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Copyright @ 2010 ESRI All rghts reserved. Frrst ed tio']2OO1. Sscond oort'on 2004 14 13 12 11

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Printed in the United States of America LibEry of Congess Catalogingin-Publbatton Data Gefting to know ArcGlS desktop / llmothy James ormsby...let al.].-2nd ed. cm. lncludes index. ISBN 97&1-58948-260-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) Graphical user interfaces (Computer systems) l. Ormsby, Tim. ArcGlS. Geographic infomation systems. G70.2I2.G489 2010

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CONTENTS

I
Ac knowledgments

ix

Introd uction

xi

Section 1

Getting to know GIS
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Introducing GIS

Introducing Arc GIS Desktop

13

Section 2

Getting started with maps and data
Chapter 3 Exploring ArcMap Exercise 3a Displayi ng map data
Exercise 3b
Navigating a map

19

22
34 43
53

Exercise 3c

l ooking at fe ature attributes

Chapler 4

Exploring ArcCatalog
Brows ing ma p data

Exercise 4a 55 Exercise 4b Searching for map data 66

Exercise 4c

Adding data to ArcMap

74

Section 3

Displaying data
Chapter 5 Symbolizing features and rasters 89 Exercise 5a Changi ng symbology 92 Exercise 5b Symbolizing features by categorical attributes
Exercise 5c
Using styles and creating layer files 12 1 111

99

Exercise 5d Symbolizing rasters

vi

COI/fI.'IlfJ'

Chapter 6
Exercise 6a Exercise 6b Exercise 6c Exercise 6d

Cla ssifying featu res and rasters
Classifying features manually Mapping density 154 145

131
134

Classifying features by standard methods

Using graduated and chart symbols

161

Chapter 7
Exercise 7a Exercise 7b Exercise 7c

Labeling features
Using dynamic labels

175
177 185 196

Setting rules for placing label s

Us ing interactive label s and creating annotation

Section 4

Getting information about features
Chapter 8
Exercise 8a Exercise 8b Exercise Be

Querying data

203
205 216

Ident ifying, selecting, finding, and hyperlinking features Selecti ng features by attribute Creating reports 22 1

Chapter 9
Exercise 9a Exercise 9b

Joining and relating tables
Join ing tables Relat ing tables 233 243

229

Section 5

Analyzing feature relationships
Chapter 10 Selecting features by location
Exercise lOa Using location queries

257
265

259

Exercise lOb Combin ing attribute and location queries

Chapter 11

Preparing data for analysis
281 290 296 303

279

Exercise 11a Dissolving features Exercise lIb Creating graphs Exercise 11c Clipping layers Exercise lId Exporti ng data

Chapter 12 Analyzing spatial data
Exercise 12a Bufferi ng feat ures Exercise 12b Overlaying data

309

312 32 1 332

Exercise 12c Ca lculating attribute val ues

Chapter 13 Projecting data in ArcMap
Exerc ise 13a Projecti ng data on the fl y Exercise 13b Defin ing a prOjection

339
344

357

COl/tents

vii

Section 6

Creating and editing data
Chapter 14 Building geodatabases
Exercise 14b Creating feature classes
Exercise 14c Add ing fields and doma ins

367
370 377 384

E.xercise 14a Creat ing a personal geodatabase

Chapter 15 Creating features Exercise 15a Drawing featu res

391
394 401

Exercise 15b Usi ng feature construction tools

Chapter 16 Editing features and attributes Exercise 16a Deleting and modifying features
Exercise 16b Splitting and mergi ng features

415
4 17 428 436

Exercise 16c Editing feature attribute values Chapter 17 Geocoding addresses 443

Exercise 17a Creating an address locator
Exercise J7b Matching addresses
454 465

446

Exercise 17c Rematching addresses

Section 7

Presenting data
Chapter 18 Making maps from templates 473

Exercise 1& Openi ng a map template
Exercise IBb Adding x,y data to a map Exercise IBc Drawing graphics on a map

47 5 483 489

Chapter Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise

19 Making maps for presentation 497 198 Layi ng out the page 499 19b Add ing a title 508 19c Add ing a north arrow, scale bar, and legend 5 17 19d Adding f inal touches and setting print options 526

Section 8 Modeling
Chapter 20 Exercise 20a Exercise 20b Exercise 20e Creating models
Starting a model Build ing a model Enhancing a model

533
536 546 557

Appendix A Data lice nse agreement Index 579

569 573

Appendix B Insta lling the data and software

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I

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

)

ESRI t hanks t he following people and groups for contributing data and images to this book.
Maps of rainfa ll, elevation, soils, a nd growing seasons for North and South America (chapter I) are based on data provided by DATA+ and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Maps of elevation, hillshacle, and tempera[Ure for the Mojave Desert (chapter 5) are based on data provided by the U.S. Defense Depan ment Mojave Desert Ecosystem Program.

Satellite image and map of Mission Bay, San Diego, California, (chapter 5) provided by the U.S .

Geological Survey.
African diamond mine. river, and wildlife layers (chapters 5 and 6) provided by OATA+ and the

Russian Academy of Sciences.
State of Louisiana layers (chapter 9). including nonhazardous waste pits, parish boundaries, and navigable waterways, provided by David Gisclair of the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

City of Riverside, California, layers (chaprer 10), includ ing neighborhoods, places, buildings, and zoning, provided by the City of Riverside G IS Departmenr. City of Riverside census tract layer provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Cit y of Riverside freeways layer provided by Goo· graphic Data Technology Inc. Copyright 1990-98 Geographic Data Technology Inc. All rights reserved. Tongass National Forest, Alaska, stream and forest stand layers (chapters 11, 12, and 20) provided by [he U.S. Forest Service, Tongass National Forest, Ketch ikan Area. Population attributes for U.S. states and cities (chapter 13) provided by t he United States Census Buteau.

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ArknollJ[t dgll/(//(s

City of Manhanan, Kansas, and Riley County. Kansas, layers (chapters 14, IS, and 16), including parcels, watc=r lines, water valves. fire hydrants, and air photo, provided by Dan O ldehoeft. City of Manhattan. Kansas, and John Cowan, Ri ley COUnty, Kansas. Satellite image of Crater Lake (chapter IS) provided by the Unitc=d States Geological Survc=y. O n t hc= Web: craterlake . wr.usgs.gov/ space.html. Atlanta streets layer (chaptc=r 17) provided by Geograph.ic Data Tc=chnology, Inc. Copyright 1990-98 Geographic Data Technology Inc. All rights reserved. Typhoon Etang latitude and longitude coordinates (chaptc=r 18) provided by thc= U.S. D efense Dc=partmc=m Joint Typhoon Warning Center. . Tigc=r reserve layers for India (chapter 18) provided by the World Wildlifc= Fund. On the Web: www.worldwildlife.org. Thanks to our editor, Michael Karman, if miglior fobbro. Thanks also to JoneH Alvi for additional writing; to Judy Boyd, Tom Brennc=man. Nick Frunzi, C hristian H arder, Mak.ram Murad, Brian Parr, Gillian Silvertand, Damian Spangrud, Thad Tilton, and Randy Worch for rc=chnical reviews and advicc=; to Prashant Hc=dao and Brian Parr for d ata acquisition; to Donna Celso for redeSign; to Riley Peake fo r tc=chnical review; and to Michael Law for t he ArcG IS 10 update.

INTRODUCTION

)

Gttting t(J Know ArcGIS Desktop is a workbook for ~ginners. Its detailed, step·by-step exercises
teach yOll the core functionality of ArcGIS D esktop software: how to make maps, carry out spatial analysis, and build and edit spatial databases in the context of realistic projects. The exercises are supported by conceptual discussions at the start of each chapter and as needed throughout the book. Abundant color graphics confirm your progress along the way. The exercises can all be completed with a n ArcView, A rcEditor. or Ardnfo Ikense. That's because all three software products share a common interface and much of the same functionality: anythi ng that can be done in ArcView can also be done in ArcEditor or Arclnfo, and in exactly the same way. For this reason, Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop is an introduction to each of the products. (Advanced capabilities of Arc Editor and ArcI nfo are not covered.)

Gming to Know ArcGIS Desktop has been a GIS best seller since its publication in 200 1. This
volume has been updated to ensure compatibility with ArcGIS 10, with many new graphiCS and instructions added to showcase the latest functionality. The book comes with a CD containing exercise data. To download a trial copy of ArcGIS Desktop, ArcEditor license, go to www.esrLcom/esripresss. You need to install both the software and the data to do the exercises in (he book. (If you have access to a computer on which the ArcView. A rcEd itor, or A rclnfo license of ArcGIS D esktop 10 is already installed. you only need to install the data CD.) Appendix B describes the installation process.

Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop is a hands~on workbook meant to be a practical manual for
classroom lab work or on-the-job training. If you have no G IS background, chapter 1 gives you a quick overview. If you have no ArcGIS software experience, chapter 2 describes ESRI GIS software products.

XII

Illtroductioll

The book has twO introductory chapters and eighteen exercise chapters. Each exercise chapter contains two to four exercises that focus on a particular GIS task or problem. Many common tasks are covered, including symbolizing and labeling maps, classifying data, querying maps, analyzing spatial relationships, setting map projections, building spatial databases, editing data, geocoding addresses, and making map layouts. Each new exercise in Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop is a fresh starting point, with the maps and data you need already prepared for you. It is advisable to follow the chapters in order because tools and functions used often in early chapters may not be described again in later ones. The exercises will work, however, no matter which chapter you start with. Each chapter takes about an hour or two to complete. Roll up your sleeves and start Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop.

Section 1: Getting to know GIS

Chapter 1

Introducing GIS

2

:MoTion J: Gmillg to kl/oI/J GIS

For a long ti me. people have s[Udied the world using models such as maps and globes. In the past thi rty years or so, it has become possible to put these models inside computers-more sophisdcated models into smaller computers every year. These computer models, along with the tools for analyzi ng them, make up a geographic informatio n system (G IS). In a G IS, you ca n s[Udy not just this map or that map, but every possible map. W ith the right data, you can see whatever you want-land , e1evarion, cl imate zones, forests, pol itical boundaries, popu lation density, per capita income, lan4 use, energy consumption, mineral resources, and a thousand other things-in whatever parr of the world interests you. The map of the world, below, shows countries, ciries, rivers, lakes, and the ocean.

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The map has a legend (or table of contents) on the left and a display area on the right.

A GIS map contains layers
On a paper map, you can't peel cities away from countries, or countries away from the ocean, but on a G IS map you can. A GI S map is made up oflayers, or collections of geographic objects that are alike. To make a map, you can add as many layers as you want.

l fltrodlldllg GIS
Cities

3

l akes

",

Oceans Countries This world map is made up of five layers. It cou ld have many more.

Layers may contain features or surfaces
In rhe map (page 2), rhe Cities layer includes many different cities and the Rivers layer many d ifferent rivers. The same is true of the Lakes and Countries layers. Each geographic object in a layer-each city, river. lake, or country- is called a feature. Not all layers contain features. The Oceans layer is not a collection of geographic objects the way the others are. It is a single, continuous expanse that changes from one location to an~ other according to t he depth of t he water. A geographic expanse of this kind is called a surface.

Features have shape and size
Geographic objects have an endless variety of shapes. All of them, however, can be represented as one of three geometrical forms- a polygon, a line, or a point. Polygons represent things large enough (0 have boundaries, such as countries. lakes, and tracts of land. Lines represent t hings roo narrow to be polygons, such as rivers, roads, and pipel ines. Points are used for things tOO small to be polygons. such as cities, schools, and fi re hydrants. (The same object may be represented by a polygon in one layer and a line or a point in a different layer, depending on how large it is presented.) Polygons, lines. and points collectively are called vec(Oc data.

4

S('(lioll I: Gnti,,! to kllow GIS

Surfaces have numeric values rather than shapes
Unlike countries or rivers, things such as elevation, slope:, temperature, ra infa ll, and wind speed have no distinct shape. What they have instead are measurable values for any particular locadon on the earth's surface. (Wherever you go, for insta nce, you are eit her at sea level or a number of meters above or below it.) Geographic phenomena like these are easier ro represent as su rfaces than as features. The most common kind of surface is a raster, a matrix of identically sized square cells. Each cel l represents a unit of su rface area- for example, 10 square meters-a nd contains a measured or estimated value for chat location.

A close look at this raster of ocean depth shows that it is composed of square cells. Each cell holds a numeric value.

The world is not divided neady into featu res and su rfaces. M any thi ngs can be looked at either way. For example, polygons are often used ro mark the boundaries of different vegetation types in a region, but this implies that the change from one type to another is more abrupt than it probably is. Vegetation can also be represented as a raster surface, where each cell value stands fo r [he presence of a type of vegetation.

Features have locations
If you were asked to find Helsin ki, Finland, on a map of the world, it probably wouldn't take you very long. But suppose Helsinki wasn't shown on the map. Could you make a pencil mark where it ought to go? Now suppose you could lay a fine grid over the world map and you knew that Helsinki was a certain number of marks up from and to the right of a given starting point. It would be easy to put your pencil on t he right spot. A grid of this kind is called a coordinate system, and it's what a GIS uses to put features in their proper places on a map.

Introducing GIS

5

Helsinki K'" 2,777,281 meters y '" 6,693,532 meters

K-axis

origin (D,O) On a map, a coordinate system has an x-axis and a y-axis. The intersection of the axes is ca lled the origin. Feature locations are specified by their distance from the origin in meters, fee t, or a similar unit of measure.

The location of a point feature on a map is defined by a pair of x,y coordinates. A straight line needs twO pairs of coordinates-one at the beginning and one at the end. If the line bends, like a river, there must be a pair of coordinates at every location where [he line changes direction. The same holds true for a polygon, which is simply a li ne that returns to its starting point.

Features can be displayed at different sizes
On a G IS map, you can zoom in to see features at closer range. As you do so, the scale of the map changes,

Left: The scale is 1:400,000,000, and the entire world is shown. Right: The scale is LlOO,OOO,OOO, and you see part of South America and Central America.

6

Sl'Ction J: Gl'lIillg to know GIS

Scale, commonly expressed as a ratio, is the relationship between the size of features on a map and the size of the corresponding places in the world. If the scale of a map is 1:100,000,000, it means that features on the map are one hundred million times smaller than their true size. Zoom ing in gives you a closer view of feat ures withi n a smaller area. The amount of detail in the features does not change, however. A river has the same bends, and a coastline the same crenuladons, whether you are zoomed in and can discern them or are zoomed out and cannot. How much detail features have depends on the layer you use. JUSt as a paper map of the world generalizes the shape of Brazil more than a map of South America does, so di fferem GIS layers can contain more feature detail or less. .

Features are linked to information
There is more [Q a feature than its shape and location. There is everything else that might happen to be known about it. For a country, this might include its population, capital, system of governmem, leading imports and exports, average rainfall , mineral resources, and many other things. For a road , it m ight be its speed limit, the number oflanes it has, whether it is paved or unpaved , and whether it is one-way or two-way. There is a great deal ofinformation to be had about any feature, from a humble length of sewer pipe to an ocean. Information about the features in a layer is stored in a table. The table has a record {row} for each featu re in the layer and a field (column) for each category of information. These categories are called attributes.

The attribute table for a layer of countries includes each feat ure's shape, 10 number, and name, among other t hings.

Illtrodl/chlg GIS

7

Features on a GIS map are linked co the information in their attribute table. If you highlight China on a map, you can bring up all the information scored about it in the anribute table for countries. If you highlight a record in the table, you see the corresponding feature on the map.

