and systems can be utilised. The economical advantages of the cooling ceiling exist because the ceiling will provide already sufficient performance even with supply temperatures which are only slightly below the room temperature. This makes the utilisation of alternative energy sources like heat pumps or open cooling and ground water

Connection cooling or heating unit

4. Installation
In general the standard Installation guidelines have to be obeyed. All materials used in the KaRo heating- and cooling mat system must be non-corrosive. Materials used can be: plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials in use could cause sludge and could lead to malfunction of the system.

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P.1

TI-K01

Short Description TI--K01 Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

5. Regulating Technique
The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. The cooling ceiling requires: a room temperature regulation, a dew point guard, and a control of the supply temperature for the cold water. Supply temperatures below 16C must be avoided because of the danger that the dew point is reached! For the heating ceiling a room temperature control is required, which regulates the volume of heating water in dependence to the desired room temperature. Supply temperatures higher than 45C must be avoided because of the danger of an excessive surface temperature of the ceiling and to prevent plaster from drying-out !

6. Dimensioning of the System


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are dimensioned according to the following lay-out table. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

offered for the different uses in widths of 1200 mm and lengths up to 6000 mm, so that tailoring at the building site is not necessary. Only at borders and at areas where ceiling in-builds are planned, inactive areas must be provided. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be supplied with readily attached double sided adhesive tape, for the positioning of the mats at the raw ceiling. Before starting work a ceiling pattern and an installation pattern must be drawn-up. All mats with its dimensions and direction of installation for the supply lines must recorded. In the ceiling pattern also all areas must be marked, which will stay empty for instance for the installation of partition walls, for light fixtures and for other ceiling in-fills. Also the installation position of the dew point KaRosensor must be marked at the ceiling pattern. The connection of the Polypropylene piping is done by thermal welding. For the execution the welding directions DVS 2207-11 of the Deutscher Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. are valid. (The surrounding temperature during working must not be below 5C. The preheating,- welding and setting time must be according to regulations.)

8. Tools, Materials
For the installation of KaRo heating- and cooling mats in plaster ceilings the recommended tools and materials for the installations of Polypropylene must be used.: Pipe clamps Dowels and screws, if necessary Plastic pipe clamps Hand held welding device with sleeve welding adapter for plastic welding Plastic fittings Smoothening spatula Plaster material Tools and materials for plastering must be chosen according the plaster manufacturers instructions.

7. Preparation for Installation


For the connection of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats the manufacturers instructions must be obeyed. For the plastering instructions of the plaster material supplier must be followed. The raw ceiling must have a solid base, which is able to carry surface loads of at least 20 kg/m2 . If the plaster ceiling must be applied onto a suspended ceiling, the supporting distances and design of the suspender from the raw ceiling must bear a load of at least 30 kg/m2 . The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are

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P.2

TI -K01

Short Description TI--K01 Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

9. Installation Steps at for the Ceiling


Fasten main pipes of the mats with hose clamps to the raw ceiling or in the cavity of suspended ceilings. Later on the main pipes are located behind partition walls towards the corridor or behind cavities in the wall or mouldings. Connect mats to another and to the water circuit by means of thermal welding. Unroll the KaRo mats and position them to the raw ceiling or to the suspended ceiling by means of adhesive tape. Pre-test with air pressure of 10 bar for 1 hour. Main-test with water with 10 bar for 4 hours. Resting pressure of 3 bar must be kept-up until system is taken into operation.

I.
Butyl adhesive tape Raw ceiling

BEKA heating- and cooling mats corridor room

Apply plaster spots at the spacer bars of the mats, with this the KaRo mats are held securely until plastering is done. For installation to suspended ceilings this additional fastening will not have to be done. Eventually only tacks have to be placed above the spacers of the mats, to take the tension of the mats

II.

Plaster spots

III.
Apply the plaster base adhesive primer according to manufacturers instructions, through painting, roll-on or spraying. Apply plastering in a thin layer. Mostly 10 to 12 mm is enough. Avoid thick layers the cooling capacity will be lowered!!

Partition wall fixed to metal runner

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P.3

TI -K01

Short Description TI-K01 Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

10. Lay-out of a Plaster Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Mats Type K.S15

Project : Project consultant : Required Cooling Capacity 1 Cooling load for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required specific cooling capacity Performance Determination 120 100 Cooling capacity [W/m 2] 80 60 40 20 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 W m2 W/m2

Date Lay-out valid for 27C room temperature and 2K cooling water spread !

from calculation of planning office max.possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = cooling load / coverage

Quick lay-out for ceiling cooling with BEKA mats in plaster

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

Supply temperature [C]

valid for room temperature 27C and cooling water spread 2K and plasster type MP75 -Fa.KNAUF

12

16

20

23

27

31

35

38

42

46

50

Mass flow of cooling water [kg/(m2h)] 4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 1 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume of mat area 7 Water volume per zone Pressure loss determination 8 Length of connecting pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe -> from diagram 2 10 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat -> with value of line 2 from the diagram 1 12 Addition for pressure loss of fittings (recomm.: 30% addition to pipe) 13 Addition for heat transfer station (recomm:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss Pa Pa
20000 Pressure loss [Pa] 15000 10000 5000 0 10 15 20 25 30 Mass flow [kg/(m2h)] 35 8m

C C kg/(m2h)
Pressure loss [Pa/m] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 80 120

Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm

l/h

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

160

200 240 Mass flow [kg/h]

280

320

360

400

25000

Pressure loss Type S15 7m 6m 5m

4m

3m 2m 1m 40

If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised, the pressure determinaton can be omitted. Only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection.

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P.4

TI K01

Short Description TI-K01 Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

11. Lay-out of Plaster Ceiling for Ceiling Heating with KaRo Mats Type K.S15
Project : Project consultant : Date Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K Heating water spread !

Required heating capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required specific heating capacity Performance Determination W m2 W/m2 from calculations of the planning office max.possible arrangement derived from the room dimensions = Heat requirement / coverage

Quick lay-out for ceiling heating with BEKA mats in plaster

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature ( C )

Heating capacity [W/m 2]

valid for room temperature 27C and heating water spread 6K and plaster type MP75 -Fa.KNAUF

12

14

17

19

22

25

Mass flow of the heating water [kg/(m2h)]

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 1 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per mat area 7 Water volume per zone Pressure Loss Determination 8 Length of connecting pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe -> from diagram 2 10 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * resistance 11 Pressure loss of the pipe -> with value of line 2 from diagram 1 12 Addition for pressure loss of fittings (recomm: 30% Addition to pipe ) 13 Addition for heat transfer stations (recomm:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total Pressure Loss for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa

C C kg/(m2h) l/h
Pressure loss [Pa/m] Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm 100 80 60 40 20 0

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

40

80

120

160

200 240 Mass flow ( kg/h)

280

320

360

400

Pressure loss Type S15

Pa

25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 5 10 15 Mass flow [kg/(m2h)] 20 8m 7m 6m

Pa

Pressure loss [Pa]

5m 4m 3m 2m 1m 25

If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised, the determination of pressure losses can be omitted. Only the quantity of heating circuits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection.

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P.5

TI-K01

Short Description TI-K01 Plaster Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

12. Technical Details


KaRo capillary tube mats Type K.S15 Material Polypropylene Random-Copolymer Type 3 DIN 8078 Geometry Collector pipe Capillary tube Capillary tube distance Exchange surface

20 x 2 mm 3,35 x 0,5 mm 15 mm 0,71 m2

Size Length: 600-6000 mm (in increments of 10 mm) Width: 150-1200 mm (in increments of 30 mm) Masses 0,44 kg/m2 (empty, without collector) 0,71 kg/m2 (filled, without collector) Water contents 0,27 l/m2 Cooling capacity Depending upon the type 80 W/m2 with 10 mm Plaster MP 75 (DIN 4715) Heating capacity: Depending upon the type to 150 W/m2 Operation condition : Temperature stable at long term use up to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Utilisation / type of installation: Cooling- and heating ceilings, plaster-version Connection by thermal welding Type of delivery: The mats are supplied rolled-up, packed in cartons.

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P.6

TI-K01

TI-K02

Short Description

Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats


1. General
Modern office- and business facilities must be cooled mostly throughout the whole year because of the internal loads coming from office- and computer appliances and because of the high thermal insulation of walls and facades. During the heating period itself the rooms need comparatively little heating. Because of this the utilisation of the energetically low cost KaRo heating- and cooling ceiling is possible. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are simply laid on top of the panels of the suspended metal cassette ceiling. This way each metal cassette ceiling can be utilised very easily and economically as a heating- and cooling ceiling. This set-up can also be used for renovation. Because of the combined function of the ceiling the investment cost for the building installations can be minimised. open cooling and ground water possible. For the generating of heating water the same advantages are true. In connection with solar collector systems and even with standard techniques significant energy savings are achieved, because already with low supply temperatures (below 40C) it can be heated with respectable heating performances.
Supply lines Connecting hoses Cassette ceiling with BEKA heating- and cooling mats

Further ceiling areas

2. Description of the System


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are simply laid on top of the metal cassettes. The capillary tubes are positioned directly on the sheet metal or on a thin acoustic fibre. The surface is rapidly cooled-down or heated-up. The reaction time of the ceiling is less than 15 minutes.

piping

3. Cold Water Heating Water Technique


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are tiedup in zones to the piping as a circuit and connected to the heating- or cooling supplier. The connection to a storey distributor is recommended. For the cold-water preparation different techniques and systems can be utilised. The economical advantages of the cooling ceiling exists because the ceiling will provide already high performances with supply temperatures which are only slightly below the room temperature. This makes the utilisation of alternative energy sources such as heat pumps or
04/2002
Connection to Cooling unit or heating source

4. Installation
Generally the standard installation guidelines must be obeyed. All materials used in the KaRo heating- and cooling mat system must be non-corrosive. Materials to be used can be: plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials in use could cause sludge and could lead to malfunction of the system.

Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc

P.1

TI-K02

Short Description TI-K02 Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

5. Regulating Technique
The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. The cooling ceiling requires : a room temperature regulation, a dew point guard and regulation of the supply temperature for the cold water. Supply temperatures below 16 C must be avoided because of the danger that the dew point could be reached! For the heating ceiling a room temperature control is required which regulates the volume of heating water in dependence to the desired room temperature. In rooms higher than 3,5 m supply temperatures above 40C must be avoided because of excessive surface temperatures!

6. Dimensioning of the Installation


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are dimensioned according the dimensions of the metal cassettes. The necessary quantity of mats and the temperature of the cooling water or heating water are determined according to the following layout tables. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

duced in measurement of the metal cassettes based on the object to avoid any tailoring work at the building site. At the border areas and at areas where ceiling in-builds are planned inactive cassettes will be installed. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are supplied with quick-action couplings for the connection of supply- and return lines with flexible hoses. Before starting work a ceiling pattern and an installation pattern must be drawn-up. All mats with the dimensions, the direction of installation and the supply lines must be recorded. In the ceiling pattern all areas must be marked which will stay uncovered, i.e. for the installation of partition walls or light fixtures and for other ceiling in-fills. Also the installation positions for the KaRo dew point sensor must be marked at the ceiling pattern. The connection of the polypropylene piping is done by thermal welding. Here the welding directions DVS 2207-11 of the Deutschen Verband fr Schweisstechnik e.V. must be obeyed. (the ambient temperature must not be below 5 C. The pre-heating, -welding- and setting time must be according to the given regulations.)

8. Tools, Materials
For the installation of a metal cassette heating- and cooling ceiling with KaRo capillary tube mats standard tools and materials for ceiling constructions and for the installation of plastic pipes can be used such as: Metal cassettes Suspender profiles and suspenders depending at the type of construction used for the chosen ceiling. Dowels and screws Sheet metal scissors Mineral wool insulating wool (if req.) Scissors to cut plastic piping Hand-held welder with sleeve welding adaptor for plastic welding Plastic fittings For the connection of the supply lines to the cold water circuit a hand-held welder with sleeve welding adaptor and plastic fittings are recommended . Alternatively sealing ring connectors can be used.

7. Preparation for Installation


For the installation of the suspended metal cassette ceiling, the manufacturers instructions must be followed. The capillary tubes of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats should have good contact to the surface of the metal cassettes, so that the heat transfer is directly lead to the water. If there are additional heat sources in the ceiling cavity (heat radiation from light fixtures and from warm water pipes, etc.) a mineral wool mat can be laid on top of the capillary tubes for energy saving purpose. Sometimes such an installation could be required for the sound insulation of the ceiling. If this requirement is not set forth we recommend to glue the capillary tubes to the surfaces. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are pro-

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P.2

TI K02

Short Description TI-K02 Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

9. Installation Steps at the Ceiling

The bearing structure is fastened and aligned to the raw ceiling with vernier suspension bars according to manufacturers recommendations of the chosen ceiling brand. The supply lines are laid into the ceiling cavity and connected to the main supply lines (connections done either by thermal welding or with sealing ring connectors) The flexible connecting hoses are plugged into the quick-action couplings of the supply lines.

I.

II.

The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are laid into the cassettes and if necessary fixed with KaRo adhesive V.K.1.

III.
insulation

Plug the flexible hoses into the quick-action couplings of the KaRo mats. The cassettes with the KaRo mats in it are hooked into the bearing structure and the joints are aligned. If required, place insulating mat on top of it. Pre-test with compressed air at 10 bar for one hour. Main test with water at 10 bar for 4 hours, maintain an idle pressure of 3 bar until the system is taken into operation.

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P.3

TI K02

Short Description TI-K02 Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

10. Lay-out for Metal Cassette Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Capillary Tube Mats
Project: Project consultant: Required cooling capacity 1 Cooling load for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required specific cooling capacity Determination of performance W m2 W/m2 from calculation of the planning office maximum possible arrangement derived from the room dimensions = cooling load / coverage Date : Lay-out valid for 27C - room temperature and 2 K cooling water spread!

Quick lay-out for ceiling cooling with BEKA mats in metall cassettes
Cooling capacity [W/m ]
2

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12

Supply temperature [C]


v a lid fo r ro o m temperature 27C and co o ling water s p read 2K

12

16

20

23 27 31 35 Mass flow of cooling water [kg/(m2h)]

38

42

46

50

4 Supply temperature 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per mat

from diagram 1

C C
1 00

Pressure loss in the pipe 20x2mm

Pressure loss [Pa/m]

kg/m h l/h

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 0 0 40 80 1 20 1 60 200 240 280 320 360 400

7 Water volume per zone Pressure loss determination 8 Length of the connection pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe 10 Pressure loss in pipe = pipe length * Resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat with value of line 2 from diagram 1 12 Addition for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% addition to pipe) 13 Addition for heat transfer station (recomm: for zone valves 500 -1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa) 14 Total pressure loss If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised the determination of pressure loss can be omitted. from diagram 2

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]


D ruckverlust Typ S1 5

Pressure loss type U 10


2000 25000 1 800 20000 1 600 1 400 1 5000 1 200 1 000 1 0000 800 600 5000 400 200 0 0 1 0 1 0 7m 2,0 m 6m 1 m ,8

Pressure loss [Pa]

8m

5m m 1 ,6

1 m ,4 4m 1 m ,2 3m 1 m ,0 2m 1 m 1 5 1 5 20 25 30 20 25 30 M a s s e n s tro m (kg/m2h) 35 35 40 40

Pa

In this case only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection.

Mass flow[kg/m h]

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P.4

TI K02

Short Description TI-K02 Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

11. Lay-out for Metal Cassette Ceiling Heating with KaRo Capillary Tube Mats

Project : Projekt consultant:

Date Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

Required Haeting Capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required specific heating capacity Determination of Performance W m2 W/m
2

from calculation of planning office maximum possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = heat requirement / coverage

Quick lay-out for ceiling heating with BEKA mats in metal cassettes 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]
valid for room temperature 27C and heating water spread 6K

heating capacity [W/m2]

8 10 11 Mass flow of the heating water [kg/(m2h)]

13

15

17

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 1 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per mat area 7 Water volume per zone Pressure Loss Determination 8 Length of connection pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe -> from diagram 2 10 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat -> with value of line 2 from diagram 1 12 Addition for pressure loss through fittings (recomm.: 30% addition to pipe) Addition for heat transfer station (recomm.:for zone valves 500 -1000 Pa 13 for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised

C C kg/(m2h) Pressure loss [Pa/m] l/h


100 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]

Pressure loss type U10


Pa
1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 5 10 15 20
2

Pressure loss (Pa)

2,0m 1,6m 1,2m

Pa

the determination of pressure losses can be omitted. Then only the quantity of heating circuits and the total heating capacity is requird for the selection !

25

Mass flow (kg/(m h)]

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P.5

TI K02

Short Description TI-K02 Metal Cassette Ceiling with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats

12. Technical Data

KaRo Capillary tube mats Type K.U10 Type K.UM10 Type K.G10 Material Polypropylene Random-Copolymer Type 3 DIN 8078 Geometry Collector pipe Capillary tube Capillary tube spacing Exchange surface

20 x 2 mm 3,35 x 0,5 mm 10 mm 1,067 m2

Dimensions Length 600-6000 mm (in increments of 10 mm) Width 150-1200 mm (in increments of 10 mm) Mass 0,43 kg/m2 (empty, without collector) 0,82 kg/m2 (filled, without collector) Water contents 0,39 l/m2 Cooling capacity: Depending upon type 80 W/m2 for metal cassette (DIN 4715) Heating capacity Depending upon type up to 150 W/m2 Condition of operation: Temperature resistant for endurance run to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar maximum 10 hours Operational area / type of installation : Cooling- and heating ceilings for the installation on top of metal cassettes Connections via quick-action coupling system Type of delivery: The mats are supplied lying flat in cartons or in one-way transport cassettes

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P.6

TI K02

TI-K03

Short Description

Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with KaRo Heating and Cooling Mats


1. General Information
Suspended gypsum plasterboard ceilings can very easily and economically be designed as heating and cooling ceilings with KaRo heating and cooling mats. Contemporary office and computer technology combined with a high degree of thermal insulation make it necessary to air-condition offices and business premises nearly all year round. Even during periods when heating is required, these rooms have a comparatively low heat consumption. The most costeffective solution with regard to energy is the installation of a KaRo cooling and heating ceiling. The combined functionality of the ceiling minimises the investment required for the necessary building technology. since even at low flow temperatures (below 40 C), the respectable calorific output can be used for heating.
Feed lines to connection hoses

Further Ceiling surfaces

2. System Description
The KaRo capillary tube mats are simply stretched between the supporting profiles and covered with mineral wool. Afterwards, the ceiling is planked as usual - (standard cooling capacity 65 W/m2)
Pipe system

3. Cold-water/Hot-water Technology
The KaRo heating and cooling mats are integrated in rooms/zones in a tubing network as a circulation loop and connected to a cold-water generator and the heat source. We recommend that the connection is made using a KaRo singlestorey distributor. A wide variety of technologies and systems may be used for cold water generation. The economic advantages of the cooling ceiling consist primarily of the fact that the ceiling is extremely efficient even at flow temperatures which are only slightly below the room temperature. This facilitates the use of "alternative energy" (heating pumps) and natural energy (e.g. free cooling, groundwater). The same advantages apply to hot water generation. Significant energy savings are achieved not only in combination with solar heating systems, but with conventional technology as well,

Connection to Cooling unit or heating source

4. Installation
As a rule, the general installation guidelines apply. All materials used in the tubing network of the KaRo capillary tube mats must be made of non-corrosive materials. Plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red bronze may be used. Other materials may cause the system to silt up and thus disrupt its function.

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TI-K03

Short Description TI-K03 Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with BEKA Heating and Cooling Mats

5. Control Technology
The control technology ensures the comfort you desire and provides the necessary system safety as well. The cooling ceiling requires a room temperature control unit, a dew point safeguard control unit and a control unit for the initial flow temperature of the cold water. Initial flow temperatures below 16C must be avoided due to the dew point risk! The heating ceiling requires a room temperature control. This regulates the flow of hot water depending on the desired room temperature. Initial flow temperatures more than 45C must be avoided so that the surface temperature of the ceiling does not become too high, and the gypsum plasterboards dry out !

Before beginning work, a ceiling drawing and a laying plan must be drawn up, in which all coffers with their dimensions, alignment, and the supply lines must be recorded. In the ceiling drawing, all areas must be also marked which must remain unoccupied, e.g. where partition walls, lighting and other ceiling fittings will be installed. In addition, the location where the KaRo M.TG.1 dew point sensor will be installed must also be marked in the ceiling drawing. If thermal plastic welding is being used to connect the polypropylene tubes, the welding guideline DVS 2207-11 of the Deutscher Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. (German Association of Welding Technology) applies. (The environment temperature during processing may not be lower than 5C and the preheating, welding and holding times must be observed according to the dimensions of the tubing.)

8. Tools, Materials 6. Dimensioning of the System


The KaRo heating and cooling mats are sized according to the following design tables. The initial flow temperature in the water circulation of the KaRo mats is set by adjusting the water temperature in front of the heat exchanger on the cold generator or heat generator side. The conventional tools and materials used in dry construction are used for the installation of the gypsum plasterboard ceiling covered with KaRo mats: CD profiles Cross connectors Vernier hangers Dowels and screws Dry wall screws, 25mm long (Only variation B) dry wall screws, 40 mm long Wetting angle Possibly a blade knife for cutting to size and an edge-trimming plane Screwdriver Spatula Joint filler Hand grinder

7. Installation Preparation
The stipulations of the dry construction guidelines and the regulations of the fitters' union apply to the assembly and mounting of the KaRo heating and cooling mats on gypsum plasterboard ceilings. We recommend that the furring be carried out using torsionally rigid steel profiles. The specification of the effective spans and the execution of anchoring the hangers on the bare ceiling must be designed for a load of 30 kg/m2. Gypsum plasterboard sheets in the customary dimensions are used. The KaRo heating and cooling mats are supplied in the correct widths and lengths, so that cutting them to size on the construction site is not necessary. Inactive areas are arranged only around the edges and in places where ceiling fittings are planned.

To connect the feed lines to the cold water circulation, a handheld welding unit with a sleeve mirror is used for plastic welding and the corresponding plastic fittings are required. Cutting ring screw fittings may be used as an alternative.

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P.2

TI -K03

Short Description TI-K03 Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with BEKA Heating and Cooling Mats

9. Steps in Assembling the Ceiling

In accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the supporting and basic profiles are attached to the bare ceiling using vernier suspenders and aligned. The distance between the supporting profiles must be set at 40 or 50 cm. Additional supporting profiles (including the wetting angle) in the area around the edge for the inactive custom-cut sheets are arranged according to the ceiling plan in accordance with the dry construction guidelines. The feed lines are laid in the hollow cavity of the ceiling and connected to the supply lines (connection by means of thermal plastic welding or cutting ring screw fittings).

I.

The KaRo mats are stretched between the supporting profiles and connected to the feed lines via the flexible hoses; alternatively, the mats can be connected to each other and to the tubing system using plastic welding. Adhesive tapes are fastened from supporting profile to supporting profile, so that the mats do not sag. Mineral wool mats are laid on top of the KaRo mats from above. The mineral wool must be cut to fit as a strip in the grid dimension of the supporting profiles. If the hollow ceiling cavity is used for the exhaust ventilator or if perforated gypsum board is used, the mineral wool must be packed in fibreproof PE foil wrapping.

II.

The supporting structure is planked from below with gypsum board and filled. Preliminary test with 10 bars of compressed air for 1 hour. Main test with 10 bars of water for 4 hours maintain resting pressure of 3 bars until the system is put into operation.

III.

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P.3

TI -K03

Short Description TI-K03 Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with BEKA Heating and Cooling Mats

10. Lay-out for KaRo Mats on Gypsum Plasterboard in the Cooling Ceiling
Project: Project consultant: Required Cooling Capacity 1 Room cooling load 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required cooling capacity
D e te rmin a tio n o f P e rfo rma n c e

Date : Lay-out valid for 27C-room temperature and 2K cooling water spread !

W qty W

from calculation of the planning office Max. possible arrangement derived from the room dimensions = Cooling load / Coverage

Quick lay-out of ceiling cooling with BEKA mats on gypsum plasterboard


100 90 Cooling capacity [W/m 2] 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
V a lid fo r ro o m temperature 27C

Supply temperature [C]

and co o ling water spread 2K

10

13

16 19 22 Mass flow cooling w ater [kg/m 2]

25

28

31

34

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 1 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per mat area 7 Water volume per zone Pressure loss calculation 8 Length of connecting tube 9 Resistance in the tube -> from diagram 2 10 Pressure loss in the tube = tube length * Resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat -> with value of line 2 from diagram 1 12 Add. for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% addition to tube) 13 Add.for heat transfer stations (recomm:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised the determination of pressure loss can be omitted.

C C
k g /m 2h

Pressure loss in the pipe 20x2mm


1 00

l/h Pressure loss [Pa/m]

80 60 40 20 0 40 80 1 20 1 60 200 240 280 320 360 400

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]

Pressure loss type G10


Pa Pressure loss [Pa]
5000 6m 4000 3000 4m 2000 1 000 0 1 0 1 5 20 25 30

Pa

2m 1 m 35 40

In this case only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection !

Mass flow [kg/(m 2h)]

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P. 4

TI -K03

Short Description TI-K03 Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with BEKA Heating and Cooling Mats

11. Layout for the KaRo Mats on Gypsum Plasterboard in Heating Ceiling
Project : Project consultant : Required heating capacity 1 Room heat requirement 2 Planned coverage of mats 3 Required specific heat capacity Determination of Performance W from calculation of planning office max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = Heating requirement /Coverage Date : Lay-out valid for 22C -room temperature and 6 K hot water!

qty
W

Quick lay-out for ceiling heating with BEKA mats on gypsum plasterboard
140 Heating capacity [W/m 2] 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]

V a lid fo r ro o m t e m p e rature 22C and co o ling water s p read o f 6K

8 10 12 Mass flow of hot w ater [kg/m 2]

14

17

19

4 Supply temperature 5 Return temperature

from diagram 1

C C
k g /(m 2h)

Pressure loss in the pipe 20 x 2 mm


Pressure loss [Pa/m]
1 00 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 1 20 1 60 200 240 280 320 360 400

6 Water volume per mat area 7 Water volume per zone Pressure loss calculation 8 Length of connecting pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe 10 Pressure loss in the pipe = Pipe length* Resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat with value from line 2 in diagram 1 12 Add.for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% addition to pipe) 13 Add.for heat transfer station (recomm: for zone valves 500 -1000 Pa) for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss from diagram 2

l/h

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]

Pressure loss type K.G10


Pa 3000 Pressure loss [Pa] 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 5 10 15 Mass flow [kg/(m2h)] 2,0 m 20 1,0 m 25 6,0 m

Pa

4,0 m

If BEKA transfer stations are used, the pressure loss calculation is omitted. Only the number of heating circuits and the total heating capacity are required for the selection .

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P. 5

TI -K03

Short Description TI-K03 Gypsum Plasterboard Ceilings with BEKA Heating and Cooling Mats

12. Technical Specifications


KaRo capillary tube mats Type K.G10/K.GK10 Material Polypropylene random copolymerisate Type 3 DIN 8078 Geometry Collection tube Capillary tube Capillary tube interval Exchange surface

20 x 2 mm 3.35 x 0.5 mm 10 mm 1.067 m2

Size Length: 600-6000 mm (in steps of 10 mm) Width: 230- 430 mm (in steps of 10 mm) Volume 0.430 kg/m2 (unfilled, without collector) 0.824 kg/m2 (filled, without collector) Water content 0.39 l/m2 Cooling capacity: 65 W/m2 with 10 mm gypsum plasterboard (heat conductivity of the thermal sheet approximately 0.40 W/mK ) Heating capacity: Up to 130 W/m2 Operating conditions: Temperature-stable in continuous use up to 45C Operating pressure 3 to 4 bars Test pressure 10 bars for a maximum of 10 hours Field of application/Laying method: Cooling and heating ceilings in dry construction Connection via flexible hoses and quick-coupling connectors or via thermal plastic welding Form of delivery: The mats are rolled and delivered in cartons.

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TI -K03

TI-K04

Short Description

Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Prefabricated Unit


1. General
Modern office- and business premises must be climate controlled nearly all year long because of their high thermal insulation and their internal loads coming from computers and other office appliances. At the heating period they have comparatively low heat consumption. The energetic cost saving solution is a KaRo heating- and cooling ceiling. With the KaRo pre-fabricated unit heatingand cooling mats can easily and economically be utilised for the dry-built construction. Through the combined function of the ceiling investment costs for heating system installations can be minimised. collector systems and even with standard techniques a significant energy saving is already reached, because respectable heating performances are achieved with considerable low supply temperatures (below 40C).
Supply lines Connecting hoses Ceiling with BEKA pre-fabricated units

for other ceiling areas

2. System Description
The KaRo pre-fabricated units are screwed to suspend ceiling construction according drybuild construction instructions just like any standard dry-build panel. The predimensioned connection lines are laid into the ceiling cavity. The pre-fabricated unit is connected with flexible hoses to the supply lines.

Piping

3. Cold Water- /Hot Water Technique


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are tied up in zones to the piping as a circuit and connected to the heat- or cooling supplier. The connection via a storey-distributor is recommended. For the cold-water preparation different techniques and systems can be utilised. The economical advantages of cooling ceiling exist because the ceiling will provide already sufficient performance even with supply temperatures which are only slightly below the room temperature. This makes the utilisation of alternative energy sources such as heat pumps or open cooling and ground water possible. For generating of heating water the same advantages are true. In connection with solar
04/2002
Connection to Cooling unit or to heat supply

4. Installation
In general the standard Installation guidelines have to be obeyed. All materials used in the KaRo heating- and cooling mat system must be non-corrosive. Materials used can be: plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials in use could cause sludge and could lead to a breakdown of the system.

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P.1

TI-K04

Short Description TI-K04 Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

5. Regulating Technique
The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. The cooling ceiling requires : a room temperature regulation, a dew point guard and a control of the supply temperature for the cold water. Supply temperatures below 16C must be avoided because of the danger that the dew point will be reached! For the heating ceiling a room temperature control is required, which regulates the volume of heating water in dependence to the desired room temperature. Supply temperatures above 45C must be avoided because of the danger of excessive surface temperatures of the ceiling and to avoid that the plasterboard will dry !

6. Dimensioning of the System


The cooling ceiling from KaRo pre-fabricated units is dimensioned according to the following layout table. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

active panels are fitted in. The KaRo prefabricated units are delivered pre-drilled for the connection to sub-construction made from standard CD-profiles. The screws may only be placed at these predetermined positions, otherwise there is the danger that the integrated capillary tube mats are damaged. Before starting work a ceiling pattern and an installation pattern must be drawn-up. All cassettes with their measurements, the installation direction and the supply lines must marked. In the ceiling pattern also all areas must be marked which will stay empty for the installation of partition walls, light fixtures and other ceiling in-fills. Also the installation position for the KaRo dew point sensor must be marked at the ceiling pattern. The connection of the Polypropylene piping is done by thermal welding. For the execution the welding directions DVS 2207-11 of the Deutschen Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. are valid. (The surrounding temperature during working must not be below 5C. The preheating, welding and setting time must be according to regulations.)

8. Tools, Materials
For the installation of the KaRo pre-fabricated unit standard tools and materials for the drybuild construction work is used: CD - profile Cross connector Vernier suspension bar Dowel and screws Rapid-build screws, 55 mm length Perimeter angles Blade-knife and edge planer Screw-driver Smoothening spatula Joint filler Hand grinder For the connection of supply lines to the coldwater circuit a hand held welder with sleeve adapter is recommended for the plastic welding together with plastic fittings. Alternatively sealing ring connectors can be used.

7. Installation Instructions
For the installation of the KaRo pre-fabricated unit the standards for the dry-build construction and the fabricators recommendations must be obeyed. It is recommended to use twist-free sheet metal profiles for the supporting construction of the suspended ceiling. The distances and the type of anchoring of the suspended verniers to the raw ceiling must be for a load of 30 kg/m2 . The pre-fabricated unit is offered in the same dimensions as the standard building panels, so that tailoring work at the building site is not necessary. Only at border areas and at places where ceiling build-ins are planned, in-

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P.2

TI -K04

Short Description TI-K04 Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

9. Installation Steps at the Ceiling


The bearing structure is aligned and fixed at the raw ceiling with vernier suspension bars. The distances for the bearing profiles should be 500 mm. Additional bearing profiles ( also the perimeter angle ) at the border areas for the inactive tailored panels are positioned according to dry-build directions.

I.

The supply lines are laid in the ceiling cavity and are connected to the main lines (connections done by thermal welding or with sealing ring connectors).

II.

The KaRo pre-fabricated unit is fixed to the sub-construction according the ceiling-pattern. The flexible connecting hoses are plugged into the quick-action couplings of the supply lines. The pre-fabricated unit aligned at the subconstruction to the pre-drilled holes. The rapid-build screws inserted through the pre-drilled holes and screwed tight until secure fixing to the sub-construction is achieved. Pre-test with air pressure of 10 bar for 1 hour Main test with water at 10 bar for 4 hours. Maintain a resting pressure of 3 bar until taken into operation.

III.

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P.3

TI -K04

Short Description TI-K04 Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

10. Lay-out of the Cooling ceiling with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit B.GK12

Project : Projekt consultant :

Date : Lay-out valid for 27C room temperature and 2K cooling spread !

