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Trans fats are formed artificially in the process of pumping hydrogen in the vegetable oil to increase its shelf life. Trans fats increases the risk of health problems including high cholesterol, clogged arteries, obesity and heart disease. Manufacturers like to use Trans fats in their products because they are an inexpensive way to prolong shelf life and keep foods fresher for long. We make use of healthy edible oils such as canola, corn, safflower, sunflower and soy which contains less then 0.5% Trans fat. All our recipes are laboratory tested and we remove the extra Trans fat from the meat products served by us. Many countries have banned on the sale of food containing Trans fat. Although there is no such ban in India, Ramada Powai is India’s first hotel which serves you only trans fat free food. Our mission is to serve delicious food to our customers in the healthiest way. An Evening of Award and felicitation
Mr. Nikhil Raheja, Director of Ramada Powai Group got felicitated by Hon’ble SalmanKhurshid Minister for Corporate Affairs at the 6th Hospitality India & Explore the world Annual International Awards in 2010 for this initiative held at Ashok Hotel, New Delhi.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Types of fats in food
Unsaturated fat o Monounsaturated fat o Polyunsaturated fat o Trans fat
Cis fat Omega fatty acids: ω−3 ω−6 ω−9 Saturated fat o Interesterified fat See also
Fatty acid Essential fatty acid
Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated. Trans fats do exist in nature but also occur during the processing of polyunsaturated fatty acids in food production. The distinction is important because trans fatty acids generated naturally by enzyme action are generally beneficial, whereas those generated by physical agents such as heat or pressure can lead to a variety of health problems. The consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. There is an ongoing debate about a possible differentiation between trans fats of natural origin and trans fats of vegetable origin but so far no scientific consensus was found. Two Canadian studies, that received funding by the Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency  and the Dairy Farmers of Canada, have shown that the natural trans fat vaccenic acid, found in beef and dairy products, may have an opposite health effect and could actually be beneficial compared to hydrogenated vegetable shortening, or a mixture of pork lard and soy fat, e.g. lowering total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In lack of recognized evidence and scientific agreement, nutritional authorities consider all trans fats as equally harmful for health    and recommend that consumption of trans fats be reduced to trace amounts.  Unsaturated fat is a fat molecule containing one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms. Since the carbons are double-bonded to each other, there are fewer bonds connected to hydrogen, so there are fewer hydrogen atoms, hence the name, 'unsaturated'. Cis and trans are terms that refer to the arrangement of the two hydrogen atoms bonded to the carbon atoms involved in a double bond. In the cis arrangement, the hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond. In the trans arrangement, the hydrogens are on opposite sides of the double bond. The process of hydrogenation adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats, eliminating double bonds and making them into partially or completely saturated fats. However, partial hydrogenation, if it is chemical rather than enzymatic, converts a part of cis-isomers into trans-unsaturated fats instead of hydrogenating them completely. Trans fats also occur naturally in a limited number of
(August 2010) .1 Manufacturer response o 7. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.cases: Vaccenyl and conjugated linoleyl (CLA) containing trans fats occur naturally in trace amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants.4 Brazil o 6.5 Canada o 6.2 Major users' response 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links History The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.2 Argentina o 6.6 Denmark o 6.1 State and local regulation in the United States 7 Food industry response o 7.7 Switzerland o 6. although the latter also constitutes a cis fat.1 Coronary heart disease 6 Public response and regulation o 6.8 European Union o 6.1 International o 6.10.3 Australia o 6. Contents 1 History 2 Chemistry 3 Presence in food 4 Nutritional guidelines 5 Health risks o 5.10 United States 6.9 United Kingdom o 6.
Normann built a fat-hardening facility in the Herford company.000 tonnes. In 1909. Limited. the invention was extended to a large-scale plant in Warrington. The method of hydrogenating fat and turning a liquid fat into a .Cover of original Crisco cookbook. It took only two years until the hardened fat could be successfully produced in the plant in Warrington. and synthetic methanol industries. they began marketing the first hydrogenated shortening. in 1911.S. The initial year's production totalled nearly 3. During the years 1905 – 1910. England. dietary fats consisted primarily of butterfat. At the same time. Normann's hydrogenation process made it possible to stabilize affordable whale oil or fish oil for human consumption. at Joseph Crosfield & Sons. commencing production in the autumn of 1909. What to do with that oil became an issue. soybeans began to be imported into the U. soybean oil was a by-product.S. it did not gain acceptance in the U. and patented the process in 1902. the German chemist Wilhelm Normann showed in 1901 that liquid oils could be hydrogenated. which enabled the margarine. as a source of protein. In the early 20th century. 1912 Nobel laureate Paul Sabatier worked in the late 1890s to develop the chemistry of hydrogenation. During Napoleon’s reign in France in the early 19th century. there was not enough butterfat available for consumers. Procter & Gamble acquired the US rights to the Normann patent. a type of margarine was invented to feed the troops using tallow and buttermilk. Crisco (composed largely of partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil). Further success came from the marketing technique of giving away free cookbooks in which every recipe called for Crisco. beef tallow. Prior to 1910. Whereas Sabatier considered hydrogenation of only vapors. At the same time. oil hydrogenation. and lard. a practice kept secret to avoid consumer distaste.
