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CITY OF THE SULTAN;

DOMESTIC MANNERS OF THE TURKS,

IN 1836.

BY MISS PARDOE,

AUTHOR OF " TRAITS AND TRADITIONS OF PORTUGAL."

TOWER OF OAJ.AT4.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON HENRY COLBURN, PUBLISHER,

GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET.

1837.

'A,.,

*/

LONDON .'

P. RHOBP.Rl., JUN., I.BICBSTF.R ST R HIST, I-EICBSTbR SQUARB.

SRLF

  • M URL

V. >

CONTENTS

OF

THE SECOND VOLUME.

CHAPTER I.

Departure for BroussaRocky CoastMoudaniaThe Custom House

Translation of the word Backshich The Archbishop of Broussa The Boatman's HouseThe Dead and the Living Laughable CavalcadeDense MistsFine CountryFlowers, Birds, and But- terfliesThe Coffee Hut The Turkish Woman Broussa in the

Distance The Dried-up Fountain Immense Plains Bohemian

GipsiesMountain Streams Turkish Washerwomen Fine Old

WallThe Jews' QuarterThe Turkish KioskOriental Curiosity

A Dream of Home

....

Page

1

CHAPTER II.

Ancient Gate Greek InscriptionsMausoleum of Sultan Orcan Monkish ChronicleThe Turbedar Hanoum Inverted Columns

Painted PillarsSplendid Marbles Tombs of the Imperial Familp

The Greek Cross The Sultan's BeardMausoleum of Sultan

Ali OsmanMonastic VaultsRuined ChapelRemains of a Greek

PalaceBassi RelieviRuined FountainsAncient Fosse

Dense

VegetationNoble Prospect Roman Aqueduct Valley of the SourcePicturesque GroupsCoffee-KiosksAbsence of Preten-

sion among the TurksThe Tale TellerTraveller's Khan Sick

BirdsRoman BridgeArmenian Mother

CHAPTER III.

.

.

21

Orientalism of BroussaCostume of the MenPlain WomenTurbans

and YashmacsFacility of Ingress to the MosquesOulou Jame

Polite Imam Eastern Quasimodo Ascent of the Minaret The

CharsheeTravelling Hyperboles Silk Bazar Silk Merchants

Khan Fountains of Broussa Broussa and LisbonThe Baths

IV

CONTENTS.

Wild FlowersTzekergheMosque of Sultan Mourad Madhouse

Court of the Mosque Singular FountainMausoleum of Sultan

MouradGolden Gate Local LegendThe Tomb-house More

Vandalism Ancient TurbanComfortable Cemeteries Subter- ranean Vault -Great Bath Hot Spring Baths and Bathers

Miraculous BathsArmenian Doctress Situation of Tzekerghe

Storks and TortoisesTurkish Cheltenham

CHAPTER IV.

.

.

38

Difficulty of Access to the Chapel of the Howling DervishesInvitation to Visit their HaremThe ChapelSects and Trades—Entrance of

the DervishesCostumeThe PrayerTurning DervishesFana-

tical SufferingGroans and HowlsDifficulty of DescriptionSec-

tarian Ceremony Music versus Madness Tekie of the Turning

Dervishes

......

CHAPTER V.

60

Loquacious Barber Unthrifty TravellersMount OlympusEarly

Rising Aspect of the Country at DawnPeasants and Travellers

Fine View Peculiarity of Oriental Cities Stunted Minarets Plains and PrecipicesHalting-PlaceDifficulty of Ascending the

MountainChange of SceneryRepast in the DesartCivil Guide Appearance of the MountSnows and SunshineFatiguing Pil-

grimageDense MistsIntense ColdFlitting LandscapeThe

ChiboukThe Giant's GraveThe Roofless HutLake of Appol-

loniaThe WildernessDangerous DescentPhilosophic Guide Storm among the MountainsThe Guide at FaultHappy Discovery

—-Tempest

......

CHAPTER VI.

72

The Armenian Quarter of BroussaCatholics and SchismaticsArme- nian ChurchUgly SaintsBurial Place of the BishopsCloisters

Public SchoolMode of Rearing the Silk WormsDifference

between the European and the Asiatic SystemsColour and Quan-

tity of the ProduceAppearance of the Mulberry Woods .

CHAPTER VII.

90

The Cadi's WifeSingular CustomHa'ise HanoumThe Odalique

The CadiNoisy EnjoymentLying in StateCachemiresCos-

tumeUnbounded Hospitality of the Wealthy TurksThe Dancing

GirlSa'iryn HanoumContrast ....