Required cooling capacity 1 Cooling load for the room 2 Planned quantity of panels 3 Required cooling capacity of unit Determintaion of capacity Quick Lay-out for ceiling cooling load with B.GK12 W Stck W from calculation of planning office derive possible arrangement from room measurements = cooling load / quantity of panels

120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Cooling load [Watt/unit] 10 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Supply temperature [C] 16 15 14 13 12

12

16

19

23

26

30

34

37

41

45

49

Mass flow of cooling water per unit [kg/h]

300

500

700

900

1100

1300

1500

1700

1900

2100

2300

2550

2800

Pressure loss of unit [Pa]

valid for room temperature 27C and cooling water spread 2K and connecting hose 300mm length

4 Supply temperature --> from diagram 5 Return temperature Pressure loss determination 6 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * Resistance 7 Pressure loss of unit -> with value of line 3 from diagram 8 Add. for pressure loss through fittings (Recomm.: 30% extra for pipe) 9 Add. for heat transfer station (Recomm.:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 10 Total pressure loss

C C

Water volume per unit Water volume per zone

kg/h l/h

-> from diagram

Pa Pa

Length of connecting pipe Resistance in pipe -> from diagram

m Pa/m

only one lead Value --> from diagram

Pressure loss in the pipe 20x2mm Pa Pa Pressure loss [Pa/m]


100 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

Pa

If BEKA transfer stations are used the determination for pressure losses can be omitted. Only the quantity of cooling circuits and total cooling capacity is required for the selection.

Mass flow [kg/h]

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P.4

TI -K04

Short Description TI-K04 Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

11. Lay-out for Ceiling heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit B.GK12

Project : Project consultant : Required heating capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned quantity of panels 3 Required heat capacity / unit Determintion of capacity

Date : Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

W qty W

from calculation of planning office derive the max. possible arrangement from the room measurements = heat requirement / Quantity panels

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 Heating capacity [W/Unit] 40 20 0 27 29 31

Quick Lay-out for Ceiling Heating with B.GK12

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

Supply temperature [C]

10 12 15 Mass flow of heating water / unit [kg/h]

17

20

22

100

200

300

400

550

700

850

1000

1150

1300

Pressure loss of Unit [Pa]

only valid for room temperature 22C and heating water spread 6K and connecting hose 300mm length

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature Determination of pressure losses 6 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * resistance 7 Pressure loss of unit -> with value of line 3 from diagrame 8 Add for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% extra to the pipe) 9 Add for heat transfer station (Recommen.:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 10 Total pressure loss

C C

Water volume / unit Water volume / zone

kg/h l/h

-> from diagram

Pa Pa Pa Pa

Length of connecting pipe Resistance in pipe -> from diagram

m Pa/m

only one lead Value -> from diagram

Pa

If BEKA transfer stations are utilised the determination for pressure losses can be omitted. Then only the quantity of heating circuits and the total heating capacity must be known for the selection.

10 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 0

Pressurelossinthepipe20x2m m

Pressure loss [Pa/m]

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Mass flow [kg/h]

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P.5

TI -K04

Short Description TI-K04 Ceiling Cooling and Ceiling Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

12. Technical Data


Construction 12,5 mm Plasterboard Capillary tube mat with capillary diameter 3,35x0,5 mm (Polypropylene) 30 mm Extruded foam (thermal conductivity 0,035 W/mK; Fire rating: B1) Weight 11,8 kg/m2 (empty) 12,5 kg/m2 (filled) Size Width: 600 mm Length: 2000 mm Pre-drilled to be screwed in 500 mm grid Cooling capacity : 64 W/m2 (DIN 4715) =76 W/Unit Heating capacity: 130 W/m2 = 155 W/Unit Conditions for operation: Temperature persistent at continues use up to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Place of application /Type of installation: Cooling- and heating ceilings for Dry-built construction Connections with KaRo quick-action-coupling system Installation according to Dry-built instructions Type of delivery: Finished dry-built units are delivered laid on pallets.

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TI -K04

TI-K05

Short Description

Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats


1. General
Wall heating with KaRo heating mats releases the heat to the room and directly to the room occupant in a natural way through radiation. The small diameter of the capillary tubes allows the construction of wall heating with a low construction height. For this reason KaRo mats are distinguished for the renovation where wall heating is installed to a later stage. Differing to standard wall heating systems the heat is directly beneath the wall surface. The KaRo wall heating reacts very fast and can be operated with low supply temperatures. dard heating a significant energy saving will be achieved, since heating with supply temperatures below 40C is possible.

2. System Details
Mostly the KaRo mats are installed into the plastering of outer walls, directly beneath the surface. The outer wall must have a U-value below 0,35 W/(m2K). If this is not given, insulation of the internal wall can be utilised. With a wall heating system the possibility that the dew point is moved into the wall construction is being counteracted. The connections of the mats amongst themselves and the connection of the mats to the piping, all the way to the heating circuit distributor, normally are thermal welded. In most cases the mats are installed to the wall up to a height of 2 meters. This way the possibility is given to fix things (pictures etc.) to the wall above this area.

Connection through a distributor to the heat source

Figure 1: KaRo mats on the wall with internal insulation and insulation panels. The piping is installed according to Tichelmann

4. Installation
In general the standard Installation guidelines have to be obeyed. All materials used in the KaRo heating- and cooling mat system must be non-corrosive such as plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials in use could cause sludge and could lead to malfunction of the system.

3. Heating Water Technique


The KaRo heating mats are connected in a circuit to the heat source via pipelines to the supply- and return lines, room for room or zone for zone. It is recommended to connect to KaRo storey distributor stations. The economical advantages of KaRo wall heating systems are based on the fact, that already at supply temperatures that are barely above room temperatures, the wall releases a high efficiency. This makes it possible to utilise alternative energies (heat pumps, solar collector systems etc). But also with the stan-

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P.1

TI-K05

Short Description TI-K05 Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

5. Regulating Technique
The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. For the heating ceiling a room temperature control is required, which regulates the volume of heating water in dependence to the desired room temperature. Supply temperatures above 45C must be avoided because of the danger that an excessive surface temperature will dry-out the plaster !

6. Dimensioning of the System


The wall heating with KaRo heating mats are dimensioned according to the following layout table. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

work basis before work is started. All heating mats, their measurements and the direction they are facing must be marked in the pattern. All surfaces that will not be covered as for the installation of internal walls and fixing points for hanging cabinets must also be marked. The connections of the KaRo heating mats to another and to the Polypropylene pipelines are done by thermal welding. The welding directions DVS 2207-11 of the Deutschen Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. are valid. (The surrounding temperature during working must not be below 5C. The preheating, welding and setting time must be according to regulations.)

8. Tools and Materials


For the installation of KaRo heating mats for wall heating, the usual tools and materials for plastering and for installation of plastic pipes can be used, such as: Plastering material (suitable for wall heating systems) Mixer Smoothening spatula Bonding layer Roller or brush Border strip Possibly spreading dowels and a hand drill for additional securing of the mats to the raw ceiling Pair of scissors for cutting plastic piping Pencil For the connection of the piping to the water circuit a hand held thermal welder suitable to weld sleeves of plastic fittings is required. Alternatively sealing ring connections can be used.

7. Preparation for Installation


For the installation of wall heating with KaRo heating mats the installation instructions of the plaster supply and the KaRo instructions must be obeyed. The walls to be heated must have a load-bearing surface. The KaRo heating mats are pre-fabricated to the required dimensions for each object, so that tailoring at the building site is not necessary. It is recommended to have the mats supplied already prepared with adhesive tape for the positioning of the mats to the raw ceiling. A layout pattern should be prepared as a

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P.2

TI -K05

Short Description TI-K05 Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

9. Installation Steps at the Wall (with Inside Insulation)

Fix the insulation panels for a plastering base to the raw walls (with adhesive or dowels) according manufacturers instructions. Cut a slot (100 x 30 mm) into insulation approx. 100 mm above the floor Prepare insulation panel to be bonding layer for the plastering

I.

position KaRo heating mats and fix with adhesive tape possibly secure the mats with spreading dowels to the wall connect the mats to another and to the pipelines for the supply- and return lines through thermal welding. pre-test with compressed air of 10 bar for 1 hour main test with water pressure of 10 bar for 4 hours. In resting state maintain 3 bar until taken into operation.

II.

III.
apply a thin layer of plaster (10 mm) in one step according manufacturers instructions smoothen plaster, observe the predrillings

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P.3

TI -K05

Short Description TI-K05 Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

10. Lay-out of Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats


Project : Project consultant : Required heating capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required specific heating capacity Determination of capacity W 2 m W/m
2

Date Lay-out valid for 22C-room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

from the calculations of the planning office derive the maximum possible arrangement from the room measurements = heat requirement/ Coverage

Quick Lay-out for wall heating with BEKA mats laid in plaster
180 Heating capacity [W/m2] 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]
only valid for room temperatures of 27C and haeting water spread of 6K and Plaster quality MP75 -Fa.KNAUF

12

14

17

19

22

25

Mass flow of the heating water [kg/(m2h)]

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 1 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per mat area 7 Water volume per zone Determination of pressure loss 8 Length of connecting pipe 9 Resistance in the pipe -> from diagram 2 10 Pressure loss in the pipe = Pipe length * Resistance 11 Pressure loss of the mat -> with value from diagram 1 (line 2) 12 Add for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% add to the pipe) 13 Add for heat transfer station Recomm: for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss If BEKA transfer stations are utilised the determination of pressure loss can be omitted, only

C pressure loss [Pa/m] C 2 kg/(m h) l/h pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm


100 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]

6000

pressure loss type S15

Pa
5000

pressure loss [Pa]

4000 3000 2000 1000

3m

Pa

2m

the quantity of the heating circuits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection.

1m 0 5 10 15 20 25

Mass flow [kg/(m2 h)]

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P.4

TI -K05

Short Description TI-K05 Wall Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

11. Technical Data

KaRo Capillary tube mats Type K.S15 Material Polypropylene Random Co-polymer type 3 DIN 8078 Geometry Collector pipe Capillary tube Capillary tube distance Exchanging surface

20 x 2 mm 3,35 x 0,5 mm 15 mm 0,71 m2

Measurement Length: normally 600-2000 mm (in increments of 10 mm) Width: 150-1200 mm (in increments of 30 mm) Masses 0,44 kg/m2 (empty, without collector) 0,71 kg/m2 (filled, without collector) Water contents 0,27 l/m2 Heating capacity Depending upon the type up to 150 W/m2 Conditions of operation temperature persistent at continues use up to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Place of application /Type of installation: Wall heating for plaster walls Connections through thermal welding Type of delivery Mats are delivered rolled-up, packed in cartons.

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P.5

TI -K05

TI-K06 TI-

Short Description

Wall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit


1 General
room temperatures (for heating: supply temp. below 40C) will achieve respectable heating capacities of 110 W/m2. For cold water cooling similar advantages are achieved. The supply temperatures must be restricted to minimum of 16C, to surely avoid any condensation. At a room temperature of 27C cooling capacities of approx. 65 W/m can be achieved.
Supply lines hose connections

Because of the high thermal insulation of modern buildings the offices and residential houses have comparatively low heat requirements. In many cases they must be cooled during long periods of the year to maintain comfortable room temperatures. A low cost solution to save energy is the use of a KaRo wall heating / wall cooling system. With the use of KaRo pre-fabricated units heating and cooling surfaces can be arranged simply and economically in the dry-build version. Through the combined function of the wall surface investments for the necessary building installations can be minimized.

Other wall surfaces

Description

The KaRo pre-fabricated unit is fixed to the support structure, like any other standard drybuild board, according to the dry-build directions. The supply lines, pre-fabricated to the required to measurements are laid into the wall cavities. The pre-fabricated units are connected to the supply lines with flexible hoses.
Wall with BEKA pre-fabricated units

Cold Water- / Heating Water Technique

The KaRo pre-fabricated units are connected to the supply and return of the piping of the heat- or cold-water source, room for room or zone for zone. Recommended is the connection via a KaRo storey distributor unit. For the heating water generating different techniques and constructions can be utilised . The economic advantages of a cooling ceiling are influenced mostly by fact that the wall will deliver high heating/cooling capacity already with supply temperatures, which are only slightly above /below the room temperature. This allows the use of alternative energy sources such as heat pumps or solar techniques. Even with the use of standard techniques a decisive energy saving can be achieved, since already little temperature differences in the supply temperatures to the

Connection for Cooling unit or heat supply

Installation

Basically the standard installation instructions are valid for all installations. All components used in the piping for the KaRo pre-fabricated units must be made of non- corrosive materials. Utilised may be plastic materials, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials may cause sludge and could therefore be the cause of malfunction of the system

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P.1 TI-K06

Short Description TI-K06 TIWall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

Regulating Technique

The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. For the wall heating a room temperature control is required, which regulates supply temperature of the desired room temperature. Supply temperatures above 45C must be avoided because of the danger that excessive surface temperatures could dry-out the plasterboards! For the wall cooling a room temperature regulation, a dew point guard and a regulation of the supply temperature of the cold water is required. Supply temperatures below 16C must be avoided so that the dew point wont be reached!

Dimensioning of the System

The wall heating/cooling ceiling with KaRo pre-fabricated units are dimensioned according to the following layout table. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

length accommodations of the KaRo prefabricated units to the room height. At the border area inactive panels are fitted. The KaRo pre-fabricated units are pre-drilled for the fixing to the sub-constructions. The fixing screws may only be located at the pre-given positions, otherwise damages may be caused to the integrated capillary mats. Before starting work a wall pattern must be arranged as a work- and positioning layout. All panels, their dimensions and the positioning of the supply lines must be recorded. On the wall pattern all areas must be marked which will be left uncovered for installation purposes of inner walls, light fixtures and other wall installations. Furthermore, the installation position for the KaRo pre-fabricated units with integrated dew point sensors must be recorded. The connection of the Polypropylene- pipelines are done by thermal welding, welding specification DVS 2207-11 of the Deutschen Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V must be obeyed. The surrounding temperature (at the time of welding) must be above 5C. The preheating temperatures, welding- and setting times must be kept according to pre-given values for the responding pipe sizes

Tools , Materials

Installation Preparation

For the processing of the KaRo pre-fabricated units the standard dry-build tools and materials can be used, such as: CW profile UW - profile Sound insulation tape Dowels and screws Building screws, 55 mm length Plate-knifes for tailoring and edge planer Screw driver Spatula Joint spatula mastic Hand grinder

For the installation of the KaRo pre-fabricated units the standards for the dry-build construction and the fabricators recommendations must be obeyed. It is recommended to use twist-free sheet metal profiles for the supporting construction of the suspended ceiling. The distances of the bracing profiles to another must be 600 mm. The choice of the supporting profiles and the type of fixing must be according to dry-build specifications. The KaRo pre-fabricated unit is supplied in standard dimensions of 2600 mm x 600 mm. The active surface area is 1,2m. Capillary tubes are not located above 2100 mm of height. This area serves the tailoring for the

A hand-held welding tool with a sleeve welding device is used for welding the supply lines to the cold water circuit. Alternatively sealing ring screw connections may be used instead.

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P.2

TI K06

Short Description TI-K06 TIWall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

Installation Steps at the wall


The connection lines are installed at the raw wall at a height of approx. 2100 mm and fixed with pipe clamps according to installation instructions. The supply lines are connected by means of thermal welding or sealing ring connections.

I.

The U- and stud profiles are aligned and fixed to the raw wall in the appropriate manner according to manufacturers specifications. The distance between the stud profiles is set to 600 mm. Additional stud profiles at the border area and for the inactive (tailored) panels have to be arranged to the wall pattern according to dry-build guidelines.

II.

The KaRo pre-fabricated unit is fitted to the stud-construction according to the wall pattern The flexible connecting hoses are plugged into the quick-action couplings. The pre-fabricated unit is aligned to the stud-construction according to the pre-drilled holes The building screws inserted into the pre-drilled holes and fastened until a secure fixing to the sub-construction is achieved. Pre-test with compressed air at 10 bar for 1 hour. The main test with water follows at 10 bar for 4 hours. Idle pressure at 3 bar must be kept until start of operation. Fill gaps, smoothen and grind.

III.

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P.3

TI K06

Short Description TI-K06 TIWall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

10. Lay-out for a Wall cooling with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit B.GK12
Project: Project consultant : Required cooling capacity 1 Cooling load 2 Planned qty of panels 3 Required cooling capacity per unit Determination of capacity W Qty. W Calculation from planning office max.possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = cooling load / qty of panels Date : Lay-out valid for room temp. of 27C and 2K heating water spread!

Quick Lay-out for W all cooling with B.GK12

120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Supply temperature [C] 16 15 14 13 12

Cooling capacity [W/Unit]

10

13

16 20 23 26 30 Mass flow of cooling water per unit [kg/h]

33

37

40

44

300

500

700

1100 1300 1500 Pressure loss of the unit [Pa]

1700

1900

2300

2800

valid for 27C room temperature and 2K cooling water spread, connection hose of 300mm length

4 Supply temp. -> from diagram 5 Return temperature Determination of pressure loss 6 Pressure loss in the piping = pipe length * resistance 7 Pressure loss of the unit -> values of line 3 from diagram 8 Add for pressure loss through fittings (recom m : 30% addition to pipe) recomm: for zone valves 500-1000 Pa 9 Add for heat exchange unit

C C

W a ter volume per unit W a ter volume per zone or wall

kg/h ltr/h

-> from diagram

Pa Pa

Length of connecting pipe Resistance in pipe -> from diagram

m Pa/m

only 1 pipeline value -> diagram

pressure loss in pipe 20x2mm Pa pressure loss [Pa/m] Pa


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

for mains regulator valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 10 Total pressure loss Pa

If BEKA heat exchange units are used, pressure loss determination can be omitted. Only the number of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection!

mass flow [kg/h]

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P.4

TI K06

Short Description TI-K06 Wall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

11. Lay-out for Wall Heating with KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit B.GK12
Project : Project consultant : Required heating capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned qty. of panels 3 Required heating capacity / unit Determination of capacity W Qty W from calculation of planning office Derive max.possible arrangement from the room measurements = Heat requirement / Qty of panels Date : Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 Heat capaacity [W/Unit] 20 0 27 29 31

Quick Lay-out Wall Heating with B.GK12

33

35

37

39

41

43

45

Supply temperature [C]

8 10 12 15 Mass flow of the heating water per unit [kg/h]

17

20

22

100

200

300

400

550

700

850

1000

1150

1300

Pressure loss of the unit [Pa]

valid for room temperature of 22C and heating water spread of 6K and connecting hose 300mm

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature Determination of pressure loss 6 Pressure loss in the pipe = Pipe lenght * Resistance 7 Pressure loss of the unit -> with value from line 3 from the diagram 8 Addition for pressure loss by the fittings (Recommentation : 30% add.to the pipe) 9 Addition for heat transfer station (Recomm. For zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulator valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 10 Total pressure loss

C C

Water volume per unit Water volume per zone or wall

kg/h l/h

-> from Diagram

Pa Pa Pa Pa

Length of connecting pipe Resistance in the pipe -> from diagram

m Pa/m

only one lead Value -> from diagram

Pressure loss in the pipe 20x2mm


100 90 80 Pressure loss [Pa/m] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Mass flow [kg/h] 140 160 180 200

Pa

When utilizing BEKA transfer stations the determination of pressure loss is not necessary. Only the quantity heating circuits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection !

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P.5

TI-K06

Short Description TI-K06 Wall Heating with the KaRo Pre-fabricated Unit

12. Details

Construction 12,5 mm plasterboard Capillary tube mat with capillary diameter 3,35x0,5 mm ( Polypropylene) 30 mm extruded foam (heat conductivity 0,035 W*K; Fire behaviour class B1) Weight 15,5 kg/m2 (empty) 16,2 kg/m2 (filled) Size Width: 600 mm Length: 2600 mm active area 1,2 m2 upper tailoring area 500 mm pre-drilled for fixing at a stud distance of 600 mm Cooling Capacity 64 W/m2 (DIN 4715) =76 W/unit Heating Capacity 130 W/m2 = 155 W/unit Conditions of Operation: Temperature stability at duration use up to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Place of Operation / Type of Installation Cooling- and heating walls, dry-build version Connection via KaRo quick-action coupling system Installation according the dry-build guidelines Terms of delivery: Finished dry-build units are delivered, lying on pallets.

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P.6

TI-K06

TI-K07

Short Description

Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats


1. General
The small diameter of the capillary tubes of the KaRo mats allow a low construction height of the floor heating. For this reason the KaRo mats are especially useful for modernising when floor heating is installed at a later stage. Different to the standard floor heating systems the heat is brought closely beneath the floor surface. For this reason the KaRo floor heating reacts very fast and can be operated already with low supply temperatures.
BEKA heat-and cooling mat elastic joint mortar tile

load disribution layer

Variation A: Arrangement for new floor construction


palster board pre-wall on wood latting tile latex cement BEKA heat-and cooling mat

2. Description of the System


The KaRo mats are laid on top of a load carrying base, directly below the surface of a floating screed . The capillaries tubes do not weaken the load carrying ability of this thin layer of screed. The mats between another, to the pipelines and up to the heating circuit distributor normally are connected by means of thermal plastic welding.

wood flooring

3. Heating Water Technique


Die KaRo heating mats are connected room/zone-wise with the pipelines for the supplyand return in one circuit to the heat source. The connection via a KaRo storey distributor unit is recommended. The economic advantages of the KaRo floor heating are based mostly on the fact, that already low supply temperatures, which are only slightly above the room temperature, will transmit high performances. This makes the utilisation of alternative energy (heat pumps and solar collectors) possible. But even with conventional techniques a definite energy saving will be achieved, since it can be operated with temperatures below 40C .

Variation B: Arrangement for modernizing

4. Installation
Basically the known installation specifications are valid. All materials used in the KaRo heating mats must be non-corrosive. The following materials may be used: Plastic, stainless steel, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials may cause sludge in the system, which may lead to breakdowns

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P.1

TI-K07

Short Description TI-K07 Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

5. Regulating Technique
The regulating technique secures, first the desired comfort, second the necessary system reliance. The floor heating requires a room temperature regulation to control the supply temperature in connection to the desired room temperature. It must be observed that surface temperature above 29C is surpassed. Depending on floor covering material and floor construction the supply temperatures will normally not be above 36C. In nonoccupied areas surface temperatures up to 35 C are permissible.

Before starting to work a layout pattern should be prepared as work base. In this layout pattern all heating mats with their sizes and positions as well as the supply lines should be outlined. In this pattern also all areas must be marked which must stay uncovered, as for the positioning of internal walls. Thermal welding does the connection of the KaRo heating mats to another and with the Polypropylene piping. For the execution the welding directions DVS 2207-11 of the Deutschen Verband fr Schweitechnik e. V. are valid. (The surrounding temperature during working must not be below 5C. The preheating, welding and setting time must be according to regulations.)

6. Dimensioning of the System


The floor heating with KaRo floor mats are dimensioned according to the following layout table. The supply temperature determined in the water circuit, taken at the side of the cooling unit or heat generator, is regulated with the water temperature before the heat exchanger.

8. Tools and Materials


For installation of KaRo heating mats for floor heating all tools and materials normally used for floor concreting (screed , for installations of plastic tubing can be utilised, as: Levelling compound (suitable for floor heating) Mixer Smoothening trowel Adhesive layer Roller or paint brush Border strips Eventually butterfly dowels and hand drill und for additional fixing of the mats to the raw floor. Styrofoam sheets for protection of the capillary tubing when walking on them Scissors to cut plastic piping. Marker For the connection of the supply lines to the heating circuit a hand-held welding unit with a sleeve welding device is needed for the welding of the plastic fittings. Alternatively sealing ring connectors can also be used.

7. Preparation for Installation


For the installation of the floor heating with KaRo heating mats, working and installation instructions of the floor concrete manufacturers must be obeyed. The floor to be heated must have load carrying, possibly thermal insulated layer. KaRo mats are pre-manufactured to object measurements, so that there must be no tailoring at the building site. It is recommended to have the mats supplied already prepared with adhesive tapes for better positioning at the floor. The laid-out KaRo Heating mats can be walked-on when the floor screed is brought in, they should be protected area wise with Styrofoam sheets to avoid damages of the capillary tubes.

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P.2

TI -K07

Short Description TI-K07 Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

9. Installation Steps for the Floor Variation A

Take KaRo heating mats out of the packaging. Mark the lay-out pattern at the primed raw floor connect the mats to the pipe mains to another and to the pipe lines by means of thermal welding, up to the distributor unit. Pre-test with compressed air 10 bar for 1 hour Main test with water with 10 bar for 4 hours. Sustain an idle pressure of 3 bar until start of operation.

I.

Area wise cover the capillary tubing with Styrofoam sheets for safe walking (during application of the screed the sheets are removed again) levelling- or flexible filling compound is brought out according to manufacturers specification.

II.

Finishing of the floor covering, (tiles etc.)

III.

The installation steps for variation B are similar to the shown version A. For variation B though the mains and pipeline are arranged behind a dummy wall (which has to be erected)

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P.3

TI -K07

Short Description TI-K07 Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

10. Lay-out of the Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

Project : Project consultant : Required Heating Capacity 1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned coverage with mats 3 Required heating capacity Determination of Performance 210 190 Heating Capacity [W/m ] 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 W 2 m W/m 2

Date Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread

from the calculation of the planning office max.possible arrangement derived from room measurements = Heat requirement / coverage

Tiles 2 R=0,02m K/W Carpet 2 R=0,10m K/W

Parquet R=0,15m2K/W 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Surplus temp. (K) = average heating water temp. (C)- room temp. (C) 17 18 19 20

4 Room temperature 5 Supply temp. -> from diagram 6 Spread 7 Water volume per mat 8 Water volume per zone

C C K kg/h ltr/h

average heating water temp. return temperature

C C

-> from diagram

= (Heating capacity x 3600) / (Spread x 4180)

Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 Mass flow [kg/h] 320 360 400

Determination of pressure loss 9 Length of connection pipe 10 Resistance in the pipe -> diagram 2 11 Pressure loss in the pipe = pipe length * Resistance 12 Pressure loss in the mat -> value from line 2 -> diagram 1 13 Addition for pressure loss by fittings (recomm: 30% addition to pipe) 14 Addition for heat transmission unit (recomm.:for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 15 Total Pressure Loss Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa Pa Pa Pa m Pa/m Pa

Pressure loss [Pa/m]

Pressure loss Type S15 25000 Pressure loss [Pa] 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 5 10 15 Mass flow [kg/(m2h)] 20 8m 7m 6m

5m 4m 3m 2m 1m 25

When using BEKA Transfer units the determination for pressure losses are obsolete. Only the qty. of heating ciruits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection.

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P.4

TI-K07

Short Description TI-K07 Floor Heating with KaRo Heating Mats

11. Technical Data

KaRo Capillary tubes mats Type K.S15 Material Polypropylene Random-Copolymer Type 3 DIN 8078 Geometry Collector pipe Capillary tube Capillary pipe distance Exchanging area

20 x 2 mm 3,35 x 0,5 mm 15 mm 0,71 m2

Size Length: 600-6000 mm (in steps of 10 mm) Width: 150-1200 mm (in steps of 30 mm) Masses 0,44 kg/m2 (empty, without collector) 0,71 kg/m2 (filled, without collector) Water contents 0,27 l/m2 Heating capacity: Depending upon type 180 W/m2 Operation Conditions: Temperature stable at duration up to 60C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Place of application / type of installation: Floor heating with low construction height Connection by thermal welding Type of delivery: The mats are delivered: rolled-up and packed in cartons

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P.5

TI-K07

TI-K08

Short Description

Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel


1. General
In modern office- and business premises must be temperature conditioned nearly all year long because of their high thermal insulation of the outer walls and facades. In the heating period the room shave a comparatively low heat requirement. Therefore the utilization of an energetic low cost KaRo cooling- and heating ceiling is possible With KaRo inlay-units it is very simple and very economical to change any metal cassette ceiling into a cooling- and heating ceiling. The arrangement is also qualified for renovation. Through the combined function of the ceiling the investment costs for heating equipment can be minimized. with solar systems, and even with conventional technique already significant energy savings are achieved, because with comparatively low supply temperatures (below 40C) respectable heat performances are reached.
Supply lines and connection hoses Cassette ceiling with BEKA heating- and cooling mats

Other ceiling areas Dew point sensor

2. System Description
The KaRo inlay unit is a sandwich made of a sound improved board and a KaRo capillary tube mat packed in a sealed PE foil. KaRo inlay-units are simply laid on top of the metal cassettes. Then the capillary tubing are resting practically direct on top of the sheet metal and the surface is heated-up or cooled down very rapidly. The reaction time of the ceiling is less than 15 minutes.

Chiller

3. Cold Water / Hot Water Technique


The KaRo inlay-units are bound room/zone wise to the piping as a circuit and connected to cold water or hot water source. Recommended is the connection to KaRo storey distributor unit. For the cold water preparation different techniques and systems can be utilized. The economic advantages of a cooling ceiling exist mostly because the supply temperatures are only slightly below the room temperature and the ceiling will already provide high performances. This make the utilization of alternative energy sources (heat pumps) and natural energy bottom swages ( open cooling, ground water) possible. For natural heat sources the same advantages are effective. In connection

4. Installation
Basically the standard installation guidelines must be observed. All materials used for the piping and for connection of the KaRo inlay-units must be noncorrosive . It can be used: plastic materials, copper, brass and red brass. Other materials can cause sludge in the system, which could lead to malfunction of the system.

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P.1

TI-K08

Short Description TI-K08 Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel

5. Regulating Technique.
The regulating technique secures for once the desired comfort and offers also the required system reliance. The cooling ceiling requires a room temperature control unit, a dew point guard control and the controlling of the supply temperatures for the cold water. Supply temperatures below 16C must be omitted to avoid the danger that the dew point is reached! The heating ceiling requires a room temperature control unit, which regulates the desired room temperature in dependence with the heating water flow. In rooms with heights up to 3,5 m supply temperatures above 40C must be omitted because of excessive surface temperature of the ceiling!

6. Dimensioning of the System


The KaRo inlay-units are supplied in ceiling cassettes standard dimensions of 600 x 600 mm respectively 625 x 625 mm. The necessary quantity of inlay-units and temperatures of the cooling- and heating water are determined accordingly with the following lay-out tables. The supply temperature determined from the water circuit of the KaRo inlay-units is controlled through regulation of the water temperature before it enters the heat exchanger at the side of the cooling machine i.e. the heat source.

The KaRo inlay-units are supplied for the connection of supply- and return lines by means of flexible hoses with a quick-action coupling system. Before start of work a ceiling pattern must be prepared as a work base and for the installation arrangement. In this pattern all cassettes, and their dimensions, the dimensions and arrangement of the supply lines must be recorded. In the pattern all areas must be marked which will be uncovered, such as areas for the erection of inner walls, for light fixtures and other ceiling in-builds. Furthermore the position for the KaRo dew point sensor must be pointed out. In case that the connections of the Polypropylene pipelines are thermal welded, then the Schweirichtlinie DVS 2207-11 from the Deutschen Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. must be observed. (The ambient temperature during welding must not be below 5C).It is mandatory to follow the assigned preheating,- welding and setting times which are given according to different pipe dimensions!

8. Tools, Materials
For the installation of metal cassette heatingand cooling ceilings with KaRo inlay-units standard tools and materials assigned for ceiling work and installation for plastic piping can be used. These are as follows: Metal cassettes Suspension hanger profiles and hanger an accordance to the chosen ceiling brand Dowels and screws Sheet metal scissors Plastic pipe scissors Hand held thermal welder with sleeve welding device Appropriate plastic fittings or sealing ring connectors For the connection of the supply lines to the cold-water circuit we recommend to use a hand held welder with welding sleeve device. Alternatively also sealing ring connectors can be utilized.

7. Installation Preparation
For the installation of the suspended metal cassette ceiling the manufacturers instructions must be observed. The inlay-units should best be laying directly on top of the surface of the metal cassettes, that the heat is lead directly to the water (therefore it is necessary to choose correct fitting dimensions!) The KaRo inlay-unit serves also the acoustic demands of the ceiling. The KaRo inlay-units are supplied in dimensions of 600 x 600 i.e. 625 x 625 mm, so that tailoring at the building site is not required. At the border areas and at places where ceiling in-builds are intended to be done, inactive cassettes will be used.

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P.2

TI -K08

Short Description TI-K08 Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel

9. Installation Steps at the Ceiling

The bearing construction is fastened and aligned to the raw ceiling, normally with vernier suspension bars, according to the manufacturers instructions of the chosen cassette brand. The supply lines are laid into the ceiling cavity and connected to the main supply lines (connections with means of thermal welding or with sealing ring connectors) The flexible hoses are plugged into the quick-action couplings of the supply lines.

I.

II.
The KaRo inlay-units are laid into the cassettes .

III.
Plug-in the flexible hoses into the quick-action couplings of the KaRo inlay-units. Hang the cassettes with the inlay-units into the bearing construction and align the run of the joints. Pre-test with compressed air at 10 bar for 1 hour. Main test with water at 10 bar for 4 hours Apply an idle pressure of 3 bar and maintain until start of operation.

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P.3

TI -K08

Short Description TI-K08 Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel

10. Lay-out for a Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Inlay-Units


Project : Project consultant : Required cooling capacity
1 Cooling load for the room 2 Planned area for mats 3 Required cooling capacity per unit W m2 W/m2

Date : Lay-out valid for 27C room temperature and 2K cooling water spread !

from calculations of the planning office max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = Cooling load / Quantity of units

Determination of Performance

Quick lay-out for ceiling cooling with BEKA Inlay-units

Cooling capacity [W/Unit]

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15

Supply temperature [C]

Valid for room temperature 27C and cooling water spread 2K

14

13

12

6 7 8 9 10 12 Mass flow of the cooling water per Unit [kg/h] C C kg/h ltr./h Pressure loss [Pa/m]
100 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 120 160 200

13

14

15

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per unit 7 Water volume per zone

Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm

8 9 10 11 12 13

Pressure loss [kPa]

14

Pressure loss determination Length of connection pipe Resistance in pipe -> from diagram Pressure loss in the pipe = Pipe length * Resistance Pressure loss of the unit -> from diagram Add for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% Add. to pipe) Add for heat transfer station (recomm: zone valves 500-1000 Pa : mains regul. valves 700 - 1500 Pa : heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa Total Pressure Loss

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa Pa

240

280

320

360

400

Mass flow [kg/h]

Pressure loss of the row


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 5 10 15

6 mats

5 mats

Pa

4 mats
3 mats 2 mats 1 mat

If BEKA transfer stations are utilised the pressure losses do not have to be determined. Only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection!