the carbon chain extends from opposite sides of the double bond. the refrigerator. In trans configuration. which. monoglycerides and fatty acids to form a "cooking fat" that acts the same way as trans and saturated fats. in cis configuration. In the 1940s. cookies. pies. unlike butter. Hydrogenated fat such as Crisco and Spry. however. Campaigns were launched by activists to bring attention to the issue and change the practices of food manufacturers. the argument was a financial one due to lower costs. as processed vegetable fats replaced animal fats in the US and other western countries. A double bond may exhibit one of two possible configurations: trans or cis. Mandatory food labeling for trans fats was introduced in several countries. Crisco was reformulated to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration definition of "zero grams trans fats per serving" (that is less than one gram per tablespoon. Production of hydrogenated fats increased steadily until the 1960s. or up to 7% by weight. Later.solid one had been discovered. Trans (Elaidic acid) Elaidic acid is the principal trans Cis (Oleic acid) Oleic acid is a cis unsaturated Saturated (Stearic acid) Stearic acid is a saturated fatty . sold in England. or less than 0. was a factor in trans fat development. the means for storage. it was estimated that trans fats caused 20. allowed margarine to be taken out of the refrigerator and immediately spread on a slice of bread. Dr Catherine Kousmine researched the effects of trans fats on cancer. water. trans fat refers to a lipid molecule that contains one or more double bonds in trans geometric configuration. rendering a straighter molecule. As early as 1956 there were suggestions in the scientific literature that trans fats could be a cause of the large increase in coronary artery disease but after three decades the concerns were still largely unaddressed. Studies in the early 1990s. In January 2007. rendering a bent molecule. Margarine made from hydrogenated soybean oil began to replace butterfat. such hydrogenated fat was found to provide superior baking properties compared to lard. advocates also said that the unsaturated trans fats of margarine were healthier than the saturated fats of butter. soybean and canola).5 grams per serving size) by boosting the saturation and then diluting the resulting solid fat with unsaturated vegetable oils. brought renewed scrutiny and confirmation of the negative health impact of trans fats. By some minor changes to the chemical composition of hydrogenated fat. and now the ingredients (soybeans) and the "need" (shortage of butter) were there. In 1994. faced with the prospect of an outright ban on the sale of their product. and cakes in 1920. began to replace lard in the baking of bread. The fat industry found that hydrogenated fats provided some special features to margarines. whereas. the carbon chain extends from the same side of the double bond. A University of Guelph research group has found a way to mix oils (such as olive. Chemistry In chemical terms. At first.000 deaths annually in the US from heart disease.
unsaturated fatty acid often found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. therefore. In unsaturated fatty acids. it is said to be saturated. Carbon atoms are tetravalent. In saturated fatty acids. fatty acid that comprises 55–80% of olive oil. . all their bonds are freely rotatable. Saturated fatty acids are never called trans fats because they have no double bonds. This fatty acid contains no double These fatty acids are geometric isomers (structurally identical except bond and is not isomeric with the for the arrangement of the double bond). Stearic acid is neither cis nor trans because it has no double bonds. otherwise. Other types of fatty acids such as crepenynic acid. it is unsaturated to some degree. acid found in animal fats and is the intended product in full hydrogenation. If the molecule contains no double bonds. whereas hydrogen atoms bond with only one other atom. which contains a triple bond. Fatty acids are characterized as either saturated or unsaturated based on the presence of double bonds in its structure. and. previous two. each carbon atom is connected to its two neighbour carbon atoms as well as two hydrogen atoms. forming four covalent bonds with other atoms. the carbon atoms that are missing a hydrogen atom are joined by double bonds rather than single bonds so that each carbon atom participates in four bonds. since only a double bond can be locked to these orientations. Only unsaturated fats can be trans or cis fat. are rare and of no nutritional significance.
