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An estimated 5-6 million people die yearly due to air pollution.

Bronchitis, asthma, emphysema and chronic respiratory diseases are caused by pollutants obstructing or breaking down lung tissues. It is of little discussion that the world is facing excessive air pollution at the moment. Air pollution is one of the basic three types of pollution that is making the planet lose its ability to provide for the healthy living of human beings on it. although this is happening at a very slow rate, the rate is one that has to be taken very seriously as it proves that there is a change and this change can lead to a situation that can lead to people living on burned, carbon filled air and therefore living shorter lives. This paper will discuss the effect of the cars run on petrol and diesel and how the electric cars differ and how making those acceptable in a mass way will be helpful to the people of the world through its advantages. There are three different types of electrical vehicles. The first is Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) which are powered by electricity stored in large batteries within the vehicle. The battery needs to be recharged by plugging into recharging points. The second is hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which are powered by a combination of electricity stored in a battery and either a petrol or diesel internal combustion engine. A hybrid vehicle does not need to be plugged in to recharge its battery, as this is recharged automatically as the vehicle is being driven. The petrol cars are those that are most commonly present and used in the world today. They run on petrol. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas emitted into the atmosphere is incomplete combustion processes formed by the oxidation of hydro carbons and other organic compounds. It survives in the atmosphere for a period of approximately 1 month is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon particles are part of the dark smoke that forms. In urban areas, CO is produced almost entirely (90%) from road traffic emissions. CO at levels found in ambient air may reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Some may also experience dizzy, headache and become irritable. Another effect is the high conscious or

unconsciousness and death. Other harmful effects of the petrol and diesel run cars include irritation of respiratory tracts and lungs. Exacerbate asthma is also one of those diseases that is known to have been caused by the increase susceptibility to infections. In the presence of sunlight, it reacts with Nitrogen oxides react to hydrocarbons to produce photochemical pollutants such as ozone. Nitrogen oxides have a lifetime of approximately 1day with respect to conversion to nitric acid. It is in turn removed from the atmosphere by direct deposition to the ground, or transfer to aqueous droplets (e.g. cloud or rainwater), thereby contributing to acid deposition. The other type of vehicle is the diesel run vehicle which is usually the commercial vehicles. Everyone has experienced it: getting hit right in the face by a cloud of acrid diesel smoke. Perhaps you were standing on a street corner when a bus or truck whizzed by. Or maybe you were standing at a bus stop or stuck behind a dump truck grinding up a hill. But breathing diesel exhaust isn't just unpleasant. It is hazardous to your health. In fact, health research indicates that the portion of the exhaust you cant see may be the most dangerous of all. Asthma attacks, respiratory disease, heart attacks, and even premature death all of these are among the most serious public health problems linked to emissions from the nation's fleet of diesel vehicles. The good news is that the technology exists right now to clean up emissions from these engines, so that most of the adverse health impacts can be prevented. Diesel exhaust makes diesel exhaust particulate (DEP). DEP is given off by trucks, school buses, older cars and off-road construction and industrial equipment with engines running on diesel fuel.DEP is a mixture of hundreds of compounds; some are gases and others form parts of tiny particles in the air called particulate matter. Diesel exhaust also adds to the forming of ozone. Exposure to DEP can disrupt the immune system. This will increase a sensitive persons risk of having allergic reactions to other things in their environment. Lab animals and human volunteers exposed to DEP got asthma-like inflammation in their airways.