Mass flow per unit [kg/h]

BEKA Complete System 600x600 /625x625

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P.4

TI-K08

Short Description TI-K08 Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel

11. Lay-out for Ceiling Heating with KaRo Inlay-Unit

Project : Project consultant : Required heating capacity


1 Heat requirement for the room 2 Planned qauntiy of units 3 Required heating capacity W m2 W/m2

Date : Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

from calculations of planning offices max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = Heat requirement / coverage

Determination of Performance

Quick lay-out Ceiling heating with BEKA Inlay-units


40 Heating capacity [W/unit] 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]

valid for room temperature 27C and heating water spread 6K

0,5

1,0

1,5

2,1

2,6 3,2 3,7 Mass flow of the heating water per unit [kg/h]

4,3

4,9

5,4

4 Supply temperature 5 Return temperature 6 Water volume per unit 7 Water volume per zone

C C 2 kg/(m h) ltr./h Pressure loss in a pipe 20x2mm Pressure loss [Pa/m]


100 80 60 40 20 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400

8 9 10 11 12 13

Pressure loss [kPa]

14

Determination of Pressure Loss Length of connection pipe Resistance in pipe -> from diagram 2 Pressure loss in pipe = Pipe length * Resistance Pressure loss of unit -> from diagram Add. for press. loss through fittings (recomm: 30% Add. to pipe) Add. for heat transfer station (recomm: zone valves 500-1000 Pa :mains regulat. valves 700 - 1500 Pa : heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa Total Pressure Loss

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

Mass flow [kg/h]

Pressure loss of the row


Pa
2 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 1 6 11

6 mats

5 mats 4 mats 3 mats 2 mats 1 mat


16

Pa

If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised, the pressure losses do not have to be determined. Only the quantity of heating circuits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection !

Mass flow per unit [kg/h]

BEKA System 600x600/625x625

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P.5

TI-K08

Short Description TI-K08 Cooling Ceiling with KaRo Lay-in Ceiling Panel

12. Technical Data

Construction 30 mm sound reducing board Capillary tube mats with capillary diameter 3,35 x 0,5 mm (Polypropylene) Fiber dense packaging in PE-foil Weight 4,6 kg/m2 (empty) 5,3 kg/m2 (filled) Dimensions Width: 600 mm or 625 mm Length: 600 mm or 625 mm Cooling Capacity: 67 W/m2 (DIN 4715) =24 W / Unit Heating Capacity: 78 W/m2 = 28 W / Unit Operation Conditions Temperature stable at duration up to 45C Operation pressure 3 to 4 bar Test pressure 10 bar max. 10 hours Place of application / Type of installation: Cooling- and heating ceilings in metal cassette version Connection via KaRo quick-action coupling system Installation according to manufacturers guidelines Type of delivery Finished inlay-units are delivered packed in cartons

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P.6

TI-K08

TI-K09

Short Description

Cooling and Heating Ceiling with the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel
1. General Information
In modern offices and business premises, the contemporary office and computer technology combined with increased thermal insulation of the exterior walls and faades, the rooms must be air-conditioned all year round. Even during periods when heating is required, these rooms have comparatively low heat consumption. This facilitates the use of a cost-effective and energy-saving KaRo cooling and heating ceiling. With the KaRo acoustic metal panel, any metal coffered ceiling can easily be designed as a cooling and heating ceiling. The arrangement is also suitable for retrofitting. The combined functionality of the ceiling minimises the investment required for necessary building technology. which are only slightly below the room temperature. This facilitates the use of "alternative energy" (heating pumps) and natural energy reduction (e.g. free cooling, groundwater). The same advantages apply to hot water generation. Significant energy savings are achieved not only in combination with solar heating systems, but with conventional technology as well, since even at low flow temperatures (below 40C), the respectable calorific output can be used for heating.
Supply tubes Connection hoses Coffered Ceiling with BEKA acoustic metal panels

2. System Description
The KaRo acoustic metal panel is a metal coffer, which comes factory-equipped with a KaRo capillary tube mat. The capillary tube mats are glued on using a hot-melt process. Like any other metal coffer, the KaRo acoustic metal panel is simply laid on top of the supporting structure. The capillary tubes lie practically directly on top of the sheet metal, so that the surface is rapidly cooled or heated. The reaction time of the ceiling is less than 15 minutes.

Further ceiling areas

Dew Point Sensor

Chiller

3. Cold-water/Hot-water Technology
The KaRo acoustic metal panels are integrated in rooms/zones in a tubing network as a circulation loop and connected to a cold-water generator and the heat source. We recommend that the connection is made by using a KaRo storey distributor. A wide variety of technologies and systems may be used for cold-water generation. The economic advantages of the cooling ceiling consist primarily of the fact that the ceiling is highly efficient even at flow temperatures
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4. Installation
As a rule, the general installation guidelines apply. All materials used in the tubing network of the KaRo acoustic metal panels must be made of non-corrosive materials. Plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red bronze may be used. Other materials may cause the system to silt up and thus disrupt its function.

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P.1

TI-K09

Short Description TI-K09 Cooling and Heating Ceiling with KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel

5. Control Technology
The control technology ensures the comfort you desire and provides the necessary system safety as well. The cooling ceiling requires a room temperature control unit, a dew point safeguard control unit and a control unit for the initial flow temperature of the cold water. Initial flow temperatures below 16C must be avoided due to the dew point risk! The heating ceiling requires a room temperature control. This regulates the flow of hot water depending on the desired room temperature. In rooms with heights of up to 3.5 metres, initial flow temperatures above 40C must be avoided so that the surface temperature of the ceiling does not become too high!

6. Dimensions of the System


The KaRo acoustic metal panels are available in the standard ceiling coffer sizes of 600 x 600 mm and 625 x 625 mm. The required quantity of panels and the temperature of the cooling or heating water are determined according to the design tables shown below. The initial flow temperature in the water circulation of the KaRo acoustic metal panels is set by adjusting the water temperature in front of the heat exchanger on the cold generator or heat generator side.

equipped with a plug-in coupling system for connection to flow and return tubes by means of flexible hoses. Before beginning work, a ceiling drawing and a laying plan must be drawn up, in which all coffers with their dimensions, alignment, and the supply lines must be recorded. In the ceiling drawing, all areas must be also marked which must remain unoccupied, e.g. where partition walls, lighting and other ceiling fittings will be installed. In addition, the location where the KaRo dew point sensor will be installed must also be marked in the ceiling drawing. If thermal plastic welding is being used to connect the polypropylene tubes, the welding guideline DVS 2207-11 of the Deutscher Verband fr Schweitechnik e.V. (German Association of Welding Technology) applies. (The environment temperature during processing may not be lower than 5C and the preheating, welding and holding times must be observed according to the dimensions of the tubing.)

8. Tools, Materials
The conventional tools and materials for the installation of ceilings and plastic tubing are used for the installation of a metal coffered heating/cooling ceiling with KaRo acoustic metal panels: Metal coffers Suspension profiles and suspenders depending on the design of the selected ceiling model Dowels and screws Metal shears Plastic tube shears Handheld welding unit with a welding sleeve mirror for plastic welding Appropriate plastic fittings and cutting ring screw fittings A handheld welding unit with a sleeve mirror, appropriate for plastic welding, and the corresponding plastic fittings are recommended for connecting the feed lines to the coldwater circulation. Cutting ring screw fittings may be used as an alternative.

7. Preparation for Assembly


The manufacturer's instructions for the selected ceiling model apply to the assembly of the suspended metal coffered ceiling. The KaRo acoustic metal panels must be laid on a 24 mm T-profile structure. The KaRo acoustic metal panel simultaneously fulfils the acoustic requirements for the ceiling. The KaRo acoustic metal panels are manufactured in the dimensions 600 x 600 mm and 625 x 625 mm, so that custom cutting is not required at the construction site. Inactive coffers are installed around the edges and in places where ceiling fittings are planned. The KaRo acoustic metal panels are factory-

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P.2

TI- K09

Short Description TI-K09 Cooling and Heating Ceiling with KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel

9. Steps in Assembling the Ceiling

In accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for the selected coffers, the supporting structure is attached to the bare ceiling using vernier suspenders and aligned. The feed lines are laid in the hollow cavity of the ceiling and connected to the supply lines (connection by means of thermal plastic welding or cutting ring screw fittings) Insert the flexible connection hoses in the plug-in couplings of the feed lines

I.

II.

Remove the pre-assembled KaRo acoustic metal panel from its packaging

Insert the flexible hoses into the plug-in couplings of the KaRo acoustic metal panel Hang the coffers in the supporting structure and align the joints Preliminary test with 10 bars of compressed air for 1 hour Main test with water at 10 bars for 4 hours maintain resting pressure at 3 bars until the system is put into operation

III.

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P.3

TI- K09

Short Description TI-K09 Cooling and Heating Ceilings with the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel

10. Lay-out for the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panels in the Cooling Ceiling
Project: Project consultant : Required cooling capacity 1 Room cooling load 2 Planned component qty 3 Required cooling capacity Capacity calculation W m2 W/m2 from calculations of the planning office Max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = Cooling load / Quantity of units Date : Lay-out valid for 27Croom temperature and 2K cooling water spread!

Quick Lay-out ceiling cooling with BEKA panel


Cooling capacity [W/component] 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 Supply temperature [C]
V a lid fo r ro o m temperature 27C and co o l water spread 2K

6 7 9 10 11 12 Mass flow cooling water per component [kg/h] C C kg/h l/h


1 00 80 60

13

15

16

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature 6 Water qty per component 7 Water qty per zone Determination of pressure loss 8 Length of the connection tube 9 Resistance in tube -> from diagram 10 Pressure loss in tube = tube length * Resistance 11 Component pressure loss from diagram 12 Add for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% Add to pipe) 13 Add for heat transfer station (recomm: for zone valves 500 -1000 Pa for branch control valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx.. 4000 Pa) 14 Total pressure loss

Pressure loss in the tube 20 x 2 mm

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

40 20 0 40 80 1 20 1 60 200 240 280 320 360 400

M a s s f lo w [ k g /h ]

Pressure loss of the row


Pa
9 8

Pressure loss [kPa]

6 mats

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 0 20 30 40 B E K A c o m ple te s ys tem 600 x 600 / 625 x 625

Pa

5 mats 4 mats 3 mats 2 mats 1 mat Mass flow per component [kg/h]

If BEKA transfer stations are utilised the pressure losses do not have to be determined. Only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection.

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Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc

P.4

TI -K09

Short Description TI-K09 Cooling and Heating Ceilings with the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel

11. Lay-out for the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panels in the Heating Ceiling
Project: Project consultant: Required heating capacity 1 Planned heat requirement for the room 2 Planned component quantity 3 Required heating capacity Capacity calculation W m2 W/m2 from calculations of planning offices max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = Heat requirement / Coverage Date : Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6 K hot water spread !

Quick Lay-out Ceiling Heating with BEKA Acoustic Metal Panel


Heating capacity [W/component] 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]
v a lid fo r ro o m te m p e rature of 27C and heating water spread 6K

0,5

1,1

1,7

2,3 2,9 3,5 4,1 Mass flow of hot water per component [kg/h] C C kg/(m h) l/h
2

4,7

5,3

6,0

4 Supply temperature 5 Return temperature

from diagram 1

Pressure loss in tube 20 x 2 mm


1 00 80 60

6 Water qty per component 7 Water qty per zone Determination of pressure loss 8 Length of the connection tube 9 Resistance in tube 10 Pressure loss in tube = Tube length * Resistance 11 Component pressure loss from diagram 12 Add for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% Add to tube) 13 Add for heat transfer station (recomm: for zone valves 500 -1000 Pa) for branch control valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 14 Total pressure loss from diagram 2

m Pa/m Pa Pa Pa

40 20 0 40 80 1 20 1 60 200 240 280 320 360 400

M a s s f lo w [ k g /h ]

Pressure loss of the row


Pa
9

Pressure loss [kPa]

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 0 20 30

6 mats

Pa

5 mats 4 mats 3 mats 2 mats 1 mat 40


B E K A c o m plete system 600 x 600 / 625 x 625

If BEKA heat transfer stations are utilised, the pressure losses do not have to be determined. Only the quantity of cooling circuits and the total heating capacity is required for the selection.

Mass flow per component [kg/h]

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P.5

TI -K09

Short Description TI-K09 Cooling and Heating Ceilings with the KaRo Acoustic Metal Panel

12. Technical Specifications

Design Metal coffer with acoustic fleece Capillary tube mat with capillary diameter of 3.35 x 0.5 mm (polypropylene) Glued on using a hot-melt process Weight 4.6 kg/m2 (unfilled) 5.3 kg/m2 (filled) Dimensions Width: 600 mm and 625 mm Length: 600 mm and 625 mm Cooling capacity: 74 W/m2 (DIN 4715) =29 W/component Heating capacity: 130 W/m2 assuming 45C hot water/21C room temperature =51 W/component Operating conditions: Temperature stability in continuous use up to 45C Operating pressure 3 to 4 bars Test pressure 10 bars up to a maximum of 10 hours Fields of application/Method of laying: Cooling and heating ceilings in metal coffer design Connection via KaRo quick-coupling system Assembly according to manufacturer's instructions Form of delivery: Prefabricated acoustic metal panels are delivered in cartons

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P.6

TI -K09

TI-K10

Short Description

Installation with the KaRo Plug-in Type Pipe System


1. General Information
Up to now, the installation of a tubing system for the connection of heating or cooling panels with KaRo mats/prefabricated components usually required specialised expertise in working with plastic tubing, as well as special tools. The KaRo quick-coupling tubing system is a cost-saving alternative. You can construct a complete tubing system using only a pair of plastic tube shears. cause the system to silt up and thus disrupt its function.

4. Preparation for Assembly


Before beginning work, a floor/ceiling drawing and a laying plan must be drawn up, in which all KaRo prefabricated components (metal acoustic mat, inlaid component, prefabricated ceiling or wall) with their dimensions, alignments, and the supply lines must be recorded. In the specification of the tubing layout within a heating/cooling circuit, the general rules must be applied so that an even flow is guaranteed throughout the area. In the floor/ceiling drawing, all areas must be marked which must remain untubed, e.g. where partition walls, lighting and other ceiling fittings will be installed. In addition, the location where the KaRo dew point sensor will be installed must also be marked in the floor/ceiling drawing. All KaRo prefabricated components are factoryequipped with a quick-coupling system for connection to flow and return tubes by means of flexible hoses. The individual lengths of the tubing sections are determined from the floor/ceiling drawing. The tubes are fastened with conventional tube clips in accordance with the generally applicable installation guidelines for the KaRo DA22 mm tube at intervals of up to 800 mm maximum to the bare floor or ceiling.

2. System Description
The KaRo tubing system with quick-action coupling contains all of the required installation materials for the tubing of cooling or heating circuits, from the KaRo mat or the KaRo prefabricated component to the distribution throughout the storey. The tube dimension of DA22 mm is designed for cooling or heating circuits with a maximum size of 15 m2. All quick-action coupling parts can be used with the KaRo DA22 tubing without additional dimensioning to assemble the heating/cooling circuits internally and to construct the connection up to the distributor. The tubing length up to the distributor may be up to a maximum of 40 metres for the flow and return tubes, respectively. The tubes and the pre-formed parts are assembled simply by pushing them together. The connection between the tubing and the KaRo mats/prefabricated components is made by using flexible hoses. For those cases in which the quick-action coupling system is to be used with tubing or components from other systems, suitable connections with " exterior threads are available.

5. Tools and Materials


To process the quick-coupling system, the following tools and materials are required: Plastic tube shears Marker Meter rule

3. Installation
As a rule, the general installation guidelines apply. All materials used in the tubing system of the KaRo mats or prefabricated components must be made of non-corrosive materials. Plastics, stainless steel, copper, brass and red bronze may be used. Other materials may

For fastening to the raw ceiling : Conventional 22 mm tube clips Dowels and screws Drill/hammer drill, if necessary Tools for mounting the tube clips

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P.1

TI-K10

Short Description TI-K10 Installation with the KaRo Plug-in Type Pipe System

6. Assembly Steps

Cut the tube to the required length. Use only the plastic tube shears to cut the tube (do not use a saw or similar tools!). Be careful to make the cut straight or angled as required.

NO

Insert the support sleeve in the end of the tube.

Straight connector

O-ring

Retaining element

Insert the tube with the support sleeve to the limit stop into the plug-in fitting and you're finished!

Support sleeve

Stainless steel claw

PP-tube

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P.2

TI-K10

Short Description TI-K10 Installation with the KaRo Plug-in Type Pipe System

7. Technical Specifications

System Components KaRo tube, 22 mm x 2,1 mm, polypropylene, PN10 Straight connector, 22 mm Angled plug connector, 22 mm T plug connector 3 x 22 mm Reduced T plug connector, 22 x 10 x 22 mm Plug-in end cap, 22 mm Screw connector, 22 mm x exterior thread (brass) Support sleeve for 22 mm tube Flexible connecting hose with stainless steel fabric casing Operating conditions: Temperature stability in continuous use up to 45C Operating pressure 3 to 4 bars Test pressure 10 bars up to a maximum of 10 hours Fields of application: Cooling and heating floors/ceilings with KaRo capillary tube mats or prefabricated components Connection via the KaRo Plug-in type pipe system Assembly according to manufacturer's guidelines Form of delivery: Tubing in rods of 5 meters in length Plug-in fittings and hoses in accordance with the quantities ordered

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P.3

TI-K10

TI-B01

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Questions before lay-out of KaRo Cooling Ceilings


1. Cooling Load / Heat Requirement
The specific cooling load must be obtained, subdivided, from the planning- or architects office. If concrete figures cannot be traced, then the cooling loads or heat requirement for each room must be calculated by yourself, at least roughly, for the pre-planning. The calculation for the cooling load follows the VDI 2878, for the heat requirement according DIN 4701. The result for the cooling load although must go into the construction of the ceiling interpreted, since the calculation procedure according to VDI 2078 will not account for the operative temperature and influence of the cooling ceilings storage behaviour. By establishing room identification figures, the radiation ratio and change in the share of convection, caused by the type of ventilation, can be considered for the expected capacity of the ceiling. For the calculation of the cooling load the following details are required: Building- and room measurements Location of building, direction of rooms they are facing to Type of walls, windows- and door positions U-values of the building components Climate conditions: high- and low temperatures of the year, outside humidity through the year Internal room temperature trend room temperature Demands to air quality pollutants, humidity Usage of the room, number of persons present, type of activities Electric appliances quantity and connecting loads lighting electric connection values other loads heat caused by transports through the room room temperatures of adjacent rooms A form for the (rough)calculation of the cooling load is included in the collection of tables. In critical areas although an accurate calculation of the cooling load is absolutely necessary.

2. Building / Room Situation


While item 1 eventually can be fully prepared by the planner, from now on begins the expert planning for the cooling ceiling. The room measurements can be taken from the construction drawing and/or can be ascertained by inspection of the site. It must be laid down with the planning person if separate ventilation is planned and/or if the windows will remain open able. The volume of air supply, the condition of the air (air supply, exhaust air temperature and humidity) and the type of exhaust outlets must be inquired from the planning office and/or will be laid down by considering the usage of the rooms, obeying the state of the art and standards for the required air exchange rates. Statements about air supply will be considered for the construction of the cooling ceiling and will influence the cooling load of the ceiling. It is also important to clarify what energy can be used for the cooling water preparation. The technique of cooling water preparation is not part of the construction for the cooling ceiling and therefore will not be mentioned further. At least the cooling water temperatures and water volumes for the cooling circulation (secondary circle) must be co-ordinated with the planning specialist. From the necessary capacity of the ceiling and with the given split between water temperatures in supply and return of the secondary circuit the necessary volume of water can be calculated. The difference in temperature between the supply and return determines the capacity of the ceiling in dependence of the chosen type of ceiling.

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P.1

TI-B01

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B01 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Cooling Ceilings

3. Ceiling Design
If it is not given anyway, the design of the ceiling must be clarified with the architect/ builder. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are suited for practically all installation variations. But next to aesthetics also the different capacities of the cooling ceiling, depending upon the ceiling type, must be considered. Basically it can be distinguished between the following types of installations: The KaRo mats will be laid on top of suspended metal cassette units The KaRo mats will be fixed to the raw ceiling from below and plastered. The KaRo mats will be laid from below to the dry plaster boards and plastered. The KaRo mats will be placed on top of plasterboards. Each of these installation details can vary depending upon the differing building materials. Nearly any variation is given. Roughly, this can also be used as basis for the expected capacities for the different type of ceilings. For a first estimation the maximum ceiling area to be covered with mats must be established. Build-ins such as lamps, sprinklers or speaker boxes must be considered to be lost for ceiling area, the same as build-in closets and cabinets. Further it must clarified how much building space is provided for the piping. This can be hollow (dead) space in ceilings and floors of the above storey. If space for the piping was not planned for it must be created in agreement with the architect. The chosen type of ceiling is influencing the construction time schedule. Plastered ceilings require additional time for drying before they can be painted. With the installation of KaRoheating- and cooling mats on top of plaster boards the rooms can be used at an earlier stage.

Basically all mats related parts, valves (secondary circulation) and raw materials must be non-corrosive, to avoid sludge. Also increasing a secure operation of the system by taking a storey distributor into account should be discussed. In all cases the position of riser channels should be provided between storeys and eventual free spaces for sub-distributors or storey distributors. For the cold-water preparation many different technologies can be utilised. The economical advantages of the cooling ceiling is, that already with supply temperatures which are only slightly below the room temperature a high performance is achieved. This enables the utilisation of alternative energies such as solar energy for heating and ground water for cooling.

5. Control Technology
The control technology secures a desired comfort and the necessary system security. Since cooling ceilings often are operated in combination with other heating-, coolingand air-conditioning systems, a general control concept is to be developed. Interactions can therefore be avoided. The cooling ceiling by itself requires controls for room temperatures, a dew point guard and a temperature control for the supply of the cold water. Basically two types of supply temperature controls can be distinguished: constant supply temperature (not below 16 to avoid the dew point) flowing supply temperature (the ceiling will not be switched-off at critical humidity and will continue with a part load.)

Which variation is to be used must be decided by the demand on comfort, and also by the combination with the air-conditioning (ventilation).

4. Cold Water Technique


The cooling water of the KaRo mats can supplied centrally from one point of each room, or from the point of cold-water preparation to the storey distributor. Variations for the cold-water distribution are possible. Which basic type or which mixed form is going to be used will depend on size and building lay-out, the approved installation material, the installation requirements, the state of control accuracy and the serviceability .

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P.2

TI-B01

TI-B02

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Lay-out KaRo Cooling Ceilings


1. General
To obtain a room climate in a range of comfort, it is necessary to cool-down modern offices because of their inner heat loads caused by office- and computer technologies and through the high thermal insulation of the buildings. The most cost effective solution is the utilisation of KaRo cooling ceilings. High cooling loads to cool down exclusively with airconditioning are not only un-economical but also the limits of the admissible speed of the room air ventilation and rate of turbulence is often exceeded. KaRo radiation cooling ceilings achieve 60% of the cooling by radiation and 40% by convection. This is equivalent to how the human body regulates its temperature at moderate activity. With: qN [W/m2 ] = C TUn Abbreviations: TU temperature difference between room temperature and average cooling water temperature C - constant Cn - exponent Specific figures for C and n can be determined for each installation variation of the KaRo mats. The diagram D01 and D02 ( index: Diagrams) show the capacity-curves of standard installation situations. The table T04 Standard capacity identification data (index: Tables and Forms) shows further data about special ceiling constructions. The following equation applies for the carryoff heat volume: Q = m c T Abbreviations: m - flow of the mass c - specific heat capacity T- temperature difference The above equation is used to determine the necessary amount of water with a given temperature difference (split) between supply and return of the cooling water. The heat volume taken from the low temperature of the ceiling must be equal to the heat volume, which is taken away by the cooling water. Since the standard capacity was established at test situations, a real project must be matched to the actual situation, to given loads and to the influence of ventilation. Therefore a room constant KR is established for the correction.

2. Capacity of the KaRo Cooling Ceiling


The cooling ceiling absorbs only the sensible (dry) cooling load of the room. The required air change can be achieved by simply opening the windows or in a more comfortable way through base (board) ventilation. The reason for the temperature transport from the room to the ceiling is the temperature difference of the room and the average surface temperature of the ceiling. Where the temperature of the ceiling is given by the internal head transition from the lower side of the ceiling to the cooling water. The capacity of the KaRo cooling ceiling is appointed according to DIN 4715, where a standard load is a function of an under temperature and is represented by the following equation:

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P.1

TI-B02

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B02 Lay-out KaRo Cooling Ceilings

3. Construction of the KaRo Cooling Ceiling


The necessary cooling load for the ceiling is determined on the dry cooling load of the room. It must be observed that air carries-off cooling load through the fact of ventilation, even if this is only a minor factor. In principle, the KaRo cooling ceiling should only be operated with a supply temperature above 16C, to safely avoid any condensation. At room temperatures of 27C, depending upon the situation of installation, cooling loads above 80 W/m will result. It must be observed, that not the room air temperature, but the operative temperature will be used for calculation. The operative temperature represents an average from air temperature and average radiation temperature of the surrounding room surfaces including the cooling ceiling. For this reason it is possible to have the comfortable room air temperature below cooling ceilings 2K higher than with conventional systems. For the layout the form T01 lay out table cooling ceiling ( tables and forms) can be used. The explanations in the form will lead through the calculation. Standard cooling capacities of the KaRo cooling ceiling can be taken out of the diagrams D01 and D02, or they can be calculated using the data for C and n from table T04. The extra cooling capacity for heat from hollow ceilings or for warm water carrying pipelines, which the ceiling will have to produce additionally, will be equalised through the water volume.

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P.2

TI-B02

TI-B03

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Heating with KaRo Capillary Tube Mats


1. General
Next to aesthetics advantages (no visible radiators) and savings on investment costs (beside the cooling ceiling there is no other heating system necessary), the cooling ceiling also has hygienic advantages. Air movements are not noticeable, so that transport of dust particles and other pollution is stopped. The heating surfaces themselves do not develop air movements. The permissible temperature limits of the ceiling under side has to be observed when using KaRo mats, otherwise the radiation heat from the ceiling which hits the human body is too high, and the head will not be able to be cooled enough. The comfort disrupted (see: A. Kollmar: Heat physical calculations for heating ceilings, steel sheets and infra red radiation; Ges.-Ing 1960 p65/84). The temperature limit depends upon the geometry of the room. As lower the room, as lower is the permissible average ceiling temperature. For a room height of 3 m this will be 35C. At the same time a cold air penetration at the window front must be considered for the planning of the ceiling heating, otherwise there is the danger of air draft. The heat requirement in good insulated rooms is not high anymore for most of the wintertime considering the mostly high internal heat loads. The heat requirement for typical office rooms is between 20 and 40 W/m. According to diagram D05, the permissible heat capacity of the ceiling is most of the time sufficient for the complete heating. control, but should be controlled, flowingly, by the outside temperature. For the border strip also the permissible heating capacity is valid, so that the comfort is not disturbed. The diagram D06 shows the relationship to the room height.

3. Lay-out of a KaRo-Heating Ceiling


The lay- out for the KaRo heating ceiling is done analogue to the cooling ceiling. Beginning with the calculation of the transmission heat requirement and the heat requirement for joints, the necessary heating capacity for the ceiling is determined. It must be observed, that the calculation for the transmission of radiator heaters besides the transmission of walls also the heat for the hygienic necessary air exchange is taken into account. The influence of it is omitted for a heating ceiling, if the heat requirement for ventilation is covered by the heat recovery of the ventilation equipment. Internal heat producers such as lamps, technical appliances etc. also reduce the actual heat requirement. Influences for the lay- out. Heat requirement < 100 W/m - facade Heating can take place through the ceiling without restriction. W/m < Heat requirement < 250 W/m of facade Heating takes place by a border strip on the ceiling alongside the windows; the radiation heat will be concentrated to the windows, air drafts are avoided. Heat requirement < 250 W/m facade In dependence of the activities in the room it must be checked if the ceiling by itself is enough for heating; otherwise an additional heat source is required alongside the window.

2. Permissible Heating Capacities


The diagram D05 shows the permissible heating capacity in relation to the room depth and room height, whereby the permissible temperature limits will just be reached with 75% of the maximum heat load. It is suggestive to run a higher temperate border strip on the ceiling alongside the windows. Here the supply temperature should not be controlled with a room temperature
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For the layout the form T02 can be used. The containing explanations on the form lead through the way of calculation.

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Calculation, Construction and Planning

Calculation for the Piping of KaRo Heating- and Cooling Ceilings


1. General
The KaRo heating and cooling ceiling works in a close system. The cooling-and heating water preparation in the primary circuit is parted by a heat exchanger from the ceiling system with KaRo mats in the secondary circuit. All components of the secondary circuit are from non- corrosive materials and can be delivered from KaRo . Diffusion of oxygen through the plastic material, in this case, has no significance. Sludge therefore must not be suspected. With the KaRo systems because of the typical shallow operation temperatures for cooling and heating deterioration will not take place. Professionally installed, including a pressure check after installation, will exclude any water damages. If after all safety precaution, a capillary tube should leak, the damage is limited. The mat is only filled with 0,46 litre/m of water and the system only drains itself up to the pressure equalisation of the systems own pressure with the atmospheric pressure. The volume in the expansion tank will be the maximum possible amount of leakage, which in normal cases is never more than 5 litres.

2. Components of the System


The schematic (below) shows the basic arrangement of each component. The units 5 to 9 can be united into one storey station, which is also manufactured by KaRo.

1 6 9
M M

3 5 8

1 - BEKA mat for a metal ceiling 2 - BEKA mat for a plaster ceiling 3 - flexible connecting hose 4 - supply line 5 flow control valve 6 - zone valve with thermal actuating drive 7- heat exchanger 8 - pump 9 - expansion tank

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TI-B04

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B04 Calculation for the Piping of KaRo Heating- and Cooling Ceilings

3. Lay- out of the tubing for the KaRo Cooling Ceiling


The lay-out of the piping system is done at the state of the art and therefore is only outlined. If the cold water supply is by central distributor or via storey distributors depends upon many facts, such as: size of the total cooling area, the building situation, the hydraulic few, ease for service, system safety etc. the distribution by storey stations is suggested. Herewith a high grade of service ability is reached. Regulation of the system is possible from one central point. In case of a failure, the shut-off of each separate zone is possible. Basically, only non-corrosive materials for pipes, fittings and controls are used in the secondary circuit. Plastic materials can be used without any problems. When using copper piping together with plastic material, a brass part must be placed in between them. The dimensions for the pipes are calculated under consideration of the volumes and the allowable flow speeds. . In the building technology a maximum flow speed of 1,5 m/sec. is adapted to avoid circuit flow sounds. It must be obeyed that speed changes at intersections, especially at passes with a flow uniting of more than 0,3 m/sec. are avoided. This could lead into circuit cutoffs. The total pressure loss is calculated after the sizes of mats, pipes, armatures and other components of the system are known. The pressure losses for KaRo heating and cooling mats can be taken from the diagrams D07 to D14, in relationship with the mats sizes, the mat type and specific water volume.

The heat exchanger and pump must be noncorrosive. The capacity of the heat exchanger is calculated from the total volume of water at the chosen spread. The pressure loss of the heat exchanger depends on the manufacturer, and will be calculated in a special way. Usually a pressure loss of 20 kPa set forth for the heat exchanger in the primary and secondary circuit. The total pressure loss of the system results from the pressure loss of the piping and the pressure loss of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is chosen with the pumps equalisation of capacity and under consideration of a safety additive . The delivery height must be laid out, that the total pressure loss of the system, including a safety additive, will be overcome. The delivery capacity of the pump must fulfil safety reserve for the total water volume. For choosing pumps the manufactures specified characteristic performance line is used.

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B03 Heating with KaRo Capillary Tube Mats

The standard capacities of the capillary tube heating ceiling can be taken from the diagrams D03 and D04. It must be observed, that heating capacity of the ceiling surface is only permissible according to diagram D05. The diagram D06 permits a fast answer for the possibilities of ceiling heating.