with a corresponding reduction in the number of double bonds. The first step is reversible. meaning "across". Production of trans fatty acids is therefore an undesirable side effect of partial hydrogenation.Wilhelm Normann patented the hydrogenation of liquid oils in 1902 Hydrogenation of an unsaturated fatty acid refers to the addition of hydrogen atoms to the acid. Typical commercial hydrogenation is partial in order to obtain a malleable mixture of fats that is solid at room temperature. than oleic acid. due to the ability of the trans molecules to pack more tightly. the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonds of the carbon chain (cis configuration — from the Latin. The trans configuration is the lower energy form. For example. producing a saturated fatty acid. oleic acid and elaidic acid are both unsaturated fatty acids with the chemical formula C9H17C9H17O2. containing the same number of atoms. the goal is to decrease the number of double bonds and increase the amount of hydrogen in the fatty acid. The second step is the addition of hydrogen to the remaining carbon. Catalytic partial hydrogenation necessarily produces trans-fats. Instead. with the other. causing double bonds to become single ones. such that the . forming a solid that is more difficult to break apart. This type of configuration is called trans. The same molecule. Partial hydrogenation results in the addition of hydrogen atoms at some of the empty positions. Full hydrogenation results in a molecule containing the maximum amount of hydrogen (in other words. In the first reaction step. as carbon atoms acquire new hydrogen partners (to maintain four bonds per carbon atom). This changes the consistency of the fatty acid and makes it less prone to rancidity (in which free radicals attack double bonds). and is favored when catalytically equilibrated as a side reaction in hydrogenation. with a double bond in the same location. They both have a double bond located midway along the carbon chain.4 °C. carbon being attached to the catalyst. partial hydrogenation reconfigures most of the double bonds that do not become chemically saturated. because of the reaction mechanism. The trans fatty acid elaidic acid has different chemical and physical properties. owing to the slightly different bond configuration. one hydrogen is added. coordinatively unsaturated. the conversion of an unsaturated fatty acid into a saturated one). while the cis configuration is noticeably kinked as can be seen from the three-dimensional representation shown above. the goal is not to simply change the configuration of double bonds while maintaining the same ratios of hydrogen to carbon. meaning "on the same side"). In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids. 13. It is the configuration of this bond that sets them apart. from the Latin. However. twisting them so that the hydrogen atoms end up on different sides of the chain. 45 °C. This notably means that it is a solid at human body temperatures. The trans configuration is straighter. In food production. but melts upon baking (or consumption). It has a much higher melting point. can be either a trans or a cis fatty acid depending on the configuration of the double bond. The configuration has implications for the physical-chemical properties of the molecule.
regardless the starting material.and a transfatty acid. The intermediate with only one hydrogen added contains no double bond and can freely rotate. which include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid. of which trans is favored. the double bond can re-form as either cis or trans. the high-pressure-processed oil produced margarine containing 5 to 6% trans fat. Milk and meat from cows and other ruminants contains naturally occurring trans fats in small quantities A type of trans fat occurs naturally in the milk and body fat of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) at a level of 2–5% of total fat. Thus. or small high-performance liquid chromatography columns of silica gel with bonded phenylsulfonic acid groups whose hydrogen atoms have been exchanged for silver ions).hydrogen is readsorbed on the catalyst and the double bond is re-formed. originate in the rumen of these animals. Animal-based fats were once the only trans fats consumed. The standard 140 kPa (20 psi) process of hydrogenation produces a product of about 40% trans fatty acid by weight. Measurement techniques include chromatography (by silver ion chromatography on thin layer chromatography plates. CLA has two double bonds. labeling requirements (see below). Natural trans fats. the manufacturer could claim the product was free of trans fat. The role of silver lies in its ability to form complexes with unsaturated compounds. which makes it simultaneously a cis. Complete hydrogenation also hydrogenates any produced trans fats to give saturated fats. Presence in food Salers Cow. but by far the largest amount of trans fat consumed today is created by the processed food industry as a side effect of partially . Based on current U. compared to about 17% using the high-pressure method.S. The level of trans fat may also be altered by modification of the temperature and the length of time during hydrogenation. They varied the pressure under which the chemical reaction was conducted — applying 1400 kPa (200 psi) of pressure to soybean oil in a 2-liter vessel while heating it to between 140 °C and 170 °C. Trans fat levels may be measured. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture have investigated whether hydrogenation can be achieved without the side effect of trans fat production. Gas chromatography and mid-infrared spectroscopy are other methods in use. one in the cis configuration and one in trans. Blended with unhydrogenated liquid soybean oil.
and baked goods industries. snack food. fried food. Partial hydrogenation increases product shelf life and decreases refrigeration requirements. and 7% in Canada and the United States. Up to 45% of the total fat in those foods containing artificial trans fats formed by partially hydrogenating plant fats may be trans fat. Reported percentages of trans fats (compared to total fats) in human milk range from 1% in Spain. At KFC. (September 2010) .hydrogenating unsaturated plant fats (generally vegetable oils). Partially hydrogenated plant oils. whereas animal fats from ruminants such as butter contain up to 4%. and for vegetarians and vegans. Margarines not reformulated to reduce trans fats may contain up to 15% trans fat by weight. non-hydrogenated vegetable oils that have lifespans exceeding that of the frying shortenings became available.  Baking shortenings. as they can be used for longer than most conventional oils before becoming rancid. and also non-hydrogenated plant shortenings made from naturally saturated palm oil. As fast-food chains routinely use different fats in different locations. coconut oil and palm kernel oil. in general. partially hydrogenated oils have the right consistency to replace animal fats such as butter and lard at lower cost. Partially hydrogenated oils have been used in food for many reasons. These partially hydrogenated fats have displaced natural solid fats and liquid oils in many areas. They can only be made by cooking with a very high heat. the pattern was reversed with Hungary's product containing twice the trans fat of the New York product. contain 30% trans fats compared to their total fats. an analysis of samples of McDonald's French fries collected in 2004 and 2005 found that fries served in New York City contained twice as much trans fat as in Hungary. the most notable ones being in the fast food. at temperatures impossible in a household kitchen. In the early 21st century. 2% in France. Trans fats are used in shortenings for deep-frying in restaurants. Even within the US there was variation. Many baked foods require semi-solid fats to suspend solids at room temperature. 4% in Germany. Nutritional guidelines The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. For example. It has been established that trans fats in human milk fluctuate with maternal consumption of trans fat. and 28 times as much as in Denmark (where trans fats are restricted). with fries in New York containing 30% more trans fat than those from Atlanta. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. They are also an inexpensive alternative to other semi-solid oils such as palm oil. trans fat levels in fast food can have large variations. and that the amount of trans fats in the bloodstream of breastfed infants fluctuates with the amounts found in their milk. can be used to replace animal fats in foodstuffs for adherents to the dietary rules of Kashrut (kosher) and Halal.