The link between features and their anributes makes it possible co ask questions about the information in an attribute table and display the answer on the map.

Which cities are national capitals?

Which cities have populations over five mi llion?

Whic h countries are net importers of goods?

Which coun t ries are net importers of goods and have per capita GDP of $10,000 or more?

8

Ster;o" I: GUt;"g to k"ow GIS

Similarly, you can use arrrihures (Q create thematic maps, maps in which colors or other symbols a re applied to features ro indicate t heir auributes. Energy consumption per capita
...--..",

Migration

The darker the shade of brown, the more energy is used per person in each country,

Red countries have net emigration, blue countries have net immigration. Light yel low countries have little or no change. Gree nhouse gas emissions

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Urban population by percentage

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Da rker shades of purple show countries where a higher percentage of the population lives in c ities.

Greenhouse gas emissions are lowest in green countries, higher in yellow and orange countries, and highest in red countries.

Features have spatial relationships
Besid es asking q uestions abour [he information in auribure tables, you can a lso ask queslions abour the spatial relationsh ips among features-for example, which ones a re nearest o thers. which ones cross others, and which ones contain others. The GIS uses the coordinates of features to compare their locations.

Introducing GIS

9

Which cities are within 50 kilometers of a river?

Which countries have a river that crosses their border?

Which countries share a border with China?

Which count ries cont ain a lake completely within their borders?

New leatures can be created lrom areas 01 overlap
Questions about amibutes and spatial relationships identify existing featu res that do or do not have cerrai n qualities. To solve some geographic problems, however, a GIS must create new features. Suppose you wa nt to fi nd su itable places for growing amaranth, a nutritious grain originally grown by the Aztecs. You know that in Mexico amaranth is grown in areas of moderate elevation (1,000 ro 1,500 meters) that have an average yea rly rainfa ll of 500 to 800 mill imeters, and loam or sandy-loam soil. You also know that the plant requires a fairly long growing season, at least 120 days without frost.

10

SUlion I: Gming 10 kl/ow GIS

You have layers of elevation, rainfall, growing season, and soil type for North and South America.

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To find places that meet the specified conditions, the GIS looks for areas of overlap among features in the different layers. Wherever there is overlap among four features with the right attributes-the right elevation, the right amount of rainfall, the right growing season, and the right kind of soil-a new feature is created. The new feature's boundary is the area of overlap, which is different from the boundaries of each of the four features it was created from.

Introducing GIS

11

The result of the analysis is a new layer that shows where amaranth can be grown.

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You now have some idea of what a GIS is and what it can do. In the next chapter. you'll learn a little about ArcGIS Desktop, the latest GIS software from ESRI.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

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Section 1: Getting to know GIS

Chapter 2

Introducing ArcGIS Desktop

14

5ra;01l /; Gnling 10 knou' GI5

When you shop for a car, a cordless vacuum, or a credit card, you ofren choose among different models in a product line. The models do essentially the same ching, and usually look similar- the difference is in the excras that come with the medium or high-end models. ArcGIS Desktop is a GIS software product line. The entry-level model is ArcReader, a product that comes with every ArcGIS installation or can be downloaded fo r free from the ESRI Web site. Arc Reader leu you view and print d igital maps created by others, navigate to different pam of the map, and zoom to various levels of detail. ArcView makes the maps and data that ArcReader can only view and print. With ArcView, you can also query data; analyze spatial relationships like distance, intersection, and containment among map features; and overlay layers to discover how different types of data are interrelated at particular locations.
~rcEditor gives you complete ArcView functionality and has additional data creation and

editing tools. Other features include versioning, which allows multiple users to edit data simultaneously, and disconnected editing, which allows data to be checked out of a database, edited in the field, and then checked back in. At the top of the line, Ardnfo gives you complete ArcEditor functionality plus a fu ll set of spatial analysis tools. Ardnfo also comes bundled with Ardnfo Workstation, a parallel, self-standing GIS software product. ArcView, ArcEditor, and Ardnfo share a com mon user interface and can freely exchange maps and data. ArcMap has a data view for creating, symbolizing, and analyzing maps. ArcMap also has a layout view for composing maps for printing. You can add titles, scale bars, legends, and ocher elements.

The ArcMap and ArcCatalog applications
GIS tasks can be broadly divided into twO categories. One includes mapmaking, editing, and spatial analysis; the other includes database design and data management. This division is reRected in the ArcMap and ArcCatalog applications of which ArcView, ArcEditor, and Ardnfo are composed. ArcMap is the application for making maps and analyzing data.

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ArcMap has a data view for creating, symbolizing, and analyzing maps .

15

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16

Sarion I: Gmillg 10 k'WI/) GIS

ArcCatalog is the data-management application.

With ArcCatalog, you organize, browse, document, and search for spatial data . ArcCatalog also has tools for building and managing GIS databases.

Extendin, ArcGIS Desktop
You can augment the capabilities of ArcGIS Desktop with specialized extension products chac are fully integrated with ArcView, ArcEditor, and ArcInfo. ArcG lS Spatial Analyst, ArcG IS 3D Ana lyst, and ArcGIS Geosraristical Analyst, described below. along with several other extension products are included on the demo CD that comes with chis book. The book does not teach you how to use them, but you can explore them on your owri using the online help and the ArcGIS Tutorial data that is also on the CD. Like ArcView, the extensions are good for 180 days. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst maps and analyzes measured data like elevation, rainfall, or chemical concentrations. By dividing geographic space into a marrix of square cells that store numbers. ArcG IS Spatial Analyst allows you to represent, query, and statistically summarize this kind of data. You can also estimate values at unmeasured locations through the mathematical interpolation of known sample values . ArcG IS 3D Analyst gives you the ability to see spatial data in three di mensions. You can "fly through " terrain and examine it from any height or angle. Y ca n model cities and neighou borhoods by drawing build ings at their correct heights. Analysis tools let you solve visibility, volume, and downhill path problems. (W hich areas can be seen fro m the mountaintop? Can Tower 1 be seen from Tower 2? How much earth is in the hill? W hich course will water follow down a su rface?)

IlifrodlicillK ArcCIS Desktop

17

ArcG IS Geostadsdcal Analyst Ie=:ts you evaluate measure=:d spatial data according to statistical principle=:s. You ca n e=:xplore=: the=: value d istributions of darase=:ts, compare=: the=:m to normal (bd l-shaped) distributions and to each other, and look fo r correlations between d iffe=:re=: nt types of data. As with ArcG IS Spatial Analyst, you can make maps of predicted values at unmeasu red locations. ArcG IS Geostatistical Analyst. howeve=:r, give=:s you a wider choice of pred ictive models, more control ove=:r the=:ir parameters, and statistical technique=:s for assessing the quality of the resu lts.

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18

Sul;oll I: Gettillg to kllow GIS

ArcGIS Desktop is juSt one of five parts of the ArcGIS system, which also includes mobile G IS, online GIS, server GIS, and ESRI Data.

Mobile GIS goes into the field
Mobile GIS technology extends GIS beyond the office and allows organizations to make accurate, real-time business decisions and collaborate in both field and office environments. Mobile GIS products and services are essential to the success of many GIS field mapping applications and enable organizations to expand their enterprise GIS to various mobile platforms. Many industries and field-workers (su rveyors, field rechnicians, delivery staff, public service and utility workers) use mobile GIS tech nology to help complete boch complex projects and routine field tasks. ESRI's mobile GIS products include ArcPad and ArcG IS Mobile for the Windows XP, Vista, 7 and Windows Mobile platforms, and ArcGIS for iPhone which can be accessed and used on the Apple iPhone and iPad platform.

Online GIS goes to digital worlds
ArcGIS Online content and capabilities are built-in to the ArcGIS user experience. ArcGIS Online, hosted by ESRI and powered by ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Data Appliance, provides ready-to-use, high-quality basemaps, layers, tools. and other content chat has been published by £SRI and the user community.

Server GIS goes over the Web and through the enterprise
ArcGIS Server is used to publish the maps, tools. and G IS data created in A rcGIS D esktop as services that can be delivered over the Web and throughout the enterprise. These G IS services can be used in desktop, mobile and Web applications. ArcGIS Server also manages the exchange of information between ArcGIS and relational database management systems (RDBMs), such as Microsoft SQL Server, IBM OB2, O racle and PostgreSQL. It enables users to share and edit centrally-stored geographic data over the

Web.

ESRI Data goes to work for you
£SRI Data encompasses updated demographics. business, and consumer spending data used by organizations to analyze markets, profile customers, evaluate competitors, and more. ESRI StreetMap Premium is an enhanced street dataset that provides routing, geocoding, and high-quality cartographic display for the United States, Canada, and Europe. £SRI Data & Maps is a set of annual map data that is included at no additional COSt with ArcGIS software and preconfigured to work with ArcGIS products.

In this book, you will learn the basics of ArcView, ArcEditor, and Arclnfo. To find OUt more about ArcGIS Desktop extensions, or about mobile GIS, online GIS, server GIS, or ESRI Data, visit the ESRI Web site at www.esri.com.

Section 2: Getting started with maps and data

Chapter 3

Exploring ArcMap
Displaying map data Navigating a map looking at feature attributes

20

SteliOIl 2: Gettillg lIarud wilh maps and data

ArcMap is an applicacion for d isplaying maps and investigating them. for analyzing maps to answer geographic questions and producing maps that make analysis persuasive. The ArcMap application window consists of a map d isplay for viewing spatial data, a table of contents for listing the layers shown in the display, and a variety of toolbars for working with the data.
Tools toolbar

Table of

Draw

You can change the way ArcMap looks to suit your preferences and the kind of work you do. Toolbars can be hidden or shown . New commands can be added to them. They can be docked at different places in the application window or can Roat independently of it. To dock a floating toolbar, drag it to the interface. To undock it, dick the vertical gray bar at its left edge and drag it away from the interface. To hide or show a toolbar, dick the Customize menu, point to Toolbars, and check or uncheck the toolbar name. Alternatively, some windows (such as Catalog or Search) can be docked to the interface. These windows have the ability to collapse into a tab or expand to show its entirety. To dock a Roating window. drag it to the interface. The window turns blue and four arrows point at locations where the window can be docked. When the window is docked. dick the Auto Hide bunon to enable the tabbed behavior. To remove the tab, click the Auto Hide bunon and undock the window.

E>.plorblg A reMap
Mam menu I OJI$toolbar
:Ildred

21

Catalog window

at top

rH +-.:: "t:; 'hidden) ":::: O
Search window

Standard toolbar docked al
I

0
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Draw toolbar hIdden

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III

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Table of

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This book assumes t hat you are working with the default interface. The exercise graphics reRect this, w ith one exception-tool bars are always shown horizontally. C hanges you make to the imerface are applied ro subsequem ArcMap sessions, so if you dock a (Qolbar or wi ndow in one session, it will be docked the next t ime you start ArcMap, and if you resize the application w indow, it will keep the new size in the next session. C ha nges like this w ill not significantly affect t he exercises, but may give you slightly different results for such operations as labeling that are inAuenced by the size and scale of the map display. For more information about customizing the interface, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate [Q Customizing and developing with ArcGIS > Customizing the

user imerfoce.

22

SUlioll 2: Gn/illg ilfllUt! wil" mflpi fllld dfl/fl

Displaying map data
In this exercise, you'll learn how to display data in ArcMap. You' ll learn how to navigate maps and get inform ation about map features. You will be able to do the exercises only if you have installed the ISO-day trial version of ArcView 10 that comes with this book, or if you have a licensed version of ArcEd iror 10 or Ardnfo 10 software on your computer. Keep in m ind that using a previous version of ArcG IS means that certain tools, fu nctions. windows, or dialog boxes mayor may not be present. You may encounter steps in the exercises where a workaround may be necessary.

Exercise 3a
You work for an aviation history foundation that is researching the last flight of Amelia Earhart. In 1937, Earhart was near the end of a flight around the world when her plane disappeared over the Pacific Ocean. The U.S. government spent more than $4 million searching fo r Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan. The foundation believes Earhart may have crashed on Nikumaroro. one of several tiny islands [hat make up th e country of Kiribati, and would like to mount an exped ition ro look for [he wreckage. You have been asked to manage a G IS project that will help organize data and acquaint potential sponsors with the foundation's plans.
1 Start Arc Map by clicking the Start button on the Windows taskbar, point to All Programs, point to ArcGIS 10, and click ArcMap 10.

When ArcMap opens, you see the Getting Started dialog box on top of the main application window. This d ialog box allows you to quickJy start a new map, open an existing map or template.

.

Exploring ArcMap

23

co;

II

c-.I

I

2

In the Getting Started dialog box, under t he Existing Maps section, ctick " Browse for more .. ."

-ODonol_",cWo>j~IIIo"""'.

C1

co;

II

c-.I

24

5(((iOIl

2: Grltillg mmrd with "lilt, fwd data

3

In the Open dialog box, navigate to C:\ESRIPress\ GTKArcGlS\ Chapter03 (or to the folder where you installed the GTKArcGIS data). Click ex03a.mxd, as shown in the following graphic. and click Open.

A preview of the map document opens inside the New Docu ment dialog box.
~ A',II,!,
'n!lu" 'I "To ,1

?
••{)3.

X

There Is no desalptlan avdable for u.. SfIIct..:lItem.
p~th: C:\BIUPr""\GTVIrd:;'~\

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4

In the New Document dialog box, click OK.

The map document opens. The map looks d ifferent fro m ma ny world maps because it is centered on the South Paci fic area where Amel ia Earhart va nished, rather than on the pri me merid ian (which runs through Greenwich, England).

Exploring ArcM'lp

25

The map shows the countries of the world. Earhart's Right path, and a gradcule. which is the technical name for lines oflaritude and longitude on a map. Each of these categories of geographic information (cou ntries, Right path. graticu le) is called a layer. The fabl e of contents listS fhe names of the layers in the map. h shows the color or symbol used to draw each layer and fell s you, by a check mark, whether or not the layer is visible. The Flight Parh, Countries. and Graricule layers are currently visible. The Cities layer is not.
5 In the table of contents, click the check box next to the Countries layer to turn it off.

••

The cou ntries d isappear from [he map.

26

Sution 2: G~tting startrd flJit}; mapi alld data

6

In t he table of contents, cl ick the Countries check box to turn it back on. Click the check box next to the Cities layer to turn it on as well.

The Cities layer is checked but you still can't see the cities. Th is is because data is displayed on the map in the order of the layers in the table of contents. The Cities layer is covered by the couneries.
7 In the table of contents , click the Cit ies layer name to highlight it. Click and drag the layer to the top of the table of contents, then release the mouse button. As you drag the layer, a horizontal black bar indicates its posit ion.

Exploring ArcMnp

27

. ~~

B !i!lGrallaJo

" o

Now you can see the cities on the map. Each of them is a Stop on Earhart's route. You' l! change the layer name to make this clear.
8 In the table of contents, right-clic k the Cities layer name. A context menu opens.

Many ArcMap operations are started from context menus. On the context menu, click
Properties to open the Layer Properties dialog box.

28

Sution 2: G~ttillg started with maps and data

9

In the Layer Properties dialog box, click the General tab.

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The Layer Properties dialog box has several tabs for sening layer properties, most of which you'll use in (his book.
10 In the Layer Name text box, the name "Cities" is highlighted. Type Cities Earhart Visited in its place. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

-....

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29

The layer is renamed in the table of contents.

You will now track the progress of Earhart's rou nd-the-world Right, which began on the west coast of the Un ited States. She chose an equatorial route so as to ci rcle the globe at its fu ll circu mfe rence and Rew east to min imize the effects of storms and headwinds.
11 On the Tools toolbar, click the Zoom In tool. (Move the mouse poi nter over it to see its

name.) Your tool bar may be oriented vertically. You can change its orientation if you like by dragging one of its corners.