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Calculation, Construction and Planning

Control of KaRo Heatingand Cooling Ceilings


1. General
The controls for the KaRo cooling ceilings must apply to the two function-appointed factors: room temperature and humidity in the room. Basically the expenditure of control technique can be kept relatively low, since a solid laid out cooling ceiling will not give many occasions for the control to get active for securing the safety of the system. KaRo heating- and cooling ceilings incorporate already a called self controlling effect. This means, only after the heat source was let in the room, the heat flow will start from the heat source towards the ceiling, and the heat load is carried out of the room. The capacity of the ceiling will increase as greater the loads are, and will reach its peak, at pre-set water volume flow, when the preset difference between water supply- and return temperature is reached. flow). This sensor will give a signal to the converter or room temperature control unit, when the dew point is reached, which then actuates an actuating drive on a return line at the corresponding circuit. For a seldom to be expected case the system will be shut-off for a short period. Because of the storage effect of the cooled building surfaces, the temperature will be kept up for some time, so that the room inhabitant does not notice the shut-off. In normal cases, this simple way of controlling is sufficient for secure resistance against condensation. Should there be other climate situations, with a higher humidity than expected, dry air can be let into the room. The amount of incoming air is metered according the humidity, which has to be carried off. Thereby the temperature of the incoming air and the air speed must be taken into consideration. A gliding control system is another way to run the cooling system with an optimal supply temperature with regard to the dew point controlling. Herein a constant supply volume flow of the cooling water is set forth and a governor computes the dew point temperature from the measured humidity of the room and the pre-set room temperature at the control unit. Thereafter the control unit compares the value with the supply temperature and sets the measure of the possibly necessary raising or lowering of the supply temperature. In order not to limit the comfort in this case a temperature balancing should be designated for the room through a basic (baseboard) ventilation.

2. Room Temperature Control


Normally the room temperature is recorded with the room temperature control unit. This directly actuates a zone valve with a thermal actuating drive when the actual temperature has fallen below the pre-set temperature, so that the cold-water circuit is interrupted. The temperature control unit is installed at a spot where no direct sunlight can reach, in height of approx. 1.5 m.

3. Dew Point Control


To avoid condensation on or in building components the supply temperature should be set above the dew point of the room (normally 16C is sufficient). Only with this, we have already a high degree of safety against condensation of outside air, at our latitude. For additionally safety, a humidity sensor should be installed at the coolest spot of the room (from experience this is furthest corner from away from the window, directly at the supply

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TI-B06

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Instructions for Fire Protection and to Burning Behaviour of KaRo Mats


1. General
Under the construction law in Germany, fire prevention requisitions are set forth within the building codes of the federal states, which must be obeyed. Because of federal state laws, there could be different requisitions. Above these, there are also separate requisitions and standards for special buildings (high rise buildings, hospitals and meeting halls), which must be obeyed. Besides the demands for fire prevention, there are additional injunctions by the underwriters, which are relevant. For numerous requisitions, regulations are de-fined in a general manner and based on standards. DIN 4102 Behaviour of building materials and components in fire regulates nearly every case for fire prevention. The following standards and guidelines apply for the KaRo heating, cooling mats, and the installation material. DIN 4102 Part 1 DIN 4102 Part 2 DIN 4102 Part 3 Building materials (classification) Building components (fire resistance classes) Firewalls (non load bearing external walls)

DIN 4102 Part 4 Fire behaviour of building materials, components and special components Synopsis and application of classified materials, components and special components. DIN 4102 Part 11 DIN 18232 ISO 6944 DIN 18230 Pipe partitioning + utility shafts

Fire protection Smoke- and heat outlet Part 1 3 Test of pipelines Building fire protection for industrial buildings Part 1 + 2

2. Behaviour in fire of the KaRo Heating-and Cooling Mats ,Pipes Supply lines and Fittings
KaRo heating- and cooling mats , pipes , supply lines and fittings are made from polypropylene type 3, random co-polymer, without the use of additives. This plastic material is a highly pure material which burns to water and carbon dioxide (H2O und CO2 ). According DIN 4102 Part 1 polypropylene is classified in building material group: B2 normal flammable, self-extinguishing Basically, take notice, that the KaRo capillary tube mats are practically never on the surface, after they are installed, and therefore are not directly exposed to the flame. This is true especially when laid in plaster or in a composition floor. But also if laid on top of ceiling panels the mats are mostly covered with mineral wool towards the ceiling cavity. Furthermore it can be assumed, that the water filled capillary tubes will cause a distinct reduction of the surface temperature and therefore a distinct reduction of an eventual ignition. This was confirmed in an assessment for behaviour in fire concerning capillary tube mats, at the Amtlichen Materialprfanstalt fr das Bauwesen beim Institut fr Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz, at the TU Braunschweig.

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B06 Instructions for Fire Protection and to Burning Behaviour of KaRo Mats

3. Provisions for Fire Prevention


If KaRo pipes or supply lines lead through fire section walls, partitioning (blocking) could be necessary. Openings for pipes tube bundles through fire walls above 50 mm diameter must be blocked. Thereby the firewalls and ceilings must be improved by using qualified fire resistance measures, so that the called for fire resistance class is reached. Standard fire blocks for openings in fire section walls are fire prevention packing rings. Only fire blocks with approval and test certificate may be used. The manufacturer of these products must secure by self-auditing that the delivered merchandise is covered by the approval. Installation must be done according to manufactures guidelines. Certification for this must be given to the builder (owner) to be passed on to the building authority. Each fire block must be permanently marked. In the real case the exact implementation of the fire block should be advised by the building supervision or should be set forth by an authorised person, since fire protection requisitions are covered by building state law where possibly differing regulations must be obeyed.

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TI-B07

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling


1. Situation
Figure 1, appendix 1 is an example for a room cooling ceiling, in combination with baseboard ventilation. Room utilisation Room 1 meeting room Room 2 - office Room 3 - office Rooms are at the ground level of a multistorey building. Outer walls are thermal insulated, windows double glazed with outside blinds. With suspended ceilings, smoothened plaster. The ceiling height of the suspended ceiling in all rooms is 3 m. The maximum room temperatures allowable are: Meeting room: 27C Offices: 25C to 26C The volume of air supply must satisfy hygiene demands. area for compensation of size variations and for the installation of connecting pipes. In case that the builder has provided empty spaces for light fixtures, air vents, speakers, etc., the empty spaces are not being used (this also is not the case in our example). Small openings in the ceiling (for example: sprinklers) are not taken into account. In these cases, the capillary tubes of the KaRo mats can be laid around the openings.

4. Calculating the Cooling Capacity.


The necessary cooling capacity for the KaRo cooling ceiling can be calculated by using the calculation table T01 For standard installations of the KaRo cooling ceiling there are norms for standard cooling capacities according to DIN 4715. Corresponding capacities can be taken from the diagrams D01 D02, or by using table T04 for the standard capacity identification data and can be calculated suiting the following equation:

2. Cooling Load
The cooling load depends strongly on room size, room utilisation, the geographic position, and the type of building. To estimate the cooling loads for room 1 of our example, we use the table T03 The procedure for the calculation is selfexplaining and follows the model calculation in appendix 2, table 1. qN [W/m2 ] = C*TUn with: TU temperature difference between room temperature and average cooling water temperature C - constant n - exponent Since the standard capacity was established at test stand situations, a real project must be matched to the actual situation, the given loads and influence of ventilation. Therefore a room constant KR is established for the correction For our example, the sample calculation for room No. 1 is included in appendix 2, table 2. The relationships of the dates in the formulation are explained in this table.

3. Rough Planning
To do the prescribed type of ceiling, the KaRo heating- and cooling mats type K.S15 is utilised. Appendix 1, Figure 2 shows a possible arrangement of mats for our example. Our target should be a maximum coverage of the ceiling. It is advisable to use a non covered border

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07 Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling

Explanation of the Calculation Procedure:


The height factor KH (line 4) takes the change of the radiation figure into dependence to the room height. The load factor KK (line 8) takes the influence of the warm outer facade to the cooling ceiling The air supply flow (line 9) is laid out in regard to a hygiene air exchange volume, if not otherwise advised. The air supply achieves its contribution to the cooling capacity (line 12). This reduces the required cooling capacity of the cooling ceiling (line 16) The ventilation factor KL (line 13) covers the influence of the ventilation system to the thermal transition of convection at the cooling ceiling. The coverage factor KB (line 18) takes the changes of the radiation portion into account in relation to the percentage of ceiling coverage in ratio to the floor area. From KH, KK, KL und KB the room constant KR (line 23) is calculated. This serves the accommodation of the Standard cooling capacity (line 24 - of D02)to the actual room situation (line 25) (see above). The supply (feed) temperature (line 19) is normally chosen at a minimum of 16C, trough it condensation is being avoided. The average water temperature (line 21)in its difference to the room temperature determines substantially the expected cooling capacity (see diagram D01-02) A cooling water spread (line 26) of 2K is customary. With this, a minimal average water temperature is achieved at an acceptable measure of control and at controllable water volumes. In the example, only mats of the same size are used in the room (line 27). Different sized mats are arranged so that mats of the same length are split into zones. The calculation of the water flow volume is done for each separate zone. According to DIN 4715 the cooling capacity must be checked at a water flow volume of 50%. The cooling capacity of the KaRo cooling ceilings is metered at approx. 40 kg/m. At a water volume (line 31) of less than 17 kg/m there will be a difference to the standard cooling capacity into consideration which had been the base for the calculation. The upward directed heat draft is corrected by the water volume (line 35). Heat above the ceiling, in rooms, which are not climate controlled, or where

warm water carrying pipelines lead through hollow spaces, could call for additional cooling capacity. The temperature above the ceiling (line 32) and thermal transition (upward) (line 33) depend on the situation. Logical values should be determined besides this calculation. To reach the established cooling capacity the water volume for each zone/room according (line 36)must be made avail able. If zones are separated because of differing mat lengths each zone must have a separate control appointed to regulate the calculated water volume for an equal flow.

5. Piping
Fundamentally, the KaRo cooling ceiling works in a closed system. All components of the system in the secondary circuit must be from non- corrosive material. Sludge, caused through diffusion of oxygen must not be feared In the example a storey distributor (panel) is utilised. The cold water provided from a central treatment unit runs through a heat exchanger and is passed on to the water circuit of the storey. From the storey station (panel) the water is being distributed to the separate circuits of the rooms/zones. The water volume can be regulated separately for each circuit with a flow control valve in the supply line. A valve in the return line with thermal actuating drive can regulate each circuit. To signal the room temperature, the dew point sensor is hooked onto the actuating drive. Reality has shown, that it is good practice to start-up the circuits from the storey distributor panel, for mats with a surface of 10-15 m, with a volume flow of approx. 40 kg/m. It is good policy to split the ceiling surface into circuits/zones according the building grid, which lead to separate rooms. If there will be a new room partitioning, the temperature control of the new rooms is possible without any problem. For our example a separation is chosen according appendix 1, figure 3.

6. Pressure Loss and Choice of Pump


Decisive for comfort and the guaranty for the cooling efficiency of the KaRo cooling ceiling is, that appropriate amount of water is lead to each room or zone. Therefore it is required to dimension the pipe diameters under consideration of the water volume which has to be distributed and the flow speed, as well as the flow losses of the piping, valves, heat exchanger and the KaRo mats. The capacity of
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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07 Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling

the pump must be dimensioned according to the total water volume and supply height to equalise the losses and for the support of the flow. The hydraulic lay out of the piping and the calculation of the total losses of the system, is done according the commonly known state of the art. For calculation of the total pressure loss, the pressure loss of sections, fittings and the longest supply line to the storey station is determined, considering the water volumes, and is added to the pressure loss of the KaRo mat belonging to this zone. The pressure loss in the station is mostly caused by the heat exchanger and by the control valves. The pressure loss of the KaRo heating and cooling mats can be read from the diagram D07-D14. In our example for a KaRo mat type K.S15, length 4.30 m at a volume flow of 40 kg/m, a pressure loss of 17 kPa is ascertained. The pressure loss for length of a pipe is determinate by the following equation: pR [Pa] = * L / (di*10-3) * /2 * w2 with: - pressure loss coefficient L length of pipe [m] - density [kg/m3] and w [m/s] = 21,22 * m / di2

The equation for the determination of pressure losses for fittings is: pF [Pa] = * w2 * /2 with - coefficient of resistance

Coefficients of resistance for moulded parts can be found in standard tables. Pressure losses of valves or flow control valves are calculated according the following equation: pV [Pa] = (ma / kVS)2 *10-1 with ma impendent flow volume [kg/h] kVS value accord. manufacturer [m3/h].

To demonstrate the connections of single pressure losses our example shows a mains schematic, in appendix 1, figure 4, for the longest section to the KaRo mat located in room 1. The relevant single pressure losses up to the mains of the distributor station (panel) are put together in the table below:

with : m water volume (l/min) di - inner pipe diameter (mm) Pos. Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 KaRo mat Section 1 (pipe 20x2) Elbow 90 T-joint Section 2 (pipe 20x2) Elbow 90 Flow control Kvs-1,5 Control valve Kvs-1,8 Total pressure loss of the longest section Qty / Length 4300 mm 2 x 1200 mm 2 pieces 2 pieces 2 x 10000 mm 6 piece 1 piece 1 piece Flow volume [l/min] (2,90) 2,90 2,90 2,90 5,76 5,76 5,76 5,76 Pressure loss [Pa] 17000,00 174,48 28,95 86,84 586,87 423,06 5308,42 3686,40 27295,02 = 27,3 kPa

Tip:

The flow volume in the KaRo mat is shown in the diagrams D07-14 in the unit kg/m2h. The losses, in the separate pipelines for supply and return for the viewed section, are combined as sections of double lengths. water outlet of the primary- and secondary circuits and of the total water volume, the pressure loss has to be determined according

The pressure loss of the heat exchanger is product specific. In dependence of the temperature difference between water input and

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07 Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling

the manufactures specification. In our example a total water volume of 2,6 m3/h for the cooling surfaces was ascertained. For the primary side a customary spread of 6/12C is set forth for the cold water temperature. The secondary side is operated with 16/18C. The chosen heat exchanger 9 has a pressure loss of 17 kPa . In our example, the temperature of the secondary circuit is controlled with a mixing valve of the primary circuit. To choose the pump for the total pressure loss in the storey station the sum of the pressure loss of the longest section + the pressure loss of the heat exchanger results to 44,3 kPa. The pressure loss in the storey station itself is neglect able since the pipe dimensions used in the system are laid out oversized, which ensures a slow flow (= little noise and equal distribution of the temperature). The type of pump can be chosen after knowledge of the total water volume and the total pressure loss. Non- corrosive type, pressure dependent controlled and uncontrolled pumps can be utilised. In our example an uncontrolled pump with a delivery height of 6 m(Water column) and 4 m3/h delivery capacity was chosen. The over dimensioning is being relieved through an overflow valve in the bypass of the storey station.

In our example 65 m of KaRo mats Type K.S15 where installed. By a specific water volume of 0.27 l/m a proportionate volume of 17.55 litres result for the KaRo mats. For the piping, including storey station, a volume of 29.3 litres was determined. The system is therefore filled with 46.85 litres. For the lay out sizes the following equations are used: Ve = (VA x n )/100 (1)

with Ve - volume of expansion VA water volume in the system n - coefficient of expansion for water in % - for 18C = 0.15 VV = 0,005 x VA with VV - water pattern (3) (2)

pe = pSV - dpa

with pe -top pressure = overpressure at the connection socket pSV -reacting pressure of the safety valve, standard is 3 bar dpa operational pressure difference of the safety valve normal = 0.5 bar Vn min = (Ve+VV) x (pe+1) / (pe- p0) (4)

7. Expansion Tank
The expansion tank has the following functions in the system: Absorption of the water volume which is from the heating of the water in the system Storage of a water volume which can be supplied into the system again at demand, for instance, when the system cools down. Maintaining a minimum overpressure in the system (pressure control)

with: Vn - nominal volume (expansion tank) p0 - supply pressure at pressure less situation normal case = 1 bar (maximum) pa min = (VH (p0+1)) / (VH-VV) - 1 (5)

with: pa - pressure at start / filling pressure VH - total volume / commercial size In our example, for these relations a minimum nominal volume of 0,7 litre is calculated. This size is not commercially available. Therefore a small size with 6 litre is chosen. This results to a filling pressure of 1.08 bar.

For determining the size of the expansion tank the fluid volume must be calculated. Appendix 1 figure 1: figure 2: figure 3: figure 4: Appendix 2 Table 1: Table 2: Room arrangement and load situation Layout scheme for KaRo mats Connection piping for KaRo mats Line Schematic (Detail)

Layout table for the cooling ceiling Rough calculation for the sensible (dry) cooling load

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07a Example: Construction for a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 1, Figure 1-4

Example: Construction for a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 1, Figure 1-4


Figure 1 : Floor Lay Out and Load Situation
1,35m2

8m

No.1
4,5m

TR = 27 C inner Cooling Load

= 2020 W

3 m2 5m

external Cooling Load = 1343 W

1m

No.2
TR = 26 C inner Cooling Load = 435 W external Cooling Load= 726W 3m

No.3
T = 25 C
R

inner Cooling Load = 640W external Cooling Load= 663W

3,5m

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07a Example: Construction for a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 1, Figure 1-4

Figure 2:

Lay Out Schematic for BEKA Mats

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07a Example: Construction for a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 1, Figure 1-4

Figure 3:

Connection Piping for BEKA Mats

Storey Station (panel) Central Supply - / Return

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07a Example: Construction for a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 1, Figure 1-4

Figure 4:

Line Schematic (Detail)

II

2+3

5+6

10

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07b Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 2, Table 1-2 Project - Room No. I

Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 2, Table 1-2 Project Room No. I
Lay out Table Cooling Ceiling
Project: prepared by Date :

Musterraum Nr.1 Bauke 09.08.96 C m2 m 27,00 36,00 3,00 0,98 2020 1211 89,75 1,20 500,00 25,00 27,00 8,89 1 35,00 0,97 80,86 83,17 0,92 16,00 18,00 17,00 10,00 1,11 80,30 89,13 2,00 8 4,30 1,00 34,40 35,82 27,00 27,00 1,10 11,00 40,55

Data Room temperature 2 Room surfaces 3 Room height 4 Height factor


1

=1,117-0,045* room height

Cooling loads Internal total cooling load 6 External total cooling load 7 Total cooling load based on floor space 8 Load factor
5 9 10 11 12 13

W W W/m2

from calculation of the planning office from calculation of the planning office =(internal+external load) / floor space =Total load (internal load+external load / 2)

Ventilation Air volume intake Temperature of intaken air Exhaust temperature Cooling capacity of incomming air Ventilation factor Required cooling capacity Ceiling area covered with mats Facor for ceiling coverage Required cooling capacity for ceiling Specific cooling capacity, ceiling Factor for coverage Performance Calculation Supply temperature Return temperature Average water temperature Effective under temperature Room constant factor Standard cooling capacity Real cooling capacity per m in W: Water volume Cooling water spread Quantity of mats per room Length of room Width of room Area covered with mats Mass flow of water

m3/h C C W/m2

allow minimum of 50m/h person

=air supply volume * dT * 0,32 / floor space base ventilation=1,convector=1,08;ceiling slot=1,13

14 15 16 17 18

m2 W/m2 W/m2

-> compare with calculated value of line 30 =ceiling area to be covered / floor space =Total cooling load - cooling capacity of air intake =req. cool cap / ceiling area to cover ->target value =1,21 - 0,3* covering factor

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

C C C C W/m2 W/m2 K Stck m m m2 l/m 2 h C W/m 2 K W/m2 l/m 2 h

=(Supply temp.+ return temp.) / 2 = room temp.- average water temp. =height factor*load fac*ventil facr*overage fac.. -> read from diagram =Stand capac*room const fac <- comp taget value

26 27 28 29 30 31 32

=Supply temperature -return temperature

=Length * width * quantity of mats =(specific cooling capacity*3600)/(Spread*4180) water volume should be minimum 17ltr/m h Standard = room temperature of the room above =Therm. conduct. to top*(temp w/o aver water temp) =((spec cooling capacity+capacity to top)*3600)/ (Spread * 4180)

Temperature above ceiling 33 Thermal conductance factor 34 Capacity to top 35 Corrected mass flow of water

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Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B07b Example: Construction of a KaRo Cooling Ceiling, Attachment 2, Table 1-2 Project - Room No. I

Rough Calculation for the sensible (dry) Cooling load


Important notice: For this calculation a temperature difference between inside and outside temperature of 6C to 8C is assumed.

Room location: Prepared by: Room dimensions: Length:

Sample room No.1 Bauke


Width: 4.5

8m

Height: 3
(Outer frame dimensions)

Area: 36

Volume: 108

1. Solar Radiation, Windows: Window Cardinal points South South West South East North North West North East West East 2. Transmission energy: Windows x x x Width [m]

Height [m] x x x

Qty.

Area [m2] = = =

double glazed windows without blinds x 205 x 245 x 250 with x 175 x 205 x 205 x 50 x 145 x 140 x 215 x 210 with x 60 = x 75 = x 75 = x 20 = x 50 = x 50 = x 75 = x 75 = W W W inside blinds outside blinds

x x x x x

1.35

x x x x x

= = = = =

5,4

x 60 x 165 x 155 x 255 x 250

108 W
W W W W

(use only maximum values - delete other values! )


(All windows and outside doors)

area m2+ 3. Transmission energy: Walls North- and inside walls All other walls 4. Ceiling or Roof Ceiling to non - climate controlled rooms Ceiling beneath the attic, attic floor not insulated Ceiling with 50 mm thermal insulation Flat roof, not insulated Flat roof, with 50 mm thermal insulation 5. Floor above non climate controlled rooms
(omitted when basement is not heated)
2 5.4 m + 2 3 m =

8.4 m

x 20

168 W

(without windows surfaces)

area

m2+ m2+

2 24 m +

2 18.6 m =

13.5 m +
= = = = =

7.5 m =

45.6 m 2 21 m
2 36 m

x 8 x 10

= =

364.8 W 210 W 360 W


W W W W

x 10 x 17 x 10 x 35 x 12

= = = = =

m2

m2 m2 m2

2 / m

x 5

/ W

6. Open passages Width x 7. No. of persons in the room physical work Qty. light average x 70 x 85 heavy x 95 = Height x Qty. = Area m2 x 100 =

/ W

10
8. Lights
(Connection value)

700 W

Qty.

connection value

12 x
9. Electrical appliances
(connection value: observe simultaneousness) Type

60

x 1

720 W

Qty

Connection value

Overhead x
10. Other heat sources

1 x
Description:

600

x 1

600 W

=
External cooling load, section 1- 6 = Internal cooling load, section 7-10 = Sensible total cooling load =

/ W 1211 W 2020 W 3231 W

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TI-B07b

TI-B08

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Questions before lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating


1. Place of Application
KaRo heating and cooling mats are also used for floor heating in dwelling houses and commercial buildings. Then it is utilised as low temperature heating system with an utmost equal floor temperature. Installation is done on top of the floor construction. In new builds, this is done above the load-distributing layer, in renovation on top of the existing floor surface. The energy supply can take place through any warm water heating system. Because of the only low heating water temperatures, which are required, heat pumps and solar collector heating systems can be used for the energy supply. Floor heating utilised with KaRo heating and cooling mats fascinates because of its low construction height. Especially for renovation purpose construction heights of only 15 20 mm are required. The universal utilisation is widened additionally by the extremely short reaction times.

2. Standards and Building Regulations for Floor Construction


The following assignments and regulations must be obeyed for any type of floor heating construction. Regional additional issues are not taken into account:

Components for the floor heating construction DIN 18164 Plastic foams for insulation in the building practice, part 1 +2 DIN 18165 Fibre insulation materials for the building practice DIN 18560 Cement asphalt floor for the building practice VOB Verdingungsordnung fr Bauleistungen, Teil C Allgemeine technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen (Order of contract procedure) DIN 18352 Tiles and tile laying work DIN 18353 Concrete asphalt work DIN 18356 Parquet work DIN 19365 Floor covering work Typical Standards and Regulations DIN 18195 Building sealing work DIN 18202 Tolerances for building constructions DIN 18336 Sealing against pressing water DIN 18337 Sealing against non-pressing water DIN 4102 Fire behaviour of building materials and components DIN 4108 Thermal insulation for building construction DIN 4109 Sound insulation for the building construction DIN 1055 Part 3, Load bearing for buildings DIN 4725 Warm water floor heating Energy conservation regulations

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TI-B08

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B08 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating

3. System Specification
Floor heating with KaRo heating- and cooling mats was designed especially for fast reaction times and for low construction heights of 15 to 20 mm. The supply and return for the heating water in the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are alternate at distances of 15 mm. This results into an equal floor temperature with a high efficiency. Low supply temperatures, normally at a maximum of 30C, are enough for most of the cases, to achieve room comfort even at extremely low outside temperatures. In spite of the low construction, height there will be no restrictions to the floor bearing. KaRo heating- and cooling mats are manufactured in all lengths and can be assembled to the required widths. Through the extremely short reaction time of the heating system, KaRo heating- and cooling mats are positioned directly beneath the floor surface, only the real required energy is being consumed.

For the installation of floor heating no special building materials are required. In its basics the floor construction is in accordance with the regular design. At new construction, only the asphalt concrete is laid in two steps. For renovation, the floor heating can be installed in one step. The heating circuits may not contain any corrosive components. Suitable materials are all plastic materials, brass and stainless steel. Copper is only suitable by reservations. At a passage from copper to plastic materials, a brass bridge must be added to avoid electrochemical reactions. If it is not possible to use only non-corrosive materials for the heating circuit, a separation must be achieved by means of a heat exchanger. The collector pipes of the KaRo mats and the connection piping can be positioned in wall slots. If the floor construction for a KaRo floor heating system can be planned for a new building, channels can be integrated into the load-bearing layer, in which later on the piping is put into

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TI-B08

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B08 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating

4. Floor Construction
4.1 New Construction For new construction the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are positioned layer closed to the floor surface, on top of the load-bearing layer. The insulation is done according to the regulations of: - DIN 4725 part 3 - DIN 4109 - WSchV 1/95 (German energy conservation regulation) For the concrete asphalt layer it can be basically used: Dry asphalt, synthetic resin modified cement asphalt and liquid asphalt according DIN 18560. The load bearing base layer, the insulation and the load distributor layer must be laid out according the expected traffic load.

The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are positioned on top of the distributor layer. There after a levelling compound of 10 to 15 mm is applied. The levelling compound must be suitable for floor heating systems, the application must be done according to manufactures specification. According to the applying working directives parquet, tiles and/or textile coverings can be laid onto the floor. Border insulation strips, expansion joints and building construction sealing are not influenced, and must be planned as usual.

tile elastic joint motar border strip leveling mass BEKA heating- and cooling mat load distribution layer polyethelene foil insulation board equalization screeding polyethylene foil sealing to construction

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TI-B08

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B08 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating

4.2 Modernising For renovation low construction heights prove its worth for the use in floor heating systems with KaRo heating- and cooling mats. Pre-condition for the application of a floor heating system in renovation is the existing load carrying floor base. For boarded wood floors, the floorboards must have the necessary strength features and must lie firmly supported. Defective boarded floors must be repaired or exchanged. Concrete asphalt-or tile floors must be repaired if defective.

Only after that installation of floor heating system can be started with. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are fixed to the floor base. For boarded wood floors, it is advisable to support the KaRo heating- and cooling mats with a 5 mm thick impact sound insulation layer. On top of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats, a layer of (minimum 6 mm) latex concrete plaster is applied, and on top of this a layer of ceramic tiles or natural stone tiles is laid. Border strips, expansion joints- and building construction sealing is to be done according to applying working directives for the latex concrete-plaster.

tile elastic joint mortar border strip latex cement mortar BEKA heating and cooling mat impact sound isolation wooden planks

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TI-B08

TI-B09

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating


1. General
Because of the small diameter of the KaRo capillary tubes, it is possible to keep the construction heights at a minimum thickness. They are perfectly suitable also for renovation for later installation of floor heating. The KaRo mats are laid on top of a load-carrying base, directly below the surface of a floating screed. The load carrying ability of this thin layer of screed is not weakened by the capillaries tubes. Differing to other floor heating systems, the heat is brought directly beneath the floor surface. For that reason the KaRo floor heating reacts very quick and can be operated already with low supply temperatures. The characteristic curve follows the function: qN [W/m2 ] = 8,92*T1,1 with T Temperature difference between floor temperature and room temperature

Under consideration of the heat resistances of the floor coverings, the heating capacity of the KaRo floor heating can be taken from the diagram 21. This diagram shows the heat capacity in dependence to the temperature differences of: floor covering, the average heating water temperature and room temperature. The average heating water temperature is calculated by: TWM [C ] = (TVL - TRL) / 2 with TVL Supply temperature [C] TRL Return temperature [C]

2. Lay-out for KaRo Mats as Floor Heating System


For floor heating the KaRo mat type K.S15 is specifically suitable. Through the close distance of the capillary tubes of only 15 mm (conventional floor heating systems work with pipe distances of minimum 120 mm) the supply- and return temperatures are close together. On the surface of the floor, therefore a very uniform temperature is achieved and independent from the size of the sections there will be the same surface temperature at every spot. For this reason it is possible with KaRo floor heating to achieve the maximum possible heating capacities which are actually possible, at observance of the maximum allowable surface temperatures (max. 29C at the commonly used areas, 35C at perimeters and up to 32 C in bathrooms) in reference to DIN 4725/26. The uniform surface temperature will be achieved even if there is spread of 8 K and more between the supply- and return temperature. Therefore, little specific water quantities are needed. The achievable heat capacity for a floor heating system can be taken from the standard characteristic curve, according DIN 4725.

Based on the heat requirement, which is calculated externally, now the specific heat capacity in W/m can be calculated for the floor surface, which has to be covered with the KaRo mats (generally 80% of the room area can be covered, the rest will be covered with furniture). With this value and with the chosen floor covering the average heating water temperature can be determined with the help of diagram. By election of the spread ( sp = TVL - TRL und TVL = TWM + sp/2 ) the necessary supply temperature for the heating water can be easily calculated. The water volume, which is required for the heating capacity, follows the equation: Q = m * c * T With m - Mass flow c - specific heat capacity T- temperature difference based on the heat requirement, which is calculated externally TVL - TRL

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TI-B09

TI-B10

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Questions before lay-out of KaRo Wall Heating


1. Utilisation Range
KaRo heating- and cooling mats are also utilised for wall heating. It is a low temperature heating system with an extremely uniform surface temperature, used for dwellings and commercial buildings. Installation is done mainly in outside walls. According to the WSVO 1995 (energy conservation regulation) the wall must have U-value of maximum 0,35 W/(m2K). For wall heating the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are mainly laid into the plastering. The energy supply can be maintained by the warm water heating system. Because of the low supply temperatures, which are required, heat pumps, solar collector systems and calorific value burners can be used for the energy supply. The heating circuit may not have any corrosive components. If this cannot be assured the system must be separated with the installation of a heat exchanger, otherwise there is the danger that capillary tubes will clog up. A wall heating system with KaRo heating- and cooling mats fascinate by its uniform surface temperatures, the very good adaptation to building conditions and by the non-polluting energies used. The universal applications are complemented by the extremely short reaction times of the system. Great comfort when lowering the room temperature (in comparison to other heating systems). One degree of room temperature lowering results into 6% energy savings! Healthy room climate because of little air disturbances Short reaction times, since KaRo mats are laid close beneath the wall surface. Nearly every surface can be used for the installation of KaRo mats, since the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are very flexible and can be adapted to the building construction condition. Total usage of the wall surfaces. Height and width of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are manufactured according project requirements Low construction height Low flow resistance because of the parallel arrangement of the capillary tubes Uniform surface temperatures, since supply and return have only a distance of max. 15 mm to another.

2. Features of Wall Heating


The advantages of the wall heating in general will additional be influenced through the utilisation of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats.

Characteristics: of KaRo Wall Heating:


High well-being through the gentle heat radiation Dry building with warm walls Qualified for the use of solar collecting systems, calorific value burners as well the use of heat pumps

A wall heating system has the advantage that there are no radiators obstructing the room and that a natural cosiness is achieved. The installation of KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be done without any problems in new construction and for renovation. A further advantage is, that the wall heating system can also be used for cooling in the summertime. In this case water with a minimum temperature of 16C (avoiding the dew point) is circulating through the KaRo heating- and cooling mats. Even at the hottest days a cosiness, can be achieved with this solution, especially in critical rooms (beneath sloped roofs or in rooms facing the Southside).

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TI-B10

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B10 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Wall Heating

In the following diagram, the cosiness is shown in relationship to the temperatures between wall- and room temperature according to ISO 7730. The most pleasant feeling can be reached with lowered room temperatures and warm walls. The chosen room temperature is depending on the utilisation of the room. Normally, higher temperatures than 22C are not necessary.

rectly beneath the wall surface), only the real required energy would be used up. When KaRo heating- and cooling mats are embedded in the plaster of the outside walls, a layer of insulation has to be assigned to minimise energy losses. The wall heating with KaRo heating- and cooling mats often are only covering the walls up to a height of 2 m. Above the mats then there is the possibility to fasten pictures, lights and other things. KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be positioned very good at the parapet area below windows, because the mats can be made to size by the manufacturer. For wall heating no special building materials are necessary. Essentially the wall construction is like a conventional wall. For the plaster version, the connector pipes are laid in the baseboard or in a special purpose wall groove.

mean wall surface temperature (C)

35 30 25 20 15 10 5
too cool cool pleasantly too warm

4. Wall Construction
15 20 25 30 35
The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are laid in the wall plaster. For the plaster, any customary type (mineral based) can be used. Coarse-grained rubbing plaster is not allowed for use, because of the danger, that the capillary tubes could be damaged. The working instructions of the plaster suppliers must be obeyed. The base surface must be solid and must have bearing strength. Plaster reinforcement fabrics are not necessary above the mats. Only above the loops of the mats and on top of the collector pipes when laid in a wall cavity reinforcing of the plaster this recommended.

10

mean room temperature (C)


From the diagram it can be seen, that with a room temperature of 22C a wall temperature of approx. 28C can still be felt as pleasant.