One theory is that the human lipase enzyme works only on the cis . Health risks Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been an increasingly significant part of the human diet for about 100 years (in particular. Despite this concern. Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy. since the later half of the 20th century and where more processed foods are consumed). Fatty Acids. First.The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) advises the United States and Canadian governments on nutritional science for use in public policy and product labeling programs. whether of animal or plant origin. Their recommendations are based on two key facts. There is no adequate level. Second. the consumption of trans fatty acids results in considerable potential harm but no apparent benefit. This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary heart disease. and therefore its removal from ordinary diets might introduce undesirable side effects and nutritional imbalances if proper nutritional planning is not undertaken. The exact biochemical methods by which trans fats produce specific health problems are a topic of continuing research. recommending in 2003 that trans fats be limited to less than 1% of overall energy intake. thus increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. The NAS has. This analysis is supported by a 2006 New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) scientific review that states "from a nutritional standpoint. Carbohydrate. Cholesterol. While a recent scientific review agrees with the conclusion (stating that "the sum of the current evidence suggests that the Public health implications of consuming trans fats from ruminant products are relatively limited"). the NAS dietary recommendations have not recommended the elimination of trans fat from the diet. and some deleterious effects of trans fat consumption are scientifically accepted. while both saturated and trans fats increase levels of LDL cholesterol (so-called bad cholesterol)." Because of these facts and concerns. Protein. "recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet". Like the NAS. This is because trans fat is naturally present in many animal foods in trace quantities. "trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health". The US National Dairy Council has asserted that the trans fats present in animal foods are of a different type than those in partially hydrogenated oils. therefore. it cautions that this may be due to the low consumption of trans fats from animal sources compared to artificial ones. recommended daily amount or tolerable upper limit for trans fats. Fat. and do not appear to exhibit the same negative effects. Fiber. and Amino Acids contains their findings and recommendations regarding consumption of trans fat (summary). The NAS is concerned "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to coronary heart disease than saturated fatty acids". trans fats also lower levels of HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). the World Health Organization has tried to balance public health goals with a practical level of trans fat consumption. forming the basis of the health guidelines discussed above. the NAS has concluded there is no safe level of trans fat consumption.
The ratio test is more accepted. Replacing 2% of food energy from trans fat with non-trans unsaturated fats more than halves the risk of CHD (53%). The effect of trans fat consumption has been documented on each as follows: Cholesterol ratio: This ratio compares the levels of LDL (so-called "bad" cholesterol) to HDL (socalled "good" cholesterol). conferring a substantially increased risk at low levels of consumption (1 to 3% of total energy intake)". . "The replacement of saturated fat or trans unsaturated fat by cis (unhydrogenated) unsaturated fats was associated with larger reductions in risk than an isocaloric replacement by carbohydrates. but. A comprehensive review of studies of trans fats published in 2006 in the New England Journal of Medicine reports a strong and reliable connection between trans fat consumption and CHD. Hu and colleagues analyzed data from 900 coronary events from the study's population during 14 years of followup. By contrast. and oils in most – if not all – living organisms.000 cardiac deaths per year in the United States are attributable to the consumption of trans fats. A 1994 study estimated that over 30. Trans fat behaves like saturated fat by raising the level of LDL.configuration and cannot metabolize a trans fat. He determined that a nurse's CHD risk roughly doubled (relative risk of 1. While the mechanisms through which trans fats contribute to coronary heart disease are fairly well understood. In this study. Coronary heart disease The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). the mechanism for trans fat's effect on diabetes is still under investigation. fats. while the cytokine test may be more powerful but is still being studied. and process dietary lipids such as triglycerides." Hu also reports on the benefits of reducing trans fat consumption. with consumption of trans fats being linked to an increase in mortality.43 to 2. transport. By comparison.000 female nurses since its inception in 1976. The first considers ratios of two types of cholesterol. the other the amount of a cellsignalling cytokine called C-reactive protein. concluding that "On a per-calorie basis. A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that helps digest. There are two accepted tests that measure an individual's risk for coronary heart disease. CI: 1. Trans fatty acids may impair the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). replacing a larger 5% of food energy from saturated fat with non-trans unsaturated fats reduces the risk of CHD by 43%. both blood tests. By 2006 upper estimates of 100.61) for each 2% increase in trans fat calories consumed (instead of carbohydrate calories). and consumption of polyunsaturated fats being linked to a decrease in mortality.94. trans fats appear to increase the risk of CHD more than any other macronutrient.000 deaths were suggested. The major evidence for the effect of trans fat on CHD comes from the Nurses' Health Study — a cohort study that has been following 120. Another study considered deaths due to CHD. but maternal pregnancy trans fatty acid intake has been inversely associated with LCPUFAs levels in infants at birth thought to underlie the positive association between breastfeeding and intelligence. it takes more than a 15% increase in saturated fat calories (instead of carbohydrate calories) to produce a similar increase in risk.