12 Move the mouse pointer over the map. The cursor changes to a magni fying glass. Drag a box around the United States, approximately as shown in the following graphic. (If you make a mistake, click either the Full Extent or Go Back To Previous Extent buttons and try again.)

30

Seaion 2: Grtt;lIg Jft1rud with IIUlpJ find data

The display zooms in on the United States.

Zooming in or out changes the display scale, which is shown on the Standard toolbar. When the map showed the whole world, the scale was about 1:300,000,000. This means that map features are displayed at one three hundred millionths of their actual size. The scale should now be about 1:50,000,000. (Scale is also affected by the size of the ArcMap application window.) Although the cities are not labeled, you can find out their names and get other information about them with ArcMap [Oois.

Exploring AreA/ap

31

13 On the Tools toolbar, click the Select Elements tool.

14 Move the cursor over the westernmost city on the display. The city name displays as a map tip.

Map tips are a layer property. They can he [limed on or off on the Display tab of the Layer Properties dialog box. You can see map tips no maner which tool is selecte:d.

15 Move the cursor over the other three cities on the display. They are Tucson, New Orleans, and Miami. You may also be able to see San Juan, Puerto Rico.
To make: the names visible at all times. you can labd the cities. J6 In the table of contents, right-click the Cities Earhart Visited layer and click Label Features. The name: of each city appea rs next to the map feature. From Miami, Earhart A ew southeast to Puerto Rico and then to South America.

n

On the Tools toolbar, click the Pan tool.

32

Stetio" 2: Grttillg rtartrd with maps and dllfa

18 Move the mouse pointer over the map. The cursor changes to a hand. Click and drag
the display up and to the left until Miami is in the upper left corner of the window. Release the mouse button.

'. :

.-

You ca n get info rmation about any of the cities Earharr visited with the Identify tool.
19 On t he Tools toolbar, click the Ident ify tool. When you click the tool, the Identify
window opens. If it covers most of the map display, move it out of the way.

20 On the map, click the city of Natal. You must click exactly on the city or you will identify something else, such as a segment of the flight path or the country of Brazil. If this happens, try aga in.

Explorillg ArcMtlp

33

The Identify window shows you the country and city name, and various facts about Natal, such as its elevation (meters), its average annual precipitation (millimeters), and the dates Earhart and Noonan arrived and departed.
21 Close the Identify window. On the Tools toolbar, click the Full Extent button.

The map zooms (Q its original extent.

In the next exercise, you will fo llow the rest of Earhart's journey to the poim where she and Noonan disappeared.
22 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter03\MyData. Rename the file my-ex03a.mxd and click Save.

Saving your work is optional. When you begin a new exercise, however, it is important that you open the new map document specified in the instructions. The exercises are nOt always perfectly continuous, and if you work in the same map document throughout a chapter you may get results that don't match those in the book.
23 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open . Otherwise, click the File menu and click Exit. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

34

Sutioll 2: Gettillg stnrud with ml'ps Iwd data

Navigating a map
In this exercise, you' ll continue to work with ArcMap navigational tools. You will also learn how to create spatial bookmarks, which save a speCific view of a map.

Exercise 3b
Earhart and Noonan crossed the Atlantic at night. When they saw the west coast of Africa, they realized they were north of their intended destination-the city of Dakar in Senegal. They landed at the first airstrip they saw, in the Senegalese city of Sai nt Louis, and from there made the short Bight to Dakar. They proceeded to By across Africa and Asia, making their last smp in Lae, Papua New Guinea. They intended to go on to ti ny Howland Island in the South Pacific, then to Hawaii and back to California.
Start Arc Map. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more . (If ArcMap is already runn ing, cl ick the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ ESRIPress\GTKArcGI S\Chapte r03. Click ex03 b.mxd and cl ick Open .

Iii S...,. ...

Iil li!l-.... ...... _

-o

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o.

The map resembles the one in the previous exercise but has two add itional layers. The Diverging Flight Paths layer contains twO line features. One represents the course Earhart and Noonan planned to cake. The other represents the course the foundation believes they actually fo llowed.

Explorillg A rcMap

35

l'be Area of Disappearance layer is shown in the table of contents with a grayed-out c:heck mark (and a tiny scale bar under the check box). This means that the layer's visibiliry depends on the map's display scale. This layer includes hund reds of Pacific islands roo small to be represented on a genera l world map. When you room in to look at the end of Earhart's fl ight, this layer wil l become visible.

2. On the Tools tool bar, click the Zoom In tool.

3

On the map, drag a rectangle that includes the northern half of Africa and reaches to India, as shown in the following graphic .

The d isplay zooms in on the African stretch of the route. If your d isplay doesn't show the west coast of Africa, use the Pan tool to adjust it.

36

Sectioll 2: Grttin! Sl(lrIed will) maps and data

At this scale, the city labels appear. The display of labels, like that of map features, can be made scale-dependent in the Layer Properties dialog box. In this map, labels ap~ pear only when the sca le is larger than 1: 100,000,000. (The larger the scale, the nearer features are to their actual size.)
4 On the Tools toolbar, click the Pan tool.

5

Drag the display to the left to follow the flight path .

From Assab (in what is now Eritrea) on the east coast of Africa, Earhart flew to Karachi (now in Pakistan). She then headed south, flying over Southeast Asia to Indonesia .

.s

Continue panning along the route.

From Darwin. Australia, Earhart flew to her Ian known srop in Lae, Papua New Guinea. At this point, the path the foundation believes she followed diverges from the planned Bight path.

Exploring ArrMap

37

In the table of contents, the check mark by the Area of Disappearance layer is no longer grayed~out. (The layer displays at scales larger than 1:100,000,000.) The features in this layer are small islands. Until you zoom in very dose, you see mostly outlines.
In the tab le of contents,
r ig ht~c lick

the Area of Disappearance layer and click Zoom

To Layer.

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-. -

"""'"'-_...
...

,-~

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You can see a number of dny islands in the display. but it looks as if both flight paths StOP in the middle of the ocean .

38

SuttOIl 2: Getting u flru d with mapI and ddla

8

Click the Window menu and click Magnifier. A magnification window opens on top of the display. (Yours may open in a slightly different position from the one in the graphic')

"

When you move the Magnifier window over the map. the area seen through the window is magnified four times (or 400 percent).

9

Click and drag the blue title bar at the top of the Magnifier window to move it to the right. As you drag it. it displays a crosshair to show you the point on which it 's centered. Place the crosshair on the end of the probable flight path and release the mouse.

:: ::

..
t

If your eyes are good. you can discern the tiny island of Nikumaroro at the end of the probable Right path. If not, you will soon get a better look.

Exploring ArcMnp

39

10 Close the Magn ifier window. On the Tools tool bar, click the Zoom In too l.

11 On the map, drag a rectangle that includes the ends of both the planned and probable flight paths.

The display zooms in.

Even at this scale, it's hard to see land. Earhart and Noonan d isappeared somewhere in this watery expanse. You will set a bookmark to save this map extent. You'll return [0 it later to measure [he distance from Howland Island to Nikumaroro-the distance, if the foundation is right, by which the aviatOrs were off course.

40

Srclion 2: GflIing If(trud with mflps flnd dnrfl

12 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Create.

The Spatial Bookmark d ialog box opens.

e~ ..~~
IOil Itrail
13 Replace the existing text with End of Flight, as shown in the following graphic, then click OK.

or:

II

~

Now you' ll zoom in fo r a dose look at the islands at the ends of the twO fl ight paths. You' ll use bookmarks that have already been created.
14 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Howland Island.

The display zooms in on Howland Island at the end of the planned flight path. Earhart intended to refuel here before going on to Hawaii.

L-_-'C ()

Exploring ArcM"p

41

15 Click the Bookmarks menu and cl ick Nikumaroro Island. The display zooms in on
Nikumaroro Island.

o

Clothing and empty food tins found on the west bank of the island suggest that Earhart and Noonan may have crashed nearby. In addition, Earhart said, in her last message to the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Ithaca, "We are in line of position 158 degrees - 337 degrees ... " The line she mentioned is a sun line. used in celestial navigation, thac runs directly through both Howland Island and Nikumaroro. If, indeed, Earhart crashed on or near Nikumaroro, she and Noonan were far off course.
16 Cl ick t he Bookmarks menu and cl ick End of Flight. The display zooms to the extent
you bookmarked. 11 On the Tools toolbar, click the Measure tool. The Measure window opens. Click the Choose Un its drop-down arrow, point to Distance, and click Kilometers.

To measurtlil featull,

tt... clckll featu.1I.

42

Srctioll 2: Gtltillg JMrttd with maps and daM

18 Move the mouse pointer over the display. The cu rsor is a ruler with a small crosshair. Place the crosshair at the end of the planned flight path and click to begin a line. Move the cu rsor to the end of the probable flight path and double-click to end the line .

1 1121 • _ _

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1 12"-


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P8lh1: Eodpoi nt

The length of the li ne is displayed in the Measure window. If the probable path is the actual one, Earhart and Noonan were off course by about 770 kilometers. Poor maps, cloud cover, the scarcity of landmarks, and the sheer length of the plan ned Right from Lae all may have contribmed.
19 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter03\MyData . Rename the file my-ex03b.mxd and click Save. 20 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, click the Fi le menu and click Exit. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Explorillg A rcMflp

43

Looking at feature attributes
In a GIS, a feature on a map may be associated with a great deal ofinformation-more than can be displayed at any given time. Th is information is stored in an attribute table. A layer's amibure table concains a row (or record) fo r every feature in the layer and a column (or field) for every attribute or category of information. W hen you clicked the city of Natal to identify it at the end of exercise 3a, the information you saw in the Identify window was the information stored in the layer attribute table. In this exercise. you will look at the attribute tables for two map layers. You will learn how to change a table's appearance and how to get statistical information fro m it.

Exercise 3c
The long transatlantic flight from Brazil to Senegal put Earhart north of her intended destination. The Right from Lae (0 Howland Island would have been even longer. You will look at the lengths of the various Stages of the Right.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already funning, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ ESRIPress\ GTKArcGlS\ Chapter03. Click ex03c.mxd and click Open.

You see the fam iliar map of the world and of Earhart's Right.

ii ill _ _ _

•• .":' ·~-- I I •
D

--

I

44

StCr;OTl 2: Gt'tling strJrud with maps and datil

Now you will open the attribute table for the Cities Earhan Visited layer.
2 In the table of contents, right-click t he Cities Earhart Visited layer and click Open Attribute Table.

3

Scroll down through the table . There are twenty-eight records, one for each city. Scroll across the table to look at the attributes.

There are ten attributes, or fidds. The OBJECTID field contains a un ique identifi cation nu mber for every record. The Shape field describes the fea ture geometry. Among the other attributes are the name of each city, the dares Ea rhart arrived and departed, and com ments on any u nusual activity. The intersec(ion of a record and a field is a cell. A cell comains an attribute va lue. For example, the attribute value ofrhe NAME fi eld fo r the first record is "Tucson." You'll adjust the display width of the fields so you can see more amibutes.
4 Scroll back all the way to the left. Place the mouse pointer on the vertical black bar between the NAME and CAPITAL fields. The cursor changes to a two-headed arrow.

Exp/or/lIg ArcMflp

45

5

Drag the cursor to t he left. As you drag, the original field width is marked by a vertical red li ne and t he new width by a vertical black line. Release the mouse button somewhere before you start cutting off city names.

The last letter of the DEPARTURE field name is cut off'. You'll widen this field.
6 Scroll to the right side of the table. Place the mouse pointer on the vertical black bar between the DEPARTURE and COMMENT fields. Drag the cursor slightly to the right to see the entire field name.

The elevation and precipitation (ELEVATION and PRECIP) field s could contribute to a study of the weather Earhart faced. The CAPITAL field is probably not useful for any analysis connected with the Right. You will hide this field.

46

Stction 2: Gtltillg ltarUd with maps and dota

7

Place the mouse pointer on the vertical black bar between the CAPITAL and ELEVATION fields . Click and drag the cursor to the right edge of the NAME fie ld and release the mouse button. The CAPITAL field is hidden.

If you wamed to restore the hidden field , you would double-click the border between the NAME and ELEVATION field names. You can rearrange the order of fields as well. It would be more natural to have the city name appear before [he coumry name.
8 Scroll to the left. Click the column heading of the NAME field. The field is highlighted.

9

Drag the column heading to the left. The cursor becomes a pointer with a small rectangle, showing that a field is being moved. When the vertical red line is between the Shape and COUNTRY fields, as shown in the following graphic, release the mouse button .

Explorillg Al'cMflP

47

The fi eld names are rearranged.

Records, as well as fields, can be highlighted . When a record is high lighted in a table, its correspondi ng feature is highlighted on the map. A highlighted record or feature is sa id to be selected.
10 Click the gray tab at the left edge of the first record in the table. The record is selected.

48

5(((;011 2: Gellillg stllrted w;th map, Imd data

11

Move the attribute table away from the map display. Tucson is highlighted on the map. (The attribute table can be docked; however, for this exercise, do not dock it.)

12 At the top of the attribute table, click the Table Options menu and click Clear Selection.

-. ...

::e- ----I

"",otto"'...,...

The record is unselected in the table, and the fearure is unselecred on the map.

Exploring A rcM"p

49

J3 In the table of contents, right-cl ick the Flight Path layer and c lick Open Attribute Table.

The attribute table opens. Notice the tabs at the bottom of the Table window. These tabs aUow you to quickly switch between d ifferent attribute tables. The Flight Path table contains a record for each stage of Earhart's Right. The attributes include the starting city (FROM _CITY), the destination city (TO_C ITY), and the flig ht length (LENGTH) in kilometers. The Right from Lae to Howland Island would have been 4,120 kilometers. The cumulative effect of small navigation errors over this distance might plaUSibly account fo r Earharr and Noonan's going well off course. You' ll sorr the LENGTH field to compare the d istances of the flight segments they completed.
Right-cl ick the LENGTH f ield name and click Sort Descending.

50

Stction 2: Gllling starttd with m/lps tlnd dtlttl

The records are ordered by length of Right segment from longeS[ to shonesr.

The longest completed leg of the Right, 3,184 kilometers, was over W:Her from Natal, Brazil, to Saint Louis, Senegal. This was also a flight that had significant navigational error. (The aviacots were about 175 kilometers off course from their intended destination, Dakar.) Sorting a field is useful fo r seeing high and low values, but ArcMap can give you more detailed information.
15 Right-click the LENGTH field and click Stat istics . The Stat istics of fl ight_path window opens.

ffequency Distribution
tort

V

lllri'run: llKl.Ol1

Sun; III.....

111 ......... 3184.838 35597.615 1318.0)185 Stonclard o.vitIion: 782. 4m25

180.0

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&ploring A reMap

51

The Sta[istics box displays the number of records in the table (27) and the minimum, maximum, sum, mean, and standard deviation values. The average Hight length, for example, was 1,318 kilometers. The Frequency Distribution chart represents the distribution of values graphically. You can see that most of the flights were less than 1,500 kilometers and that only two were more than 2,500 kilometers. (The last bar in the chart reaches the 2 mark.)

18 Close the Statistics window. Close the Attributes of Flight Path table.
In the next chapter. you w ill see how the data fo r the Earhart project is managed in ArcCatalog.
17 If you want to save your work, click the Fi le menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter03\MyData. Rename the fi le my_ex03c.mxd and click Save.