3. System Specification
The wall heating system with KaRo heatingand cooling mats was especially designed for short reaction times and for cosy living standards. With the KaRo heating- and cooling mats embedded in plaster the supply and return of the heating water are alternating in distances of 15 mm. This results to a uniform surface temperature with a high performance release. Low supply temperatures, normally with a maximum of 35C, are sufficient for most cases, to reach a cosiness inside the rooms, even at extremely low outside temperatures. For heating the rooms normally only outside walls are used. Only in cases of exceptions, with large glazed window- or door units, also inner walls can be taken into consideration. KaRo heating- and cooling mats are produced in all lengths and can be assembled to the requested widths. Through the extremely short reaction times of the heating system (KaRo heating- and cooling mats are positioned di-

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TI-B10

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B10 Questions before lay-out of KaRo Wall Heating

Positioning of the collector pipes in the baseboard and in the wall cavity. If required, the insulation can be done according to the DIN or the WSVO. Also, an inside insulation can be used without any problem. Since the walls are heated, dew point displacements will not occur.

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TI-B10

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B09 Lay-out of KaRo Floor Heating

The mass flow should best be converted into the specific mass flow per m of KaRo mats. With this value the pressure loss can be determined in relationship to the length and type of mat, with help of the diagrams 7 to 14. The pressure loss of the KaRo mat will then be used in the calculation for the hydraulic layout of the piping and for the selection of the pump. The dimensioning is done according to known standards. References are included in B04 pipeline calculation for KaRo heatingand cooling mats. For the layout the form, T07 Lay-out for KaRo floor heating (tables and forms) can be used. The explanation in the form will lead through the calculation.

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TI-B09

TI-B11

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Layout of KaRo Wall Heating


1. General
The small diameter of the capillary tubes of the KaRo mats and the close distance between the capillaries (only 15 mm) allow the realisation of wall heating systems with little construction heights and uniform surface temperatures. Also very short reaction times of the heating system are achieved. Already with very low supply temperatures the rooms can be heated. Therefore, the KaRo mats are perfectly suitable in connection with low temperature heating. The KaRo mats are laid onto a sound base surface into layer of plaster, closely beneath the surface. The plaster is not weakened. Open shelves, interior furnishing and furniture equipped with feet and those, which are not positioned directly to the walls, do not lower the heating capacity. Walk-in closets, which are not equipped with air vents on top and bottom towards the heating wall, or furniture, which have room height and are directly on the wall will reduce the heating capacity up to 20 % and should therefore not be planned for heating surface. The heat capacity, which can be achieved with a KaRo wall heating system, is taken from the characteristic curve in reference to DIN 4703/03. This characteristic curve follows the function: qN [W/m2 ] = C*T n with T temperature difference between the average heating water temp. and the room temperature

Under the consideration of heat resistance of the plaster, the heat capacity of the KaRo wall heating system read from the diagram 29 Heating capacity of the KaRo wall heating system. The diagram arranges the heating capacity in dependence to the plaster type and the plaster thickness to the temperature difference between the average heating water temperatures and the room temperature. The average heating water temperature is calculated from: TWM [C ] = (TVL - TRL) / 2 with TVL supply temperature [C] TRL return temperature [C]

2. Construction of the KaRo Mats for Wall Heating


For the wall heating the KaRo mat type K.S15 is especially suitable. Through the close distance of the capillary tubes of only 15 mm the supply- and return temperatures are close together. For this reason a very uniform surface temperature is achieved on the surface of the wall. Independent from the panel size the same surface temperature will be maintained on each spot. For this reason it is possible to achieve a high efficiency while maintaining comfortable surface temperatures (max. 29C in living areas, 35 C at fringes or max. 32 C in bathrooms). A uniform surface temperature is achieved even at a spread of 8 K and more between the supply- and return lines. Therefore, only a small specific amount of water is required.

Starting from the heat requirement for the room, which is being determined externally, the necessary specific heating capacity (W/m) can be calculated for the wall covered with KaRo mats (normally the walls are covered up to the height of 2 m the rest is kept for pictures and other things to be fastened there). With this value and the value for the chosen plaster and the plaster thickness, the average heating water temperature can be taken from the diagram 29. With the choice of the spread ( sp = TVL - TRL and TVL = TWM + sp/2 ) now very easily the necessary supply temperature for the heating can be calculated.

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TI-B11

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B11 Layout of KaRo Wall Heating

The amount of water necessary for the heating capacity follows the relation. Q = m * c * T with m - mass flow c - specific heat capacity T- temperature difference TVL - TRL

The mass flow should be converted to the specific mass flow per m of KaRo mats. With this value the pressure loss of the KaRo mat, according the length and the mat type, can be taken from the diagrams 7 14. The pressure loss of the mat is considered for the hydraulic layout of the piping and for the choice of the pump. The dimensioning is done according the state of the art. Tips are found in B04 Calculation for the piping of KaRo heating- and cooling mats. For the layout the form T11 Layout for KaRo wall heating ( tables and forms ) can be used. The explanations contained in the form will lead through the way of calculation.

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TI-B11

TI-B12

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Requirements for the Water Quality


1. General Notes
KaRo systems filled with simple drinking water with the quality according to the drinking water regulations of 5.12.1990. The water does not have to be treated. Enrichment with inhibitors is not required. On the contrary, only additives, which are explicitly permitted for polypropylene and other materials, are used in the system (DIN 8078 Chemical resistance of pipes and piping components from polypropylene). Suggestive is only the filtering of the filling water ( filters 20 to m) during filling of the system. Conventional water systems can clog through the rust sludge when the oxygen (dissolved in the water) gets in touch with the corrosive materials. In the KaRo system, formation of rust-sludge is excluded since all components of the network are made from plastic, stainless steel or brass. The water in the KaRo system will stay oxygen enriched and clear, also after years.

2. System Separation System Components


Between the refrigeration- or heat generation and the KaRo mats normally a heat exchanger is used for separation of the systems. All components of the KaRo Systems are made from non-corrosive materials (plastic, stainless steel brass). For the manufacturing of KaRo capillary tube mats, pipes, fittings and connecting lines, only Polypropylene is used.

3. No Danger through clogging, sediments or through rust sludge.


Clogging through lime sediments is not possible in the KaRo system, since the KaRo system is operated as a closed system (a circuit which is similar to the radiator of a car motor). Different to the drinking water networks no new lime is brought in once the system is filled. Furthermore, the temperatures of the cooling water are so low (16C to 19C), that those in the water-released materials are not yet dissolved.

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TI-B12

TI-B13

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Tolerances of KaRo Mats


1. General Notes
Given lengths and widths of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are nominal sizes and relate to the outer dimensions of the mats. The identity of the dimensioning is given in the product sheet of the mat type in question. Depending on the mat type and manufacturing method the actual dimensions deviate from the nominal dimension. The different deviations are accommodated to the usual application of the particular mat type.

2. Length Tolerances
The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are supplied with minus tolerances, this ensures that they will always fit into the existing building screen.
Length/ Type to 1000 mm to 2000 mm to 4000 mm to 5000 mm Over 6000 mm K.U10 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.UM10 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.S10 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.S15 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.WS15 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.G10 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.G20 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.G30 -5 -20 -5 -20 -5 -35 -5 -40 -5 -50 K.GG10 -5 -15 -5 -15

3. Widths Tolerances
The widths of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are supplied with minus tolerances, this ensures that they will always fit into the existing building screen. Depending on the type the KaRo heating- and cooling mat can only take up certain widths. For a Utype mats one more capillary will course a leap in widths of 20 mm. For the mat type K.G10 a fixed measurement of 10 mm must be added to the resulting capillary distances. This measurements result from the overlapping spacers.
Tolerance Basic widths (via capillaries or via connections ) K.U10 0 -10 X05; X25; X45; X65; X85 K.UM10 0 -10 X15; X35; X55; X75; X95 K.S10 0 -5 multiple of 50 plus the fixed amount of 10; starting at 150 mm 50 K.S15 K.WS15 0 -5 0 -5 multiple of multiple of 30 30 K.G10 -5 -10 multiple of von 10 plus the fixed amount of starting at starting at 10; 150 mm starting at 150 mm 150 mm 30 30 10 K.G20 -5 -10 multiple of 20 plus the fixed amount of 10; starting at 150 mm 20 K.G30 -5 -10 Multiple of 30 plus the fixed amount of 10; starting at 150 mm 30 K.GG10 -5 -10 multiple of 10 plus the fixed amount of 10; starting at 150 mm 10

Width leap

20

20

X= 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12 The realisable width can be checked with the equation n= (width fixed amount) / width leap. The value n must always be a whole number.

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TI-B13

TI-B14

Calculation, Construction and Planning

Technical Requirements for Basis Stations and Storey Distributors


1. Basics
Basis stations and storey distributors are laid out and dimensioned by KaRo according to the building project. The principle construction is shown in the product sheets of the basis stations and storey stations. On principle, only non-corrosive materials may be used for basis stations and storey stations. All used components must have a pressure resistance of PN10 . The distributors are mounted on a galvanised frame and pressure checked at 10 bar. Through the use of only non-corrosive materials (stainless steel, brass, nickel plated brass, plastic etc.) in the secondary cooling circuit, no oxygen is used-up through the anti oxidant process. No potential descent of the oxygen will result between the closed cooling circuit and surrounding air. Therefore, it is insignificant if the PP material used for the KaRo mats system is not diffusion-tight. Through the non-existing descent of oxygen saturation a constant oxygen saturation of the cooling fluid is taking place. An exchange of oxygen between the surrounding air and the closed circuit is not taking. Therefore, current sounds are not expected.

3. Pressure Losses
The heat exchanger has a strong influence to the pressure loss in the distributor. The choice of the heat exchanger through KaRo is done in a way, that the resistance on the secondary side will not exceed the value of 15 kPa If special demands for the resistance of the primary side are existing, they must be mentioned at the time of ordering The choices for the pump, the heat exchanger, pipes, fittings and valves made by KaRo are such, that a pressure of approx. 40 kPa will be available for the cooling circuit

4. Pump
Recently almost every pump installed in the distributor is pressure regulated. These pumps have the advantage, that because of the pressure regulation the particular sections of the cooling zones can be excellently tuned without a change of volume flow if zones are switched-on or switched-off. Only pumps with non-corrosive components such as bronze- or stainless-steel housings can be utilised. For choosing pumps, KaRo makes the choice that the working point of the pumps is near to the middle third of the characteristic curve of the pump. Here the pump works with its highest efficiency at the lowest operating costs. A further advantage is, that the delivery height of the pump can be adjusted to the exact working point. By this measure, it is possible, that only the required energy is consumed.

2. Basic Data
The most important basic dates for the layout of the distributors are: efficiency in kW primary temperatures: . 6/12C secondary temperatures: 16/18C cooling fluid (share of Glycol included) possible dimensions number of zones and their dimensions.

The nominal sizes of the pipes, fittings and valves are designed, that flow speeds of 1,2 m/s are not exceeded.

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TI-B14

Calculation, Construction and Planning TI-B14 Technical Requirements for Basis Stations and Storey Distributors

5. Filling, Washing, Venting, Degassing


5.1 Basis Station
Faucets are assigned for filling and washing of the basis station and for the heating- or cooling system. The basis station is equipped only with one KFEfaucet. Here, within the system, more KFEfaucets must be assigned. With this version, measures must be taken to vent and degas the piping system.

the temperature display. Thermometers with larger display ranges or of another accuracy class will not have given an adequate result at a spread of 2K. The pressure gauge should have a display range of 0 to 6 bar or 0 to 10. Larger display ranges will not have the required readout accuracy.

8. Zones
The dimensioning of the zones is depending on the area, spread and capacity. In the normal version, a volume flow control and regulating valve (Taco setter, TA- valve or similar) for the supply and a ball faucet are intended. For the return a ball faucet and regulating valve is used. For DN15 and DN20 a low cost thermal actuating drive can be used for the initiation of the regulating valve. Larger than DN20 setting valves with motor actuating drives are utilised. At this point, the accuracy of the volume flows should be pointed out. The capacity of the heating- and cooling mats is determined according DIN 4715 part 1. The capacity determination is done with the full- and with only 50% of the volume flow. The capacity results of both volume flows will show, that already with a 50% volume flow a capacity of approx. 89% of the full volume flow is reached. These findings should be used to positively influence the operating costs. If a volume flow of 90% is planned for each zone, the pump can be dimensioned smaller, thus resulting into lower energy costs. The capacity of the heating- and cooling ceiling will only be insignificantly lower than the standard capacity.

5.2 Storey Station


At the storey station a minimum of 3 KFEfaucets are used. Through focused opening and closing of the ball cock faucets at each zone, the particular zones can be filled with water and can be rinsed afterwards. The rinsing process should be done with the maximum possible water volume. With this process possible air enclosures and installation dirt can be rinsed out. To reach a short time for the start of operation and to fill and rinse each zone individually, there is a possibility to assign a KFE- faucet for each zone in the supply and return line. At later operation small air bubbles will leave the water system through the automatic vent. Water is degassed, when the flow speed will reach very small values. A specific measure for this is the installation of an air joint in the return (extra costs). Through a distinctive larger dimension a flow speed is reached at which the degassing is taking place. The air bubbles are leaving the water system through an automatic vent. Degassing is also achieved without the installation of an air joint, if only one zone is in operation and the flow volume will be so small, that degassing begins.

9. Electrical Connections
Storey distributors and basis stations can be supplied with the switch panel fully connected. The measuring- and control engineering, supplied by KaRo, works on 24 volts (see: M08 Technical Data of the converter M.K.1, M09 Technical Data of the room temperature control unit M.R 2/3). All regulating valves of the storey stations should be equipped with auxiliary contacts. The electrical circuit arrangement can be carried out such, that when the last cooling circuit is switched-off, also the pump is switched-off. So the pump is treated gently and energy is saved. The thermal actuating drives used by KaRo are equipped with an auxiliary contact. They operate on 24 Volt, on a switch-on current of 250 mA and an input power at operation of 3 Watt.

6. Filter
Experience has shown, that filter units are not required for closed system. Pollution, which could have been caused by the installation, will be removed through the filling- and rinsing process. Further pollution will not occur in the closed system. If a filter is being used after all, a cleaning process must be done unconditionally after start of operation. The rinsing operation contributes exclusively for the rinse-out of air bubbles when filters are in use.

7. Temperature- and Pressure Display


A thermometer class 1, with a display range from 0 to 60C or 0 to 40C should be used for
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TI-B14

TI-M01

Installation

Installation Instruction for KaRo Heating- and Cooling Mats


1. 2. General
The thermal welding of plastic material requires some training. For thermal welding of plastic material, there are different versions: Sleeve welding Butt-welding Welding temp. 260C Welding temp. 240C

The KaRo heating- and cooling system is easy to install. KaRo supplies the mats in the exact required measurements. Accommodation work at the building site is not required. Only for the installation of the piping tailoring work is necessary. The state of the art for working with plastic material is valid. In all cases good workmanship and carefulness is required. The described guidelines must be obeyed so that good function and the safety of the KaRo system can be secured. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats function by laminar flow. The system is equipped with automatic vents. After the complete installation, the system will be rinsed; at the same time there will be self-venting. During installation, a descent for the mats is not necessary. KaRo heating- and cooling mats and the supply are normally operated at pressures between 0 and 4 bar. The minimum room temperature for installation work is 5C. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats, pipes, supply lines and fittings must be kept free of permanent direct UV-light.

Electro sleeve welding welding current

according to manufacturer

At the welding process it must observed that excessive heat-up time and/or excessive welding pressure will not reduce the inner diameter of the tubing, since this will cause undefined and increased flow resistances. For introduction in thermal welding technique for plastic piping KaRo offers seminars.

4. Placing the KaRo Mats into Metal Cassette Sheets


By placing KaRo mats into metal cassette units, each suspended metal ceiling can be made into a heating- or cooling ceiling. The KaRo mats are simply laid from the rear side into the metal cassettes. For the mats to have full contact, they can be covered with mineral insulation mats. Additional coverings with plasterboards or sheet metal will secure full contact to the metal cassettes. Another possibility is to glue the mats to the cassettes. For this the glue is applied to the mat with a spraying gun, then the mat is placed directly into the metal cassette and pressed down with a (PUR-foam) roller. After the spraying of the glue, no extra time for the adhesive to vent-off is required. The adhesive is transparent after hardening; it has a neutral odour.

3. Connection of KaRo Heating- and Cooling Mats and for Piping


KaRo heating- and cooling mats, pipes and fittings are made from Polypropylene (PP) type 3. All components can be joined to another by means of thermal welding or with sealing ring connectors. At a change-over from PP-Rohr to another material, sealing ring connectors are used. All materials used for the secondary circuit must be non-corrosive. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats, depending of which type, are connected either directly by thermal welding to the water pipelines or with flexible hoses, which are plugged into the quick-action couplings of the mats and supply lines

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TI-M01

Installation TI-M01 Installation Instruction for KaRo Heating- and Cooling Mats

5. KaRo Heating- and Cooling Mats in Plaster


Onto any raw- or suspended plasterboard ceiling KaRo mats can be fixed from below and can be plastered with nearly any type of mineral plaster. Rubbing plastering though is not permissible because of the danger that the capillaries could be damaged. Plaster base preparation must be according to the state of the art. For fastening the mats to the raw ceiling plaster, double sided butyl adhesive tape, butterfly- or plate dowels can be utilized. The fastening of KaRo mats to plaster boards or building boards is done with tacks (quality of tacks should be cleared with the plaster supplier). The tacks are positioned at the spacer ribbon of the mats. A suitable driving force must be adjusted at the tackler gun in order not to injure the capillary tubes During plastering work the capillary tube mats are filled with water and kept at normal water circuit pressure. Damages to the tubes can therefore soon be detected and be repaired. After fastening mats, the plaster is applied and smoothened. Plaster qualities to be used are standard types- and machine plaster MP 75 or also acoustic plaster. If the water connection to the mats is laid into the plastering then all connections from the mats to the pipelines must be done with thermal welding. If flexible hoses are used for the mats connections then the hoses must be laid into the ceiling cavity. In no case may the flexible hoses be laid in the plastering

In case that leakage had to be repaired, the pressure test must be repeated. In the report, all faults must be recorded. At the end of the pressure test the system is brought to idle (operating) pressure of 2 to 3 bar kept in this state at best until the end of the construction work.

7. Repair of damaged KaRo Mats


The KaRo heating- and cooling mats are manufactured with great care and under strict quality measures. The mats are extremely stress bearing and robust and if normally handled they can be installed at the building side without any problems. If nevertheless, in spite of all precautions, a damage of some single capillary tube occurs, the mat must not have to be exchanged in any case. Mats can be repaired. The following steps must then be followed: Separate the mat from the water Separate the leaking tube with a pair of scissors Close both end s of the capillary tube with the welder or a soldering iron, warm-up and press the cut surfaces together. Repeat the pressure test

6. Pressure Test
Even that all KaRo heating- and cooling mats have been factory pressure tested a new pressure test must be done after installation at the building side. For guaranty reasons the pressure tests after installation is mandatory. In all cases, the person responsible for the installation must draw up a test report. Directly after connections of the mats to the supply lines, the mats are pre-tested with compressed air at 10 bar. With this, eventual leakages at the connections can be recognized. For the main test, the mats are filled with water zone-by-zone and tested for 10 minutes with 3 bar. Eventual leakages must be fixed at once. After this the pressure is raised to 10 bar . After another hour, eventual pressure drops caused by the elasticity of the piping should be equalized again. If the pressure in the system will sustain for 4 hours then the pressure test has been successful.

This repair is only admissible for one or two damaged capillary tube otherwise the effective heating/cooling surface will be reduced too much. Closing the cut ends of the capillary tubes with an open flame (cigarette lighter) is not admissible for a repairing. The open flame will burn the plastic material form the outside and carbon black particles will be in the weld, causing a weak weld strength. Furthermore the appropriate welding temperature of 240C can not be assured, so that a weak weld could be the result.

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TI-M01

TI-M02

Installation

Instructions for Thermal Welding of Plastics


1. General
KaRo pipes and supply lines can be connected, to another or to the KaRo heatingand cooling mats by thermal welding. There are different types of welding: - Butt welding - Sleeve welding Under observance of the following working direction the thermal welding is a fast, uncomplicated and safe connecting technique. Remark! Longer warm-up times and excessive joining pressure will lead to narrowing of the inner pipe dimensions! Excessive joining pressure will press the weld bead from the welding area and cannot take any loads there after.

3. Sleeve Welding Cutting


With a pipe scissors the pipe is cut to length (add 12 mm length for penetration of the pipe into the sleeve, for 20 mm pipe diameter) mark the weld penetration depth on the pipe. pipe, fitting and welding plate must be free of dirt and grease.

2. Butt Welding Cutting


With a pair of pipe scissors the pipe is cut to the necessary length (allow approx. 3 mm for weld burn-off!) Pipes, fittings and welding plate must be free of dirt or grease.

warm-up
heat-up welding plate to 260 C slightly time-off-set press on/in to the welding plate (first the sleeve then the pipe) join uninterrupted with slight pressure up to the stop or the marking. in this position the parts are warmed-up for 5 seconds.

Warm-up
Heat-up welding plate to 240 C. Press both pipe ends simultaneously and rapidly with slight pressure to the welding plate until a small weld bead of 1 mm occurs. Warm-up the pipe ends, while keeping this position for 3 seconds.

Joining
After the warm-up time pull-off, the parts to be joined from the welding plate and join them together, accurately with little pressure and without twisting. The material joins molecular homogeneous after a few seconds. For better shape keeping the pipes must be held together in a stable position. The connection can be fully stressed after 30 seconds.

Joining
After the warm-up time take away both ends from the welding plate and rapidly join the parts together, accurately with slight pressure and without twisting. The material joins molecular homogeneous after a few seconds. For better shape keeping the pipes must be held together in a stable position. The connection can be fully stressed after 30 minutes.

Remark: Longer warm-up times and excessive joining pressure will lead to narrowing of the inner pipe diameter

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TI-M02

Installation TI-M02 Instructions for Thermal Welding of Plastics

4. Weld ability of various Materials

PP-

5. Tools
For thermal welding of plastic material the following is required: Pipe scissors W.S.20 Butt weld unit W.STSG.1 or sleeve weld unit WMSG1 with sleeve insert W.MSE.20 or inner sleeve insert IMSE.16 Ruler Marking pen

All pipes and fittings made from polypropylene which are supplied by KaRo can be welded to another. The PP-materials used are all classified in welding material index group 006. For testing the weld ability in principle the Richtlinie des Deutschen Verbandes fr Schweitechnik e.V. DVS 2207-11 (Entwurf August 1997) is the valid standard. Under consideration of this standard a weld index value of MFR 190/5 0,3 to 1,0 g/10 min is appropriate. The classification of the welding material index groups is always applicable.

Figure: Welding material index groups for PP according DIN 16774

Welding material index group 006

MFR1) 190/5 (g/10min)

1)

Old standard MFI = Melt Flow Index

0,3

0,4

0,8

1,0
Source: DVS 2207-11/1997

Allowable weld index range

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TI-M02

TI-M03

Installation

Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats in Plaster Ceilings


1. General
KaRo mats can be fixed to the underside of any raw ceiling or suspended plasterboard ceiling und can be plastered with nearly any mineral plaster material. Rubbing plastering though is not allowed because of the danger that the capillaries could be damaged. Standard type plaster to be used are machine type MP 75 or ip 22 and also acoustic plaster. The small diameter of KaRo capillary tubes allow thin layers of plaster (approx. 10 mm), through which high cooling capacities are reached. The supply lines and the mains of the mats are normally arranged in the hall way in wall slots or under cover (this could be baseboards or stepped plaster endings). At beginning of the work a ceiling pattern with the lay-out for the mats positions and supply lines must be prepared. In this pattern all areas which will stay uncovered must be marked ( positions of inner walls, light fixtures and other ceiling in-lays). The position of the dew point sensor must be outlined at the ceiling pattern.

Connect KaRo Mats to Water Lines, and perform a Pressure Test


Install the supply lines Connect the KaRo Mats to the supply lines (see M02 Instructions for thermal welding of plastics ) Pressure test of the installed system. see M07 Test instructions for KaRo heating- and cooling systems) Set idle pressure to 3 bar (mats stay at 3 bar pressure for entire time of installation). -Compressed air is recommended

Fixing of Mats to the Raw Ceiling


Fix KaRo Mats to raw ceiling by means of: - Disc-dowels or plug -dowels Butyl adhesive-tape and application of gypsum pads (see instruction M13) Align the mats and stretch the capillary tubes Fix and make electric connection for the KaRo dew point sensor for the plaster (see M06 Instructions to the installation of KaRo dew point sensors)

2. Installation Steps at the Raw Ceiling Preparation of the Raw Ceiling


The raw ceiling must be dry and free of separating substances (observe cleaning directions). Close holes, smoothen the uneven parts Define the position of mats. Fix pipe clamps for the supply lines and collector pipes. Pre-drill dowel holes into the ceiling for the fastening of the mats. Install cable for smoke detector or lamps and fix the fasteners by means of rag bolds (protect thread with tapes).

Apply plaster and smoothen (obey Manufacturers Instructions!)


Apply primer for the plaster Apply plaster assure that only a minimal plaster thickness is applied; normally 10 mm (the plaster thickness influences the expected cooling capacity decisively!) Smoothen plaster definitely avoid any damage to the capillaries. Damages must be repaired at once (warm-up ends of damaged tubes with welding unit or soldering iron and press the end of the tubes together, if necessary replace the whole mat).

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TI-M03

Installation TI-M03 Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats in Plaster Ceilings

Ceiling Finish
Apply layer of paint Trim the snuffing pipe of the sensor even with the ceiling surface, mark its location (dirt must be kept from the snuffing pipe openings to avoid that the sensor will not function!).

Installation of Plasterboards
Fix plasterboards with rapid-fixing-screws to the sub-construction, according manufacturers instructions push the plasterboards from both sides to the KaRo mats to form gaps of approx. ca. 10 mm.

Fixing of Mats to the Sub-ceiling


Align the KaRo mats at the sub-ceiling, fix with double sided adhesive tape stretch the capillary tube mats. Alternative: Fix with staples; check-up the compliance of the staples quality with the plaster manufacturer (see M19 Installation instructions to KaRo mats with staples) Installation and electrical connection of the KaRo dew point sensor (see M06 Instruction for the installation of the KaRo dew point sensor)

3. Installation Steps for the Suspended Plasterboard Ceiling Prepare the Sub-construction
Arrange the connection piping for the KaRo mats at the ceiling according to the lay-out plan Fix the CD profiles firmly to the vernier suspension bars, according to manufacturers instructions. The subconstructions must be installed in such a way, that the supply- and return lines of the KaRo mats are on top of the plasterboards. Consider an additional load of nearly 15,5 kg/m2..

Apply plaster and smoothen (obey manufacturers instructions!)


Close installation slots with joint filling material by adding fibre cloth strengtheners into the plaster. Apply primer for the plaster Apply plaster assure only a minimal plaster thickness: normally 10 mm ( the plaster thickness influences the expected cooling performance decisively!) Smoothen the plaster - definitively avoid any damage of the capillaries; Damages must be repaired at once . If necessary replace the whole mat .

Connect KaRo mats to water lines and do pressure test


Hang KaRo mats with the mains according to the lay-out plan into the subconstruction the mats are then hanging down into the room. If the mats are too long, they are rolled-up loosely and held together with wires. Connect the KaRo mats to the supply lines inside the ceiling cavity (see M02 - Instructions for thermal welding of plastics) Pressure test of the installed system (see M07 Test instructions for KaRo heating- and cooling systems) Set idle pressure to 3 bar (this pressure stays applied to the mats for the entire time of installation until start of operation!) . It is advisable to use compressed air.

Ceiling Finish
Apply paint Trim snuffing pipe of the dew point sensor even with the surface of the ceiling. (Dirt must be kept from the snuffing pipe to avoid that sensor will not function !)

Principle of a BEKA mat positioned below a plasterboard ceiling imbedded in plaster


Raw ceilg Vernier susp. Base profile BEKA Mats

carrier

ca.10mm MP75 Plasterboard Adhesive tape Plaster reinforcem


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TI-M03

Installation TI-M03 Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats in Plaster Ceilings

4.

Alternative Installation of KaRo Mats through embedding directly into Plaster*

ATTENTION ! This installation is only possible when the installation work is closely coordinated between the installer and the plasterer. Instructions and special advice for plastering are to be obtained from the plaster producer.

Preparation of the Raw Ceiling


The raw ceiling must be dry and free of separating substances (observe cleaning directions) Close holes, smoothen the uneven parts Apply plaster base Define the position of mats Fix pipe clamps for the supply lines and collector pipes. Pre-drill dowel holes into the ceiling for the fastening of the mats. Install cable for smoke detector or lamps and fix the fasteners by means of rag bolds (protect thread with tape)

forcement fabric) Afterwards (within 15 minutes after first application) apply a second thin layer of plaster (normally 10 mm is enough) ( the plaster thickness influences the expected cooling performance decisively!) - Set plaster to the usual consistency! Position dew point sensor above the capillary tubes in the moist plaster. Embedding of reinforcement fabric 80 x 80 mm at the mats ends and in critical spots is recommended. After settling smoothen the plaster - definitively avoiding any damage of the capillaries; damages must be repaired at once (warm-up ends of damaged tubes with welding unit or soldering iron and press ends of tubes together, if necessary replace the whole mat) Smoothen the plaster - definitely avoiding any damage to the capillary tubes.

Ceiling Finish
Apply paint Trim snuffing pipe of the dew point sensor even with the surface of the ceiling. (Dirt must be kept from the snuffing pipe to avoid that sensor will not function !)

Connect KaRo mats to waterlines and execute pressure test


Install the supply lines Connect KaRo mats to the supply lines inside the ceiling cavity (see M02 - Instructions for thermal welding of plastics) the mats should hang loosely rolled up, even better though, straight down from the ceiling Pressure test of the installed system (see M07 Test instructions) Drain the System Set idle pressure to 3 bar (this pressure stays applied to the mats for the entire time of installation until start of operation!) Place cable of dew point sensor loosely into pre-determined position

Apply Plaster and smoothen (follow manufacturers instructions*)


Apply plaster in a thin caterpillar in the width of the mats, in the total length DO NOT SMOOTHEN YET ! - apply in sections! Set plaster to a sturdy consistency! Unroll the KaRo mats below the ceiling and stretch the capillary tubs in installation direction. Do not push the capillary tubes into the moist plaster - DO NOT PLANE THE PLASTER ! DO NOT USE SHARP-EDGED TOOLS ! (similar to embedding rein*The installation steps have been established coordination with the Firm : Maxit Baustoff-und Kalkwerk Mathis GmbH

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TI-M03

TI-M04

Installation

Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats in Metal Cassette Ceiling


1. General Laying the KaRo Mats into the Metal Cassettes
Full surface contact of the KaRo mats in the ceiling cassettes is achieved by: - Covering with mineral fibre mats additional bracing of the mineral fibre mats with the sheet metal covering, sheet metal brace plasterboard or similar - bonding of the mats with KaRo adhesive Connect the flexible hoses to the quickaction couplings on the KaRo mats.

By laying the KaRo mats into the metal cassettes, a heating- or cooling ceiling can be made out of any suspended ceiling construction. Therefore the KaRo mat is simply laid into the cassette from the backside. That the mat will have thorough contact, simply place a mineral insulation mat on top of it. Additional coverings with plasterboards or sheet metal will assure a good contact of the mats to the metal cassettes. It is also possible to glue-in the KaRo mats. The KaRo adhesive is simply applied with a spraying gun onto the mat. After that the mat is placed into the cassette and pressed-onto it with a PU-roller. A drying time is not required for the adhesive. The glue is transparent after hardening; it has a neutral odour. Only full contact of the mat will secure maximum cooling capacity. Before beginning the work, a pattern has to be prepared as a work- and positioning base. All measurements with the positioning, the direction and the supply lines must be recorded. In the pattern, all areas which will have to stay uncovered (for internal walls, light fixtures and other ceiling in-lays) must be marked. Furthermore, the position of the dew point sensor has to be marked on the pattern.

Laying the Ceiling Boards


The ceiling boards together with the mats are laid into the row type grid structure. During installation of the ceiling mats the flexible connecting hoses are plugged into the quick-action couplings of the supply lines Installation of the KaRo dew point sensor for metal ceilings (see M06 Instructions for the installation of KaRo dew point sensor )

Pressure Test (see M07 Test Instructions for KaRo heating- and cooling systems)
Pre-test with compressed air, at 10 bar for 1 hour Main test with water, at 10 bar for 10 hours Idle pressure, maintain at 3 bar until start of operation.

2. Installation Steps Hanging the Suspension Ceiling


The carrier- and basic profiles are aligned and fixed to the raw ceiling with vernier suspension bars according to manufacturers specification.

Installation of the KaRo Supply Lines


The supply lines are installed inside the ceiling cavity and are connected to the mains (see M02 Instructions for thermal welding of plastics )

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TI-M04

TI-M05

Installation

Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats on top of Drybuild Boards


1. General
Illustration of KaRo capillary tube mats for heating and cooling 1 Oblong hole for fixing screws 2 Spacer for the initial fixing 3 Spacer for the ceiling profile

KaRo mats can be laid onto the backside of dry-build boards without any problem. This way cooling ceiling units can be made out of plasterboards or from fibre plaster boards, which can be installed in the dry-build version. KaRo manufactures also special capillary tube mats just for the use with dry-build boards. Lengths and widths are accommodated to the dry-build standard boards. At areas where they are screwed to the ceiling and/or wall construction, special spacers are provided. The space between the spacers is 300 mm, they determine the space of the profiles at the wood or metal subconstruction. Illustration of the KaRo heating- and cooling mat for dry-build boards:

2. Installation Steps
A working place where the dry-build board can be fully laid-out is necessary for the installation. a) Installation of the additional spacers at the front end. On the installation table the dry-build board is laid with its equipped side facing up. The additional supplied spacers, which are supplied with the KaRo heating- and cooling mats are tacked to the front-end side.