 . as compared to 1. although the 6-year experiment did find such a link. long-term TFA consumption was an independent factor in weight gain. a larger study found a correlation between trans fats and a significant decrease in high-grade prostate cancer. Cancer: There is no scientific consensus that consumption of trans fats significantly increases cancer risks across the board. consensus has not been reached. there is not a strong scientific consensus connecting trans fat and obesity." Liver Dysfunction: Trans fats are metabolized differently by the liver than other fats and interfere with delta 6 desaturase. Inflammation in and around the hippocampus. However. C-reactive protein (CRP): A study of over 700 nurses showed that those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption had blood levels of CRP that were 73% higher than those in the lowest quartile. this is generally in the context of eating too many calories. one study found that risk is higher for those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption. there is much less scientific consensus asserting that eating trans fat specifically increases the risk of other chronic health problems: Alzheimer's Disease: A study published in Archives of Neurology in February 2003 suggested that the intake of both trans fats and saturated fats promote the development of Alzheimer disease. with evidence that there is impaired post-insulin receptor binding signal transduction. However." One study has found a positive connection between trans fat and prostate cancer. Diabetes: There is a growing concern that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with trans fat consumption. Delta 6 desaturase is an enzyme involved in converting essential fatty acids to arachidonic acid and prostaglandins. The rats' brains of trans-fat eaters had fewer proteins critical to healthy neurological function. Although obesity is frequently linked to trans fat in the popular media.5 grams or less. unlike saturated fat. even though the rats were still young. A 6-year experiment revealed that monkeys fed a trans fat diet gained 7.8% for monkeys on a mono-unsaturated fat diet. but seen after six weeks. even in the absence of caloric excess. the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory. it has the additional effect of decreasing levels of HDL.2% of their body weight. For example. The American Cancer Society states that a relationship between trans fats and cancer "has not been determined. suggest the results from the French part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. It has been found that trans fats impaired memory and learning in middle-age rats. TFAs enhanced intra-abdominal deposition of fat. There are suggestions that the negative consequences of trans fat consumption go beyond the cardiovascular risk. on nutrition lables. These are the exact types of changes normally seen at the onset of Alzheimer's. despite a similar caloric intake. concluding that "under controlled feeding conditions. (Higher ratios are worse. In general. Another study has found no diabetes risk once other factors such as total fat intake and BMI were accounted for. and were associated with insulin resistance. when it says "trans fat free" it means 0.) One randomized crossover study published in 2003 comparing the effect of eating a meal on blood lipids of (relatively) cis and trans fat rich meals showed that cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) was 28% higher after the trans meal than after the cis meal and that lipoprotein concentrations were enriched in apolipoprotein(a) after the trans meals. both of which are important to the functioning of cells. An increased intake of trans fatty acids may raise the risk of breast cancer by 75%. Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat. The net increase in LDL/HDL ratio with trans fat is approximately double that due to saturated fat. although not confirmed in an animal model.