CHAPTER VIII.

96

TzekergheBustling Depart ureTurkish PatoisWaiting Maids and

CONTENT8.

V

Serving Men Characteristic Cavalcade Chapter of Accidents

Train of CamelsHalt of the CaravanViolent StormArchbishop of BroussaThe Old PalaceReception-RoomPriestly Humility

Greek PriestsWorldly and Monastic ClergyMorals of the Papas

Asiatic PebblesMoudaniaIdleness of the InhabitantsDecay

of the TownPolicy of the Turkish GovernmentDeparture for

Constantinople

Jtt

....

CHAPTER IX.

106

Death in the RevelMarriage of the Princess MihirmahThe Impe- rial VictimThe First LoverCourt CabalPolicy of the Seraskier

The Second SuitorThe MiniatureThe Last GiftInterview

between the Sultan and Mustapha Pasha

CHAPTER X.

.

.

1 18

YenekeuiThe Festival of FireCommemorative ObservanceFond-

ness of the Orientals for IlluminationFrequency of Fires in Con- stantinople Dangerous Customs Fire GuardThe Seraskier's

TowerDisagreeable AlarumNamik PashaThe Festival Loca-

lizedVeronicaBonfires Therapia and BuyukdereSingular Effect of LightThe Armenian HeroineA Wild Dream 134

CHAPTER XI.

A Chapter on CaiquesThe Sultan's BargePrinces and Pashas

The Pasha's WifeThe Admiralty BargeThe Fruit Caique—The

Embassy BargeThe Omnibus Caique Turkish Boatmen The

Caique of Azme BeyPleasant MemoriesThe Chevalier Hassuna de GhiesNatural Politeness of the TurksTurkey and Russia

Sultan MahmoudConfusion of TonguesArif BeyImperial Pre- sentThe Fruit of ConstantinopleThe Two BannersThe Harem

Azime Hanoum

....

CHAPTER XII.

.

143

The Bosphorus in SummerThe Tower of GalataMosque of Topp-

hanneSummer Palace of the Grand VizierSerai of the Princess SaliheSerais and Salemliks Palace of Azme Sidtane Turkish

Music Token Flowers Palace of the Princess Mihirmah The

Hill of the Thousand NightingalesTurkish, Greek, and Armenian

HousesCleanliness of the Orientals*The Armenians Cemetery of IsariThe Castle of EuropeMahomet and the GreeksVillage of MirgheunThe Haunted Chapel of St. NicholasPalace of Prince

CalimachiImperial JealousyDeath of CaliraachiThe Bosphorus by MoonlightLove of the Orientals for FlowersDepth of the

ChannelAn Imperial Brig Turkish JusticeFortunes of

the

vi

CONTENTS.

Turkish FleetSudden TransitionsInfluence of Russian Sophistry The Sultan's PhysiciansNaval AppointmentsRigid Discipline

The Penalty of DisobedienceThe Death-BanquetTahir Pasha

Radical RemedyVice of the Turkish System of Government Unkiar SkelessiA Mill and a Manufactory Pic Nics Arabian

EncampmentBedouin BeautyPoetical Locality

CHAPTER XIII.

.

158

Facts and Fictions Female Execution at ConstantinopleCrime of

the CondemnedTale of the Merchant's WifeThe Call to Prayer

The Discovery The Mother and Son The Hiding-Place The

CaptureThe TrialA Night Scene in the HaremThe Morrow

Mercifulness of the Turks towards their Women

CHAPTER XIV.

.

183

Political Position of the TurksReligion of the OsmanlisAbsence of

Vice among the Lower OrdersDefect of Turkish CharacterEuro- pean SupinenessPolicy of RussiaEngland and FranceA Turkish

Comment on EnglandThe Government and the People Common

VirtueGreat MenTurks of the ProvincesEuropean Misconcep-

tions

.......

CHAPTER XV.

198

Death in a Princely HaremThe Fair Georgian Distinction of Cir-

cassian and Georgian Beauty The Saloon Sentiment of the

HaremCourteous ReceptionDomestic Economy of the Establish-

mentThe Young CircassianEmin BeySingular Custom of the

TurksThe Buyuk HanoumThe Female Dwarf Naivete of the

Turkish Ladies—The Forbidden Door—The Sultan's Chamber—The

Female Renegade Penalty of Apostacy Musical Ceremony

Frank Ladies and True BelieversA Turkish LuncheonDevlehai

HanoumOld Wives versus Young OnesThe Parting GiftThe

Araba The Public Walk— Fondness of the Orientals for Fine

Scenery—The Oak Wood

...