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TI-M05

Installation TI-M05 Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats on top of Dry-build Boards

b)

Fastening of the KaRo heating- and cooling mats with tacks. The heating- and cooling mat is arranged and positioned between the spacers (described in point 1) In this position, the spacers located close to the collector pipes (marked with 2 in picture 1) are tacked to both sides of the heating- and cooling mats. Ongoing the heating- and cooling mats are pulled flush through pulling on the collector pipes. The distances of the other spacers to another is measured and corrected if required. Then the spacers are fastened with tacks. Application of thermal conductive past with a paint roller, through pouring or other suitable measures, the thermal conductive paste (approx. 800g/m2). After the paste is applied between the spacers it will be brushed in the direction of the capillary tubes towards the base with a narrow brush. At normal temperatures, the thermal conductive paste dries within 20 minutes, so that the ceiling boards can be installed. The spacers who have contact to the ceiling profile are smoothened with a spatula or with other appropriate tools, in case that paste had been applied there. Drilling of holes for the fixing screws: Before drilling, the heating- and cooling mats are put under air pressure of 8 to 10 bar. If there are any injuries to the tubes, they can be detected then. The spacers have oblong holes (every 40 mm) (see figure 1, marked with 2). These oblong holes are used for pre-drilling with a 2,5 mm for the fixing screws. The drill-grid (distances of the holes to another in diagonal direction to the heating- and cooling mats) depends upon the installation instruction of the dry-build board manufacturer. Finishing After the pressure test, the quick-action couplings are then closed again with cover caps. Installation variation If the installation is done by more than one person or if work is done in work steps it has been found best when workstep 3 is done last.

3. Tools
For the application of the dry-build board to the heating- and cooling mat G.10.X, the following tools are required: Installation table Scissors to cut plastic material Power drill Drill-bit 2,5 mm Tackler Tacks Paint roller Narrow brush Tape measure Spatula Compressed air connection

c)

Remark: With long, narrow and thin dry-build boards, the influence of moisture from the thermal conductive paste can lead to momentarily little reduction in strength of the dry-build boards. Careful handling of the boards is then necessary. Picture of an equipped dry-build board

d)

e)

f)

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P.2

TI-M05

TI-M06

Installation

Instruction to the Installation of KaRo DewPoint Sensor


1. General
The dew point sensor is build into the cooling ceiling to avoid condensation. It works by the principle of changing resistances of an electrical conductor, which is printed onto it in a thin layer. At the danger of condensation, the resistance sinks rapidly. The change in resistance is computed by the converter M.TK.1 or by the room temperature control M.R2/3 and is transmitted as switch signal. The switch signal can be used to switch-off the cooling ceiling or for starting of an alarm signal set-off. Up to 20 dew point sensors can be connected to the converter M.TK.1. To the room temperature control unit 5 dew point sensors can be connected. 3 variations of dew point sensors are available 1. Dew point sensor for metal ceiling boards -> M.TM.1 2. Dew point sensor for plaster ceilings -> M.TP.1 3. Dew point sensor for plasterboards -> M.TG.1 The connecting cable for the dew point sensor may be extended to 100 m without problems (minimum sectional area of 2x0.14 mm2) The connection of the extension must be good conductive (soldering connection or securely clamped together) feed for the capillary tube mats. The dew point sensor can best be positioned directly below the collector pipe or between the collector pipe and the first row of the spacers diagonal to the capillary tubes (see illustration). The dew point sensor is connected with its connecting cable to the converter M.K.1 or to the room temperature control unit M.R2/3. The connecting cable can be installed in the ceiling cavity, in plaster or in electrical tubing Installation Steps The dew point sensor M.TM.1 is electrically connected and placed closely to the final installation position. Until the final positioning the dew point sensors is kept in its protective cover. The installation of the dew point sensor can be done together with the installation of the supply lines (Z.EM, Z.EE, Z.DM or Z.DE). Together with the arrangement of the ceiling boards with the applied KaRo heating- and cooling mats to the hanger of the row-type grid profile also the dew point sensors are fixed. The dew point sensors are best positioned directly below the collector pipe or between the collector pipe and the first row of the spacers diagonal to the capillary tubes. The protecting cover is taken from the conductor plate, the protective foil for the adhesive is removed and the dew point sensor is glued to its pre-determined installation position. Illustration: Arrangement of the dew point sensor for metal ceilings below the KaRo heating- and cooling mat

2. KaRo Dew Point Sensor for Metal Ceilings


The dew point sensor M.TM.1 has a gold plated conductor plate at one side and is equipped with an adhesive surface on the other side. The soldered connection cable has a length of 10 m. 2.1 Installation The dew point sensor is positioned at the coolest spot on the ceiling. The position of the dew point sensor must be near to the in-

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TI-M06

Installation TI-M06 Instruction to the Installation of KaRo Dew-Point Sensor

3. KaRo Dew point Sensor for Plaster Ceilings


The dew point sensor for plaster ceilings M.TP.1 consists of a gold plated conductor plate, and is glued to a plastic housing. A snuffing hose is connected to the plastic housing. A connecting cable (length 10 m) is soldered to the conductor plate.

1
3.1 Installation The dew point sensor is installed at the coolest spot of the cooling ceiling. The dew point sensor is best positioned between the collecting pipe and the first row of the spacers diagonal to the capillary tubes (see illustration). The dew point sensor M.TP.1 is fixed to its position before plastering! The sensor is connected to the converter or to the room temperature control unit by its connecting cable. The connecting cable with its length of 10 m can be installed in the ceiling cavity, plaster or in electric tubing.

Illustration 1:Placing the plaster spot 1 Raw ceiling 2 Capillary tube 3 Plaster spot

Installation Steps
1. The dew point sensor M.TP.1 is electrically connected and placed closely near to its final position. Until its final positioning the dew point sensor is kept in its protective cover. After fixing of the KaRo mat at the raw ceiling a plaster spot or another appropriate means of fastening is placed at the installation position of the dew point sensor (see illustration) The self-sticking backside of the gold plated conductor plate of the dew point sensor for plaster ceilings is positioned diagonal to the capillary tubes. Then the ceiling is plastered After paintwork is done the sniffing hose is shortened even to the ceiling surface. Care must be taken, that the openings of the snuffing hose will not closed.

2.

Illustration 2: Positioning of the Dew point sensor : 4 Gold-plated conductor plate 5 Plastic housing 6 Snuffing hose

3.

4.

7
Illustration 3: Plastered Dew point sensor 7 Plaster

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TI-M06

Installation TI-M06 Instruction to the Installation of KaRo Dew-Point Sensor

4. KaRo Dew Point Sensor for Plaster Ceilings


The dew point sensor for the plaster ceilings M.TG.1 consists of a gold plated conductor plate, which is glued to a plastic housing. A snuffing hose is connected with the conductor plate. A cable of 10 m length is soldered to the conductor plate.

The dew point sensor is positioned best between the collector pipe and the first row of the spacers diagonal to the capillary tubes. Installation Steps The dew point sensor is electrically connected and positioned closed to its final installation position. Until the final positioning the dew point sensor is kept in its protective cover The installation of the dew point sensor can be done together with the supply lines (parts : Z.EM, Z.EE, Z.DM or Z.DE ). Together with the arrangement of the plasterboard ceiling at the ceiling construction also the dew point sensor is fixed. The dew point sensor is best located between the collector pipe and the first row of the spacer, diagonal to the capillary tubes. The protective cover is taken from the conductor plate and the protective foil from the dew point sensor and is then glued to the pre-determined installation position.

4.1 Installation The dew point sensor is located at the coolest spot at the ceiling. The dew point sensor is best positioned between the collector pipe and the first row of spacers, diagonal to the capillary tubes. Depending on the type of ceiling cavities various dew point sensors are utilised. Open ceiling cavity For open ceiling cavities, these are ceiling cavities which are in connection with the room air , the dew point sensor M.TM.1 for metal ceilings is utilised..

Illustration 4: Arrangement of the dew point sensor inside the open ceiling cavity 1 Dew point sensor 2 Connector plate 3 Supply line 4 Capillary tube 5 Plaster board ceiling

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TI-M06

Installation TI-M06 Instruction to the Installation of KaRo Dew-Point Sensor

Closed ceiling cavity For closed ceiling cavities, these are ceiling cavities which have no air connection to the room, the dew point sensor for plasterboards M.TG.1 is utilised. The dew point sensor is best positioned between the collector pipe and the first row of spacers, diagonal to the capillary. Installation Steps The dew point sensor is electrically connected and positioned near the final installation position. Until the final positioning the dew point sensor is kept in its protection cover. .

Installation of the dew point sensor can be done with the supply lines (parts: Z.EM, Z.EE, Z.DM or Z.DE). Drilling of the hole for the snuffing hose. For the preparation of the final installation position of the dew point sensor a hole of 6 mm must be drilled for the snuffing hose. Together with the fixing of the plaster board ceiling also the dew point sensor is fixed. The dew point sensor is best positioned between the connecting pipe and the first row of spacers, diagonal to the capillary tubes. The adhesive protection tape for conductor plate is taken off and the dew point sensor is brought to its final position.

Illustration 5: Arrangement of the dew point sensor in a closed ceiling cavity 6 Snuffing hose shortened even to the ceiling surface.

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TI-M06

TI-M07

Installation

Test Instructions for KaRo Heating- and Cooling Systems


1. General Statements and Remarks
KaRo heating- and cooling ceilings as well as the supply lines are normally operated between 0 and 4 bar. A pre-test, with compressed air of 10 bar, is recommended to assure the tightness of the heating- and cooling mats and the supply lines, which where installed at the building site. Before start of operation and after venting the water system must be tested for water tightness with 10 bar pressure. Care must be taken that gages, the allowable nominal pressure of which stays below the maximal test pressure are not installed during the time of pressure testing. All KaRo fittings und armatures of 10 and 20 mm can be short time tested with 16 bar and during 24 hours be pressure loaded with 10 bar. Until finishing all work at the construction site up to the start of operation, the system should be kept under an idle pressure of 2 to 3 bar. Damages, which are caused by other work groups after installation is finished, can be recognised soon and be repaired rapidly. keep on running without being recognized. Use pressure test pumps only. All lines, which later are not accessible, must be pressure tested successfully with 10 bar, before the final closing.

Directly after the connection of the KaRo mats to the supply lines, the mats are pressure tested with compressed air at 10 bar. The pressure is sustained for 1 hour. Eventual leakages at the connections can be detected at once. For the main test the mats have to be filled with water section by section, then be vented and pressure tested for 10 minutes with a pressure of 3 bar. Eventual leakages must be sealed at once. Thereafter the pressure is raised to 10 bar. After 1 hour the eventual pressure loss, caused by the elastic expansion of the piping, must be equalized. If the systems will hold the pressure of 10 bar steady for 4 hours the pressure test had been successful. In case leakages had to be cleared away, the pressure test must be repeated. In the report, all faults must be recorded. At the end of the pressure test the system is pressure released to a normal pressure of 2 to 3 bar and must remain until the all construction work is finished.

2. Test Procedure
A thorough test report must be prepared by the responsible person (see test report T05) and be handed to the project manager. The fully completed test report is the basic requirement for the 15 year warranty of KaRo for the material. On principle, the common rules for the pressure testing of water carrying systems are valid. These include also the following items: Proceed section by section. The sections should only be so big, that it can be kept under control when pressure tested. Never pressure test with the connection opened to the City water system, because of the danger, that the city water will

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TI-M07

TI-M08

Installation

Technical Data to the Converter


1. Product Description
The converter evaluates the existing resistance of the dew point sensor. A relay is switched in the dew point sensor if the resistance lowers by leaps and bounds. A potential clear switchcontact is available. The circuit card of the converter is inside a housing with a kombi-foot prepared for bus connection in a switchboard. The situations of operation: operating or danger of dew point is signalled by control lamps

3. Electrical Connection

2. Specifications
L x W x H (mm): Supply Voltage Switch contact load 1): Power input Allowable ambient temp.
1)

75 x 45 x 47 24 V AC 230 V, 8 A max. 1 VA 5....40 C

For controlling of relays, contactors etc. with co sinus <0,3 it is advisable to use a RC-limb parallel to the coil. This will lessen the contacts burn-off and will avoid high frequency interference impulses.

Clamp 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Connection System potential 24 V AC System neutral Dew point sensor Dew point sensor Relay Work contact Relay Centre contact Relay Repose contact

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TI-M08

TI-M09

Installation

Technical Data to the Room Temperature Control


Room temperature control unit M.R2/3 for cooling ceilings with dew point control and heat release. be switched through remote control to heating or cooling (winter/summer- operation). Control unit for triple conductor system with two valve-switch outlets for heating and cooling .

1. Description of Functions
The room temperature control unit with dew point control Type M.R2/3 is especially suitable for controlling of heating- and cooling systems where the formation of condensation (for example: at cooling ceilings) is detected prematurely and reliably, so that cooling can be shut-off (to avoid condensation). With the setting knob at the front side the desired temperature is set. The set temperature can also be changed by means of an external remote control unit. Control lamps of different colours inform of the state of operation: State of Operations of the Room Temperature Control Unit red: = "Heat" -> Fall short of pre-set temperature green: = "Cool" -> Exceeding the pre-set temperature yellow; = "Cooling off" -> due to possible condensation . Through switching of unit-internal switches it can be chosen between double- and triple conductors.

M.R3

DIP-switch closed

3. Control Range
The room temperature can be pre-set in the range 5...30C, while the adjustments can be limited mechanically to maximum temperatures of 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24C. The imitating is done through a pin, which is positioned from below into the marked holes in the setting knob. By design this works also as a lower temperature limitation: max.Temp . 16 C 18 C 20 C 22 C 24 C Minim. Temp. 5 C 7 C 9 C

At pre-set temperatures of 16C and 18C a lower limitation can not be effective because it would fall short of the range.

4. Dew Point Identification


When condensation occurs at the sensor cooling will be interrupted. This situation is signalled by the yellow control lamp.

2. Unit Versions
Through switching of two unit-internal DIPswitches (see: figure 5) two different functions: M.R2" or "M.R3", can be chosen ( M.R2 is pre-set). Attention: Both switches must be either open or closed! M.R2 DIP-switch opened Control unit for the double conductor system, with a valvecontrol outlet which can

5. Set point by Remote-Controlling


With a DC-voltage of 2...10V at the control input Remote Control a linear shifting of the pre-set value of max. 5K is possible (see figure 1). For example: with a DC-voltage of 8V the pre-set room temperature will be raised by approx. 2,5K. If there is no signal at the control input there would be no change of the set point.

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TI-M09

Installation TI-M09 Technical Data to the Room Temperature Control

Set point Change / K 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

2V 4V 6V 8V 10V Control Voltage at Input "Remote Control"

12V

Figure 1: Characteristic-curve for Set-point Remote-Controlling

7. Switch Behaviour, Hysteretic


When falling short of the pre-set room temperature the heating system will be activated (with M.R2 only in winter operation), which will be signalled by the red control lamp . If the room temperature is exceeded, the cooling system will be activated (with M.R2 only in summer operation), which will be signalled by the green control lamp.

6. Summer- / Winter Operation


The switch-over summer- / winter operation is only required with the double conductor system M.R2. The switch at the input "Heat / Cool" (clamp 7 and 9) will initiate a functional reverse:

Summer:If the input is closed, the control will switch the valve to cooling when the pre-set temperature is exceeded. Winter: If the input is open, the control will switch the valve for the heating when the pre-set room temperature has fallen short.

Figure 2: Switch Behaviour, Hysteretic

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P.2

TI-M09

Installation TI-M09 Technical Data to the Room Temperature Control

8. Name of Terminals

M.R2 (Double conductor system)


Terminal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name operating-voltage, neutral potential operating voltage , 24V~ 24V~ for valve outputs switch output Heat-/Cool valve switch-over input Heating / Cooling input remote-control neutral potential for terminal 7, 8, 10 input dew point sensor

M.R3 (Triple conductor system)


Terminal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name operating-volt, Neutral potential operating voltage, 24V~ 24V~ for valve outputs switch output Heat valve switch output cool valve input remote-control neutral potential for terminal 8, 10 input dew point sensor

At the switch outputs for the heating / cooling valve, up to a maximum load of 1 amp., also a 24 volt auxiliary relays can be connected.

9. Technical Specification
Operation voltage: 24V~ 10%, 50...60 Hz Power consumption: 30mA (w/o load output) Outputs: Triac-outputs; Heating / Cooling not potential free Switch capacity 1A / 24V~ [short term (1 min) approx. .2,5A] Control range: 5...30C Switch hysterics: 1K Neutral zone: 2,5 K Temp. sensor: unit internal NTC Ambient temp.: 0...+40C Protection type IP 40 Protection class: III Measures (WxHxL): 74 x 74 x 36 mm Colour: grey/white

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P.3

TI-M09

TI-M10

Installation

Installation Instructions to KaRo Dry-build Unit


1. General
The KaRo dry-build unit is a sandwich board made out of a building board (plasterboard, Ferma cell or similar) and a rigid foam insulation (Styrofoam) with integrated capillary tube mat, suitable for the installation in drybuild construction, similar to commonly known dry-build boards. This way heating-or cooling ceiling is developed for the dry-build construction. The dry-build units are supplied in standard sizes for building boards, so that tailoring at the building site is not required. Only at border area and at places where ceiling in-builds are planned inactive boards are fitted. The dry-build unit is supplied, pre-drilled for hammer drive screws, for the installation to a sub-construction made from standard CD-sheet Metal profiles. The hammer-drive screws may only be positioned at these places otherwise there is the danger that the integrated capillary tube mats are damaged. Before beginning of work, a layout pattern must be prepared as a work base. All mats with its measurements and laying direction also the supply lines are to mark in it. In the ceiling pattern also all areas must be identified which will not be covered, for instance: the erection of internal walls, positioning of light fixtures and other ceiling in-builds. Furthermore, the installation position of the KaRo dry-build unit with the integrated dew point sensor must be identified in the ceiling pattern. Figure: Presentation of the arrangement of a suspended ceiling with KaRo dry-build units.

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TI-M10

Installation TI-M10 Installation Instructions to KaRo Dry-build Unit

2. Installation Steps
1. Suspension of the CD - profiles The carrier- and basic profiles are fixed and aligned to the raw ceiling with vernier suspension bars according to manufacturers instructions. The distance of the carrier profiles is fixed to 500 mm. Additional carrier profiles (also the border angles)at the border area and for the inactive tailored boards are positioned according the ceiling pattern. The dry-build construction guidelines must be obeyed. 2. Installation of the KaRo supply lines. The supply lines are laid into the ceiling cavity and are connected to the main supply lines (see M02 Thermal welding for plastic materials) 3. Preparation of the KaRo dry-build units. Remove dust protection covers from the plug-in couplings on the unit. Plug-in the flexible connection hoses into the quick-action couplings of the KaRo dry-build unit. 4. Fasten dry-build unit to sub-construction Place dry-build unit according ceiling pattern to the sub-construction. Plug-in the flexible connection hoses to the quick-action couplings of the supply lines. Align dry-build unit to the pre-drilled holes at the sub-construction. Insert hammer-drive screws into the predrilled holes and screw until a firm hold to the sub-construction is achieved and the screw head has sunk in 1 mm deep. (Set the torque of the power tool !!) 5. Pressure test (see M07 Test instructions) Pre-test with compressed air at 10 bar for 1 hour. Main test with water at 10 bar for 10 hours . Keep-up idle pressure at 3 bar until start of operation. 6. Connection of the KaRo Dew point sensor Unroll the connecting cable of the dew point sensor and lead to the KaRo room temperature control unit M.R2/3. Connect to the room temperature control unit according the connection scheme.

7. Ceiling Finish Cut in-active boards for the border area and close ceiling area completely. Fill-in board joint gaps, smoothen and grind even. Apply ceiling paint. Trim snuffing tube with knife even with the ceiling.

3. Tools, Materials
For the application of the KaRo dry-build units standard tools and materials, commonly used for dry-build construction, can be utilised: CD profiles Cross-connectors Vernier suspension bars Dowels and screws Hammer-drive screws, length 55 mm Border angles Blade-knife for tailoring and edgeplanner Power screw unit Spatula Joint filler material Manual grinder

For connection of the supply lines to the cold water circuit a hand held welding unit with sleeve welding device is required (see M03).

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TI-M10

TI-M11

Installation

Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats between double panelled Plasterboard Ceiling


1. General
The installation type of the KaRo mats according to the system Wedel is the arrangement of capillary tubes between two dry-build boards. KaRo cooling ceilings are manufactured in a pure dry-build construction manner. The applied procedure is protected by a registered design. The advantage of this solution is, that the whole ceiling can be done in the real dry-build construction stile by using standard dry-build boards (mostly plasterboards) and the work can be easily timed in co-ordinance with other construction works. For the Wedel system special KaRo mats, Type K.WS15 can be supplied. The mains of the mats are placed in the suspended ceiling made from CD-profiles and are piped in the cavity of the ceiling. After connecting the mats to the water side by means of thermal welding, the pressure test according regulation M07 - Test instruction must be performed. Thereafter the first layer of plasterboards is screwed to the suspended ceiling. To enable that the mats can be taken from the ceiling cavity a gap must be kept free. Thereafter the mats are fixed with double- sided adhesive tape to the, of course not visible but by the position of the screws noticeable carrier profiles, under the ceiling. KaRo manufactures mats in widths equal to the spacing between the carrier profiles. The room dimensions determine the mats length. The system-spacers are glued under the invisible carrier profiles. In the last step, the second layer of plasterboard is fixed (screwed through the system spacer on to the carrier profiles). The following gap filling, smoothening and grinding is done according to the standards of the dry-build construction technique. To achieve respectable cooling performances for this ceiling construction Styrofoam insulation boards should be laid in sections under the capillary tube mats. Illustration: Arrangement of KaRo mats according to the Wedel system.

insulation board

plaster board

system spacer

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TI-M11

Installation TI-M11 Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats between double panelled Plasterboard Ceiling

2. Installation Steps
1. Suspension of the CD - Profiles The carrier- and basic profiles are connected and aligned to the raw ceiling according manufacturers specification, normally by means of vernier suspension bars. The distance between the carrier profiles according standards is set at 600 mm and 500 mm. 2. Installation of the supply lines. The supply lines for feed and return are laid into the ceiling cavity according hydraulic interpretation. The connecting points for the mats must be aligned exactly to the suspension ceiling construction 3. Hook-up of the KaRo Mats Fastening of the mains for the mats to the basic profiles with cable-binders. . Connection of the mats with the supply lines (see M02 - Thermal welding of plastic materials). 4. Pressure Test (see M07 -Test Instructions) Pre-test with compressed air at 10 for 1 hour. Main test with water at 10 bar for 10 hours. Idle Pressure at 3 bar keep-up until start of operation. 5. Installation of the first Layer of Dry-build Boards Screw-on the plasterboards according to drybuild construction specification 6. Attaching (gluing) the KaRo Mats Unroll the mat, align and glue-on with adhesive tape to the first layer of dry-build boards between the carrier profiles. If wanted, insulation sheets can be placed under the mats. Glue system spacers under the carrier profiles.

7. Installation of the Second Layer of Dry-build boards Screw-on the plasterboards according to the dry-build construction specification through the system spacer onto the carrier profile. Layout the KaRo Dew point sensor and connect: Roll-out the connecting cable of the dew point sensor and lead to the room temperature control unit M.R2/3. Connect the sensor to the room temperature control unit according to connection scheme. Insert snuffing tube of the sensor through a pre-drilled hole of the plasterboard. . 8. Finishing the Ceiling Fill joints between boards, smoothen and grind even. Apply ceiling paint. Trim snuffing tube with knife even with the ceiling.

3. Tools, Materials
For the application of the KaRo pre-fabricated units commonly standard tools and materials for the dry-build construction can be utilised. CD profile Cross-connector Vernier suspension bars Dowels and screws Hammer drive screws Corner angles Plate knife for tailoring and edge-planner Power screw unit Spatula Joint filler material Manual grinder

For the connection of the supply lines to the cold water circuit a hand-held welder with a sleeve welding device is utilised (see M03).

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Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc

P.2

TI-M11

TI-M12

Installation

Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats as Floor Heating


1. General Remarks
The KaRo floor heating system can be installed onto nearly any carrying surface. The floor must be constructed according to the valid standards for impact sound- and heat insulation and must be able to carry the required traffic loads. -> Remarks to the Building Specifications are found in B08 Questions before construction of KaRo-floor heating In contrary to other floor heating systems the KaRo floor heating is not embedded into the load carrying concrete. The capillaries are laid on top of an already load carrying base and is only covered with a thin covering-layer and with the desired floor coverings. The appropriate floor covering must be chosen according to the existing floor base. The application should be done according to the manufacturers working directions. Basically, the thickness of the layer should only be as thick as necessary. The thickness is influencing the reaction-time of the KaRo floor heating (little thickness of layer = quick reaction !). The supply lines and the collector pipes of the mats are commonly laid in wall slots or hidden channels in the floor. In the layout pattern also all areas must be indicated which must be kept free of tube mats, for instance where internal walls will be put up. Areas for closets and permanently fixed furniture should not be covered with tube mats, because heating is not required at these areas. For the application of the KaRo mats for floor heating the mats must be fixed to the raw floor temporarily until the load distributing layer has been brought in. For this the KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be supplied with butyl adhesive-strip. After removal of the protective tape from the butyl strips, the mats can simply be positioned on the raw floor. On a dry screed floor base, the mats can also be tacked-on.

2. Arrangement of the Connecting Lines and Collector Pipes.


For a new construction of the floor, the collector and the supply pipes can be laid in hidden channels. These channels are simply integrated into load distributing layer (temporarily wooden (roof)batten are laidout). After the concrete is solid, they can be removed and channels had been created. Illustration 1: Cross-section of floor with the layout of collecting pipes in the floor channels

Tile

Before starting to work, a layout pattern must be prepared as work basis. All mats with their measurements , the direction they are laid and the supply lines must be indicated

elastic joint motar border strip leveling mass BeKa heating- and cooling mat Load distribution layer Polyethelene foil Insulation board Equalization screeding Polyethylene foil Construction sealing

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TI-M12

Installation TI-M12 Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats as Floor Heating

If chipboards are used for the loaddistributing layer, two layers should be chosen. At places where channels have to be formed, then one layer is simply omitted. The carrying capacity of the load-distributing layer will be recovered again, when the channels are poured with levelling compound. In renovation cases, it is possible to make free-cuts in the floorboard in longitudinal direction of the beams. In these cases the carrying capacity must be restored again with an appropriate wood sub-construction. Illustr. 2: Arrangement of the collector pipes behind the cover-wall

2. Connect and pressure test KaRo mats to the waterside. Install supply lines. Connect KaRo mats to the supply lines (see M02 Instructions for thermal welding of plastic materials) Pressure test of the completely installed system. (see M07 Test instruction for KaRo heating- and cooling systems) Setting to idle pressure to 3 bar (the mats will remain under idle pressure during the total time of installation until start of operation!) 3. Fastening of mats to the raw floor Fastening of the KaRo mats on the load distributing layer with means of:

Plaster board pre-wall on wood latting BeKa heating- and cooling mat Tile elastic joint mortar border strip latex cement

Impact sound isolation wood flooring

The collector pipes and the connection lines can also be laid in wall slots. Before the chiselling work is started, it is necessary to check if the stability of the wall construction is sufficient. If the stability of the wall is not strong enough, slots can be created by addition of a cover (plasterboards on lathing).

3. Installation Steps
Take KaRo mats out of packaging and roll-out on a flat and clean surface, to keep them down apply some (flat) weights at the loopribbon side. The mats can stack up to 15 on top of each other. Before further work, the mats should rest for one day for stress relieving. 1. Preparation of the raw floor Smoothen unevenness Apply priming Make plan for arrangement of mats at the floor. Fix clamps for fastening of supply lines and for the collector

Butyl adhesive tape Plug-type dowel double clamps (Supplier: Hilti Type: EDD 4-12) Tack with non-corrosives staples (use only in conjunction with application on dryscreed floor base!) The staples are positioned above braces of the spacer-ribbon. The tucker application strength and length of staples chosen should be fit to hold the mats firmly in place, the spacers lengths though should not be damaged.

Alignment of the mats, and stretching of the capillary tubes.

4. Apply covering layer and smoothen. (observe manufacturers advices!) Apply self-levelling equalisation compound watch for minimal thickness, normally 10 to 15 mm . In case capillaries are damaged, repair at once by closing tube ends with soldering iron, or if required replace damaged mat. TI.M01

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TI-M12

TI-M13

Installation

Fixing of KaRo Mats with Butyl Tape


1. General Remarks
For installation of KaRo mats in plaster ceilings the mats must be fixed to the raw ceiling temporarily until the actual plastering is done. Therefore, the mats can be supplied, optionally, with butyl adhesive tapes applied to them. After removal of protective foil the mats are fixed with these adhesive tapes Before processing the mats should rest for 1 day to release tensions. Hook-up the main pipes of the KaRo mats to the already dowelled-on pipeclamps at the ceiling. For this reason the mats may be rolled-up again. Make water connection for the mains pipe. Processing guidelines TI-M02. Make pressure test for the installation according TI-M07. Rollout mats and fix to ceiling by means of butyl adhesive tape. Remove protective foil from adhesive tape and press mat at the gluing areas with a slight but flat pressure to the ceiling. Stretch the mats so that they are leaning evenly on the ceiling. If required, use additional means of fixing for the mats (double-dowel plug-type clamps, Type Hilti - EDD 4-12; disc dowels for plug-in) or use plaster spots for holding. Plaster the KaRo mats at the ceiling. Apply air pressure of 3 bar to the mats and keep this pressure during the time for the plastering work. If leakage occurs (bubbles appear) it can be repaired quickly without draining the water from the mats TI-M01. Flow-pressure and consistency of the plaster compound must be adjusted to such a degree, that the mats will not lift-off the ceiling.

2. Condition of Application for the Gluing with Butyl Adhesive Tape


2.1 Condition of Base Surface Ground A suitable base surface ground is formwork concrete, which is laid plane. The base surface ground must be dry, load carrying and free of dirt (grease- oil and dust free). Sucking or sanding base surface grounds must be prepared by the same way as for plastering. Suitable are bonding primers as Beto Kontakt from Knauf or similar. Processing- and Storing Temperatures : +5C to +28C 2.2 Processing Time Fixing KaRo mats by means of Butyl adhesive tape to the raw ceiling is laid out for installation support. With the butyl tape, the mats can only be held to the raw ceiling up to 2 days. If there is a longer interruption in the work sequence an additional means of fixing must be found to hold the capillary mats to the raw ceiling.

3. Installation Steps
Take KaRo mats out of the packaging place on clean and even surface, if required place some flat weights to the loop ribbon side. The mats can be stacked up to 15 layers.

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TI-M13

TI-M14

Installation

Technical Information on KaRo Glue V.K.1


1. Application Range
For gluing the capillary tube mats to acoustic fibre mats, in metal ceiling sheets and to dry-build boards.

2. Characteristics
The KaRo Adhesive V.K.1 is an adhesive, which is good for spray-application with a long open time. For tension free application on to sucking materials, it is possible to work with a one-sided layer of adhesive. The adhesive forms an elastic, permanent and colourless adhesive joint.

3. Processing Guidelines
For gluing into metal ceiling sheets the KaRo adhesive V.K.1 is reduced with KaRo solvent V.L.1 in the proportion up to max. 5:1 before applying. The adhesive, dosed economically, is sprayed onto the mats. The mat is then laid immediately in the cassette and rolled-onto the surface. As guideline for the amount of usage: 80 g/m2.

4. Technical Data
Raw material base: Solid base contents: Density: Viscosity: Colour: Application of adhesive: Nozzle size: Spraying pressure: Drying-off time: Pot time: Cleaning agent: Shelf time: Storage temperature: Application temperature: SBS -caoutchouc ca. 43% ca. 0,83 g/ml ca. 200 mPas (Brookfield) natural with spraying gun 1,5 - 2,5 mm 2 - 6 bar ca. 0,5 - 3,0 minutes, in dependence of layer thickness, material and temperature for double sited application: approx. 120 minutes for one sided application: approx. 15 minutes solvent V.L.1 at +15C to 20C approx. 6 months not below +10C, effected by frost Material-, room- and adhesive temperature Not below +15C and not above +25C; best application temperature is +18C to +22C

Identification code according GefStoffV (regulation for dangerous materials) : flame symbol, F, easy to ignite Identification according VbF: AI

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TI-M14

TI-M15

Installation

Technical Information on KaRo Solvent V.L.1


1. Application Range
Universal solvent and cleaner for KaRo adhesive V.K.1

2. Working Directions
For gluing into metal ceiling sheets the KaRo V.K.1 adhesive is reduced with KaRo solvent V.L.1 in proportions up to max. 5:1. The adhesive, dosed economically, is sprayed onto the mats. The mat is laid into the cassette immediately and rolled-onto the surface. A guideline for the amount of usage is: 80 g/m2. In case of the usage of reducing solvents for better viscosity it must be observed that there is still enough adhesive left which ensures a sufficient adhesive film after application, otherwise it could cause insufficient adhesion.

3. Technical Data
Storage temperature: Shelf time: Application temperature: cool storage; not effected by frost unlimited, if kept in tightly closed container Material-, room- and adhesive temperature not below +15C and not above +25C; best application temperature at +18C to +22C Flame symbol, F, easy to ignite AI

Identification code according GefStoffV: Identification code accord. VbF:

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Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc

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TI-M15

TI-M16

Installation

Technical Information on KaRo Thermal Conductive Paste V.WLP.1


1. Application Range
For thermally effective embedding of capillary tube mats onto dry-build construction sheets, such as plaster boards or gypsum wallboards.