 Brazil . was associated with a 73% greater risk of ovulatory infertility. Very high intake of transfatty acids (43% of total fat) in mice from 2 to 16 months of age was associated with lowered DHA levels in the brain (p=0.. as well as regulating the limbic system. This definition excludes specifically the healthy trans fats (vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid) which are present especially in human milk.. Non-dairy fat spreads are covered by Codex Stan 256-2007. trans fat to be labelled as such is defined as the geometrical isomers of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids having non-conjugated [interrupted by at least one methylene group (−CH2−)] carbon-carbon double bonds in the trans configuration. The former federal assistant health minister. One mechanism may be trans-fats' substitution for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC).059 people over six years and found those who ate the most trans fats had a 48 per cent higher risk of depression than those who did not eat trans fats. dairy products. and beef. Major depressive disorder: Spanish researchers analysed the diets of 12. the suicidal brains were found to have 16% less (male average) to 32% (female average) less DHA in the OFC. asked fast food outlets to reduce their trans fat usage. as opposed to that from carbohydrates. Australia's food labeling laws do not require trans fats to be shown separately from the total fat content. However.001)  When the brains of 15 major depressive subjects who had committed suicide were examined post-mortem and compared against 27 age-matched controls. The OFC is known to control reward. "Each 2% increase in the intake of energy from trans unsaturated fats. A draft plan was proposed. Hydrogenated oils and fats come under the scope of Codex Stan 19. Christopher Pyne. Infertility in women: One 2007 study found. Australia The Australian federal government has indicated that it wants to pursue actively a policy of reducing trans fats from fast foods. margarine in Australia has been virtually free of trans fat since 1996. and other food must contain less than 5% of their total fat. reward expectation and empathy. Currently. in order to reduce reliance on trans fats and saturated fats. Since 2010 vegetable oils and fats direcly sold to consumers must only contain 2% of trans fat over total fat. Argentina Since August 2006 food products should be labelled with the amount of trans fat in them. In the Codex Alimentarius.". which are all negatively impacted in depressive mood disorders. with a September 2007 timetable. Public response and regulation International The international trade in food is standardized in the Codex Alimentarius.
 In June 2006. but as an awareness of them develops. and passed through the House of Commons by an overwhelming 193-73 vote. On January 1. trans fat quantities on labels include naturally occurring trans fats from animal sources. The amount was selected such that "most of the industrially produced trans fats would be removed from the Canadian diet. 2008. the replacement of local health regions with the Alberta Health Services Board in 2009 has temporarily eliminated all enforcement of the ban. In Canada. Canada In November 2004. Like all Commons motions. Since December 2005. However.Resolution 360 of 23 December 2003 by the Brazilian ministry of health required for the first time in the country that the amount of trans fat to be specified in labels of food products. the federal government announced its intention to regulate trans fats to the June 2006 standard unless the food industry voluntarily complied with these limits within two years. On 31 July 2006 such labelling of trans fat contents became mandatory. British Columbia became the first province in Canada to mandate the June 2006 recommendation in provincially regulated food services establishments. although it did not recommend delaying implementation to 2010 as they had previously advocated. Effective September 30. Trans fats present in cooking oils may not exceed 2% of the total fat content. 2007.2 grams of trans fat per serving may be labeled as free of trans fats. and about half of the remaining trans fat intake would be of naturally occurring trans fats". an opposition day motion seeking a ban similar to Denmark's was introduced by Jack Layton of the New Democratic Party. Denmark ." On June 20. This recommendation has been endorsed by the Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association and Food & Consumer Products of Canada has congratulated the task force on the report. Health Canada has required that food labels list the amount of trans fat in the nutrition facts section for most foods. Ten months after submitting their report the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and Toronto Public Health issued a plea to the government of Canada: "to act immediately on the task force's recommendations and to eliminate harmful trans fat from Canada's food supply. These labelling allowances are not widely known. it served as an expression of the views of the House but was not binding on the government and has no force under the law. controversy over truthful labelling is growing. a task force co-chaired by Health Canada and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada recommended a limit of 5% trans fat (of total fat) in all products sold to consumers in Canada (2% for tub margarines and spreads). Calgary became the first city in Canada to ban trans fats from restaurants and fast food chains. Products with less than 0. In 2007 the ministry established a target to reduce the total amount of trans fat in any industrialized food sold in Brazil to a maximum of 2% by the end of 2010. 2009.
 This call was supported by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) on 22 June 2010. Boots. Sainsbury's. the European Food Safety Authority produced a scientific opinion on trans fatty acids. a move which effectively bans partially hydrogenated oils. This regulatory approach has made Denmark the only country in which it is possible to eat "far less" than 1 g of industrially produced trans fats on a daily basis. On 15 April 2010. In the July 29. Tesco and Waitrose intended to cease adding trans fatty acids to their own products by the end of 2007. On 13 December 2007. The limit is 2% of fats and oils destined for human consumption. Marks and Spencer. even with a diet including prepared foods. Co-op. Switzerland Switzerland followed Denmark's trans fats ban. the Food Standards Agency issued news releases stating that voluntary measures to reduce trans fats in food had already resulted in safe levels of consumer intake. United States . and implemented its own beginning in April 2008. This restriction is on the ingredients rather than the final products. In January 2007. 2006 edition of the British Medical Journal. Sainsbury's became the first UK major retailer to ban all trans fat from all their own brand foods. the Food Standards Agency (FSA) asked for better labelling in the UK. including Asda. the British Retail Consortium announced that major UK retailers. Iceland. It is hypothesized that the Danish government's efforts to decrease trans fat intake from 6g to 1g per day over 20 years is related to a 50% decrease in deaths from ischemic heart disease.Denmark became the first country to introduce laws strictly regulating the sale of many foods containing trans fats in March 2003. United Kingdom In October 2005. a BMJ (British Medical Journal) editorial called for trans fats to be "virtually eliminated in the United Kingdom by next year". an editorial also called for better labelling. European Union In 2004.