Particulates and ozone from traffic causes cell damage to the lung lining, as well as through inflammation. Children are highly at risk to the health dangers from diesel exhaust. Children raised in heavily polluted areas face the prospect of reduced lung capacity and prematurely aged lungs. Fine particulates can get into childrens narrow airways and lodge deep within the lung, where they are more likely to stay and be absorbed. Children also have higher breathing rates than adults, which can increase their exposure to air toxins per unit of body weight. A study of about 6,000 low-income children with asthma in San Diego found that children with asthma who live close to places with high traffic made more doctor visits than those who lived further from traffic. Children living near high traffic areas (freeways or major roads) were more likely to have made two or more doctor visits for asthma than those who did not live near high traffic areas

The last type of car is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) which work similarly to conventional hybrids in that they operate using the vehicles petrol or diesel engine or by using electricity to power an onboard electric motor. However, PHEVs have much larger batteries than conventional HEVs and so can be charged from the mains when not in use and this means the vehicle can cover a greater distance. There are two types of PHEV: 1. the rst can run indenitely with the petrol/diesel motor providing power as in a normal car.2.The second is effectively a battery-powered vehicle with a small onboard generator to extend the distance the car can travel. Most new EVs also use an advanced braking system known as regenerative braking that allows the electric motor to re-capture the energy expended during braking and to improve energy efficiency. There are many benefits that can be associated with the electrical vehicles. Major reductions in carbon emissions is the most important such benefit. It is accepted that EVs offer the

potential to reduce emissions from the transport sector in Ireland. SEI estimate that by replacing 10% of cars, vans and buses in Ireland with currently available models of hybrid and BEVs, a reduction in national carbon emissions of 350,000 tons annually could be achieved. This is equivalent to removing emissions from over 100,000 cars on Irish roads. Using electricity to power vehicle means there is no pollution at all when the vehicle is in use, unlike petrol and diesel cars. A car powered purely by battery has zero emissions when in operation, whereas the emissions from hybrids and plug-in hybrids are lower than conventional vehicles as they use electricity for at least part of the journey. When in use, all electric vehicles contribute less to air pollution in towns and cities and so have much less impact on the climate than conventional vehicles. If one looks at the emissions generated by EVs on the basis of full life cycle analysis, the savings in emissions are still signicant. In the UK for example, research showed that taking account of emissions from power generation, and emissions relating to production and disposal, EVs have the potential to offer signicant GHG emissions reductions over time compared to conventional petrol/diesel fuelled vehicles. Based on the current UK grid mix, it was estimated that signicant benets of the order of 40% reduction could be achieved. Moreover, it is clear that with the move to renewable energy sources, the potential saving is even greater. In addition, according to Green Machines and Greener Mobility, two of the largest suppliers of EVs in Ireland, EVs pollute far less than petrol, diesel or even hybrid powered vehicles. Based on Irelands current carbon/peat intensive energy mix, the electrocution of automotive transport can deliver an immediate reduction in GHG emissions of at least40% over the cleanest hybrid car available. Another reason is that they are cheaper to run. As electricity is cheaper than petrol or diesel, the running costs of EVs are dramatically lower than conventional vehicles. The average fuel cost per month of a family car is 149 or approximately 1,788 per year. An electric vehicle costs approximately 0.01c per km, or a total of 204 in electricity costs per year, which

represents a saving of 1,595 per annum. However, this assumes the government will not tax electricity used by EVs to make up revenue lost from fossil fuel taxes. Maintenance costs are also lower as battery electric cars are mechanically simple and of course, the recent changes in VRT and motor tax have also made EVs signicantly cheaper than their petrol or diesel alternatives. While there are very significant benefits, its not considered to be an easy option to implement the electric cars on a mass scale. As indicated above, the day-to-day running costs of EVs are signicantly lower than traditional vehicles and offer users the ability to make signicant cost savings over the whole life of the vehicle. However, evidence from the UK indicates that for the majority of vehicle purchasers this is not fully taken into account when making a purchase decision but instead the focus is on the capital cost of the vehicle. This has been identied as a signicant barrier to the uptake of EVs as the initial cost of some EVs can be much higher than traditional car models. This is largely due to the current high cost of the batteries, which not only adds to the initial capital outlay but also to ongoing maintenance costs as the battery is likely to need to be replaced at least once during the lifetime of the vehicle. Research from the UK has suggested that with current battery costs, an EV equivalent of a current production vehicle could be more than double the current price. This price differential - if it persisted - would make it extremely unlikely that large numbers of car purchasers will opt for an EV over a traditional vehicle. In fact, it would appear that while some price differential between EVs and equivalent internal combustion vehicles (ICVs) in the early years would be acceptable to the early adopters, number of vehicle distributors have indicated that this price differential would need to be less than 5,000. Without signicant Government intervention to address this price imbalance therefore it seems unlikely in the short term that EV vehicle purchases will take place in sufficient numbers to deliver real improvements in