2. Characteristics
The KaRo thermal conductive paste V.WLP.1 is a highly elastic, solvent free liquid foil with a long pot time. The thermal conductive paste is prepared ready for application. After maturing, the paste forms an elastic, resistant to aging, thermal conductive and grey joint.

3. Application Directions
The thermal conductive paste is applied with a paint roller, through pouring or by other applications (ca. 800g/m2). After the paste is applied everywhere between the spacers, it is then distributed with a narrow long brush parallel to the capillary tubes. This will form a bridge between the air space between the base of the capillary tube and the surface of the plate. At normal temperatures, the thermal conductive paste will mature within 20 minutes so that the ceiling boards can be installed. The spacers which have contact to the ceiling profile is smoothened with a spatula or with another suitable tool from the eventually applied thermal conductive paste.

4. Technical Data
Raw material base: Colour: Density: Consistence: Joint coverage: Tensile strength: Tear stretching : Application of paste: Pot time: Cleaning agent: Storage time: Storage temperature: Application temperature: plastic water based, modified grey ca. 0,83 g/ml highly viscous, non dripping up to 2,1 mm 1,5 N/mm2 ca. 400% with brush ca. 120 minutes in fresh situation, with water at +15C to 20C approx. 6 Months free of frost not below +5C

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P.1

TI-M16

TI-M17

Installation

Fixing of KaRo Mats with Adhesive Tape


1. General Remarks
KaRo mats can be installed below suspended ceilings, laid in plaster. For this the mats must be temporarily fixed in a suitable way to the underside of the plaster board ceiling until the final plastering. The KaRo heating- and cooling mats can be supplied equipped with adhesive tape. After the protective tape is peeled from the adhesive tape the mats a simply fixed to the underside of the ceiling.

3. Installation Steps
Take KaRo mats out of the packaging and rollout onto a flat surface, and if necessary place some (flat) weights onto the loop strip side. The mats can be stored up to 15 layers . Before work is started the mats should be left for stress relieving for the time of one day. Position and fasten the main pipes of the KaRo mats to pre-fixed clamps. Depending upon their length the mats can be loosely rolled-up again for easier handling. Make water connection to the main pipes . see working direction TI-M02 Pressure test after installation according TI-M07. Rollout the mat and fix to the ceiling with adhesive tape. Therefore, peel-off the protective foil from the adhesive tape and press the mat to the ceiling with little but equal pressure. The mats should be stretched, so that they are even with the ceiling. Pulling them into direction of the loops can tighten capillary tubes, which are sagging. If necessary fasten the mats additionally with staples. Prepare the surface of the grounding for plastering. Suitable adhesive primer is Beto Kontakt 90 from Knauf or other similar materials. Apply the plaster to the KaRo mats. Put the KaRo mats under pressure with compressed air of 3 bar and retain this pressure during the total time when the plaster is applied (eventually occurring leakages will be made evident by air bubbles, it can be repaired rapidly without drainage of the water from the mats. TI-M01).

2. Application Conditions for Gluing with Adhesive Tape


2.1 Conditions of the grounding The best grounding is a plane plasterboard. Joints between boards and head of screws must be filled and smoothened. The grounding must be load bearing, dry, free of dirt, free of grease , oil and dust. The adhesive primer must not be applied at this time ! Application- and storage temperatures +5C to +28C

2. Application Time The fixing of the KaRo mats with adhesive tape to the plasterboards is only laid out as an installation aid before plastering. The mats can only be held with the adhesive tape to the ceiling up to a time of 3 days. In case of a longer interruption of work the capillary tube mats must be fixed to the ceiling with additional means.

Flow pressure and consistence of the plaster should be such, that the mats are not drawn from the ceiling when the plaster is applied!

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P.1

TI-M17

TI-M18

Installation

Installation Instruction for KaRo Mats to Dry-build boards


1. General Remarks
Just by laying the KaRo mats from above to the suspended plasterboard ceilings, very simply cooling ceilings can be installed in the dry-build construction way. For this the mats are stretched between the carrying profiles of the suspended ceiling construction (CDprofiles) before they are screwed to the plasterboards. KaRo supplies the mats in widths in accordance with the spaces between the carrying profiles. The room dimensions determine the lengths of the mats. To ensure always constant flow, the maximum mat length though should not exceed 8 m. The main lines of the mats are connected in a suitable way (with tie-down straps) to the base profiles. The piping for the supply lines had been laid before into the future ceiling cavity. The mats are only stretched so much, that they sag slightly. For very long mats it is advisable to divert the capillaries with bracing wires, from carrying profile to carrying profile, otherwise the mats would sag too much. After water connection of the mats with flexible hoses, a pressure test must be performed according to regulation M07 Test instructions. The installation of plasterboards and the following smoothening and grinding must be done according to the regulations of the dry-build construction techniques. In order to achieve respectable cooling performances with such a ceiling construction, insulation boards from mineral wool (or fibre) should be laid in sections between the carrying profiles from the top onto the capillary tube mats. Illustration: Construction and arrangement of the KaRo mats onto the dry-build constructed ceiling, without coverage with insulation boards, connection to water supply by flexible connection hoses.

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TI-M18

Installation TI-M18 Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats to Dry-build boards

Illustration 2: Alternative connection of mats via thermal welding according to Tichelmann

To avoid fibre dust the insulation sheets are commonly wrapped in PE protection foil. Alternative to the connection of KaRo mats by flexible hoses, the mats can also joined among themselves at the main pipes, on the top of the carrier profiles, through thermal welding. For this installation version KaRo supplies the mat type K.GK 10, which is supplied readily equipped with sleeves and extended main pipes ends.

4. Pressure test (see M07 Test instructions for KaRo heating- and cooling systems) Pre-Test with compressed air at 10 bar for 1 hour. Main-Test with water at 10 bar for 10 hours. Set an idle pressure of 3 bar and maintain until start of operation. 5. Installation boards. of dry-build construction

2. Installation Steps
1. Suspension of the CD - profiles The carrying- and basic profiles are arranged and fixed to the raw ceiling with vernier suspension bars according to manufacturers specifications. The spaces between the carrying profiles must be laid-out according to specifications. According the arrangement layout for the mats, sometimes it requires additional basic profiles for the fastening of the main lines. 2. Installation of KaRo Supply Lines. The supply lines are laid in the ceiling cavity and connected to the piping according M02 Instructions for the thermal welding of plastics . 3. Hook-up of the KaRo Mats Fastening of the main lines of the mats on to the basic profiles, for instance with tie-down straps. Possibly pull bracing wires diagonal to the carrying profiles to avoid sagging of the mats. Plug the flexible hoses into the quick-action couplings of the supply lines
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Screws fasten the plasterboard according drybuild construction specifications. Position and connect KaRo dew point sensor. Unroll the connection cable of the dew point sensor and lead to the KaRo room temperature control unit M.R2/3 (see M06 Instructions for the installation of the KaRo dew point-sensor. Connect the dew point sensor to the room temperature control unit according to the connection plan. Insert the snuffing pipe of the sensor through the pre-drilled hole of the plasterboard. Possibly, place insulation boards in sections between the carrying profiles from the top onto the KaRo mats. 6. Finishing the ceiling Fill-in joints, smoothen and grind plane. Apply ceiling paint. Trim snuffing tube with knife to the plane of the ceiling.

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TI-M18

Installation TI-M18 Installation Instruction to KaRo Mats to Dry-build boards

3. Tools, Materials
For processing and installation of the KaRo pre-fabricated units normal tools for dry-build constructions and materials can be utilised: CD profile Cross connector Vernier suspension bars Dowels and screws Hammer-drive screws Edge angles Blade-knife for tailoring and edgeplanner Power screwing unit Spatula Joint filler compound Hand grinder

For the jointing of the supply lines to the cold water circuit a hand held welding unit with sleeve welding device is required for the plastic welding (see M03).

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TI-M18

TI-M19

Installation

Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats with Tacks


1. General Remarks
When KaRo mats are fixed to suspended plasterboard ceilings from above or from below, very often the fastening technique of tacking is used. Because of the possibility that capillaries can get damaged, staples should only be used if gluing with adhesive tape (TIM17) or butyl tape (TI-M13) cannot be utilised. The installation follows according to the type of ceiling construction. For plaster ceilings (TI-M03) the piping for the supply lines has been laid into the future cavity of the ceiling. For dry-build construction boards (TI-M05) the connection to the supply lines is done with flexible hoses during the time of installation. Attention! It must be looked after, that before tacking, all capillaries, which might have slipped out of the spacers, will be clipped back workmanlike into the spacer buss. The covering of the ceiling with plasterboards and the following joint filling, smoothening and grinding is done according to the drybuild construction specifications. The KaRo mats are tacked to the plaster board ceiling. Whereby the staples will be positioned alternately to both sides to the flanges. The staples are placed first at the side of the collector pipes. The KaRo mat is rolled-off during the work progress. The staples are placed in such positions, that the side flanges of the spacers are bridged over. The drivingforce for tucker must be set to such a degree, that the side flanges of the spacers will not deform or in exceptions will not deform more than 1 mm. (Side flanges and staples should be one height). The length of the staples should be max. 15 mm.

2. Installation Steps

2.1 Plaster Ceiling At the installation the collector pipes of the mats must be fixed properly. After connecting the mats to the water lines according the instructions TI-M07 Test instructions for KaRo heating- and cooling systems- pressure tests must be performed. Then the capillary tube mats will have to stand a idle pressure at 3 bar for the entire time of installation until start of operation. KaRo mats with long lengths are hang to the ceiling, already connected, rolled-up until the actual tacking is performed.

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TI-M19

Installation TI-M19 Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats with Tacks

2.2 Dry-build construction board The KaRo mat is positioned on the dry-build construction board (plasterboard or fibre plasterboard) by placing the spacers to their pre-determined positions. Then they are tacked to the boards. First both outer spacer busses are fastened. The spacer busses are especially shaped, so that staples can be set to determined areas. The cross-connections between the side flanges are laid lower and have direct contact to the plasterboards. The driving-force set for tacking must be such, that the flange in the spacer will only be deformed to a miner degree. The length of the staples should be not more than 12 mm. Max. 15 mm must be the length of the staples when the side flanges of the spacers are used according to the point 2.1 (Plaster ceiling). .

The flat-wire staples are suitable for all types or plasterboards. If staples come to use where the shanks are tightly together (narrow-back staples of 4 mm) then the shanks work like a wide piece. At fibre plasterboards, the use of those staples can cause damages. The rigidness in these areas is damaged because of the local load. Often the fibre material is pressed through the fibre plasterboard and rests as a hump to the opposite side. Often the fibre material is separated from the fibre plasterboard. The stapler must be adjusted to such a force, that the staples will not, or in exceptions will deform the plastic material of the spacer by not more than 1 mm (side flange and staples will form one height).

plaster board

3. Tools, Materials
Best results will be achieved with flat wire- or surface improved staples. These staples are available for all staple-guns. The lengths of the staples for stapling the side flange of the spacers should be max. 15 mm (see point 2.1. and 2.2). A max. staple length of 13 mm can be utilised, when the cross-pieces of the spacers are stapled.

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P.2

TI-M19

TI-M20

Installation

Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats as Wall Heating


1. General Remarks
The KaRo wall heating can be installed to nearly any load bearing wall surface. If the installation is at an outer wall, then the u-value of the wall must be better than 0,35 W / (m2K). Occasionally a additional layer of insulation might be necessary. General remarks can be read in TI-B10 Questions before lay-out of KaRo wall heating. For wall heating the KaRo- heating- and cooling mats are mostly embedded directly into the plastering. For the installation of wall heating special building materials are not required. Fundamentally the wall construction can be any standard type wall. After fastening the KaRo heating- and cooling mats to the raw wall the mats can be plastered with all types of mineral plaster. Coarse grained rubbing plaster is not permissible because of the danger that the capillaries could get damaged. Common plaster types and qualities would be: machine plaster type: MP75 GF. Basically the thickness of the plaster should be chosen only as thick as necessary. Normally a thickness of 12 to 15 mm is sufficient. The thickness of this layer has an effect to the reaction time of the KaRo wall heating (thin layer thickness = fast reaction time!). The pre-treatment of the grounding is done according to manufacturers guidelines. Before starting the work a (layout) pattern for the arrangement of the mats must be prepared for a work base. In it all mats with their measurements, the direction of arrangement and the supply lines must be lined out. In the pattern all areas which will be kept empty, as for inner walls or for closets and permanently fixed furniture should not be covered, since there is no heating required at those areas. For the utilisation of KaRo mats for wall heating the mats must be positioned and fixed to the raw wall in appropriate manner until plastering. Therefore the mats supplied with butyl adhesive tape already attached to it. After the protective foil is peeled-off the mats are simply fixed to the raw ceiling by means of the adhesive tapes. The mats can also be staplefixed if dry-build construction boards are used as a wall base.

2. Arrangement of the Connecting Lines and of the Collecting Pipes


The collecting pipes and the supply lines for the KaRo wall heating, plastering version, are placed into the base board or in a special wall groove. Remarks for this version are given in the technical information TI-B10. It could be that building regulations are against the positioning of collector pipes in wall grooves, because of possibly changes in the building static. Normally groove depths of 15 to 20 mm are sufficient. The possible weakening of the wall must be clarified prior to the changes. For renovation purposes the old layer of plaster, if still load bearing, can remain. In this case it is sufficient to mill grooves into the plaster for later accommodation of the collector pipes. If inner wall insulation is required or desired, then the insulation panels can get cut-outs for the reception of the collector pipes. The insulation panels are to be fixed to the raw wall according to manufacturers installation guidelines. For the accommodation of the main pipes the panels are simply fixed in spaces one to another.

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TI-M20

Installation TI-M20 Installation Instructions to KaRo Mats as Wall Heating

Figure 1 Arrangement of the collector pipes and piping according to Tichelmann by utilisation of insulation sheets for the formation of installation grooves.

3. Installation Steps
Take KaRo mat out of the package, roll-out onto a clean flat surface and burden the loop side with a flat. The mats can be stored up to 15 layers on top of another. Before further processing the mats should be stress relived for one day. 1. Preparation of the raw wall smoothen unevenness. Apply grounding (primer) Lay down the arrangement of the mats on the wall and fix temporarily Attach clamps for reception of supply lines and collector pipes 2. Connect the KaRo mats to the water line and make pressure test. Install the supply lines. Connect the KaRo mats to the supply lines ( TI-M02 Instruction for thermal welding of plastics ). Do pressure test of the finished installed system ( TI-M07 Test instructions for KaRo- heating- and cooling systems) Set an idle pressure of 3 bar and retain this pressure during the time of installation until start of operation!

3. Fastening of the mats to the raw wall with: - Butyl adhesive tape TI-M13 - Stick-in dowels Double dowel clamps from Fa. Hilti Type: EDD 4-12 - fasten with staples made of noncorroding steel (valid for the fixing to plasterboards!) The staples a posi tioned over the strap of the spacerstrips. The staple applying force and the lengths of the staples should be chosen, that the mats are fastened securely , but the spacers will not tear. TI-M19 Align the mats Tighten the capillary tubes 4. Apply plastering and smoothen (pay attention to manufacturers instructions!) Apply plaster - minimal thickness, normally 10 to 15 mm are sufficient. If capillaries are damaged repair by soldering the tube ends. If required exchange the total TI-M01

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TI-M20

TI-M21

Installation

Start of Operation of Basic Stations and Storey Distributers


1. Delivery and Transport
The story distributors and basis stations are supplied lying on palettes. To prevent them from dirt, the goods are wrapped in shrinking foil. When the goods are received from the carriercompany a check for possible transport damages must be made. If damages are obvious, they must be recorded at the delivery papers and reported to the carrier company. The storey distributors and the basis stations are always installed on a zinc coated frame. Questions to the dimensioning and arrangement are answered in TI-B14 (Technical requirements for basis stations and storey distributors). During transport, all forces may only have an effect on the zinc-coated frame. For handling (loading and unloading) the pumps, pipes vents and valves may not be touched! After erecting and fastening of the storey distributors and basis stations at their appointed position the connections are made to the primary and secondary circuits. The connection of the electric lines can also be made. Each storey distributor and each basis station had been tested with a pressure of 10 bar and checked for leakage before the delivery. A further pressure test of 10 bar at the building site is not permissible since the pressure control valve will respond to a lower pressure, this could cause the damage to the pressure gauge if possibly the pressure control valve is by-passed because of its early respond. For pressure testing with 10 bar the maxpressure valve must be closed at the drainage, the pressure gauge de-installed and the threaded connection must be closed, also the cap valve towards the equalisation tank must be closed. After the pressure test the state of supply must be re-established.

2. Filling, Rinsing and Pressure relief


For filling and rinsing the KFE faucets of the storey distributor and the basis station are provided. Filling and rinsing of basis stations may only be done together with the connecting lines. For the storey distributor the work sequence should be in such a way, that at best each cooling circuit is filled and rinsed separately. Thereby one KFE-faucet is used for filling and at the other KFE-faucet a hose is connected which is leading to a sink. The filling is done with only low water pressure up until water is coming out of the second KFE-faucet. Then the rinsing process starts with maximum water pressure, so to rinse-out possible air and installation dirt which was trapped in the circuit. After some time the water is draining calmly without any air encapsulated. The filling and rinsing process is finished. After rinsing with cold water condensation can occur at the supply lines and at the capillary tube mats. Condensation can be avoided when lukewarm, clean water is used for rinsing or when a portable rinsing apparatus is being used. With the KFE faucet the system is brought to the appointed operating pressure. Please assure that the cap valve to the pressure expansion tank is open and the correct gas pre-tension has been set. Any air bubbles left will be let out of the system through the automatic bleeder valve. If there is not enough water pressure for the elimination of air bubbles, the rinsing can also be done by using the pump, which is installed in the system. For this the pump must be set to its maximum capacity. After filling and the first rinsing with the existing water pressure each separate cooling zone will be flowed through with water by directed opening of the zone valves. Any air bubbles left will be let out of the system through the automatic bleeder valve.

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TI-M21

Installation TI-M21 Start of Operation of Basic Stations and Storey Distributers

Through the air leaving the system, the operating pressure could sink, it must be corrected to its appointed pressure by refilling. An automated refilling can be arranged by means of an adequate refilling set-up. Without such a set-up, the first control must take place in the first week after the system was taken into operation. After some monthly controls the checking can be done after every 6 months.

schematic is included in the storey distributor- or basis stations. The regulating valves of the storey distributors should be equipped with auxiliary contacts. The electrical circuit arrangement can then be laid-out for gentle treatment and energy saving reasons, that with the switch-off of the last cooling circuit also the pump is switched-off. Attention : After initiation the thermal actuating drive has an opening time of approx. 2,5 minutes. Only after this time the auxiliary contact and therewith the pump is actuated. After the shut-off of the thermal actuating drive a closing time of approx. 2,5 minutes must be accounted for .Only after this time, after the last zone is switched-off, the pump can be switched off-circuit The thermal actuating drives supplied by KaRo have an auxiliary contact, they are operated with 24 V~, they have a peak starting current of 250 mA and power intake of 3 watt at operation. The auxiliary contact has a load capacity of 2 amps and 230 volt.

3. Setting the Volume Flows for each Zone


For the setting of the volume flows at the storey distributor for the separate zones, it should be started with the zone with the highest flow resistance. Here the volume flow-control and regulating valve is set to its maximum opening. Through lowering of the pressure at the overflow-valve or reduction of the revolution at the pressure-controlled pump, the aimed volume flow can be adjusted. Thereafter the single zones can be set to the volume flow. This is done with the volume flow-control and regulating valve. Through the steady pressure of the overflowvalve or through matching the revolution of the pressure regulated pump, the adjustment of each single zone can be done without that one zone will interfere with another zone. TA-valves cannot be adjusted according to the described method with the control- and setting computer. For this the pump must be set to constant volume flow that the computer can read the adequate values of the valves. At this point, the necessary accuracy of the volume flows must be pointed out. The required volume flows for each zone are pre-given by the planning- or engineers office. Measuring according DIN 4715 part 1 have shown, that with 50% of the volume flow 89% of the nominal capacity is achieved ( TI-B14 Technical Requirements for Basis Stations and Storey Distributors). From this it can derived, that at a slightly lower volume flow there will be no remarkable capacity reductions with KaRo- heating and cooling ceilings

5. Filter
In case that filters are utilised, they must be cleaned after start of operation. The rinsing operation with installed filters are exclusively for the rinse-out of air-bubbles.

6. General
Pump manufactures instructions for the operation of the pump are given in the operating manual. Pay attention to the sense of rotation of some pumps. Electrical work may only be performed through appropriate trade staff.

4. Electrical Connections
Storey distributors and basis stations can be supplied including electric wiring and control panel. The measuring- and controlling technique supplied by KaRo is operated by 24 V~ ( TI-M08 Technical data of the converter M.K.1;TI-M09 Technical data on the room temperature control-unit M.TR 2/3). The

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TI-M21

TI-M22

Installation

AquaStop Easy Alteration of the Installation


1. Flexibility
With CC-Couplings alterations in the watersystem of Cooling Ceilings can be done easy and quick without using a tool for adapting the ceiling to changes of the office partitioning. Like with all quick coupling systems the piping has to be made pressureless, to open the couplings without damages. This can be done zone by zone without interrupting the running of the Cooling Ceiling in other parts of the building using the AquaStop valve. Tip: Keep open only one CC-coupling at a time. Close couplings or flexibles after opening a connection with a stopper and with a CC-sleeve respectively to avoid air drawn into the system.

2. KaRo AquaStop
The water flow of each control zone can be turned off by ball valves in the supply and return lines. At the end of the supply line an AquaStop valve for depressing the system and adapting a pressure test set is positioned picture.

KaRo AquaStop

4. Installation Process: Pressure Test


After every work at the water system all changed parts have to be pressure tested. 1. 2. Close the two ball valves in the supply and return line. Connect the test set W.M01 at the KaRo AquaStop and do the pressure test according to prescription TI M07. Close KaRo AquaStop after successful pressure test and open the two ball valves again. The system is now ready to work again.

Metal Acoustic Ceiling 1 Flexible 2 Supply line 3 KaRo AquaStop

3.

3. Installation Process: Rebuilding

1. 2.

Close the 2 ball valves of return and supply lines. Open shortly the KaRo AquaStop and close it again. Collect drops of water with a cloth or can. The water system is now pressure less. The CC-couplings can be opened and changed now without problem.

Mr. K. says: KaRo mats are self bleeding. Any air that may get into the water system while changing the connections will go with the water flow and can be taken out at the central petcock. After every change at the system the water pressure has to be checked at the secondary station and water has to be refilled if necessary.

3.

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TI-M22

Charts and Forms TI-T01 Lay-out Chart for KaRo Cooling Ceilings

Lay-out Chart for KaRo Cooling Ceilings


Project : Project consultant : Date : Room data

1 Room temperature 2 Surface area of the room 3 Room height 4 Height factor
Cooling Loads

C m2 m =1,117 - 0,045 * Room height W W W/m2 (calculation from planning office) (calculation from planning office) =(internal + external load) / surface area = total load / (internal load + external load / 2) m3/h C C W/m2 = intake air volume flow * dT * 0,32 / surface area Source =1, convector=1,08; ceiling slot=1,13 m2 W/m2 W/m2 -> compare with calculated value from line 30 = coverable ceiling area / basic area = total cooling load cooling capacity of air intake = req. cooling capacity. / factor of ceiling coverage-> target value =1,21 - 0,3 * degree of ceiling coverage minimum 50m3/h per person

5 Internal total cooling load 6 External total cooling load 7 Total cooling load based on surface area 8 Load factor
Proportion of Ventilation

9 Intake air volume 10 Intake air temperature 11 Exhaust air temperature 12 Cooling capacity of intake-air 13 Ventilation factor
Required Cooling Capacity

14 With mats coverable ceiling area 15 Proportion of ceiling coverage 16 Required cooling capacity for ceiling 17 Special: cooling capacity for ceiling 18 Factor of coverage
Calculation of Capacity

19 Supply temperature 20 Return temperature 21 Average temperature 22 Effective under-temperature 23 Room constant factor 24 Standard cooling capacity 25 Real cooling capacity per m in W:
Water Volume

C C C C = (supply temperature + return temperature) / 2 =room temperature average water temperature =Height factor * load factor * ventilation factor * coverage factor -> read from diagram =Standard capacity* room constant factor <compare target value = supply temperature return temperature

W/m

W/m2

26 Cooling water spread 27 Qty. of mats per zone 28 Length of mat 29 Width of mat 30 Surface area covered with mats 31 Mass flow water 32 Temperature above ceiling 33 Thermal conductance factor to top 34 Capacity to top 35 Corrected mass flow water 36 Water volume per zone

K Qty. M M m2 ltr./m2 h C W/m2 K W/m2 ltr./m h ltr/min ltr/h


2

= length * width * Qty. of mats = (special cooling capacity * 3600) / (spread * 4180) Water volume should be minimum 17 ltr. / m2 h Normally it is equal to the room temperature above = Thermal conductance to top * (Temp. top- aver. Water temp.) = (spec .cooling capacity + capacity to top) *3600 / spread * 4180 = corrected mass flow / 60 * covered surface area = corrected mass flow * covered surface area

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TI-T01

Charts and Forms TI-T02 Lay-out Chart for KaRo Heating Ceilings

Lay-out Chart for KaRo Heating Ceilings


Project : Project consultant : Date : Room Data 1 Room temperature 2 Surface area of the room 3 Room height Heat Requirement 4 Transmission heat requirement 5 Effective joint-ventilation heat requirement 6 Total Heat Requirement Proportion of Ventilation 7 Intake air volume 8 Intake air temperature 9 Exhaust air temperature 10 Heat/cool capacity of air intake Required Heating Capacity 11 Required heat capacity for ceiling 12 With mats coverable ceiling surface area 13 Estimated value: required heating capac. :ceiling 14 Permissible heating capacity W m2 W/m2 W/m2 = total heat requirement. heat capacity of air intake + cooling capacity of air intake ->compare with calculated value of line 24 =req heat capac/possible ceiling coverage-> target value -> from diagram. Must be greater than value from line 13 m3/h C C W = intake air volume flow dT 0,32 Account for a minimum of 50m3/h per person W W W (calculation from planning office) (calculation from planning office (open ventilation) = Transmission + joint-ventilation heat requirement C m2 m

Calculation of Capacity 15 Supply temperature 16 Return temperature 17 Average temperature 18 Effective temperature 19 Standard heating capacity 20 Qty. of mats per zone 21 Length of mat 22 Width of mat 23 With mats covered surface area 24 Real heating capacity of ceiling C C C C W/m2 Qty. m m m2 W =Length * width * Qty. of mats = Standard heat capacity * covered ceiling surface -> compare with req heat capacity from line 13 = (Supply temperature + return temperature) / 2 = room temperature average water temperature -> from diagram -> compare with target value from line 13

Water Volume 25 Heating water spread 26 Mass flow of water 27 Temperature above ceiling 28 Thermal conductance factor to top 29 Capacity to top 30 Corrected mass flow water 31 Water volume per zone K ltr./m2 h C W/m2 K W/m2 ltr./m2 h ltr./min ltr./h =Therm conduct fact top * (Temp.top average water temp) =((req heat capac + capac top) *3600 / spread * 4180) = corrected mass flow / 60 * covered ceiling surface = corrected mass flow * covered ceiling surface = Supply temp - return temp. =(required heat capacity * 3600) / (spread * 4180) Water volume should be minimum of 17 ltr. / m2 h Temperature in the ceiling cavity

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TI-T02

Charts and Forms TI-T03 Estimate calculation of the sensible (dry) cooling

Estimate calculation of the sensible (dry) cooling load


Important R e mark: Room: Person responsible: Room measurements Length: Width: 1. Solar radiation windows Windows Width [m] Direction S outh S outh-West S outh-E ast North North-Wes t North-E ast West E ast Height [m] x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Height: Qty Area [m] = = = = = = = =
(All windows and outer doors )

T he calculation is based on a temperature difference between room- and outs ide temperature of 6 to 8C

Area:

Volume:

(windows measurements include frame)

Double glazed window without with with blinds inner blinds outer blinds x 205 x 175 x 60 = x 245 x 205 x 75 = x 250 x 205 x 75 = x 60 x 50 x 20 = x 165 x 145 x 50 = x 155 x 140 x 50 = x 255 x 215 x 75 = x 250 x 210 x 75 =
(use only maximum values; disregard other values ! )

W W W W W W W W

2. Transmission-heat windows m+ 3. Transmission-heat walls Nord- and internal walls All other walls 4. Ceiling or Roof Ceiling to non temperature conditioned rooms Ceiling below roof, non-ins ulated Ceiling with 50mm thermal ins ulation F lat roof, non ins ulated F lat roof, with 50 thermal ins ulation m+ m+

m+
(minus window s urface)

m =

Area m Area m m

x 20

m+ m+

m= m=

x 8 x 10

= =

W W

= = = = = =

m m m m m m Qty Area = m

x 10 x 17 x 10 x 35 x 12 x 5

= = = = = =

W W W W W W

5. Floor above non-temperature conditioned


(not applicated if un-heated cellar)

6. Open walkthrough Width x 7. Qty of persons in room Qty 8. Light


(connected load)

Height x

x 100

P hys ical work light average x 70 x 85 connected load x connected load x

heavy x 95

Qty

x 1

9. Electrical Applications
(connected load; obs e rve s imilarity)

Type x

Qty

x 1

10. Other heat source


(material put-though)

Description

=
External cooling load Field 1 to 6 = Internal cooling load Field 7 to 10 = Sensible total cooling load =

W W W W

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TI-T03

Charts and Forms TI-T04 Identification Data for Standard Capacities of KaRo Cooling Ceilings

Identification Data for Standard Capacities of KaRo Cooling Ceilings


Type 1 Installation Variation
Metal ceiling sheet with acoustic fleece, Sheet metal 0,6 mm thick, mat type K.U15 glued; With mineral wool 35 mm thick and 12,5 mm plasterboard covered Metal ceiling sheet, sheet metal 0,6 mm thick, Mat type K.U10 glued-in, with acoustic fleece and mineral wool 35 mm thick and covered with 12,5 mm plaster board Construction sheet Fermacell 10 mm thick, mat type K.G10 glued-on with thermal conductive paste V.WLP.1 Plaster board 12,5 mm thick, mat type K.G10 glued-on with thermal conductive paste V.WLP.1 Plastered ceiling, mat type K.S15 plaster embedded, Plaster thickness = ca. 9 mm, machine type plaster MP7 Perforated plaster board 9,5 mm thick, perforated 8mm Mat type K.U10 glued-on with V.K.1, With mineral wool 20 mm thick covered, acoustic fleece and water based paint apply from the bottom side Double panelled plaster board ceiling, Mat type K.S15 laid between the panelling Double panelled plaster board ceiling, Mat type K.S15 laid between the panelling and covered with reflective thermal insulation STO acoustic plaster 12 mm thick, mat type K.S15 plaster embedded, covered with approx. 6 mm thick acoustic plaster KaRo Dry-build construction unit type B.GK12 Metal ceiling sheet with acoustic fleece, Sheet metal 0,6 mm thick, mat type KU10 glued-in Suspended metal ceiling sail, mat type K.U10 glued-on without insulation

C
6,259

n
1,105

2 3 4 5 6

6,693

1,096

6,194 5,850 6,210 4,329

1,096 1,095 1,112 1,117

7 8 9 10 11 12

5,080 5,140

1,070 1,080

3,390 5,210 5,350 6,520

1,150 1,100 1,160 1,147

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TI-T04

Charts and Forms TI-T05 Final Pressure Test Report for KaRo Heating and Cooling systems

Final Pressure Test Report for KaRo Heating and Cooling systems

Construction project: Project No.: Section* Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End Begin End *) Room- or mains identification Additional remarks: Pressure Date Time Remarks Signature

Hereby I confirm, that a pressure test for the above mentioned sections has been successfully performed according to the KaRo installation instruction M07. The system was filled with water, air bladed and with a testing pump set to 10 bar . The pressure loss caused by elastic expansion has been compensated for. The water pressure of 10 bar was maintained for 4 hours. Thereafter the system was lowered to an idle pressure of 3 bar.