.

.

211

CHAPTER XVI.

Military Festival Turkish Ladies Female Curiosity

Eastern Co-

quetry A Few Words on the Turkish FezThe Imperial Horse-

Guards Disaffection of the Imperial Guard False AlarmsThe ProcessionThe Troops at Pera Imitative Talent of the Turks

Disappointment

.

.

.

.

.

.

231

CHAPTER XVII.

Turkish Ladies " At Home " The Asiatic Sweet Waters Holy

CONTENTS.

Vll

GroundThe Glen of the ValleyHand MirrorsHolyday Groups

Courtesy of the Oriental Females to Strangers The Beautiful

DevoteeThe Pasha's WifeA Guard of HonourChange of Scene

Fortress of MahometAmiability of the Turkish Character 242

CHAPTER XVIII.

The Reiss EffendiDevlehai HanoumThe Fair CircassianThe

PashaCeremonious Observances of the HaremAn Interview

Namik Pasha versus Nourri Effendi Imperial DecorationsThe

Diploma—Turkish GallantryThe ChibouksThe SalemliekThe GardenHoly HorrorThe KioskThe Breakfast—A Party in the

HaremNesibe HanoumThe YashraacThe MasqueradeTurk-

ish Compliments The Slave and the Fruit Merchant

Departure

from the Palace

......

262

CHAPTER XIX.

Imperial GratitudeThe Freed WomanA Female CcelebsHussein

the WatchmakerGolden DreamsArabas and ArabajhesMater-

nal Regrets A Matrimonial Excursion Difficult PositionThe

Sekeljhes A Young Husband The Emir The Officer of the

Guard The Emir's Daughter First Love Ballad Singing A SalutationMoonlightRejected Addresses Ruse de Guerre The Arrest A Lover's DefenceMunificence of the Seraskier

Pasha

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER XX.

.

.278

Turkish Madhouses Surveillance of Sultan MahmoudSelf-Elected

Saints Lunatic Establishment of Solhnanie The Mad Father The ApostateThe Sultan's JugglerSlave MarketCharshee 293

CHAPTER XXI.

The Castle of EuropeThe Traitor's Gate—The Officer of the Guard Military ScruplesThe State Prison—The Tower of BloodThe

Janissaries' Tower Cachots ForcesGuard-roomThe Bow-string

Frightful Death The Signal Gun The Grand Armoury

Flourishing State of the EstablishmentA Dialogue The Barracks

of the Imperial GuardThe Persian Kiosk—Courts and Cloisters

The KitchenThe Regimental SchoolA Coming StormThe Tem- pest Dangerous Passage Turkish Terror Kind-hearted

Ca'iquejhe— Fortunate Escape

....

CHAPTER XXII.

302

The PlagueSpread of the PestilenceThe Greek Victim—Salf- De-

votionDeath of the Plague SmittenThe Widow's WalkPlague

Via

CONTENTS.

EncampmentsThe Infected FamilyThe Greek Girl and her

Lover Non-Conductors Plague PerpetuatorsVulturesMe-

lancholy Concomitants of the PestilenceCarelessness of the Turks

The Pasha of BroussaRashness of the Poorer ClassesUniver-

sality of the Disease in the Capital

.

.

CHAPTER XXIII.

.

317

A Greek MarriageThe Day before the Bridal The Wedding Gar-

mentsCachemiresCeremony of ReceptionThe Golden Tresses

Early Hours of the Greek Church Love of the Greek Women

for FineryThe Bridal Procession The Marriage The Nuptial

CrownsGreek Funerals

....

338

CHAPTER XXIV.

The Fez ManufactorySingular SceneA Turk at Prayers

Pretty

GirlsProgress of Turkish IndustryMustapha Effendi

Process

of Manufactures Omer Effendi and the ArabsAvanis Aga, the

Armenian The Fraud Discovered The Imperial Apartments

Departure for the Sera'i-Boumou The Outer Court The Orta

KapoussiThe Pestle and Mortar of the UlemasThe Garden of DelightThe Column of TheodosiusArrival of the SultanAncient

Greek InscriptionsConfused ImpressionThe Diamond Memo-

ries of Sultan Selim

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER XXV.