Nevertheless.5 grams per serving can be listed as 0 grams trans fat on the food label. notably from the partially hydrogenated ingredients. On July 11. many consumers do not know how to interpret the meaning of trans fat content on the Nutrition Facts panel. trans fat levels of less than 0. even for companies that petitioned for extensions. The new labeling rule became mandatory across the board. including those at risk for heart disease. thus bulk purchasers such as .6% of energy intake) Monoglycerides and diglycerides are not considered fats by the FDA. unlike in many other countries. This information could only be inferred from the ingredient list. the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a regulation requiring manufacturers to list trans fat on the Nutrition Facts panel of foods and some dietary supplements. According to a study published in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Critically important is the apparent fact that trans fatty acids which are part of mono. without specific prior knowledge about trans fat and its negative health effects. despite their nearly equal calorie per weight contribution during actual ingestion. In fact. The FDA did not approve nutrient content claims such as "trans fat free" or "low trans fat". on January 1. However.Poster from New York City's board of health encouraging consumers to limit trans fat consumption Before 2006. consumers. However.8 grams of trans fat per day (2. 2008. According to the FDA.and diglycerides are not required to be listed on the ingredients label as making contributions to calorie count or trans fatty acid content. 2003. the agency is planning a consumer study to evaluate the consumer understanding of such claims and perhaps consider a regulation allowing their use on packaged foods. as they could not determine a "recommended daily value". the average American consumes 5. without an interpretive footnote or further information on recommended daily value. consumers in the United States could not directly determine the presence (or quantity) of trans fats in food products. there is no requirement to list trans fats on institutional food packaging. may misinterpret nutrient information provided on the panel.
or eating multiple products over the course of the day may still consume a significant amount of trans fat. the APHA recommends barring the sales and availability of foods containing significant amounts of trans fat in public facilities including universities.schools. restaurants and bakeries. such as conjugated linoleic acid. Street. State and local regulation in the United States The state of California and some US cities are acting to reduce consumption of trans fats. New York City's Board of Health in 2006 solicited public comments on a proposal to ban artificial trans fats in restaurants. and cafeterias are unable to evaluate the trans fat content of commercial food items. The board voted to ban trans fat in restaurant food on December 5. 2007. Despite this. This is because a person eating many servings of a product. In May 2005. and were supposed to have met the same target in all of their foods by July 1. New York was the first large US city to strictly limit trans fats in restaurants. became the first American city wherein all restaurants voluntarily cook with trans fat-free oils. Critics of the plan. 2008. Montgomery County. entitled Restricting Trans Fatty Acids in the Food Supply. which was signed into law on February 15. These new guidelines. The FDA defines trans fats as containing one or more trans linkage that are not in a conjugated system. prisons. recommend that the government require nutrition facts labeling of trans fats on all commercial food products. Tiburon. The American Medical Association supports any state and federal efforts to ban the use of artificial trans fats in U. The American Public Health Association adopted a new policy statement regarding trans fats in 2007.5 gram per serving threshold is too high to refer to a food as free of trans fat. 2007.5 g per serving on July 1. as it distinguishes non-conjugated synthetic trans fats from naturally occurring fatty acids with conjugated trans double bonds. 2007. have expressed concern that the 0. Maryland approved a ban on partially hydrogenated oils. Furthermore. This has included a Public education campaign (see trans fat pamphlet) and a request to restaurant owners to eliminate trans fat from their offerings voluntarily. This benefit is expected to result from consumers choosing alternative foods lower in trans fats as well as manufacturers reducing the amount of trans fats in their products. 2007. by Mayor John F. The Philadelphia City Council voted unanimously to pass a ban on February 8. noting that heart disease is the primary cause of resident deaths. Restaurants were barred from using most frying and spreading fats containing artificial trans fats above 0. New York City embarked on a campaign in 2005 to reduce consumption of trans fats. and day care facilities etc. hospitals. becoming the first county in the nation to restrict trans fats. the FDA estimates that by 2009. Carlos Camargo. Finding that the voluntary program was not successful.S. This is an important distinction.200 cases of coronary heart disease and 250 to 500 deaths each year. trans fat labeling will have prevented from 600 to 1. . state. California. By September 1. They also urge federal. including FDA advisor Dr. and local governments to ban and monitor use of trans fats in restaurants. 2006.