Name of person testing

Date

Signature

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TI-T05

Charts and Forms TI-T06 Combustion Heat

Combustion Heat
1. Combustion Heat of PP-Random-Copolymer
Source: Statement of the company Borealis H = 42,23 MJ/kg = 42,23 * 106 Ws/kg = 11,73 kWh/kg

2. Combustion Heat of PP Pipe PN10

Outer Diameter da
[mm]

Nominal size DN

Wall thickness s
[mm]

Combustion Heat H
[kWh/m]

16,0 20,0 25,0 32,0 40,0 50,0 63,0 75,0 90,0 110,0 125,0 140,0

12 15 20 25 32 40 50 63 75 90 100 110

1,6 1,8 2,3 3,0 3,7 4,6 5,8 6,9 8,2 10,0 11,4 12,8

0,76 1,09 1,73 2,89 4,45 6,93 11,00 15,59 22,25 33,17 42,95 54,00

3. Combustion Heat of BeKa Heating- and Cooling Mats


(without mains)

KaRo mat type

Combustion Heat H [kWh/m2] 3,21 4,99

K.S15 K.S10 K.U10 K.G10

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TI-T06

Charts and Forms TI-T07 Lay-out for KaRo Floor Heating System

Lay-out for KaRo Floor Heating System


Project : Project consultant : Date : Room data 1 Room temperature 2 Width of room 3 Length of room 4 Surface area of room 5 Heat requirement for room Required heat capacity 6 Planed coverage 7 Required specific heat capacity Perfomance calculation 8 Heat resistance of the floor covering 9 Effective excess temp. heating water 10 Standard-heating capacity 11 Spread 12 Supply temperature 13 Return temperature 14 Average water temperature Selection of BEKA mats 15 Quantity of mats per zone 16 Length of mat 17 Width of mat 18 With mats covered area 19 Real heating capacity of the floor Qty m m m
2

C m m m2 W from calulation of planning office

2 2

Estimate value -> compare with calculated value of line 18 = heat requirement/ planned coverage

W/m

m K/W C W/m K C C C
2

from external calculation or estimate value -> with values from line 7 and 8 from diagram 21 -> from diagram 21 customary are values between 6 to 12 K = Room temperature + excess temperature +Spread / 2 = Supply temperature - Spread =(Supply temperature - return temperature) / 2

=Length * width * Qty of mats =Standard heat capacity * covered floor area -> compare with required heat capacity from line 5; possibly the average water temperature must be raised

Water volume 20 Heating water spread 21 Mass flow water 22 Temperature below the floor 23 Thermal conductance factor to bottom 24 Capacity to the bottom 25 Corrected mass flow of water 26 Water volume per zone K ltr./m2 h C W/m K W/m
2 2

= Supply temperature - return temperature =(required heat capacity * 3600 / spread * 4180) Temperature below the floor from external calculation = Thermal conductive fact to bottom*(aver water temp - temp bott) =(required heat capac+ capac to bottom*3600 /Spread*4180) =corrected mass flow/60*covered floor area =corrected mass flow * covered floor area

ltr./m h ltr./min ltr./h

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TI-T07

Charts and Forms TI-T08 Lay-out for KaRo Wall Heating System

Lay-out for KaRo Wall Heating System


Project : Project consultant : Date :

Room Data 1 Room temperature 2 Length of wall 3 Height of wall 4 Heat requirement of room Required Heat Capacity 5 Planned coverage of wall 6 Required specific heat capacity Performance Calculation 7 Plaster quality 8 Thermal conductive factor 9 Plaster thickness above the mat 10 Resistance characteristic value 11 Effective excess temperature: heating water 12 Standard heating capacity 13 Spread 14 Supply temperature 15 Return temperature 16 average water temperature Selection of the BEKA Mats 17 Qty of mats per zone / wall 18 Length of mat 19 Width of mat 20 With mats covered wall area 21 Real heating capacity of wall Qty m m m W =Lenth * width * Qty of mats =Standard heating capacity * covered wall area -> compare with required heat capac from line 6; possibly the average water temp must be raised Water volume 22 Heating water spread 23 Mass flow of water 24 Water volume per zone/wall K l/m h l/min l/h =Supply temperature - return temperature = required heating capac * 3600 / spread * 4180 =Mass flow / 60 * covered wall area =Massflow*covered wall area C W/m K C C C W/mK mm -> from chart/diagram 29 -> with values from line 6 and 10 from diagram 29 -> from diagram 29 customary are values between 6 to 12 K = Room temperature + excess temperature+Spread / 2 = Supply temperature -Spread =(Supply temp - return temp) / 2 m W/m Estimate value -> compare with calc value from line 18 =Heat requirement / planned coverage C m m W from calculation of the planning offices

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TI-T08

Charts and Forms TI-T09 Quick Lay-out for Wall Heating with KaRo Prefabricated Panels

Quick Lay-out for Wall Heating with KaRo Prefabricated Panels


Project: Project consultant : Required Heating Capacity 1 Heat requirement for room 2 Planned qty of units 3 Required heating capacity per unit Capacity Determination W Qty W from calculation of planning offices max.possible arrangement derived from room measurements = heat requirement / qty of units Date : Lay-out valid for 22C room temperature and 6K heating water spread !

Quick lay-out for wall heating with B.GK12


180 Heating capacity [W/unit] 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 Supply temperature [C]

10

12

15

17

20

22

Mass flow of the heating water per unit [kg/h]

100

200

300

400

550

700

850

1000

1150

1300

Pressure loss of the unit [Pa]

valid for room temperature of 22C and heating water spread of 6K and 300 mm connection hose

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature Pressure loss determination 6 Pressure loss in pipe = pipe length * resistance 7 Pressure loss of the unit -> with value of line 3 from diagram 8 Addition for pressure loss by fittings (recomm. 30% additions to pipe) 9 Additions for heat transfer station (recomm:for zone valves 500 to 1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 to 1500 Pa for heat exchanger appox. 4000 Pa 10 Total Pressure Los

C C

Water volume per unit Water volume per zone or wall

kg/h l/h

-> from diagram

Pa Pa

length of connection pipe resistance in the pipe - from diagram

m Pa/m

only one line path value - from diagram

Pressure Loss in a pipe 20x2mm Pa Pa


pressure loss [Pa/m] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Mass flow [kg/h]

Pa

When using the BEKA transfer stations the pressure loss deterination can be ommitted. Only the quantity of the heating circuits and the total capacity is required for the selection.

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TI-T09

Charts and Forms TI-T10 Quick Lay-out for KaRo Cooling Ceilings with KaRo prefabricated ceiling panels

Quick Lay-out for KaRo Cooling Ceilings with KaRo prefabricated ceiling panels
Project : Project consultant : Required cooling load 1 Cooling load for the room 2 Planned quantity units 3 Required cooling capacity per unit Performance determination W Qty W from calculations of planning office max. possible arrangement derived from room dimensions = cooling load / Quantity of units Date: Lay-out valid for 27C room temperature and 2K cooling water spread !

Quick Lay-out for Ceiling Cooling with B.GK12


120 110 Cooling capacity [W/unit] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 Supply temperature [C] 16 15 14 13 12

12

16

19 23 26 30 34 Mass flow of the cooling water per unit [kg/h]

37

41

45

49

300

500

700

900

1100

1300

1500

1700

1900

2100

2300

2550

2800

Pressure loss of unit (Pa]

valid for room temperature 27C and cooling water spread 2K and connection hose 300mm length

4 Supply temperature -> from diagram 5 Return temperature Pressure Loss Determination 6 Pressure loss in pipe = pipe length * resistance 7 Pressure loss of the unit -> with value of line 3 from diagram 8 Addition for pressure loss through fittings (recomm: 30% addition to pipe ) 9 Additions for heat transfer stations (recomm for zone valves 500-1000 Pa for mains regulating valves 700 - 1500 Pa for heat exchanger approx. 4000 Pa 10 Total Pressure Loss By using the BEKA transfer stations the pressure

C C

Water volume per unit Water volume per zone or wall

kg/h ltr./h

-> from diagram

Pa Pa

Length of connection pipe resistance in the pipe -> from diagram

m Pa/m

only one line path value -> from diagram

Pressure loss in the pipe 20x2mm Pa Pa


Pressure loss [Pa/m] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 Mass flow [kg/h]

Pa

loss determinaion can be ommited.Only the quantity of the cooling circuits and the total cooling capacity is required for the selection !

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TI-T10

TI-D01

Diagrams

Cooling Capacity for various Types of KaRo Cooling Ceilings


140 120 Cooling Capacity (W/m) 100 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Temperature difference DT = TR-Twm [K] Example: Metalcassette Ceiling with glued-in acoustic fabric lining and K.U10-mat, covered with a 20mm thick acoustic insert out of mineral wool. Temperature dirfference (roomtemp. average watertemp.) DT= 9,5; -> Coolingcapacity =78 W/m Metalcassette Ceiling with glued-in acousticfabric lining and K.U10-mat Fermacellboard with glued-on K.GG10-mat P lasterboard with glued-on K.GG10-mat P refabricated ceiling panel B.GK12

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TI-D01

TI-D02

Diagrams

Cooling Capacity of KaRo Plaster Ceilings


160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Temperature difference DT=TR-Twm (K)
Type of

plaster

Thermal conductivity for plaster in W/m K 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,87 0,87 0,87 0,87 1,50 1,50 1,50 1,50 0,12 0,12 0,12

Plaster thickness above mats in mm 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 2 4 6

Characteristic Line R21 R32 R41 R70 R24 R38 R52 R90 R12 R18 R23 R38 R10 R13 R15 R24 R39 R55 R72

R10
Gypsum plaster

Cooling capacity (W/m)

R30 R50 R90

Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Gypsum plaster Lime plaster Lime Plaster Lime plaster Lime plaster Concrete plaster Concrete p. Concrete p. Concrete p. Acoustic p. Acoustic p. Acoustic p.

R70

Example: Plaster ceiling with embedded capillary tube mat; Gypsum plaster 10 mm thick over capillary tube (R32); Temperature difference (room temperature average water temperature) DT=9,5 K; results to a cooling capacity of 78 W/m.

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TI-D02

TI-D03

Diagram

Heating Capacity for various Types of KaRo Ceilings

120 Heating Capacity (W/m) 100 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Temperature difference DT=Twm-TR (K)

Metalcassette Ceiling with glued-in acoustic fabric lining and K.U10-mat Fermacell board with glued-on K.GG10-mat Plaster board with glued-on K.GG10mat Prefabricated Ceiling Panel B.GK12

Example: Fermacell board, 10 mm thick with glued-on K.GG.10-mat; Temperature difference (average water temperature - room temperature ) = 9,7 K; results to a heating capacity of 61 W/m

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TI-D03

TI-D04

Diagrams

Heating Capacity of KaRo Plaster Ceiling


120 100 Heating Capacity (W/m) 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Temperature difference DT=Twm-TR (K)
Type of plaster Thermal conductivity factor for plaster in W/m K Gypsum 0,45 Gypsum 0,45 Gypsum 0,45 Gypsum 0,45 Gypsum 0,35 Gypsum 0,35 Gypsum 0,35 Gypsum 0,35 Lime 0,87 Lime 0,87 Lime 0,87 Lime 0,87 Lime 1,50 Concrete 1,50 Concrete 1,50 Concrete 1,50 Acoustic 0,12 Acoustic 0,12 Acoustic 0,12 Plaster ceil- Charactering istic above mat curve in mm 5 R21 10 R32 15 R41 20 R70 5 R24 10 R38 15 R52 20 R90 5 R12 10 R18 15 R23 20 R38 5 R10 10 R13 15 R15 20 R24 2 R39 4 R55 6 R72

R 10 R 30 R 50 R 70 R 90

Example: Plaster ceiling with embedded capillary tube mat; Gypsum plaster 15 mm thick over capillary tubes (R41); Temperature difference (average water temperature room temperature) DT=9,3 K; results to a heating capacity of 63 W/m.

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TI-D05

Diagrams

Permissible Heating Capacity


Maximum permissible heating capacity (W/m)
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 According A.Kollmar: Heat physiological calcuations of heating ceilings, radiation sheets and infra red rays . Ges.-Ing. 1960, S.65 bis 84

Room height H = 3,00 m H = 2,75 m H = 2,50 m

Room width (m)


Example: In a 3,0 m high and 5,5 m wide room the permissible heating capacity is maximum 57 W/m

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TI-D05

TI-D06

Diagrams

Permissible Heating Capacity in Dependence of the covered Ceiling sector


Max. permissible heating capacity per m facade 350 300 250 200 150 100 50
1 ,0 0 1 ,2 0 1 ,4 0 1 ,6 0 1 ,8 0 2 ,0 0 2 ,2 0 2 ,4 0 2 ,6 0 2 ,8 0 3 ,0 0 3 ,2 0 3 ,4 0 3 ,6 0 3 ,8 0 4 ,0 0

length (W/m)

R o o m h e ig h t H = 3 ,0 0 m H = 2 ,7 5 m H = 2 ,5 0 m

W id t h o f t h e c o v e r e d c e i l i n g s t r i p ( m )

Example: In a 2,75 m high room with the width of the covered ceiling strips of 3,3 m the permissible heating capacity may be maximum 210 W/m

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TI-D06

TI-D07

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.U10 (Length from 1,0m to 8,0m)

18000 16000 14000 Pressure loss (Pa) 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 2m 1 m 40 4m 8m 7m 6m 5m

3m

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/mh; length of mat = 5 m; results to a pressure loss of = 9500 Pa

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TI-D07

TI-D08

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of KaRo Mat K.U10 (Length from 1,0 to 2,6m)


2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure loss (Pa) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 40 1,0 m 1,4 m 2,6 m 2,4 m 2,2 m 2,0 m 1,8 m 1,6 m

1,2 m

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/mh; length of mat = 1,6 m; results to a pressure loss of = 950 Pa

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TI-D08

TI-D09

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.G10 (Length from 1,0m to 8,0m )
4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 2m 1m 40 3m 4m

8m

7m

6m

5m

Pressure loss (Pa)

Example : Mass flow water = 27 kg/mh; length of mat = 5 m; results to a pressure loss of = 2900 Pa

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TI-D09

TI-D10

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.G10 (Length from 1,0m to 2,6m)
500 450 2,6 m 400 350 Pressure loss (Pa) 300 250 1,2 m 200 150 100 50 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 40 1,0 m 1,4 m 2,4 m

2,2 m

2,0

1,8 m

1,6 m

Example: Mass flow water = 22 kg/mh; Length of mat = 1,4 m; results to a pressure loss of = 180 Pa

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TI-D10

TI-D11

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.S10 (Length from 1,0 to 8,0m)
18000 8m 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 2m 1m 40 3m 4m 7m 6m 5m

Pressure loss (Pa)

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/mh; Length of mat = 5 m; results to a pressure loss of = 9500 Pa

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TI-D11

TI-D12

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.S10 (Length from 1,0m to 2,6m)
2000 1800 1600 Pressure loss (Pa) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 40 1,4 m 1,2 m 1,0 m 2,6 m 2,4 m 2,2 m 2,0 1,8 m 1,6 m

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/ mh; Length of mat = 1,4 m; result to a pressure loss of = 750 Pa

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TI-D12

TI-D13

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of KaRo Mat K.S15 (Length from 1,0 m to 8,0 m)


25000 8m 20000 Pressure loss (Pa) 7m 6m 5m

15000

4m

10000 3m 5000 2m 0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 1m 40

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/mh; Length of mat = 5 m; result to a pressure loss of = 14000 Pa

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TI-D13

TI-D14

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Mat K.S15 (Length from 1,0 m to 2,6 m)
3000 2,6 m 2500 1,6 m 2000 Pressure loss (Pa) 1,4 m 1500 1,2 m 1000 1,0 m 500 2,4 m 2,2 m 2,0 m 1,8 m

0 10 15 20 25 Mass flow (kg/mh) 30 35 40

Example: Mass flow water = 23 kg/mh; Length of mat = 1,4 m; results to a pressure loss of = 1150 Pa

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TI-D14

TI-D15

Diagrams

Pressure Loss in the Connecting Hose


1650 1500 1350 1200 Pressure loss (Pa) 1050 900 750 600 450 300 150 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Mass flow (kg/h) A.S .500.10 A.S .300.10 A.S .800.10 A.S .1200.10

Example: Mass flow water = 85 kg/h results to a pressure loss of = 615 Pa in a 800 mm long connecting hose

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TI-D15

TI-D16

Diagrams

Pressure Loss in the Pipe (20x2mm)


500 475 450 425 400 375 350

Pressure loss (Pa/m)

325 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 460 520

Total mass flow (kg/h)

Example: Through a pipe of 6 m length 350 kg/h should be flowing through. The pressure loss per 1 m is 250 Pa. This results to a total pressure loss in the pipe of: 6 m x 250 Pa/m = 1500 Pa
04/2002 Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc oN P.1 TI-D16

TI-D17

Diagrams

Pressure Loss in the Elbow Outgoing


500 450 400 350

Pressure loss (Pa)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

intake + outlet

1 outle t

100

110

120

Mass flow (kg/h)

Example: Mass flow water = 83 kg/h ; in both elbows outgoing there will be a pressure loss of 230 Pa

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TI-D17

TI-D18

Diagrams

Flow Speed in Pipes

1,4 1,2 Flow speed (m/s) 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Mass flow (l/min) DN 15 DN 20 DN 25

1,4 1,2 Flow speed (m/s) 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Mass flow (l/min) DN 50 DN 32 DN 40

Example: 85 l/min are flowing through a pipe DN 40 with a flow speed of approx. 1,08 m/s

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TI-D18

Diagrams TI-D18 Flow Speed in Pipes

1,4 1,2 Flow Speed [m/s] 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Mass flow [l/min] DN 63 DN 75 DN

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TI-D18

TI-D19

Diagrams

Heat Transfer Ceiling / Room


12 Thermal transmission coefficient (W/mK)

11

10

7 20 30 40 50 60 C ooling Capacity (W/m) 70 80 90 100

Source: Praxis hand book Haustechnik ATGA, Wien, 1995

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TI-D19

TI-D20

Diagrams

Average Surface Temperature at the Ceiling Underside


23 22

Average ceiling temperature (C)

21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 15 16 17 18 19 20 Construction sheet Femacell Metal cassette ceiling Plaster ceiling Gypsum board ceiling

Average water temperature (C)


Average ceiling temperature at the bottom surface in C at a basis- room temperature of 26C
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TI-D21

Diagrams

Heating Capacity of KaRo Floor Heating


210 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 30 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Temperature difference DT=Twm-TR (K) P arquet R = 0,15 m K /W T iles R = 0,02 m K /W

Heating capacity (W/m)

C a rpet R = 0,10 m K /W

Example: KaRo floor heating covered by tiles; temp difference (average water temp room temp) DT = 8 K; results to a heating capacity of 78 W/m

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TI-D21

TI-D22

Diagrams

Pressure Loss of the KaRo Dry-built Unit B.GK12


3000

2500

2000 Pressure loss (Pa)


Pressure loss in the connecting hose

1500
Pressure loss(Pa)

1000

500

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 10

A.S.1200.10 A.S.800.10 .1200.10 A.S.500.10 A.S.300.10

15

20 25 30 Mass flow (l/h)

35

40

0 12 18 24 30 Mass flow (ltr./ unit height)


Example: Mass flow water = 24 l / unit height; results to a pressure loss of = 1300 Pa
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36

42

48

TI-D23

Diagrams

Frequency of the Dew Point


Above the permissible Value with 12 Operating hours
7

Sum frequency (%)

F rankfurt am Main 4 S tuttgart 3 Berlin 2

0 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Dew point of the outside air (C)

Example : Outside temperature for Berlin 16 C , Frequency of Dew Point = 2,1%

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TI-D23

TI-D24

Diagrams

Average Heat Transfer Coefficient of Buildings


2,0 1,8 Thermal transmittance co-efficient (W/mK) 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 Ratio A/V A = total enclosed area in m
04/2002

Old buildings

Enhanced thermal insulation

Buildings up to 1976

very high thermal insulation

0,8

1,0

1,2

V = total building volume in m


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TI-D25

Diagrams

Basic Characteristic Curve: Cooling Capacity of an ideal Radiation Cooling Ceiling


160

140

120

Cooling capacity (W/m2)

100

80

60

40

20

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Temperature difference DT= TR-TD (K) TR = room temperature TD = average ceiling temperature at the underside
04/2002 Learning from Nature www.KaRo.cc P.1 TI-D25

TI-D26

Diagrams

Heat Volume - Water Volume


2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 40
200 160 120 80 40 0 10

Heat volume [W]

3 K s pread 2 K s pread 20 30 40 50

Heat volume [W]

3 K s pread

Water volume [kg/h]

2 K s pread

80

120

160

200

240

280

320

360

400

440

480

520

560

600

Water volume [kg/h]


Example: For a required heat volume of 305 Watt there are 130 kg/h water necessary with a spread of 2 K .

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TI-D26

TI-D27

Diagrams

Cooling Capacity for Wall Cooling with KaRo Dry-build Units


120 100 Cooling capacity (W / Element) 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Temperature difference DT = TR - Twm (K)

Example: The KaRo dry-build construction unit B.GK.12, at a temp. difference (room temp. average water temp.) DT = 10 K, achieves a cooling capacity of 69 W.
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TI-D28

Diagrams

Heating Capacity of Wall Heating with KaRo Dry-build Units


165 150 135 Heating capacity (W / Unit) 120 105 90 75 60 45 30 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Temperature differnce DT= TR - Twm (K)
Example: The dry-build unit B.GK.12, at a temperature difference (average water temp.- room temp.) DT = 9 K, will reach a heating capacity of 62 W.

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TI-D28

TI-D29

Diagrams

Heating Capacity of the KaRo Wall Heating


180 160 140

Type of Plaster

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 4 6 8 10 12 14

R 10 R 50

R 30 R 70 R 90

Gypsum Gypsum Gypsum Gypsum Gypsum Gypsum Lime Lime Lime Concrete Concrete concrete
20

Thermal conductivity factor for plaster in W/m K 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,87 0,87 0,87 1,50 1,50 1,50

Plaster Characthickness teristic over mats in mm 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20 curve R32 R41 R70 R38 R52 R90 R18 R23 R38 R13 R15 R24

Heating capacity (W/m)

16

18

Temperature difference DT=Twm-TR (K)

Example: Wall heating with embedded capillary tube mat; gypsum plaster, 15 mm thick, over the capillaries (R41); Temperature difference (average water temp room temp) DT=9,3 K; results to a heating capacity of 63 W/m.

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Diagrams

Pressure Loss of Series Connections at KaRo-Mats 600x600mm


9 8 7 6 Pressure loss (kPa) 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 20 Mass flow (kg/(mh)) 30 40

1 Mat 2 Mats 3 Mats 4 Mats 5 Mats 6 Mats

Example: For KaRo mats K.G10.0600.0600.20 in one row, a mass flow of 35 kg/(mh) will result to a pressure loss of 6,13 Pa.

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Formulas

Formulas
Building Identification Data
Height Factor KH KH = 1,117 - 0.045 H [m] with: H - room height valid for 2,5m < H < 5m Load Factor KK KK = (qiL + qeL) / (qiL + qeL/2) with: qiL - internal specific cooling load [W/m2] qeL - external specific cooling load [W/m2] KK maximum = 1,2 permissible (2) (1) DG = AD / AB with: AD - ceiling area covered with mats [m2] AB - floor area of room [m2] Factor of coverage KB KB = 1,21 - 0,3 DG valid for 0,3 < DG < 1,0 Constant factor, room KR KR = KH KK KL KB (8) (7)

Cooling Ceiling Capacity


Average water temperature TWM (9)

Ventilation
Specific cooling load of draft qL qL [W/m2 ] = vL TL cL L with: vL - specific air intake volume flow [m3/hm2] TL- temperature difference exhaust-intake [K] cL - specific heat capacity of the air = 1004 J/kgK L - density of the air = 1,14 kg/m3 or qL [W/m2 ] = 0,32 vL T Ventilation Factor KL (5) (4) (3)

TWM [C ] = (TVL + TRL) / 2 with; TVL - supply temperature [C] TRL - return temperature [C] Effective under temperature TU TU [C ] = TR - TWM with TR room air temperature [C] Required specific capacity for cooling ceiling qERF qERF [W/m ] = qGA - qL with qGA - total cooling load in reference to floor area [W/m2] Specific Standard Cooling Capacity qN according DIN 4715 qN [W/m ] = C T
2 n U 2

(10)

(11)

Ventilation system Ventilation factor KL Basic airflow 1,00 Climate convector 1,08 Ceiling slot outlet 1,10 Ceiling momentum outlet 1,13

(12)

Ceiling Construction
Degree of coverage, ceiling DG (6)

with C constant factor n - exponential function see enclosure

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Formulas TI-F Formulas

Actual Specific Cooling Capacity to bottom qT qT [W/m2 ] = KR qN Specific Capacity to Top qO qO [W/m2 ] = kO ( T - TWM ) with kO Thermal conductance factor to top [W/m2K] T Temperature above the ceiling [C]

(13)

Flow / Pressure Loss


Velocity of flow w (21)

(14)

w [m/s] = V /AS with V volume flow [m3/s] AS sectional area of flow [m2] or w [m/s] = 21,22 m / di2 with m water volume [l/min] di - pipe diameter [mm] Pressure loss in the pipe pR pR [Pa] = L / (d 10-3) /2 w2 i with - pressure loss coefficient L - length of pipe [m] - density [kg/m3] or pR [Pa] = 499200 L / di w2 with W density of water = 998,4 kg/m3 Pressure loss at fittings and passages pF (24) (23) (22)

Heat Flow Density (Basis characteristic curve) qi (15) qi [W/m2] = 8,92 ( Ti - TD )1,1 with Ti - room temperature [C] TD average ceiling temp. at bottom side [C] Internal Thermal transmittance coefficient (16) [W/m2K] = qi / (tD - TWM) with TWM average cooling water temperature [C] for capillary tube mats 110 W/m2K

Mass Flow
Cooling water spread SP SP [K] = TVL - TRL Specific mass flow water mW mW [kg/m h] = 3600 qN / (cW SP ) with cW - specific heat capacity of water = 4180 J/kgK oder mW [kg/m2h] = 0,861 qN / SP Corrected Specific Mass Flow Water mKW mKW [kg/m h] = 0,861 (qN + qO ) / SP
2 2

(25)

(17)

pF [Pa] = w2 /2 with - Resistance coefficient according chart

(18)

(19)

Type of Fitting Sleeve connector Elbow, wide Elbow, narrow Expansion T-Junction, Separation T-Junction, Union T-Passage, Separation T-Passage, Union T-Counter current Pressure loss at valves pV

- Value 0,0 0,5 0,3 0,5 1,5 1,0 0,0 0,5 3,0 (26)

(20)

pV [Pa] = (ma / kVS)2

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Formulas TI-F Formulas

with ma queued up mass flow [kg/h] kVS value according manufacturer [m3/h] Pressure loss in the capillary tube mat pM 1 (27) pM [Pa] = V2 8 / 2 1/ ( nK dK5 / ( dK + K LM) )2 + (S B/dS + nK) wS2 /2 with V - Volume flow [m3/s] nK - Quantity of capillary tubes dK - Inner diameter of capillary tube [m] K - Friction factor of capillary tube LM - Extended length of capillary tube mat [m] S - Friction factor of mains B - Length of mains or width of mat [m] dS - Inner diameter of mains [m] - Resistance coefficient for junction = 0,04 wS Velocity of flow in the mains [m/s] Reynolds number Re Re = w di or Re = w di 103 with - kinematical Viscosity for water [10-6 m2/s] w Velocity of flow [m/s] di Inner diameter [mm] Pressure loss coefficient for Re < 2300 = 64 / Re for 2300< Re< 105 = 0,3164/ Re0,25 (29) and (30) (28)

with a - air temperature [C] mrt- average radiation temperature [C] v - air velocity [m/s] or for v< 0,1 m/s res = (a + mrt )/ 2 Average radiation temperature mrt mrt [C] = ( i Ai ) / Ai with i - surface temperature of the area Ai Valid when the emission coefficients of the particular surfaces are equal (standard case); Is not valid if in the room in question infra red reflective layers have been used ! Required air exchange2 VLW VLW [m3/h] = VCO2 / ( CCO2I - CCO2A) with VCO2 - CO2 - Emission in the room [l/h] CCO2I - CO2I Concentration in room air [l/m3] CCO2A- CO2A Concentrat. in outside air [l/m3] (34) (33) (32)

Stability
Comparative tension V V [MPa]= pi (da - s )/ (2 s) with pi - inside pressure [MPa] da - outer diameter of pipe [mm] s - wall thickness of pipe [mm] (35)

Comfortableness
Percept Temperature2 res res [C] = a a + (1- a ) mrt where a = 0,5 + 0,25 v (31)

Heat Flow / Heat Transition


Heat flow through a surface / wall Q Q [W] = k A T with k - overall heat transfer coefficient [ W/m2K] A - area of component [m2] T- temperature difference outside/inside [K] (36)

Vogel Fachbuch: Wagner - Strmung und Druckverlust, Vogel Buchverlag Wrzburg 1992 2 Source: Praxishandbuch Haustechnik, Akademie fr technische Gebudeausrstung, Wien 1995
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k-Value k k [ W/m2K] = 1 / ( 1/i + 1/a + si / i )

(37)

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Formulas TI-F Formulas

with i - inner Thermal transition coefficient [W/m2K] inner Thermal transition resistance Ri = 1 / i = 0,13 m2K/W a- outer thermal transition coefficient W/m2K] outer thermal transition resistance Ra = 1 / a = 0,04 m2K/W si - thickness of layer [m] i - thermal conductivity of the layer [W/mK] Average k-value km km [ W/m2K] = (kW AW + 0,8 kD AD + 0,5 kB AB + kF AF) / Ages with kW,D,B,F - k-value for wall; ceiling; floor; windows [ W/m2K] AW;D;B;F - area of wall; ceiling; floor; window [ W/m2K] Ages - total embracing area [m2] (38)

Heat
Approximate heat requirement QW QW [W] = (km Ao/V + 0,34 nW ) Vo T with km - average overall heat transfer coefficient W/m2K] Ao - total embracing area [m2] Vo - total building volume [m3] nW - rate of hourly air exchange=0,5 to 1,0 [h-1] T - temperature difference outside/inside [K] (39)

Enclosure: collection of formulas Conversion-table for Pressure Units


units 1 bar = bar 1 mbar 1000 1 0,01 10 0,1 980,7 0,0981 1,33322 1013,25 68,9576 Pa 100 000 100 1 1000 10 98066,5 9,80665 133,322 101325 6894,76 kPa 100 0,1 0,001 1 0,01 98,0665 98,0665 x10-4 0,133322 101,325 6,89476 daPa 10 000 10 0,1 100 1 9806,6 0,981 13,3322 10132,5 689,746 kp/cm2 at 1,01972 1,01972 x10-3 1,01972 x10-5 0,010197 1,0197 x10-4 1 0,0001 1,35951 x10-3 1,03323 0,070307 mmWs kp/m2 10197 10,197 0,10197 101,97 1,0197 10 000 1 13,5951 10332,3 703,07 mmHg Torr 750,062 0,750062 0,007501 7,501 0,075 735,56 0,0736 1 760 51,7149 atm 0,986923 0,986923 x10-3 9,86923 x10-6 9,86923 x10-3 0,987 x10-4 0,9678 0,9678 x10-4 1,31579 x10-3 1 0,068046 psi lb/in2 14,5038 0,014504 1,45038 0,145038 0,00145 14,2233 0,001242 0,019337 14,6959 1

1 mbar = 0,001 1 Pa = 10-5 2 1 N/m = 1 kPa = 0,01

1 daPa = 10-4 1kp/cm2 = 0,9807 1 at = 1mmWs= 0,9807 x10-4 1 Torr = 1,33322 -3 1mmHg = x10 1 atm = 1,01325

1 psi = 0,06895 1 lb/in2 =

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Formulas TI-F Formulas

Units and abbreviations used in formulas


Abbreviations A AB AD Ao AS B C cL cW da DG di dK H k KB KH KK KL km kO KR kVS L LM m ma mKW mW n nK pi qeL qERF qGA qi qiL qL qN qO qT Q QW Re s si SP TD Ti TR TRL TU T TVL Contents Area, generally Floor area of a room Ceiling area covered with mats Total embraced area of a room Square area of flow Width of mat e.g. length of mains Coefficient for DIN-standard capacity Specific heat capacity of air = 1004 J/kgK Specific heat capacity of water =4180 J/kgK Outer diameter of a pipe Degree of ceiling coverage correction factor cooling load Pipe inner diameter Inner diameter of capillary tube Room height Overall heat transfer coefficient - k-value Degree of coverage correction value: cooling load Height factor correction value: cooling load Load factor correction value: cooling load Ventilation factor correction value: cooling load Average k-value k- value to top (above) Room constant factor correction value cooling load Specific flow rate according to manufacturer Length, generally Length of mat Volume of water Queued-up mass flow Corrected specific water mass flow Specific mass flow water Exponential function for DIN-standard capacity Quantity of capillary tubes at the mains of a mat Internal pressure of a pipe Specific external cooling load Required specific capacity of a cooling ceiling Specific total cooling load Heat flow density Specific internal cooling load Specific cooling load for air intake Standard cooling capacity according DIN 4715 Specific cooling capacity to top (above) Actual specific cooling capacity Heat flow, generally Estimated heat requirement Reynolds number Wall thickness of a pipe Layer thickness Cooling water spread Average ceiling temperature at the bottom (side) Room temperature Room air temperature Return temperature of the cooling water Effective under temperature Temperature above the ceiling Supply temperature of the cooling water Units m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m J/kgK J/kgK mm mm m m W/m2K

W/m2K W/m2K m3/h m m l/min kg/h kg/m2h kg/m2h

MPa W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W W mm m K C C C C C C C

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Formulas TI-F Formulas

TWM v V vL VLW Vo w wS a i i K S pF pM pR pV TL L W a i mrt res V

Average water temperature Air velocity Volume flow Specific air intake flow Required air exchange rate Total building (or) room volume Velocity of flow Velocity of flow in the mains Outer, thermal transition coefficient Inner, thermal transition coefficient Pressure loss coefficient Thermal conductivity of a layer Pressure loss coefficient in the capillary tube Pressure loss coefficient in the mains Inner thermal transition coefficient Pressure loss at the fitting Pressure loss of the mat Pressure loss of the pipe Pressure loss at the valve Temperature difference air intake exhaust air Density of air = 1,14 kg/m3 Density of water = 998,4 kg/m3 Air temperature Surface temperature of an area Average radiation temperature of an area Percept temperature Comparative tension Resistance coefficient

K m/s m3/s m3/hm2 m3/h m3 m/s m/s W/m2K W/m2K W/mK

W/m2K Pa Pa Pa Pa K kg/m3 kg/m3 C C C C MPa

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