18 Click the File menu and click Exit. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 2: Getting started with maps and data

Chapter 4

Exploring ArcCatalog
Browsing map data Searching for map data

Idling data to A rcMap

54

Stctioll 2: Getting starled wit" /III/pi {/lid dilill

ArcCatalog is an applicalion for managing geograph ic data. You can copy, move, and delete data; search for data; look at data before deciding whether to add it to a map; and create new data. The ArcCatalog application window includes the catalog display for looking at spatial data, the catalog tree for browsing data, and several toolbars.

Standard toolbar

Metadata tool bar

Cata log tree

.,.., ,."'OJ-

............., s_.-. ....S _~

Ca talog display (preview

-lrm'" ::: "

11 =0>000:_ 11 =0>000:_

Spatial data comes in many differenr formats, including geodatabases, coverages, shapefiles, CAD (computer-aided design) files, rasters, and T INs (triangulated irregular networks). Each fo rmat is identi fi ed by its own icon in ArcCatalog. The shapefile icon, for example, is a green recta ngle. Different patterns on the green rectangle distingu ish point, line, and polygon shapefiles. In this book, you' ll use geodatabase, shapefile, and raster data. You'll also use layer fi les, which are not spatial datasets, but rather instructions for displaying spatial datasets with certain colors, symbol markers, li ne widths, and so on. Layer fi les, too, have [heir own ArcCatalog icon. You'll learn more about layer fi les and spatial data formats throughout this book.

Exploring ArcCIll(/log

55

Browsing map data
.\rcCatalog gives you more information about spatial data than you can get from Windows Explorer or other file browsers. 1r can show you which folders comain spatial data and what kinds of spatial data they comain. It Jets you preview features and amibutes of data before ~ add the data to a map. It lets you examine and edit metadata, which is information .oom your data, such as when and how it was created.

Exercise 4a
As the GIS manager of the aviation history foundation 's Earhart project. you need to be fa miliar with its spatial data. You' ll use ArcCatalog to look at this data and get information about it. The exercise instructions assume you have installed the data for Getting to Know ArcGIS DeJktop to the defauh directory (C:\ESRfPrm\GTKArcG/S). If you have installed the data elsewhere, you'U need to substitute the correct paths.
To open ArcCata log, click the Start button on the Windows taskbar, point to All Programs, point to ArcG IS 10, and click ArcCatalog 10.

The ArcCatalog application window opens. The Catalog Tree lists the data and services that ArcCatalog is connected to. This is where connections to local drives on your computer are made. Your application may look different from the following graphic depending on the drivt':s you have con nected.

56

Sr ftioll 2: Grltillg itilrud with

InllpS lIIid

data

You can also connect other services.

(0

subdirectories, network drives, databases, Internet servers, and

Once you connect to a fo lder, you can access the data it contains. In this exercise, it will be helpful to see the fil e extensions of different spatial datasets, so you will make sure that ArcCatalog is set to display these extensions.
2 Click t he Customize menu and cl ick ArcCatalog Opt ions. In the ArcCatalog Options dialog box, click the General tab.

The ArcCaraiog Options d ialog box lets you specify the types of data ArcCatalog displays and the information it shows about them (file name, 61e size, date modi fi ed , and so on). You can distinguish folders contain ing spatial data from those that don't, and make many other customizations to the way data is displayed.
3 If necessary, unch eck Hide file extensions, then click OK .

1i:I_ . ... _ _ _

0_"'_

~_

...

To access the spatia l data in the GTKArcG IS folder more quickly, you'll create a connection to it.
4 On the Standard tool bar, click t he Connect to Folder button.

Explorillg ArcClltllfog

57

The Connect to Folder dialog box opens. Your dialog box may look d ifferent depending on your local and network drives.

..e O"
I

_ 10" , , _
b __, _

lIi llj ",, _ _

. <> ~

<><> ~

1--- 1
5

In the Connect to Folder dialog box, click the plus sign (+) next to the Loca l Disk (C:) drive to view its contents. Click the plus sign next to the ESRIPress folder to expand it. Click the GTKArcGlS folder as shown in the following graphic, then click OK.

co::

II

CoruI

58

Sl'etion 2: Gmillg started with mapi and datil

A connection is made to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
6

-

"-'"
CItl - . -

In the catalog tree, click the plus sign next to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS. Click the plus sign next to the Chapter04 folder. It contains three folders, Bathymetry, Data , and MyData, and one map document, ex04c.mxd.

·..,..,.,-. ." -."''",-· """"" ."'Eil e:I Choptol"lO
!II !II !II IJI !II !II

e:I Choptorn eI Choptorl2 eI Chopt.13 eI Chopt.JoI e::l Chopt.15 eI Chopt.l~

_I

7

Click the plus sign next to the Data folder. It contains a geodatabase (World.mdb), two shapefiles, and two layer files. Click t he plus sign next to World.mdb.

£v:ploring A rcCafafog

59

~ ;;:--~ .'

;=:;:... .1--..

-t-l!--- -- Geodatailase
Feature class

. J~§~:;~~== Layer file
Shapefile

The geodatabase contains four feature classes. A feature class is a group of points, lines, or polygons representing geographic objects of the same kind. The cities feature class contains point fearures, the other three contain polygon fearures. This data was used to make the map of Earhart's fli ght in the previous chapter. For a more detailed explanation of featu re classes, see the introduction to chapter 14.
• On the Standard tool bar, make sure the Detai ls button is selected.

In the catalog tree, click World.mdb. In the catalog display, make sure the Contents tab

is active .

---_0_ _ _ _ ao..

60

Section 2: Gntillg started witb

lIIt/pS

,/lid data

Four adjacent bunons on the Standard toolbar change how files look on the Contents tab. The Large Icons bunon displays large icons horizontally. The List button displays small icons veuicaUy. The Details bunon is like the List button except that it also shows the file type- in this case, geodatabase feature classes. The Thumbnails bunon allows you to view small images of spatial datasets. W henever a folder or a geodatabase is highlighted in the catalog tree, these fou r buttons are enabled.

10 On the Standard tool bar, click t he Thu mbnails button .

I ~W I

=

The display changes to show thumbnail images for each file. At the moment, the thumbna ils are simply larger versions of the icons. A thumbnail that shows an image of a dataset can help you decide quickly if you want to use the data or not. You'U create a thumbnail for the countries feature class.

--

11 In the catalog tree, click the countries feature class in the World geodatabase. In the
catalog display, click the Preview tab. The geographic data for countries displays in pale yellow.

£v:pforing ArcCi/tflfog

61

• • • •

iIj

-

12 On the Geography toolbar, click the Create Thumbnail button.

An image:: of (he dam shown on (he Preview tab is save::d as a thumbnail graphic.

13 In the catalog display, click the Contents tab to see the thum bnail.
Contenb PUM"'" O~
N_ 11""'

COUI'ItriN "-ttOMl G~~ F....e a...

62

SrctiOIl 2: Geu i ng ffilrf(d wi th maps n nd d llln

A thumbna il graphic may not be enough. The preview tab and the tools on the Geography toolba r let you furthe r investigate a dataset before decidi ng if you want to use it in a map.
14 In the catalog display, click the Preview tab again. On the Geography tool bar, click the
Zoom In tool.

15 Drag a box around the area north of Australia, as shown in the following graphic .

16 On the Geography tool bar, click the Identify tool.

17 Click a feature to identify it. If you don't see it flash green, move the Identify Results window away from the display and click the feature again.

E).-p/orillg ArcCtllnlog

63

Close the Identify Results window. On the Geography tool bar, click the Fu ll Extent button to zoom to the full edent of the data.

Y can preview (he attributes of a dataser as wdl as its geography. ou
AI: the bottom of the catalog display, clic k the Preview drop-down arrow and click Table. The display shows you the attribute table of the cou ntries feature class .

Cick the Preview drop-down arrow again and click Geography.

64

SecrioJl 2: Getting U(lr/rt! with maps alld data

The th ird tab in the catalog display is the Description tab. Metadata provides information about a dataset, such as its coordinate system, its spatial extent, and descriptions of its attributes. It may also explain how and when the data was created, what standards of accu racy it meets, and what its appropriate uses are. A great deal of metadata is maintained automatically by ArcCatalog; some, however, must be maintained by the people who use and manage the data. ArcCatalog doesn't require you to maintain metadata, but you should.
In the catalog display, click the Description tab. If needed, scroll down to see the thumbnail you created, tag words, summary, description, and other information.

cou nt ries
P.... o"o l a ... Dol aba .. Flatu ,", Clou

polygon, COIa'\In.., n,_1ioMI bourodariu. coutlirll., "'D, 1n1.....1ioMI cod.., C"""",,ill, .ov • ..q,bH, popHtion, IIndlochd Infunnation, World

rail'

2

Click the Edit button inside the description to access metadata about the countries feature class.
~,......~

il -

K ""'"

Item Description
Todel _ _

I

I~

~

Ii6 UpdoIo...

I

£yplorillg ArrCautiog

65

Me:r.adata can be gene:r.ued inside the Description tab. The format of me:tadata has changed. with ArcGIS 10. All metadata crc:ated in prior rele::ues must be upgrade:d to the current ArcGlS metadata format. This upgrade will not remove: any existing me:tadata- existing me:tadata can be: accessed in the same manner as before with previous releases of ArcGIS. You can include: usdi.J..I details about the fi le includ ing spat ial refe:rence information a nd attribute info rmation. A ny of the information here can be ed.itc=d. H owever. it w ill not be done fo r m.is exercise.

:za

Browse the different categories to see what type of metadata could be entered.
For more information abom metadata. d ick the For more information about metadata. click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop H elp (not the: Conte:nu tab in ArcCatalog) a nd navigate to Profmiona/ Library > Data managemmt > Geographic d4ta typ~s
>

Metadata.

IMJ ln the cata log display. click the Contents tab. In the catalog tree, click World.mdb. On the Standard toolbar, click the Details button.

The: display is restorc:d to its initial state.

(25 If you are continuing with the next exercise. leave ArcCata log open . Otherwise. exit the application.

Searching for map data
With ArcC3[alog, you can ..,arch for gwgrnphic da,a On disk O across a network. You can r , ...eh by name, file type. geograph ic Io<at;on, creation dalO , or by ot her properti e. Slored in
the m <!>data .

Exercise 4b
In this cxcrd«, you will ",arch ArcCatalog for more data that may be merul TO rh.

Earh . n

proj~t.

If necessary. start ArcCatalog.
If ArcCu.log is open from the previou, exercise, you arc con n"" .. d to the C :IESR IP rc ..IGTKArcG1 S folder. as , hown in ,he following graphic.

-------

If )"'u " .."oJ .. n~ ArcC.t> log SC.\$ion, you may be <onnooted IO anmher folder and your ",,'"log <ftc may look ,Iighdy dilf,rent. lf nttd.d, browse to the Dar> fulder lisred . bove.

2

On the Standa rd toolba'. click the Searc h button.

Explo ring ArcCatalog

67

The Search window opens. Depending on how your interface is set up, it may be docked TO the right side of the ArcCatalog interface or it may be floating. You can work with it in either docked or floating orientation.

_

,"' . .
. """"'"'
"-'"

II

c.. ~GTKArcGlS

ii e::J Bathymetry

" 0 .... B lJ watd.nd:I 6:l _ 1I3l _ !&I dsapp-1I3l _

s """_.......'... """_....... "
S "<l<.........

"""......'"

~ o ..,.,...

«i """''''''' "-"" "-'"

lhe Search window gives you more flexibility to search for maps, data and tools. Data :and tools from a search result can be used with your active map or model. It indexes data so that it can be searched more efficiently and quickly. Before ArcCatalog can search for maps or data, you must specify a search location-such a folder or geodatabase. An index of the contents of the specified search location will created by ArcCatalog. As you will see in a moment, the search results are listed in Search window as shortcuts, or pointers, to the maps, data and tools it finds.
-ou will define the search to the contents of the Chapter04 folder. This spares _ -\rcCatalog the trouble of looking for data in unlikely places.

e Search window, click the Index/Search Options button .

~ ~ IIM1Mi1d

I

t

The Index/Search Op'ion s d i. log box open<.

-

'=------'I ~ -

~

-----.-- --- ----

----- - -- -

- - - - 0 - ' ''''- _ _

_ _ .,::J

=~ -

[;i In the Register Folders and Server Co nnections frame, c lick the Add button. In the J
Browse Fo lders to be In dexed dialog box, nav igate to C:\ ESR IPre&s\GTKAlcG1 Click the S.
Ch~pte r04

lolder, as shown in t he lollowing graphic, then c lick Se lect.

I

*
l he <cord , i, now limited
to

-

,he conten.. of ,h. Chaptcr04 folder.

The Index/Search Op'ion s d i. log box open<.

-

'=------'I ~ -

~

-----.-- --- ----

----- - -- -

- - - - 0 - ' ''''- _ _

_ _ .,::J

=~ -

[;i In the Register Folders and Server Co nnections frame, c lick the Add button. In the J
Browse Fo lders to be In dexed dialog box, nav igate to C:\ ESR IPre&s\GTKAlcG1 Click the S.
Ch~pte r04

lolder, as shown in t he lollowing graphic, then c lick Se lect.

I

*
l he <cord , i, now limited
to

-

,he conten.. of ,h. Chaptcr04 folder.

Hawrvcr, Ixfon: ,he Ch'p,er<>4 fol<kr can Ix ....ched prol"'r1r, i, mu" Ix iodc.ed .

.5.

Click the Index New Items bullon.

In a few oecondl. ,he conrent of Chap<erQ4 il inoXKd.

-- -----,
--"'-'
_ _ _ J-.

" - ,.,,"'" a_", _
~.

Twdv.: i,on • • ", Indcttd and thc ,,_and du ..., ion of ,he ,ndu a",
time . nd will nor imerrupt indexing.
• Click OK to close the IndexlSearch Options dialog boll.

Induing

duration dq><:ndl on ,he I"',forma""" of your .y"~m and ,he numlxr of fOlder or ...-wr connection. to be indexed. Th~ In<k:c/Sn",h Op<ion. dialog box m.y be doK<l .. , .nr

You will cor>Ccn,"',e your sClIch f(>f da,. abou, Earh. rt using keYW1>ld. Slo",d in a """ial "..,.ad.... If many matches.", found, the d"un and iu dc.Krip,ion

d.a,,...,,',

.'" returned in ,he ....",h ..,...1".
In the Sea rch winclow, type Ear ha rt into the searc h box and ~ I ick the sea rch button adjacent to it.

Search mult. ,eruln wi, h all da,a ,h.. have ,he keyword "Earha,,- in iu mer:od..a .... Hover over .. ..earch , .... 1 to view a brief dcKriptlon ofi,. H()\O'CVCr, we . '" in,eres,ed in . ohc ocean arc,t w~ Earha" di$>.pfIC.mI.

8

In the

se~rch

box. de lete " Earhart, " type ocun.

~nd

cl ick the searc h tHJlton ,

.- _.....___.... " ,---_ • "'----_ =..."'--_ , ."--------., -_ ..
...

-_.-

...

".

... ...

_ _ , .......... . . ... _ n ,

. ..

~--..

--.

The Seorch window Ii,,, ,h,..e da,a""" ,ha! were found. The,.. i. a r,,,,er d.,ue< coiled ...11001' ,h" you may have not .cen before (at the top of ,h. list.)
9 In the top search result listi ng. cl ick the text seafloor (o r the path link be low it.) Make sure you click the tex t link and not the de&Criptio n. Clicki ng the description opens t he Item De&cript ion w indow.


