HUMAN BODY : LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY

Symmetry Human body shows bilateral symmetry. Body divisions Broadly, the human body is divisible into three division : head, neck and trunk. Rarely, a small vestigial tail may occur in the human body. Reappearance of some ancestral, not parental, structures is called atavism. Various human external body parts are briefly described below. 1. Head. The head has a mouth, chin, nose, eyes, external ears (pinnae or auricles). The upper lip has median notch, the philtrum. The holes of the nose are called nostrils (= external nares). A small, pinkish, triangular flap in the inner corner of each eye, called nictitating membrane (= plica semilunaris or third eye lid) is present. It is a vestigial organ. Eye lids are called palpebrae. Eyes are directed forward. This provides binocular vision which gives depth to the image. The outer stiff ridge of a pinna is called helix and the lower flexible lobe is known as lobule. 2. Neck. In man, the neck has a prominent forward raised portion called Adam’s Apple. The neck moves the head. 3. Trunk. It has two parts: upper thorax and lower abdomen. (i) Thorax. It bears a pair of rounded prominences called teats (= nipples). Below each teat, there is a mammary gland (= milk gland), which is functional in women. A pair of shoulders are found. (ii) Abdomen. Its front side has a prominent pit called the umbilicus (= navel). The latter marks the point of attachment of the umbilical cord that connected the foetus to the maternal tissues for nourishment during development. Man has an erectile copulatory organ, called the penis, a sac, termed the scrotum and an anus. The penis bears an urinogenital aperture for the exit of urine and semen. The scrotum contains a pair of testes which produce sperms. In woman a depression, called the vulva, lies infront of the anus. The vulva has separate urinary and genital apertures. Thus there are three apertures in the abdomen of a woman ,urinary aperture, genital aperture and anus. A small solid erectile organ, the clitoris, lies anterior to the urinary aperture. It corresponds to the penis of the male. Passing out of urine is termed micturition. Discharge of semen into the female’s vagina is known as insemination. The act of delivering a baby is called parturition. Limbs (Extremities). The thorax bears a pair of arms (upper extremities or upper limbs). The abdomen bears a pair of legs (lower extremities or lower limbs).

Human Body Parts (a) The arms are attached to the shoulders. The parts of arms under the shoulders are called armpits. An arm consists of proximal upper arm (= brachium), middle fore arm (= antebrachium) and distal hand (= manus). The hand further comprises of three parts: wrist, palm and fingers. The first finger is called thumb (= pollex) which is opposable to other fingers and makes the hand a perfect grasping organ. It is one human characters. The fingers 2 to 5 are respectively called index finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger. (b) Legs. A pair of legs are attached to the hips. A leg also consists of three regions proximal thigh, middle shank and distal foot (= pes). Depression between the abdomen and the thigh is called groin. Between the thigh and the shank is the knee. The foot further comprises of three parts – ankle, sole and toes. The first toe is large and called great toe (= hallux). It is not opposable to other toes. The entire foot rests on the ground during walking. Such a mode of walking is called plantigrade. Hair growth in human beings is found over most of the body. Lips, palms, soles, terminal segments of fingers and parts of genitalia are hairless.

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