carbon emissions. The challenge, however, not only relates to cost but also to battery performance relative to vehicles powered by an ICV engine. Technical developments within the sector are taking place at rapid pace. Although nickel metal hydride (NiMH) is currently the dominant battery chemistry for HEV applications, there appears to be a growing consensus that lithium ion (Li-ion) offers the most promising combination of power and energy density for wider rollout of BEVs and PHEVs. At the present time, Li-ion batteries sourced from recognized suppliers to the automotive sector (with cost ranging from$1,000 per kWh to $2,000 per kWh) are currently seen as too expensive by at least a factor of two compared with conventional technology to facilitate a whole scale switch to EVs. However, the battery sector is condent that prices will fall sharply in the medium-long term, based on the massive investments that manufacturers are making in this technology and the falls in the price of mass-manufactured cells for consumer applications. Nevertheless, in the short term battery prices are not expected to fall sufficiently quickly to make EV seconomically competitive with conventionally-powered vehicles. For this switch to take place therefore, it is essential that a range of measures are introduced to alter the economic balance between EVs and traditional vehicles. Such interventions will help to accelerate the speed with which a large scale switch to EVs can take place, and in turn by improving the economies of scale of battery production and making them cheaper to produce, will help to bring forward the date at which EVs can truly compete against conventional vehicles. As the source of half of the worlds lithium, Bolivia is a key supplier of the essential component for next generation BEVs. However, its government is somewhat belatedly engaging with global car manufacturers and battery producers with a view to striking a deal that will both guarantee supplies while adding value to the Bolivian economy. A major factor that has been raised as a concern is the financial and car resale. It is a possible impediment to the rapid uptake of EVs is the fact that the high capital cost of the battery

combined with the uncertainly about the battery life, reliability and obsolescence makes it extremely difficult to predict residual values for EVs and PHEVs. This in turn impacts on car enhancing arrangements and also increases difficulties for manufacturers in securing access to leasing companies which traditionally have been large customers for new vehicles and an important route to market for manufacturers. As a result of these difficulties, it is expected that new models of vehicle ownership will need to develop to enable the uptake of EVs to become more widespread. This may take the form of leasing either the whole car or the battery separately or some system of Pay As You Go schemes similar to mobile phone ownership. Such arrangements are already emerging. For example, many of the EVs which are currently available are sold using packages which include complete purchase, purchase of vehicle and lease of battery, and combined lease of vehicle and battery. The world is used to having too much variety. , Especially in the case of mobile phones and cars. Therefore, another obstacle that EVs have to overcome is the fact that the range of vehicles currently on the market is relatively limited and largely consists of small cars with limited power and range. The current EV range limit of most vehicles available on the market is about 120 km and indeed a signicant number are closer to80km. Nevertheless, based on the statistics on vehicle usage and typical trip prole, it would appear that even this relatively limited range is sufficient to cater for a signicant number of all trips made in Ireland, in particular in urban areas. On the other hand, the EVs range is only about one fth of the range of traditional vehicles and this obviously makes it more difficult to sell to consumers. While it is expected that Li-ion batteries will continue to develop, offering higher energy density resulting in increased ranges, it will take some considerable time - perhaps ve to ten years - before EVs with comparable range to traditional vehicles emerge. As a result, the creation of a robust and easily accessible recharging infrastructure will be crucially important to persuading consumers to switch to EVs.