eateries must cease frying food in trans fats. The ban was adopted after a unanimous vote by the county legislature on May 14. The statewide legislation has not yet passed. 2009." San Francisco officially asked its restaurants to stop using trans fat in January 2008. King County of Washington passed a ban on artificial trans fats effective February 1. there are some exceptions for clearly labeled packaged foods and charitable bake sales. As of January 1. a natural oil extracted from the fruit of oil palm trees that is semi-solid at room temperature (15–25 degrees Celsius). and finally settled on a partial ban on oils and posting requirements for fast food restaurants. However. The voluntary program will grant a city decal to restaurants that comply and apply for the decal. 2010. California became the first state to ban trans fats in restaurants effective January 1. Legislators say the next step will be a mandatory ban. Massachusetts state representative Peter Koutoujian filed the first state level legislation that would ban restaurants from preparing foods with trans fats. 2011. On December 19. which is similar to the New York City regulation. trans fat must not be used as an ingredient in commercial kitchens. New York. However. 2008. The law does not apply to prepackaged foods sold in the city. 2007. Legislators received a letter from Rick J.5 grams per serving. president and CEO of the New York State Restaurant Association. 2007. calling on them to "delay any action on this issue until the full impact of the New York City ban is known. Bakeries were granted an extension until April 1. a 2006 study . is increasingly being used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fats in baking and processed food applications. Maryland and Vermont were considering statewide bans of trans fats as of March 2007. shortening. Albany County of New York passed a ban on trans fats. Nassau County. with the exception of deep frying doughnuts. Sampson. but no plan has been put into place. 2006. Food industry response Manufacturer response Palm oil. 2008. A year later. California restaurants are prohibited from using oil. banned trans fats in restaurants effective April 1. On October 10. 2011. and margarine containing artificial trans fats in spreads or for frying. On July 25. A suburban county on Long Island. The decision was made after New York City's decision. the city of Boston did ban the sale of foods containing artificial trans fats at more than 0. the Philadelphia City Council approved the use of trans fats by small bakeries throughout the city. Packaged foods are not covered by the ban and can legally contain trans fats. doughnuts and other baked goods have been prohibited from containing artificial trans fats. Chicago also considered a ban on oils containing trans fats for large chain restaurants.
 Loders Croklaan. The separately marketed trans fat free version introduced in 2004 was discontinued. made from palm oil. Foods Containing Trans Fat Any food containing the words "hydrogenated oil" or "partially hydrogenated oil" in the ingredients list has trans fats.M. through their Bunge Oils division. Since 2003. in 2004 released a new formulation made from solid saturated palm oil cut with soybean oil and sunflower oil. Unilever. corn. Smucker Company. This blend yielded an equivalent shortening much like the previous partially hydrogenated Crisco. 2004. margarines and shortenings. made from corn. because palm oil results in adverse changes in the blood concentrations of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B just as trans fat does. so the overall cost of products shouldn't increase. and was labelled zero grams of trans fat per 1 tablespoon serving (as compared with 1. a wholly owned subsidiary of Malaysia's IOI Group has been providing trans fat free bakery and confectionery fats. Fried foods in many restaurants also contain trans fats.5 g of trans fats. for giant food companies in the United States to make less harmful margarine. sunflower and soy when a liquid fat is needed. Even though these oils may cost more. Alternatives Manufacturers and restaurants can use shortenings and margarines that do not contain trans fat when a solid fat is needed. Agribusiness giant Bunge Limited. commercial baked goods and some shortenings or margarines. safflower.5 grams per tablespoon of original Crisco). On May 22. restaurants can use them longer before replacing them. 2007. As of January 24. The J. the corporate descendant of Joseph Crosfield & Sons (the original producer of Wilhelm Normann's hydrogenation hardened oils) announced that they have eliminated trans fats from all their margarine products in Canada. Smucker claims that all Crisco shortening products in the US have been reformulated to contain less than one gram of trans fat per serving while keeping saturated fat content less than butter. American manufacturer of Crisco (the original partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening). Manufacturers can claim their products contain no trans fats as long as each serving contains less than . . including their flagship Becel brand. and soy oils. according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest. and oils such as canola. unless these restaurants are in places which have banned the use of trans fats. are now producing and marketing an NT product line of non-hydrogenated oils. Foods likely to contain trans fats include fried foods. regardless of whether the label says a product is trans fat free.supported by the National Institutes of Health and the USDA Agricultural Research Service concluded that palm oil is not a safe substitute for partially hydrogenated fats (trans fats) in the food industry. canola.
com/article/404350-why-is-trans-fat-used-in-foods/#ixzz21oKi7tAZ .Pediasure.Avoiding Trans Fat Your calories from trans fats should be less than 1 percent of your total calories.livestrong. 5 Foods That Burn Belly Fat The Ultimate Healthy Living Toolbar Get Daily Fitness Tips & More. and avoid products that contain hydrogenated oils.399 www.com Complete Balanced Diet PediaSure Is Complete Balanced Nutrition For Child's Balanced Diet www.AyurFocus.dailyfitnesscenter. We aim to make good nutrition way of life www. Ask restaurants whether they use trans-fat-free oil. Buy Fat Free At Rs.in Burn Stomach Fat Easily Best Ayurvedic Formula To Reduce Stomach Fat.com/Burn-Stomach-Fat Good Nutrition & Health Start Healthy Stay Healthy.StartHealthyStayH Read more: http://www. Consuming more fruits and vegetables and replacing foods that contain trans fats with those that contain monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat can help you to meet this goal. according to the American Heart Association. Free www.
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