Th. c",alog t,... opens to the location of ,he da". If no,csury. oeroll to the top of the (Oblc of comcnto '0 se. ;"

110 Close the Search windOW.
lh~ ~o.AOOI"

1':1.""'- dota"" i, in ,II< B3! hYm<try fold... und~r Chap<..04. along wi ,h .. lar.r fi le c.lled ,eoAo<> •. ly •.

II In the cata log tree. make $Ure that s ea floor.til is highl ighted. In the catalog display. cloc k tile Preview lab.

You Stt .. 1':1."'" d:w uet of ",o. Roor eleva<ioo ill Ea" Oc •• lli•. 'Ihe duo. mo.y be " ..,ful ill ' m.p of ,he ~..,o. wile.., Earn", d i"'l'P"" red. For ".. mple.J"<IU could zoom in on Xikum.roro h1.nd and find Out I>ow d""p the W~t ... >round il il. lh •• inform ation might ~ If""t opc"n;onl tO find .nd ,reover plane wreckoge. 'Ihe black-and-white im .ge. bo"""" ". ,. not e01Y to int .rpm a. ",. Aoor elevat ion. The ",.Aoor I.yer file di, pl ay. the dc-.rion dalO in .h~dr$ of bl ue,
12 In the catalog tlee. click seafloor. I~I.

--

In , he layer fi le. the dep<h of,he wa,,,, i. indicat "! by ,he ,h.de of blue; d. ri<<r i.

ckq>er. Wh it. aru. arc l. nd.

72

s-"'#~ 1: ewing "ama

wi,h map' ,Ina data

13 On the Geugraphy toolbar. click the Ide ntily too l.

14 Click a few locations to identify elevat ion va lues (des.cr ibed as pixel values in the
Ident ify Results window), The values are in meters, 1/ you click a spot of land. yo u shou ld get the va lue No Data.

15 Close the Ident ify Results window, In the catalog tree. click the minus sir:n next to the
Bathy metry folder to co ll apse it. If necessa ry, cl ick the plus sign next to the Data fo lder to expand it.

Besides ,he World geod".b . ... ,h~ Da,,, fold~r con,ain •• h'pcfi t.:. and layer li les for ,ho b ,h .. t Aigh, p"hs,

til Make sure Ihe Preview to\!> i$ ocli¥t' in the display. Click the IlighU liverge shape/ile (green,quare Icon) to preview it. Next, elide the rlighLdi'o'erge Iaytf lile ()"!lkIw diamond) an<! preview it.

_

,a _

M

~

___

_

- ---

• a

Th~ sh.pdile displays as ......

blue lines. The Laytr lik .hows the: thick doncd lines ,h.. 1"" lOW in the: l"eYiou. chap<er.
Laye. filn allow )"'u .o store .ymbology inform ation-the: colors. .h' pe>, .nd Ii.., •• h" )"" choo$c for fe. tures-so you neve. have to re-cre. te It. Every l.yer file i. usod ..ed

wi.h and depend. On a Ip.ti. l d">$I;" The flight_diverg~ l'ye, file won'. display in A,cM.p unle •• •he fl ight_diverge sh.pcfile i, :acce/Siblc on disk.

In ,he: next exerci.e, you will . dd data and I.ye. fil •• from ArcC . .. log to A"M.p.

!IJ:

If you aft continuing wit h the next exerci!.a. leave ArcCatalog open. Otherwise, elIit the
applit ation.

Adding data to ArcMap
On~

wo.y 10 add dara w ArcMap js 10 d!':lg it from AreCa, .. log. Once it', th. re, you can look

., il , .. you did in ,he pl'<viou. chapre" .. a map display and , .ble of Contento, This is c.lled data view. You can .1>0 look at it as if;! were on .. page thai you >end to .. prim". Thi' j,

c.. lled I..you, view. In layom view, you see map layers organized in one or rno," rectangle, on a l.~r N.ckground

fcct.ngle. The . ma ller rectangb arc called d .... frames and the background is called [he virtu.1 page.
A map docurnem can have one da,. frame or many. D ata frame. may comai" diff.",n, .. " of data (u.u.lly reiated!O a common subject) or they may .how d iffefem view, of the >arne da, • .

.....
..."

+ """"-

.---......
1I:r.< di<play window IIhows 'M con,,,,,,. of ,he ac,i", da.a f...... (in .his U$<, f"'W"1 and C>eIlYd... ).11K n.me of.he acli", d.t>. f...... i. boIdf":N;n {he {able of oon.en".

Exercise 4c
The ,vb.ion hinory found"ion hope. {O .aise: mo,,",y fo. an expedi{ion IO look for ,h. ,..,,:<:hge of Earn a!!·, pl. "e. Part of you . job i. IO " ••• e map. IO imerest potenti.1 in'CSfOlL In .hap ••• 19, you·II]",.,n in de,.i l .bou. crea.ing map$ roo- I"=n{.{lon. For now. you'll learn how .o add ..... to AreM.p from ArcCa..1og and how to...,.k wi.h d". (",rna; n ArcM.p.

I

It nl!'t:essa ry. start ArcCatalog.
If ArcUotalog is OS"'" from ,he p«viou, curci.., you an: . on n«{N 10 C:IESRI Pre.. IGTKArcC1SlChap.crll410a•• IH igh._divorgc.ly r,., Ihow n in the graphic on lhe next pagc. If you startcd. now AreC". logid.ion, navis:ue 10 ,hi' Ioc•• ion now and click ,he Preview {ab if n«=ry.

--"''''::: --- - ---,_.
• • ,$ _ ___ _

---- --

[2

On the Standard too lbar. cl ick the Launc h Arc Map t>utton .

3

In the ArcMa p- Getting Started di alog box , click "Browse more __" to start using ArcMap with an e' isting map. In the Open fi le browse r, na. igale to C:\GTKArcG IS \Chapter04 , Cl ick the fi le el04c.mxd to highlight it and clICk Open.

'(If

~

A preview 0( ex04c.mxd i$ $hOWn. Click Open .

.

_-•

You 5tt ,t.., f.tmili.>, m"l' of AontIi.> E:am..n·s High!. 1ht nup h". One do", f.... me ,h., CON:Iins four Y will.dd . I.yer for ,t.., di""rging 0;, 1 JIO.,h .. ou 11

"'yea.

S

Position the ArcCatalog and ArcMap applicatioo windows so th3t you can see both the catalog t'ee arld the ArcMap displa)/ window. In t he cata log tree. cl ick t he fll &hC di ver2! layer file lye llow ico n). D'a~ the file anywhere over the ArcMap displa~ window and re lear.e the moose buttcn. Brina ArcMap forward by clicking ils I'tle bar.

&

The layer file i, added!O ArcMap.

You'll rename the layer file.
7 8 In the table of contenl s, righl·clic~ Uight..di~erge. l yr and cli c~ Pmpe rties. In the L~yer Properties di~ log box. clic k the Gene ral tab. Repl~ce the layer name with Diveraini Fli ght Path s, as show n in Ihe follow ing graphic, then click OK.

-._- -9

H

-

The l. yer nome i, cha nged in th. tabl. of contenn.
In ArcMap. c lick the View menu and cl ick uyo ut View.

You ... the map as if it i, on • pi••,. of P' P'" A n<'W toolbar, the layout tool bar, O P'"" 11 can be docked or lef, Hoadng.

& pIQri"l ArcCatalot

79

Th. map document has a .ingk data ["'me, occup)'ing the top half of the virtu.1 p.~. Some other d ements ha,'e been addM to thel"yout for you. ·Ih ... is " title above the d... f",me, a green rectangle graphic that marks the ar.a where Eorh"" di"ppe>rM, .nd anothe, title th .. will accompany. d.r. frame you .re abom '0 add. This new dat" fra.me w;]) .how .. LOomed·in view of ,he .... a of disoppe" rance .

.."..."
10 Click the Inse rt menu and click Data Frame.

-....--_ ...
.,,-" o
A data frame j. added to [hel.yom and its name. New 0",,, Fr. me, .ppe. ... in the "ble of contents. Th. name i. boldf.tced, indicating that it i. the acti,·. da,a fra.me- the one t'm loycn will heoddw to.

[1 1 In t he layout window, move the mouse pointer o~e( the new data frame. The CurSO r cha nges to a fou r-headed arrow. Drag the frame t>eneath the "Area of Disappearance " title.

".....

1 ,··,:,-,1
The name of a d3[3 frame is independent of .ny rid. you may choo,e to:>dd to the layout. By def,ml" ,he firs, data frame in a mop d"'umcnr i, "lied " Layers and the ..cond i, c.IIM "New Dara Frame: h i, often helpful to rename a dara frame to somerhing more d. ",ripr;ve (and you will do ,ha, larer in , hi. ex ...:I,.), bur it is not nece.."y. You'll ,wirch bock!O dara view ro odd in layou, view a, wdl.)
la~rs!O

_-

,he new dot, f"me. (You could do ,hi,

B
. . . I!)I •• •

Exploring ArcCaldlog

81

12 Cl ick tile Data View bUt\(Kl in tile lower lelt corner 01 tile layout winoow. This button and the Layout View button next to it Can be used instead 01 the View menu to switch betWl!en views.

The display window i. emp'y because the active da" fnome (New D o" Fra",~) con.. in.

n" l'y~r$.

..:""

..
..D Make ArcCatalog the act ive applic ation by c li cking its title bar. In the catalog tree. cl ick the plus si~n ne.t to the Wor ld geodatabase and click dis~pp_area, Dra~ t he feature
da55 to the ArcMap display window and rele,,,,, the moo"" butto n.

14 Bring ArcMap forwa rd by clicking it s title bar. The feature c lass is added as a layer to the new data frame.

••

••

ArcM op . " igt\" "",dam color 10 the cii,app_. reo larc r, '" Y'"'' <olor may be diff... m,
15 Make ArcCata le>g the active app lication. In the catal og tree, cl ick the plus siin by the
Bathymet ry folder and c lick seaflcor.lyr Iye tta", iconl. Drag the laye r li le t o Arc Map and

bring ArcMap forwa rd,

The .... Aoof.ly, layer di'p lay, lIndernea<h ,he di,app_ .,..,. laycr.

_

Now roo will copy ,he DiwrgO"& Fligh'

d.,2 r",J1'Ic.

~h.

b)"'<from ,he La)",,, da'2 r",,,,,, '" ,he

In the An:Map tablt! of contents , right-d ick the Oiverlling Flight Paths layer in the la~ers data frame, On th e context menu , cli ck Cop~.

-

.J1 In the tab le of c""tents. right-elick
Paste Layerls) .

New Data Frame. On the c""text menu . cl;ck

._---

..-_-

-.-.o o

Thc Divc'l;ing Flight I'"h. h)'er i, I',,,<tl into tl>< "e w Jat> f",me ,nd d"pl,y. on ,he map.

18 Cl ick the Layout Vif:N butto n m the lower left corner of the layout w, noow.

The d~ta frame di.play. the d"a r oo'v, ,dd"d to it.

--.....-

Now you'U ch. nge . hecolor of.he di""'PI'_ara of ,he se.Aoor I.yer.

~Y"r .o

m.ke i. con.ra" wi.h .he blue

19 Cl ick the Data View button to switch !lack to data view. In the taOie 01 cont~nts, riihtclic k the polygon symboj lor the disilPIU lfU!eyer. A color palette opens .

• li l i l _ ..... _

20 Move the mouse poi nter OVer the color palette . Each color "1 uare is identilied by name. Cl ick Sahara Sa nd.

'J".

cu]", of ,ho Jarer is lIpd a!ed in ,he "ble of co ntcn" and in ,he m, p fc"w'e•.

Finally. you will "'!I.1me the: dar> (",me.

21 In the tat>le of contents. ri&ht·eliek New Data Frame. On the COIlte.t menu, clid Properties. The Data Frame Properties diale>g 00. opens. Click the Genera l tab.

---_.-

----

~~-.-­

~- ~ - .~-

22 In the Name box, New Oala Frame is highlighted. Type A al O rll iuppe.r.rnn in its place, as shown in the foItowin& &r'ap/'lic. then click OK.

---_.-

--

--

Tho now n,me i, d i'pl ' yed in the "ble of COntent<_

~e _

m _."
~e_

.
o

--...

.,..
' .." ,
..

y()lJ know how '0 previcw d", in Arc(a"log and b"k . , ito mo,ada". You can us< ArcCaLO.log [0 =rch for '1"',",-1 doLO. on disk. And you know how '0 odd 1.)'<'" w ArcM.p from ArcC.,alog. Y()lJ'U have no trouble m.n.ging [he da,. for ,he E,rh,rt project.
23 If you want to explore mo re in ArcCata log , leave it open. otherwise, exit the app li c~t ion _ 24 If you want to save your work, click the File menu in Arc Map and c lick Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\c hapteIil4\MyData. Rename the file mLex04c.m~d and c lick Save. 25 Close the Layout too lbar. If you are cr>nlinuing 10 the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherw ise, ex it the appl icat ion. Click No when prompted to save changes.

Section 3: Displaying data

Chapter 5

Symbolizing features and rasters
ChallCinc sym~og)' Symoo liling featu res boi categorical attributes Usinil styles artd creating layer files Symboliling rasters

Symbolizing fe.ture, mean' '''igning ,hem colors, markers, ,h'." width., .nglc., p.ttcrm, tr''''porency, and orher properties by which ,hey co.n be recognized or, a mop. Symbol, of.." look like ,he objects ,hey repre""n" as when 0. l.k e polygon i. blue and fire hydrants are marked by icons ,h" look like fire hydra"" . Somerimes ,he rela'ionship i, b. ,,,. ighrforw.rd. On. 5tH"" map, varying lin. thickne..., may ,how wherher . Stre<:t i•• loc.1road,.n .rteriol. or. highw.y wi,hout implying ,h . , ,he width, on the map are proportion.1 to ,he wid,hs of ,he .ctu. l "r,,.,,. Symbology may ,,1.0 be purely conven,ion,l. Citie" for example. >te commonly symbolized as circl.. , .though cities are seldom round. By vuying .ymbol ptoperties, you convey inform. ,ion about fe. ture, .

. .•..•. ... \

.....)

• •

• •

Left: Fill p"ttern • ."d colors dille,ent iate inte,m ittent I"kes. pe,enn ial lakes. and sa lt pan •. Conter: Une thick"",., color . ."d sol idity show railwaY" and ma in. ,,",,ooda,y. and loc. 1'oads. Ri&ht Unique icon. m,,'" major aod mi"", citie•.

Symbology is .1.0 inAuenced by ... Ie. A ci,y may be a cirde on one map and a polygon on ano,her.

Sc.I. Llo.I)(l(l.1)(l(l

Sc. lo U?OO.1)(l(l

LeU: Redland • . Calitorn i•• '.~ ... nt.d ••• circ le. Riiht R.d l"nd • . Ca lifornia, re~e ..nt. d a. a polygon.

ArcG1S h.. ,houoand, of ,ymbol, for common map feature,. Symbol •• re organized by "ylc (Environmental, Tran'portation, Weather, and", on) TO make ir e.. ,y '0 loco" the one, you ", need. You can . 1 crea'e your own .ymbol•. When a d ....e' i, added to AreMap, all i" featu re, have ,he same symbology. To ..,ign ncw symbology, you usc informat ion from afield in the I.yer attribute " bl..