.

348

Social Condition of the Eastern Jews Parallel between the Jews of

Europe and the LevantCruelty of the Turkish Children to Jews

A Singular CustomReligions Strictness of the JewsNational Ad-

ministrationThe House of Nairn Zornana of GalataCostume of

the Jewish WomenHebrew Hospitality

.

.

361

CHAPTER XXVI.

Hospitality of the Armenians An Impromptu Visit The Bride

Costly Costume Turkish Taste Kind ReceptionDomestic Eti-

quette of the Schismatic Armenians Armenian Sarafs The Na-

tional Characteristics

.....

CHAPTER XXVII.

373

Season-Changes at ConstantinopleTwilightThe Palace Garden

Mariaritza, the AthenianA Love-tale by MoonlightThe Greek

Girl's SongThe Palace of BeglierbeyInterior DecorationsThe

Bath—The Terraces—The Lake of the Swans—The Air BathThe

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAPTER XXVIII.

The Bosphorus in Mist The Ferdinando Primo Embarkation Tardy PassengersThe Black SeaThe Turkish WomanVarna

Visit to the PashaRustem BeyMustapha Najib PashaTurkish

GallantryThe LinesSunset LandscapeBulgarian Colonies

Discomforts of a Deck Passage

.

.

.

402

CHAPTER XXIX.

The Danube Cossack GuardMoldavian Musquitoes

Tultzin

GalatzPlague-ConductorsPrussian OfficerExcursion to Silis-

triaAmateur Boatmen Wretched Hamlet The Lame Baron

The SaluteSilistrian Peasants A Pic-Nic in the Wilds The

TortoiseCanoes of the DanubeThe Moldavian State-Barge

Picturesque BoatmenThe Water PartyPainful PolitenessVisit

of the Hospodar Suite of His Highness Princely Panic The

Pannonia

......

414

CHAPTER XXX.

HirsovaRussian RelicsTown of Silistria Bravery of the Turks

Village of TurtukiGroup of PelicansGlorious SunsetRuschuk

Cheapness of Provisions The Wallachian Coast Bulgaria Dense FogOravaRoman BathGreen FrogsWiddinKalifet

Scala GlavodaCustom House Officers Disembarkation Wal-

lachian MountainsA Landscape SketchCostume of the Servian

PeasantryThe Village BellePrimitive CarriagesThe Porte de FerThe CrucifixMagnificent SceneryFine Ores . 427

CHAPTER XXXI.

OrsovaCastle of the PassTurkish Guard Quarantaine Ground Village of TekiaAwkward MistakePretty WomanGay Dress

A VisiterServian Cottagers A DiscoveryDeparture A

VolunteerReceiving HouseA Forced MarchThe Grave-Yard The QuarantaineA Welcome to CaptivityA Verbal Coinage

Pleasant QuartersM le Directeur The RestaurantPleasant

Announcement Paternal Care of the Austrian Authorities The Health-Inventory The Guardsman's Sword Medical Visits

Intellectual AmusementsA Friendly Warniug .

.

443

CHAPTER XXXII

The Last Day of Captivity Quarantaine EnclosureBaths of Mahadia

Landscape Scenery Peasantry of HungaryTheir Costume

Trajan's RoadHungarian 'VillageThe Mountain Pass The

BathsA DisappointmentThe Health-InventoryInland Journey

—New Road

.

.

.

'•

.

.

.

458

X

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Departure from Orsova DaybreakThe Mountain-passVillage of PJauwischewitzaAustrian Engineers Literary PopularityThe RapidsSunday in HungaryDrinkovaHolyday GroupsAlibec

VoilovitchPanchova River-ShoalsWild FowlSeinlin

Fortress of BelgradeStreets of SemlinGreek ChurchCastle of HunyadyImperial Barge Agreeable Escort Yusuf Pacha

BelgradePrince MiloschPlague- Pre ventersGeneral Milosch

Servian LadiesTurk-TownRuined Dwellings The Fortress

Osman BeyGate of the TowerFearless TowerRapid Decay of

the FortificationsSclavonian Garden Vintage-FeastSclavouian

Vintage-Song

.

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

471

CarlowitzPeterwarradinBridge of BoatsNeusatzThe Journey

of LifeThe Chevalier PeitrichAustrian OfficersThe Hungarian

PoetIllokThe Ancient SurniumPeel Tower— Intense Cold Flat ShoresMohasch Foldvar Pesth German Postillion

Few Last Words

.