The infrastructure of changing is a major challenge as well. The availability of a comprehensive charging infrastructure is critically important to the successful adoption of EVs and to alleviate any concerns consumers might have about the limited range of EVs. If charging points are not available, this will restrict potential market development. Therefore, it is essential that charging points are put in place well ahead of market uptake as no consumer would buy an EV if they are unable to easily recharge their vehicle. Obstacles can be easily overcome with the right level of commitment from Government and adequate support and education of Local Authorities. Home charging is another challenge. The most common location for charging an electric car will be at home utilizing a 240V/13A or 16Aconnection. This will require a switchable socket and a surge protection device, but should not pose any problems for most homes. Moreover, as most users are likely to be recharging their vehicles over-night, they will be able to benet from signicantly cheaper electricity costs. This also has a benet for electricity generators as it helps to even out demand during the course of the day and create a demand for (renewable) electricity during off-peak times. Public Charging Points: For practical reasons it will be essential to have a comprehensive infrastructure of public charging points available throughout the country. While many commentators have suggested that EVs are primarily suited to urban/city usage, it is essential that consumers in all parts of the country are given access to the opportunity of owning anew. It is only in this way that sufficient market penetration on large enough scale will be achieved to really impact on emissions from the transport sector. There are likely to be a range of different methods for charging for the use of public recharging points. This could include, for example, levying an annual fee for free access or charging by the unit of time used. Payment could be made using smart technology, perhaps an extended use of the proposed Integrated Ticketing Systems technology. These chargers will need to be deployed both on streets and in car parks. Other

areas of consideration are charging access for blocks of ats and work based charging. Another approach that was highlighted in the UK was that charging points, like water and power distribution networks and telecommunications networks, could be designated as regulated assets, typically enabling the service provider to cover installation and operating costs and achieve inadequate return on their investment. This could be an incentive for utility rms to install them. The support of Local Authorities will be critical if public charging points are to be installed. To this end, it is understood that at least one Local Authority (Dun Laoghaire Rathdown) has initiated trials and has visited London to review their operations. While the primary focus of this submission is on passenger cars, it is clear that light commercial vehicles and buses also offer the opportunity to switch to EVs. In these instances, its likely that re-charging points at depots would be appropriate and would suggest that recharging connections should be made available at most industrial or light commercial sites. From my learning through writing this essay, I would like recommend that the city and states take action and make some moves to curb the pollution effects of the petrol and diesel cars and motivate people to buy electric cars. Cities and stated should establish ambitious goals for reducing risk to their citizens by cleaning up existing diesels. Closed crankcase ventilation systems to eliminate engine exhaust from penetrating the cabin of vehicles such as school and transit buses should be implemented. Genuine study of the status of engines in cars has to be taken and Engine rebuilds and replacement requirements should be setup. Truck stop electrification programs to give long-haul truckers a way to power their rigs overnight without running their engines. Contract specifications requiring cleanup of trucks and construction equipment used in public works projects should be considered as well. States and cities or individual and groups can adopt diesel cleanup measures as federallyenforceable requirements in State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the attainment of the fine particle and ozone air quality standards. States should create and fund programs, which

provide funding for diesel equipment owners to replace or rebuild high-polluting diesel engines and adopt and enforce anti-idling ordinances and legislation Sources EPA, Irelands Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2007, press release, 13 March 2009..11. EU Lisbon Treaty, http://ec.europa.eu/news/eu_explained/071213_1_en.htm12. Houses of the Oireachtas, EU Scrutiny Report No 1 on three EU proposals relating to the implementation of the EU climate and energy legislativepackage, October 2008,13. IEA: Energy Technology Perspectives 2008- Scenarios and Strategies to 2050.14. The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (London: HM Treasury, 2006).10. EPA, Irelands Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2007, press release, 13 March 2009 Marter travel; A Sustainable Transport Future. A New Transport Policy for Ireland 2009-2020, 5 February 2009.