.. -.
Center:

~

in the Oemoa.rtic

[ ;>:;h

R~ 01 the Cotel. leIt: ~tl leot U'... lIN! the some symbology. luture I\a<. a d illeref'1 !ill cotor. RigI1l: The V egetation Ty~ •• tue s symbolited b'i the

You can .. ~ a b)'Cf·' symbology by making a l:I~, ~ly'J file. When you add a l:I~, file 10 a !!Up. .he: featurn att already symbo!iw:!.hc woy you wont. Symbolizing "liter 1 Y'rs i • •imilar to sym boli~ing fo.m,e loyers. but wi,h fewer option,. lhe . on ly property ,hat can be controlled i. the colo, of the cdl. ,h., comprise ,he ",",cr.

92

SW;C" J: Di,pl~Jin.f data

Changing symbology
Data"''' added to ArcMap hove defaul! ,ymbology. Poim, are displayed with small cirrI«, for im,,,nee, and polygon. have omline., The colo" for points, Ii ne" and polyg<>n. are randomly chosen.

In ,hi, exerci,e, you'll change,~ defuul, symbology for a polygon layer of coumrie. and .. poin! layer of cities. You'll al,a ch,mg. tho background color of the doto frome.

Exercise Sa
You.,e, Srophic dO';gnor donoting your lime!O c,",,,e a PO"" abour Africa for Geas .... ph)' Awaren ... Week. Sponsored by the Nationa l Gcogr;o phic Society, Geography Aware,..,.. Week is hc\d every Novcmlxr a nd indudo. GIS O"Y .mong its m.nr evmt$ ond prog"'-m ••

1h. Afric. Adas poster will con,ist of ninc map. di,pt.ying eilie>, CQumrie" rive .., wildlife, lopoBr;ophy (,,,,f.ce ,diof), populotion, and notural rosoura,. It will bo distr ibuted to d omonra,y 1Chool, , round ,be country. The compk<ed ~:"rer, me .. uring 44 by 34 incbo' , will look liko ,ho one in ,he following g ... pbic. In ,hi. exercise, you will erea,e ,be firS! of ,he nine map'. depic,;ng major ci,ies.

",' r l c a

AI

al

When you fin ish chaprer 6, you can >end you, po"er to .. platter, if you h,ve .cce.. to one. AI<crnOlivdy. you can send .. letter-<i,e version of ,he I"",.r [0" desktop prin,er.

1

Stillt Ar<:Map. In the ArcMap----Getting Started dialoe bolr., undef the Ewine Maps section, clock Browse for more, (It ArcMap is alrudy running, click the File menu and click Open ,) Navigate to C:\ESRIPren\GTKAreGIS\CllapterOS. Click ex05a.mxd and click Open .

The cable of ( Oments has a data f",me c.lled M.j-or Cit ies thot i""lud"., . Ci,iesl a~r .nd. Counrr;.,s I,~r. Countr;.,s a" .ymboli lOd in 1"1<: purple, cities os dark g"'y poi nts, E.ch city has . popul ation of one million Or mo". You'Jt ch.ng<: the symbology for both ,he counrries a nd thl: cid".,. 2 In the table of contents, .ight·dic k the symOOl fO<' the Counllies layer to open the colo. ~tetle. In the patette, click Salla.a Sand.

The mumrie...e redrown in Ihe new color. Polygon feotu",. are composed of IwO .ymbols, .. fill and an omline. To change lhe color or wid,h of ,he oudine. ),ou open ,he Symbol Sdwor.
3 In the lable 01 contents, click the symbol feM" the Countries laye,. The SymOOI Se lector d i ~ log OOx Or>"ns.

0 0 0 0 0

-- - - -

•-

•-

.--..u
I -~I~

' ....... 1

The scrolling box on ,he lef, contains prcdefinM .ymbols. The Oplions fume on ,he right allow> you ro pick ,olors and "" outline wid,h •.
4 In the Options frame, click the Outl ine Colo r square to open the color palette. In the co lor palette , cl ick Gray 40% . Cli ck OK at the bottom 01 the Symbol Selector dialog box.
!, .

•• - - •• - -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

-D
.-

-

--

The citi •• Sland Oul mo", di'rined)' against 'heligh ,er gray oudine. of ,he coumri ....

Now, you' ll ch.ngc the symbology for the cities. You' ll make them larger, change ,heir color, and labd them.
5 In the table of contents, cl ick the point symbol for the Cit ies laye r. The Sy mbol Selector dialog box opens. In the sc rolling box of predefined poi nl symbo ls, cl ick Circle 2. In the Opt ions frame , click the Size down arrow to change the symool size to 10 po ints .

• • • -, -, -' ., • • • -• ' -' -•' ... •
~ -,

-,

-' -' -'
6 Cl ick the Co lor SQ uare to open the color pa lette. In the color pa lette . cl ick Ginger Pi nk. Click OK to close the Symbol Se lector dia log box.

• •

-• • • --, -, -, • • --, -, • • • -, -,
• •

-'

-,

-'

-' -'

On the map. rhe ci[ie, di'play wirh rhe now symbol .

rJ
7J In the t~ bte of content~. right-cl ick the Cities layer name (II(lt the symbol) and click labe l Features .

The citi.s are labelod with , heir name, . Depe ndi ng on [h. of your A,cMop window. and [he ",.1 you . I.bel, may be po'itioncd dilfe.cndy from [ho"" in [h. gnph ic. In •• chop[. r 7. you'lIl.am how to chong. the , i>c . colo r, . nd fon, of bbct.. Next, you'lI change the background colo. ofth. da .. f."mc .

,i".

8

In the table of contents.. right<licl< the Major Cities data frame, and cIicI< P'operties. The Data F'ame Propertie~ dialog box opens. Click the F,ame tab {nlll the Data F'ame tab).

9

On the Frame tab. click the Background drop·down ar,ow and click Lt Blue. When the backsround color is applied. a~ shown in the IoIlow'"8 graphic. click OK to close the Data F,ame Prope,ties d "'log 00'.

lhe colo, is .pplicd to tlte data fra me.

-

You have finished .he major ci, i<, map. In .he: "<"X, "'"'rei.... J"O'l·U mau a map in ",hich each (OUnlfy h.. uniq"" oymbology. You·U also symbolize the rive .. or Mrica.

10 II you want to save your work, click the File meJ1U and click $;we As. Navi&ate to \GTKAlcGIS\Cl\.apter05\M,Oata. Rename the file lIy_,,05;l.lud and click Save. 11 II you are continuing wit h the next exercise. leave ""cMap ope n. Otherwi$e, el it the applicatio n. Click No il prom pted to sa'le )'QUI ch a nHe~ .

Symbolizing features by categorical attributes
In fM previous exerdse, c.ch city had.he .. ",., marker .ymbol.nd all c"untrks wore dr:lwn in.he .. me color. You an make symbology ...."c informa';"" by ....gni ng . dilf..c,u 'ymbol .0 ca.:h un;quo: ",fue. 0<r'0 "'ngc< of ... Iua, In ,he 1.,.... .«ribu•• labll!'. For "".mple, you migh • • ymbolitt a polygon by'" of coun,ri., according 10 .1Id. nam,,.. E",,'Y fcature' would h,a,,,. uniqu< colo< !>«aUK every country It... diff«.", name. You migh••1>0 .ymboli.., countries by ,heir polit;c.1 "Y"cm•. Featu,., with the some .y>,cm would h.ve the 5:1. ,,1< color: rcpublk' might b. bluc. conot;t<l1;onal monarchi.. purple, . nd com muni st .t.,c, Icd . • "',uib", •• ,h., ..c n'rnel or d<scription •• ", caned •• Iego.i""l :m rlbu,,,,, (or qu.Ii •• ,ive o. M"" ;I""" .",ib.."o). "they arc' u ... ally lU I, but .hc:y ITl3)' be numbon if the nu mhcrs .r. talltd quo ..,i••• ;... amibu,es. A country's ar~a in square kilome.~rs;' a popul .. ion i. a coun •.

coo.. ... nding for description<. Amibu,n .h.t .", m'''.... rcmcnu or counts off""."," arc'

=.<utt"n'lCt'l•. III

In ,his """"ioe, you'll symbo!i" fwure. by ,"egorical .",ibutel. You'll wo,k wi,h 'luomimlve a..,ibUir. in chop<er 6.

Exercise 5b
You ore cominuing you r worlc on ,he Africa Ad,.. poue<. You'U .ymbol'''' cmlmries by norne, 50 thOi each h •• a uniquo color. Then you·1t 'ymbo!i.., African ,iv" •. To giv. each ri.er 0 unique color would be confu,i ng- thero.n:.oo mony of ,hem. Ins'ead. you·1t symbolize Il>om by an • ..,ibu,. ,h:I! idemifi .. ,hem .lpe.enni.1or in",mi".n,.
I Sta.t ArcMap. In the ArcMap- Getlong SUlfteti dialog box, under tho! Existing Map$ 5e(:tion. d ick B.OW$e for more. (It ArcMap is already sunning. click the File menu and clic~ Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPreu\GTKAreGIS\chaple r05. Click u05b ... xd and cl ick Open.

I
"

Thc m.p open s in layout view. You s.e the Major Cilies dot" frame from the ptcvious "><etci", and tWO new one", Countries and Rivers. In ,he map display, ,he Countries data frame has a dashed line around it heca"", it i. active,

r2

Click t he Vi£!W menu and c lick Data View. On t he Tools toolDar, click t he Full Extent buttoo .

0 _0 -

The Countries dara frame i, .ctive and ~o nta in. one laycr, . 1.0 called Count ric. , All fea m res in the byer arc ,ymbolized witb the som" color. To give each feature its own ~ol or, you'll open tbe Lay<t i'ropcrtb dialog box.
3

In t he table of cootent s, right· click t he Co unt ries layer (not the Countries dat~ frame) and clic k Propert ies. The Layer Prope rt ies dialog oox opens. Click t he Sym oology tab . lhe Show box on , he lef, .ide of ,he d ialog bo~ lim d iff"erent me,hod, for symbol i4i ng r.,Hures. Some me,hod, have more , h.n one option . By defau lt, Featurc. i, ,d""ted. It has only one op,ion- Single . ymbol.

-o --_...__...._ _ _ . .. _ _. _

I,

Siott y"" wa n, to Iymboliunch coun'ry w;,h ]!Sown color, you neN an '''''l)1l!c wi,h . unique .... I~ fur""ch r(';1Hl~,hc oounlfy n.me would be. D.tu ..] choice.
4 In the Show 00>, click Cateaories.

1M Uniq"" ....1"... "fItion oft he Catog<>rio:. melhod i. highlighted and <I", di.1o& box chang... lhc Value Fidd drop_down Ii" con,.in, ,he lidd. in Iht m riburc r.bk thO!
Cm be ,,~ .0 .ymbol ilC [he cou"rrics.

"The Color Scheme d rop-dow n con .... iR$ diffe~n' color paucrns. If ,hi. ;. ,hoe ~,.. rime you h,,,,, sc[ . color !Cherne in A.eM.p. you o.houkl ltt. bar of l'2".d colors;

Ii,.

otherwise. you' ll Itt wh i<:hewr sd.."", you applied I.., .
lhe luge window in . he midd le of [t.., dialog box ,how, whkh future. in ,he l.yer are being .ymbol iud. You can symbolize.1I (."ure. or juS! oomc of them.

5

M ~ke sure the Val ue Field drop·down list is set to NAM E. At the bottom of the dia log box, click Add Al l Values.

Each f~a!U r~ in , h~ Cou n"i.. l ay~r i, Jj".d in , h~ V. lue column a nd hao. symbol from the color scheme a.. igned ' 0 it. The Labd column d isplay, , h~ feature n. me as i, will . ppo.. in , ho table of con'ents. (It wi ll be , ho ", me ' S the value un l... you change it.] The COUnt column [OIl, you , he number of fe., uteS being sy mr..,li,cJ .nd ,he number of f.atures ,h" h. ve •• ch v, lue. In th is ">c, the COUnt i, on. for each value because c. eh country's n.me is unique.
6 Cl ick the Col()l" Ramp drop· down arrow to see the list of colo r schemes. Scrol l up and cl ick the scheme at the top of the list. The feat ures are assigned new sy mbo ls from th e Basic Random Scheme. (If this ha ppens to lie the scheme that is already set. choose a different one.)

II
For .hi. map. )'Ou'li go back .o paHdJ.
1 In the Color R"",p drop-down list righH:Ii<;k the colors (not the drop-<lown ~.row). On the context menu, click Graphic View to uncheck it. The ifnaie of the color scheme is
le~aced

by its name. Click the Paslels. Click to ~lect it.

~Of

Ramp drop-down ""OW lWId scroll back dawn to

In the S~mbol co lumn. cl;c k the check boA next to <all oIhe. va ll!es> to uncheck it. The «til other values> symbol is used when you wanl to assign unique symbolDiY to some features in it layer and want the rest to be ioenllcal. That isn't the case here. Make SUle)'OUr dialoi: box matches the following graphic. then click OK.

-

In the map, the countri~, ar~ .ymbolized in pastel,. (The colors of ,he countr i« m.y be different on your map.) The table of contents show. ,he n,me of each country .nd its symboL

rJ
After a color scheme h.. ,",cn applied,)uu can change individual colo". For enmple, you could righ,-dick ,h. symbol for Algeria in the ,able of contents and change i, to Mars Red or S'ed Blue. The countries .ro distinguished by uniquc .ymbol" but the symbols don', make it ea,y !O identify countries. (How quickly can you find Malowi?) You willl.bel ,he countries with their n,me>.
9 In the table of contents , right· click the Count ries laye r and click Labe l Feat ures.

S}l!Jboibtlt /M'''''' and raUm

105

A. with the cities, your eoumry label. may look diffe",,,, deptnding on the ,ize of your ArcMap window, Your cou ntry m,p i. hni,hed, Your hm tMk in ,hi, e...,cise i, to ere>!e • map of African river<,
10 In the table 01 contents, c li ck the minus sigll,5 nexl to the Cou nlries laye r and the Co untri es dala frame.
11 Right-cl ick the R i~ers dala frame and cl ick Activate. Click the plus sign next to the data Ira me. II necessary, click the Full Extents button The data frame cootai ns a Rive rs layer and a Count ries layer.

Before you symboli", the Rivers layer. you'lI look at its ", tribute "J,lc m.. ion is ;,,"a ilable.

(Q " ' .

who< infor-

12 R,ghHlick the Rivers laye r and click Open Attr ibute Tab le.

The . ... iburo i<>cludt ,he ri= n.me. iu Iype (permnial or in.ermin""tl. ils ""Iul (mlin Of "",,,,,dory). and its llovig:lbililY. You'U Iymboliu fi'.... by 'ype.
13 Close the table. In the table of contents. doubIe·click the Rive.,; layer to open its Layer Properties. (Oouble-clicki/1& is a shortcut lor right·clicklng and choosing Properties.) On the ~ Properties dialoti bo.o;, click the $)'ffIboIo£y tab.

-

- El
_ . _ . _ [I

_ __

=::0

I I ----.~---

14 In the Show bo~. click Categofie-s and make sure the Uniqlle ~al ues option is hiehliehted. Cl ick the Value Field drop-down arrow aod cl ick TYPE . Clic k Add All Val ues.

The~. ~ two values ill <he TYPE field: ill<erm;nm<.nd permnial. A< the moment,

<hey . re tymboli.ro with. p;t5~~ Y ou'U change the Iymbology.

Adding values
You may want to focus 011 some features in a layer and deemphasize Of igoore others. The Add Values button (next to Add All Values) Jets you select pa,ti(:l.IIar attribute values and assign symbology to features that have them. Other features are assigned a single symbol- the one designated for <for other values>. If the <all other values> check box fs unc hecked, these features are not displayed at all.