.492

.

THE

CITY OF THE SULTAN.

CHAPTER I.

Departure for BroussaRocky CoastMoudaniaThe Custom House

Translation of the word Backshich The Archbishop of Broussa The Boatman's House The Dead and the Living Laughable CavalcadeDense MistsFine CountryFlowers, Birds, and But- terfliesThe Coffee Hut The Turkish Woman Broussa in the Distance The Dried-up Fountain Immense PlainsBohemian

Gipsies Mountain Streams Turkish Washerwomen Fine Old WallThe Jews' QuarterThe Turkish KioskOriental Curiosity

A Dream of Home.

Having decided on visiting Broussa, we hired

an island caique with four stout rowers, and provided ourselves with plenty of coats and

cloaks, a basket of provisions, and a few volumes

of French classics ; and thus we set sail from

the Golden Horn on the last day of May, leaving

Stamboul all splendour and sunshine.

A brisk northerly wind carried us rapidly out

into the Propontis ; all sails were set ; my father and myself comfortably established among " the wraps," our Greek servant ensconced between

VOL. II.

b

ROCKY COAST. two baskets, the steersman squatted upon the

>&

poop of the boat grinning applause, and reveal-

ing in his satisfaction a set of teeth as white as

ivory ; and, ere long, excepting this last, our

attendant, and myself, every soul on board was

asleep.

In less than two hours, Stamboul had vanished

like

a vision, and could only be traced by the

line

of heavy mist which skirted the horizon.

The coast of Asia Minor was darkening as we

advanced, wearing the dense drapery of vapour

woven by the excessive heatthe mountain

chain,

fantastic in

outline, stretched far as

the eye could reach, and we had already left

behind us the two quaint

rocks which form so

peculiar an object from the heights above Con-

stantinople.

But here the wind failed us alto-

gether ; the slumbering caiquejhes were awak-

ened, the oars were plied, and we moved over

the Sea of Marmora, of which I had such hor-

rible memories, from the night of pain and peril

that I had passed upon it on my way to Turkey,

as though we had been traversing a lake.

Twilight darkened over us thus ; and then a

light breeze tempted us again to set the sails,

and we glided along smoothly, skirting the rocky coast until we reached the point opposite Broussa ; which, sloping rapidly downwards to the beech, suddenly revealed to us the glorious

moon, that was rising broad and red immedi-

MOUDANIA.

6

ately on our track, and tracing a line of light along the ripple which gleamed like gold.

After having sated myself with the bright

moon, the myriad stars, and the mysterious

mountains, at whose base the waves had hol-

lowed caverns, through which they dashed with

a noise like thunder, and once or twice almost

deluded me into a belief that I could distin-

guish the sound of human voices issuing from their depths, I at length yielded to the exces-

sive fatigue that overpowered me ; and, wrap-

ping myself closely in my mantle, I stretched

myself along the bottom of the caique, and did

not again awaken until the boatmen announced our arrival at Moudania.

It was an hour past midnight, and not a

sound came to us from the town.

A score of

Arabian barks were anchored off the shore,

whose seaward houses overhang the water;

the white minarets of the mosques were in strong

relief upon the tall, dark, thickly-wooded moun- tains which rose immediately behind them, and

whence the song of

the nightingales

swept

sweetly and sadly over the ripple ; and had we

not been drenched with the heavy dew that had fallen during the night, I should have been

quite satisfied to remain until daylight in the

caique, which soon entered a little creek in the centre of the town.

But, previously to casting anchor, we were

b2

*

BACKSHICH.

obliged to pull considerably higher up the gulf

in order to show ourselves at the Custom House,

and to exhibit our Teskare, or Turkish pass- port, as well as to submit our two travelling

fc

portmanteaux, and our provision-hamper, to the

inspection of the examining officer.

After a

vast deal of knocking and calling, an individual

was at length awakened, who came yawning

into the caique with a paper-lantern in his

hand, and his eyes only half open ; and who,

after looking drowsily about him, murmured

out " backschish," and prepared to depart; upon

which a few piastres were given to him, and

he returned on shore.

The word backshich is the first of which a

traveller learns the meaning in Turkey ; it sig-

nifies fee,

or

present.

The Pasha receives

backshich for procuring a place or a pension

for some petitioner ; then, of course, it is a pre-

sent, and precisely as unwelcome as it is unex-

pected: the boy who picks up your glove or

your whip, as you ride along the street, demands

backshich he must be fee'd for his civility.

Nothing is to be done in the

country without

backshich. On entering the creek we despatched the

servant and one of the cai'quejhes to the house

of the Greek Archbishop of Broussa, to whom

we had brought a letter, and who had removed

to the coast for the benefit of sea-bathing ; but

THE BOATMAN'S HOUSE.

O

his Holiness was from home, and there was con-

sequently no ingress for us.

In this dilemma,

for hotels there are none, we had no alternative

but to accept for a few hours the hospitality of one of the boatmen, until we could procure

horses to carry us on to Broussa ; and we con-

sequently made our debut in Asia Minor in an

apartment up two

flights of

rickety stairs,

walled with mud, and shivering under our foot- steps. But it suffices to state that the caiquejhe

was a Greek, for it to be understood at once by every Eastern traveller that the house was

cleanly to perfection ; and our reception by the

hostess, even at that untoward hour, courteous

and attentive.

Before the servant had brought the luggage

up stairs, my father, worn out by fatigue, was

sound asleep upon the divan ; and, when the at-

tendant had withdrawn, I also gladly prepared

myself for the enjoyment of a few hours' repose ;

and, casting off my shoes, and winding a shawl

about my head, I took possession of the opposite side of the sofa, and should soon have followed his

example, when I was aroused by the light foot

of the ca'iquejhe's wife in the apartment, who,

opening a small chest, cast over me a sheet and

coverlet as white as snow, and then retired as

quietly as she came.

But that sheet and coverlet changed the

whole tide of my feelings the chest in which

6

THE DEAD AND THE LIVING.

they had been kept was of cypress woodthey

were strongly impregnated with its odour

I

was exhausted by fatigue and excitementand

a thousand visions of death and the grave came

over me in the half dreamy state in which I lay,

that by no means added to my comfort.

With a morbidity of imagination to which I

am unhappily subject, I followed up at length

one fantastic and gloomy image, until I began

to believe myself in a state of semi-existence,

habiting with the dead ; but the delusion was

brief, for I was soon as disagreeably convinced

that my affair was at present altogether with

the living.

I had been warned that Broussa

was as celebrated for its bugs as for its baths,

but I had never contemplated such martyrdom

at Moudania ! I sprang from the

sofa, shook

my habit with all my strength, and then, folding

my fur pelisse for a pillow, I stretched myself

on the carpet, and left the luxuries of the cush- ioned divan to my father ; who, fortunately for

him, proved to be a sounder sleeper than my-

self.

At five o'clock, the horses came to the door ;

and after partaking sparingly of the provisions

which we had brought with us, we drank a cup

of excellent coffee, prepared by our hostess, and

descended to the street ; where my European

saddle, by no means a common sight at Mou-

dania, had collected a crowd of idlers.

LAUGHABLE CAVALCADE.

7

Had Cruikshank been by when we started, we

should assuredly not have escaped his pungent

pencil.

My father led the van, mounted on a

high-peaked country saddle, with a saddle-cloth

of tarnished embroidery, and a pair of shovel

stirrups;

I followed, perched above a coarse

woollen blanket, with my habit tucked up to

preserve it from the stream of filth that was sluggishly making its way through the street

after me came our Greek servant, sitting upon

a pile of cloaks and great coats, holding his pipe

in one hand, and his umbrella in the other ; and

he was succeeded in his turn by the serudjhe who had charge of our luggage, and who rode be-

tween the portmanteaux, balancing the provision

basket before him, dressed in a huge black

turban, ample drawers of white cotton, and a

vest of Broussa silk. The procession was com-

pleted by three attendants on foot, the owners of the horses ; and thus we defiled through the

narrow and dirty streets of Moudania, on our

way

to the ancient capital of the Ottoman

Empire.

For a time the mists were so dense that, al- though we had the sea-sand beneath the hoofs

of our horses, we

could not distinguish the

water ; and, as we turned suddenly to the right,

and traversed a vineyard all alive with labourers,

the

vapours were rolling off the sides of the

hills immediately in front of us.

Feathered

  • 8 FINE COUNTRY.

even to their summits with trees, they appeared

to rest against the thick folds of heavy white

mist in which they had been enveloped during

the night, and

presented the most fantastic

shapes.

I never traversed a more lovely coun-

try ; vineyards were succeeded by mulberry

plantations and olive groves, gardens of cucum-

ber plants,