15 In the Symbol column. double-click the line symbol next to the intefmitlent value to open the Symbol Selector.

16 In the Symbol Selector, Kroll down two th irds of the w if'j unt il you see the Slrum, Intermittent symbol. Click tile symbol as shown in the following graphic. then click OK in the Symbol Selector.

-- --"t...,-

- ----

---

-

- ..
t .. ,... I

17 In the Symbol co lumn of the La)'el Prope rties dialog box, double·click the symbol next

to the perennial va lue. Th e Sym bol Selector opens aga in. This l ime. type ,iver into the sea rch ~ and clic k the search ootton ad jacent to it. HI may take a minute for the symbols to index.)

- ,.. - -~ .

Th~

symbol sckclor seuch ulilily allows you 10 quickly find a srmbol.
styl~,

18 Saoll down the list. Under the ESRI

cliett the River symbol. then elicit OK.

19 In the Symbol co lum n 01 the Layer Pr()perties dialog box, c lick the check box next to <a ll othe r va lues> to uncheck it. Make sure that yoor dialog box matc hes the following graph ic , then click OK.

In ,he map, ,he rivers lre dj,played with ,he new .ymbology.

..- •••
. --"'"

Th~

n",p , how, rim c~nt!1l.1 Africa i. a d,n'~ n"work of perenni.1 rivcrs while ,he nonhcrn .nd so",hw."~rn pam of ,h~ continent have f~w riv~" ,ha' run yOOf.round.

You'll ch«k you. progress on the Africa Alias pomcr. 20 Click the View menu and click Layout View.
A lr l • • Atl • •

Your I.youe h.. ,hree da,~ fnmd. showing mojorcilies, countries. and r;\ttl. In lhe

next C1C1Cioc, you' lI .ymboliu wildlife habho.t. 21 If you want to 5a'le yo ur wor k, click Ihe Fi le menu and cl ick Sa'le As , Navigate to \G TKAl eG I S\ch apt e r05\M,Dal~ . Rename Ih e li le my-ex05b.m~d and cl ick Save,
22 If you Bre con tinu ing with the ned exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, applicat;on. Click No il prompted to save your changes.
e~it

the

Using styles and creating layer files
In the previous .'crei.e., you worked wi,h poim, linc, alld polygon .ymbol. in ,h. Symbol 5clrctor dialog box, colors on ,he ~olQr palene, color ..:heme. in [he Layer Propertiel dialog box. and background colors in the Data F",mc Propert i•• dialog box.

All ,h.", ,ymoo!, and colo" belong

to

,he ESRI otylo. A 'Irk

j• •

0011",,';00 of predefined

~-mbols> colors. and orhor map dements such a, l.bel" north arrow •• ",.1. har>, and bord.rs . .>.reGIS has over ,wemy "yle._ and you can make new on", by combinins ckmcn{, from aj ,,;ng ,tyles and cr.afing your own symbob.

... ..,1

For inrorrnarion on .",.ting .nd modifyi ng "ylc', dick [he Contents u h in ArcGT D. ,kwp S H d p and nav ig.te to Prof... ion.1 Lib,.,y > Mapping and Vi,ualizarion > Symbol. and "yb.
H..t' ·ing inveSTed Ii"", in .ymbolb:ing a l. yer. you may w.nt to "'," it a •• layer file (a file ...,h a .Iyr ."ten,ion). M you saw in chapter 4, layer file. "ore symbology information for. ,p;;uial daro..:,.

Exercise 5c
In ,his exerci.." you' ll u.., ,ymbol, from ,he Con..,rvadon style '" neate a ma p ,hat , how, where elepham', giraffe., and , obr" are found. Then you'll ...... the symbolized 1 .'1:r .. a layer filo. •

112

Smion J .. DilploJing daM

(]

Sta rt Arc Map_ tn the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Ex isting Maps section, click Browse tor more. (I f Arc Map is already ru nning, click the File menu and cl ick Open.) Nav igate to C:\ESR IP ress\GTKArcGtS\Ch~pter05. Click ex05c.mxd and cl ick Open.

'Ih" mop opens in layout view, You $Ce the thr"" data fram .. you've already .ymboli,ed and a fourth called Wildlife .

....._ -2

l~! ~ i 't. !~
••

."',, ." ..

Clic k the View menu and c li ck Oata View.

The .<{ive data frame comaim a tayer of COUnt';... You'll ,dd. layer of animal locodom. to chapter 4, you added bye .. [0 ArcM,p by dragging ,hem from AreC.t.log. When ArcCa,al"l\ i,n', open , you con u'c the Add D,t. button in ArcM.p.

:s

On the Standard IOOlbaf, click the Add [}ata button ,

"

In the Add [}ala dialog t:m;, na'l igate to \GTKAreGIS\ChapterOS\Oata. Yoo may have to dIck lIiI'Iigale through Fojder Conr>e<:tiOllS or HOIl'Ie- Chapter 05 to get to tile Oata folde r. Ct ick OIl Anlmals.shp. Ma ke sure that )'Ou r dia los bo~ matches the fo li owinR Wap hic , the n Cl ick Add .

-'A poi mlay.r ca lled Animal, i, .dded $)"nl bol in. r:rn domly r ho"'n color.
'0

,he m.p. h display. with the def.ulr point

Each poin! in ,h~ Animol. loyer repre,em, 0 , ign ih<atl! pop ulo<ion of derham" gir. ffe', Or zeb",. in ,he >rea around ,he pain!, !lec.u.., t he points h.," ,he Ume symbol, you co n't toll whkh anim.l i, which, You'll first symbolize the layer using an attribute of anim.1 nome., ,hen you'lI.pply symbol. for each 'yp~ of anim.1.
5
Do ub le-d ick the An ima ls layer, On the Layer Properties dialog bo~, cl ick the Symbology tab, In th e Show box, did Cotegories , Ma ke Sure the Un ique Va lues opt ion is h igh li ~hted,

The V.lue Ficld i, . lready sc, ' 0 AN IMALNAME, Di'regard ,he color ""hem~, You won', uSC it when you pick the animal symbol"
6 Cli ck Ad d Ali Vatues , Values for eleph ants , giraffes, and ze bro5 are aclded to the dia log 00. , In thE Symbo l column, clic k the chec k box next to <a ll othe r va lues> to uncheck it. Make SUre your dialog box matches the f"' lowing graph ic , then click OK .

-- '- "-" .-- - [W . II

',.,

,.

,-

• • •

,.

• •

In ,he map, each kind or ani mal hos it< ow n color.

Tho m.p would be cosier ro reod if <he poim IY"'bob Iookcd like !he animal. </try n:pr .........

J: In th e table 01 contents, click the
like
~n

poin t symbol ne~t to Elephant. The Symbol Selector

opens. II roo !.C roH throogh the list 01 symbols, )00'11 lind there's nothins that k)oks
elephant.

• • -, -' • - • , • -, • - ' -•, • --, -, • • • -, -, -'
-•,

I

-~

Ii'-"];

c:::LJ

~- I ~

8

Cl ick Sty le Refere nces to displil)' the list of styles.

""

II ~

When. "yl~ is loaded, il has a check mark be'ide iI, By der.ulr, only your pcrsonal "yle and Ihe ESRI style.", lo.de<! , (You r pcllOn.1 style i, emp'y unl .... you've .dd~d ,ymbol, '0 it.)

[9] Click the chec k box beside Conservation style, then click OK to load il.

Symbol . from ,h. Con..,rvalion Itylo arc . dded below to Ihe Symbol Sdcetor. You un Iood os many "yk. in a m.p document as you wa nt. The moo: you :KId. howc~r. ,he longer it will .. ke 10 scroil .hrough ,he Symbol SoIn:..... Stao:h fOT. symbol if
n«: ..... ry,

10 SeroH dow!! and click tile Elephant symbol. In tile Optio11s trame. ehange the Sill! to 14 points. Click the Colo' squ! re and click De lft Blue on tile co lC>!' pa lette. (The CO I(M" palette rQN shows add itionat c<)k)rs lh<lt belon& to the Co<ls.er.&tion style.) Click OK to close the Symbol Selector dialog bole .

II

. _. -. -, _. -"" .. ,
I>J

~

--•

-,

• -, •

-'

.........._o

It

tn the table of contents. cl i<;k the point symbol next to Giraffe. In the Sy mbo l Selector d ialog box , type Eiraffe into the search box and click the sea rch button. Click the Giraffe symbo l.

12 In the Options frame. change the Size to 22. Click the Co lor sq uare and cl ick Raw Umber on the <;010. pa lette . Make sure)'OOr dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK in the Symbol Selector to add the giraffe symbo ls to the map.

, ... _ _ I

13 In the table of contents. d ick the Zetlra symbol. In the Symbol Selector, search using the term zeb ra 3nd cli ck the Zebra symbo l. You 'll leave its co lor black and its size 18 points . Cl ick OK to close the Symbo l Se lector dialog box.

........),c

To usc tlti. Animll! I. y., in I notlter m.p-<>' ,end it to . coUe. gue-wit"""t hiving to re-"eate ,he symbology, you ca n .. v. it .. . laye, 61• .

M In tile Iable 01 contents, rii;hl-elH:k tile AI1 lmals layer and click Save As Layer File. l5 In the Save Lal'l!r diallog box. naviiale to \GTIllut6IS\Chapler05\M,Data. Accept tile default lill! name ot Anin....lIs.lyr. Make sure !hilI your dialloi bole matches the foIlowina iIIa(Jhic, then Click Saote.

Th. Anim.l. I.,.... 61. can now be added to .ny m.p. &couse it rtf... nu . the Anima),. lhp , Itapenl. , 1M ' hlpcfi l. must also be 1.....lbl. on disk o. aCfOll' network. If you scnd ,ho i. ,..., fi le '0 KlmoOne dsc, you mus' also send 1M dltarou ... i, ,.~ .. n.; ...

You'll chn:k YOU' P""'CSS on ,h. po.,,, •.

[f61 Click the View menu and cl ick Layo ut View.
Th~

PO"'" is almoSt half finished. In the n~xt excrci,e, you'll symbolize" ""'" do,u ct of dev.tion.

~
u

• , , ,, • • ,

,
• • • • u

••

[1.7J II yo u wa nt 10 save your work, click the File menu and cl ick Save As . Navigate to
\GTKArcG1S\Cha~lerOS\MyDala.

Rename the fi le my-e xOSc.mxd and cl ick Save.

[1 81 11 yo u are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap ope n. Otherwise, e~it the application. Click No if prompted to save your cha nges.

Symbolizing rasters
In chapter 1, you tc.mcd ,h., a ra,ter is 3 m,,,ix ofidemk.lly "lOci square celi., E""h cell in. nut" <toro . .. value, u.u.lly, quantity of .<"''''thing . ueh a, cievation, rainfall, or ,.m"''''tur< ,h~, h" been me05ured", ,he locotion repte",med by the cel l. W hon you .ymbol;,,,. r.mer, YO" . .. ign colo" to ~cl l valu". or range, of con \'aiu ... Raster ,,, Iuo. usually lie on a cont inuous <c.lc, , ueh os the ""Ie ofi ntoger. or rc. l numbe .., and are '~· mboli .. d by color ramp' .
o
l0 203040506070aO~l OO

T~ "~""" , 01 red in t hi. color

ra mp becom e d3rker a5 the " ' lues inc re. .. from 0 to 100.

iLlIter< Con rcp,o;<nt many kind, of data and be symbd i>cd with diffcrcn, color ramp.,

<ram lett-

R"'t"" of e l ~ at i o n, hill shade,""d ,"m~ r . t ure for Ihe $.lrne . reo , A M lmade ",ter

,"Ow$ .n . .... tion ,u r1;>ee '0 ,ellef. It ca n 00 m.them. t,c. ll y de,il'ed l,om a n elevalion fa"er by ",mnl! a cenain angle an d all,tooe 01 a li llht SOO fce .
S.,d li!~ imas.. and a~rial phOIOS .. ph. or~ ... ten in which the cdl v,l uco .. o mcasu re ment. of rofl eo<cd lighL Scanned maps are ra"." in which the <ell values a", measu remonos made by ,he Kanning dev ice.

A"' If pfloto 11 0ft ) a nd Ka noed m" p Ifi ~ ht) 01 t~e are" .. oon<:l San Dl€go's Mission Bay If)'Ou zoe m n cle,e enoo i ~ on any ,aste,. its celt st' LJCt u,e wi lt be ,eveal ed , as show n by t ~ i n ~. t in the rod bo, nn tile air pOOIO.

You can display =.~r da.a in ArcGIS D~,kwp, bur .o creafe it, you n"d one of the ArcG IS enen.ion. for working with r:"'~r data-ArcGIS Spat ial An. lyst, ArcGlS 3D Analy.t, or ArcGIS G eo.winic.1 Analf", These ex •• nsions or~ included on .he software CD ,hat Comes with this book. For information abour d,~m, dick the Conten" tab in ArcGIS Desk.op Help and navigat~ to Ex",n.ion •. R. Sler dat" in many forma,. i. also available on .he Internet and fwm commercial vendoN.

Exercise 5d
The nexl map in you r Africa Atla. p"""' will be" wpogrophical map (one .hat ,how. elevations or landform.). The m.p will include both vector and raster data ..". Because the ="''' taU uP" 1 of disk 'pace, your " udy area will be confined to the Greater Horn m of Afrie:>., which includes $omalia, EthiopLa, Edt"'" Djibouti, . nd P"'" of mhO! coumri ••. 1 Start ArcMap . In the ArcMap- Gett ing Started dia log box, under the Exi~ting Maps sect ioo , c lick Browse 1(11" more. (If A,cMap is al ready runni ni: . cl ic k the f ile menu and cl ic k Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter05 . Cl ick e~05d.m~d and click Open. The map <>pCns in layout view. You see the four d ... and a fifth called Topography.
fram~.

yo u've already symbolized

l~

j<i7.iJl,

....-.._
••
2 Cli ck the View menu a nd click Data View.

._ . _

II


lh~ '<:live d~la (r;. me com.in< SCY<:n

1.)'<',.. Coumriel in ,he HOOy .~. u e .ymbol i.ed in M.nge. lnc Cilia, Rivers, Road .. Lakes, and Borden ll)",IS "C snk.,.Jc~ndcm . You'll """ IMm when you zoom in.
Now you'll add devuion and hill ,h.dc (:ill.r I.ye<> 10 the m. p.

3
4

On the

St ~ ndard

tOO lbar, cl ick the Add Data button.

In the Add Data dialog box.IlaviKale to \GTKArc GIS\C~. p t.rO S\ DJ ta. Click . fhorde.., Hold down the Control (Ctrll key anel clicl< al~o'nsbd. Make SlIfe your dialog box

matches the loIlowine eraphic, then click Add.

"mm;l.g< promprs you 10 ( . ...Ie pyr.l mid,

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,

for afhorrKIem.

.

.......

...

1

Y ..

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II c...oo

5 Clic k Yes 10 c.eate pyramids lor altlOfrKIem.
When ,ho proct:« i, finished.
you'~

proml"W '0 buil.l py",mOds for [he ", h.. ",.. e.la)"' •.

6

Click Yes to create pyramids lor aJtlOfnshd.

Building pyramids
Pyramids are YefSions eX a raster dataset, varying from coarse to flOE! resolution. that are used to imprwe the draw;11(I speed 01 ras\e( layers as ~ room in or out. Coar5e-reso· lution versions are used when ~ are zoomed at or near the fu ll extent: finer·resolution \'ersioos are used as you room in . The coarseness of the resolution corresponds to the amount of detail you would expect to see at a given sca le. You have to build pyramids CN11y OrICe for a raste r dataset. They are stored with the data as a file with the extensiCN1 .rrd. For more information. cWck the Help button on the Create pyramids dialog bole or click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professiot1<ll Ubrary > Geoprocessifl[l > GeoprocessinS tool referrmce > Da/iJ Management /ooIbolt > RBSIer IOOIset > Raster DaIiJsef /ooIseI > Raster properties toolset> BuikJ ~.

"Ihe ruler bl"''' a", added '0 ,he bouom of .he ,able of COIIlcn .... You'U "'''''"'' ,hem.
7 In the table ot contents, doubie-clicJt the afhomshd layer. In the L~r Properties dialog boJo;. click the General tab. In the Layer NiIrTIf! text boJo;, the name altlOfnshd shovld be niEhligl1ted . Type H illihade in [IS place.

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,
0 _ _ "' _ _

H

-

8
9

Clic~

OK.

In the table ot contents, dooble-click the afhomdem layer. In the Layer Propeo-ties dIalog boll, click the Geoeral tab if necessary. Rerl¥l'le the • Elnation and click OK.

To see the rmers.)'OIl nttd

to

ch1ng<c ,h<if poMlion in ,he "ble of co",enlS.

10 In the tab le of cQ!1tents. cli<;k the Hillshade layer. Draa it above tne Greater Hom l a~ ,.

(As you drag. the curre nt position of the layer is shown b)' a horizo nta l t>lack ba r.) Release the mouse tlutton to drop the layer.

1h. Hi llshade bye' i. repo'it ioned in ,t." table of COntenu and di.ploy, on the m.p.

11

In the table 01 ~onten ts. drag the Etevatio n layer above the Hi llshade layer.

By def.ult, ,">Ie... >TO drawn in ,had •• of gray. You·1I choo'e a different color ramp for tho Eb... ,ion I.yor.

12 In the tab le of co ntents. right-click the Elevat ion layer and click Zoom to Layer. The map zooms In.

13 In the tab le 01 content s, do uble· click the Elevati()l1 layer. In the layer Propert ies dia log
00'. cl ick the Sym bo logy tab.

Symbolizingfolllllrfl (md msters

127

-

.......

I I .,.. I.... ,·,..

....,
II
-tal
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0 ___

There are four symbology methods in the Show box. In the Stretched method (the default), ArcMap makes subd e transitions along the selected color ramp, bur doesn't give you precise information about which data values are associated with which shades of color. In the Classified method, color transitions are less subtle, but you can see exactly which value ranges correspond to which shades. In the Unique Values method, a different color is assigned to every data value in the raster. This method is available as long as . the raster has no more t han 2,048 unique data values. In [he Discrete Color method, a color is aSSigned to each unique value unril it reaches the maximu m number of colors you choose. It is usefu l when a very large number of unique values are present.

14 In the Color Ramp drop-down list, right-click the colors (not the drop-down arrow). On the context menu, click Graph ic View to uncheck it. Click the Color Ramp drop-down arrow. Scroll down to the Elevation #1 color ramp and click it. Make sure your dia log box matches the following graphic, then click OK to close the Layer Properties.

0 ____

CII
' II:]

-

0 .... _ _

jI '. - -".

---<m
oofG3

128

Seeri oll

3 : Dirpillyillg dflfll

The Elevation #1 color ramp is applied [Q the layer. The colors grade from light blues at lower elevations through yellows. greens, oranges. and browns to gray and white at higher elevations .

..

::-""

To see surface relief you will make the Elevarion layer partially transparent so that the H illshade layer shows ·th rough.
15 Double-click the Elevation layer. In the Layer Properties dialog box. click the Display tab. In the Transparency text box, highlight the default value of 0 and type 70. The Elevat ion layer will be 70 percent transparent. Make sure your dialog box matches t he following graphic . then click OK.

_ .... --

[:JJ ... JCIot:I"O"ottf<IW"....... _~ [:JJ ... ."""""-"",,, ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ·~ ,,=:----'==; e. ::J

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,~~

.......... ' 0 '

I, --- I~::::5 -

S)"nbo/izingfi(t/llrtllliltl r(ma;

129

The Hillshade layer gives a realistic impression of the landform .

••
You'll zoom in to see the vector layers displayed on tOp of the raster layers.

16 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Closeup. The map zooms in and the scale-dependent layers display .
• ••W·,J,,, .. I ''''''1' '''''';_ rC 'X1

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130

Swioll

3: DispillYl1lg dlltll

17 In the table of contents, right-click the Elevation layer and click Zoom To Layer. The display zooms out to the Greater Horn. You'll examine your progress on the Africa Atlas poster. 18 Click the View menu and click Lavout View.

In the next chapter, you'll symbolize layers by quam itative attributes rather than categorical ones. You'll also learn how to classify data; that is, to adjust the value ranges to which symbols are applied. And you' ll work with symbology methods that are used specifi cally with numeric data.

19 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Chapter05\MyData. Rename the file my-ex05d .mxd and click Save.

o If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, ex it the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

Section 3: Displaying data

Chapter 6

Classifying features and rasters
C lassifying features by standard m ethods Classifying features manually Mapping density Using graduated and chart symbols

With a few exceptions, like dates, feature attributes that are not categorical are quamitativecounted, measured, or estimated amounts of something. The population of a country, the length of a river, and the estimated size of an oil deposit are all quantitative attributes. Quantitative attributes are always numeric. When you symbolize quantities, you want to see where attribute values lie in relation to one another on a continuous scale. Unless you are working with a very small range of values, the values must be divided into groups to make the symbology manageable. Dividing values into groups-or classes-requires that you choose both the number of classes and a method to determine where one class ends and another begins. Making these two decisions is called classifying data. Because quantitative values are on a number scale (whether of integers, real numbers, or a specialized scale such as degrees Fahrenheit), the symbology applied to them is usually also scaled. ArcGIS has four ways to apply scaled symbology: by graduated color, graduated symbol, proportional symbol, and dot density. Graduated color symbology, the most common, displays features as shades in a range of colors that changes gradually. The range is called a color ramp. If you symbolized the countries of Africa by population, each country would be drawn in a different shade of a color, such as blue, according to its population. Countries with large populations, like Nigeria, would be dark blue, while countries with small populations, like Djibouti, would be light blue. Graduated color symbology is most effective on polygon layers because subtle color differences are easier to detect on large features. Graduated symbols represent features using different marker sizes. Normally used with point layers-to indicate, for instance, the population of a city- graduated symbols can also be used with lines or polygons. In the case of polygons, markers are drawn inside the features. Proportional symbols vary in size proportionally to the value symbolized. For example, the marker for a city of 10,000,000 would be ten times larger than the marker for a city of 1,000,000. Proportional symbols work best when the range of values for an attribute is not tOO wide. Dot density, available for polygon layers only, represents quantities by a random pattern of dots. The greater the value, the more dots are displayed within the feature boundary. Like proportional symbols, dot density maps convey quantities precisely because there is a fixed relationship between the number of dots and the attribute symbolized (for example, one dot equals 10,000 people). They can be misleading, however, because the random distribution of dots may be different from the actual distribution of values.

ClnssifyiIJgjetllures flud msters

133

Graduated color

Dot density

Graduated sym bol

Proportional symbol

Upper left, popu lati on by cou ntry: Darker shades of red indicate larger popu lations . Upper right, relative popu lati on de nsity: Dot clusters show densely populated areas. Lowe r left, population for selected cities : Each city falls into one of four pop ulation groups, and each group is assigned a different symbo l size. Lower right, population for selected cities: The size of the symbol is proportional to each city's population.

134

Sectio/l 3: Disp/tI)'ing dlllil

Classifying features by standard methods
ArcGIS has seven classification methods: natural breaks (Jenks), equal interval, defined interval, qua nti le, standard deviation, geometric interval, and manual. Natural breaks is the default method. Developed by the ca rtographer George Jenks, it creates classes accord ing to clusters and gaps in the data. Equ al interval creates classes of equal va lue ranges. If the range of values is 1 to 100 and the number of classes is 4, this method will create classes from 1-25,26- 50,51-75, and 76-100. Defined interval resembles equal interval except that the interval determines the number of classes rather than the other way around. If the range of values is 1 (Q 100, and you choose an interval of 10, this method will create 10 classes: 1- 10, 11-20, 21-30, and so on. Quantile creates classes containing equal numbers of features. If you choose fi ve classes for a layer with 100 features, this method will create class breaks so that 20 features fall into each class. The value range varies from class to class. Standard deviation creates classes according (Q a specified number of standard deviations from the mea n value. Geometric intervals creates classes based on class intervals that have a geometric series. A geometric series is a pattern where a constant coefficient mu ltiplies each value in the series. It produces a result that is visually appealing, cartographically comprehensive, and minimizes variance within classes. With the manual method, you can set whatever class breaks you like.

Exercise 6a
In chapter 5, you created five maps for the Africa Adas. You have four maps to complete. In this exercise, you'll make a population map and apply different classification methods and numbers of classes (Q it.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcM ap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (I f ArcMap is already run ning, cli ck the File menu and cli ck Open.) Navigate to C:\ ESRIPress\GTKArcGI S\Ch apte r06 . Click ex06a.m xd and cli ck Open.

Classifyingfolllures lind msters

135

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Africa

A t I a s

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The map opens in layout view. You see the five data frames you symbolized in chapter 5. The sixth data frame in the atlas is called Population . It has a dashed line around it because it is active. It is at the top of the table of coments.

2 3

Click the View menu and click Data View. In the table of con te nts, right-click the Countries layer in the Population data frame and click Open Attribute Table.

You'll use the POP2000 attribute because it has the most current data.

4

Right-click the POP2000 fi eld name and click Sort Ascending. Scroll down through the table.
About half the countries have populations under ten million . Just a few have populations over forty million. Nigeria, with 161 million people, has more than double the population of Ethiopia.

136

Section 3: D isplayillg daM

5

Close the attribute table. In the table of contents, double-click the Countries layer name to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Symbology tab. In the Show box, click Quantities.

6

The Graduated colors option of the Quam icies method is highlighted and the dialog box changes. The Value field drop-down list shows the avai lable attributes-numeric fields only.

7

Click the Value drop-down arrow and cl ick POP2000.

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~.~ ~ . l!Bl iI!DI

l'5I5lZMI · l"CI1Sl71

By default , the values in the POP2000 field are grouped inco five classes and the classification method is Natural Breaks.

...

Classifying/eatllres and rastns

137

8

If your colo r ramp is different from the one in the previous graph ic, click the Color Ramp drop-down list and click the Ye llow to Dark Red ramp. (To find it by name, rightclick the ramp and uncheck Graphic View.) Click OK to close the Layer Properties dialog box.

The symbology is applied to the map. The greater a country's population, the darker its color .

... -

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The number of features in each class is different. The class with the highest values has just one member: Nigeria. The next hi ghest class has just two: Egypt and Eth iopia. The remaining 46 countries belong to the three lowest classes. This map shows that a few countries in Africa have much greater populations than the rest. Use the Identify tool if you want to look at the information of other countries.
9 In the table of contents, double-click the Countries layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Symbology tab if necessary.

138

Section 3: Displayhlg data

10 Click the Classes drop-down arrow and click 3. The number of classes and their value ranges are adjusted. Click Apply and move the Layer Properties dialog box away from the map display.

,

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The map reflects the new classification. The highest population class still contains just a single country, but many countries that belonged to separate classes before are now grouped together. Th is map focuses attention on N igeria as the most popu lous country on the continent.
l IOn the Symbology tab, click Classify.
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The Classification d ialog box displays the current classification method and the number of classes. Yo u can also see statistics for the PO P2000 field. The large window is a histogram, or frequency d istribution chart.

Classif),ingftatures and rasters

139

Understanding the histogram
The x-axis (horizontal) shows the range of values in the field. The y-axis (vertical) is a count of features. Vertical blue lines are class breaks (also shown in the Break Values box).

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The gray columns represent percentages of the value range. The default number of gray columns is one hundred . In this case, the lowest value on the x-axis is 291,187 and the highest is 161,075,377. The value range is therefore 160,784,190, of which 1 percent (the amount represented by a single gray column) is 1,607,842. The first gray column has a y-value of 8. This means that eight countries have populations under 1,899,029 (the start value of 291,187 plus 1,607,842). Another way to put it is that eight countries fa ll within the bottom 1 percent of the value range. The second column has a y-value of 4. This means that four countries have populations over 1,899,029 but under 3,506,871 (1,899,029 plus 1,607,842). Cumulatively, twelve countries fa ll within the bottom 2 percent of the range. The third column has a y-value of 3. Three countries have populations over 3,506,871 but under 5,114,713. Cumulatively, fifteen countries (of forty-nine total) fa ll within the bottom 3 percent of the range. The data is heavily skewed toward the low end. A gray column isn't drawn if no features fall within the value range it would represent. The number of columns can be set to anything from ten to one hundred. With ten columns, for instance, each would represent 10 percent of the value range.

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12 In the Columns box, highlight the default value of 100 and type 25.
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Now each gray column represents one twenty-fifth (or 4 percent) of the value range. The histogram shows you where class breaks fall in relation to the data. The classification method is set to Natural Breaks (Jenks) where breaks reflect clusters in the data. For example, the population of Nigeria is more than twice that of any other country and is placed in a class by itself.
13 In the Classification frame, click the Method drop -down arrow and click Equal Interval. The class breaks are adjusted.

This method places breaks so that each class has the same range of values. In this case, almost all the values lie in the first class. Unlike natural breaks, it's possible with equal interval to have classes with no values in them. (You would see this if you increased the number of classes to four.)

Clllssifyingfintures ol1d rasters

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14 Click the Method drop-down arrow and click Quantile.

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15 Click OK in the Classification dialog box. The current classification settings are displayed on the Symbology tab. Click App ly and move the Layer Properties dialog box away from the map display.

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16 On the Symbology tab, click Classify.

142

Section 3: Displaying datil

17 In the Classification dialog box, click the Method drop-down arrow and click Natural Breaks (Jenks). Click the Classes drop-down arrow and click 7. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.
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The N umber Format dialog box lets you adjust the formatting of numeric labels in many ways- you can control the number of deci mal places displayed, insert commas to separate thousands, and change the alignment. You can also display numbers w ith special noration to indicate currency, percentages, and so on.

19 In the Number Format dialog box, check th e Show thousands separators check box.
Click OK to close the dialog box.
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21 In the table of contents, scroll to the right, if necessary, to see the class ran ges in their entirety .
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Countries are grouped with other cou ntries that have similar populations. N igeria remains in a class by itself. In the table of contents, the class breaks now indicate where there are gaps in the data. You can see, for instance, that there are no countries wit h popu lat io ns between 49 and 66 million or between 76 and 161 million. You' ll check your progress on the Africa Ari as poster.
"'rica Atlas

22 Click the View menu and click Layout View. 23 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChapterOS\MyData. Rename the file mLexDSa.mxd and click Save. 24 If you are continuing with the next exercise , leave ArcMap open . Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Clnssi/yillgfealures and msters

145

Classifying features manually
Manual classification is used to reveal significant groupings in data that standard classification methods miss. For example, a market researcher might want to distinguish census tracts in which the average household income is more than $100,000 a year or the 18 to 49 age group makes up a cenain percentage of the population. To symbolize these values specifically, you would need to set class breaks manually.

Exercise 6b
In this exercise, you won't add a new map to the adas. Instead, you' ll make a refi nement to the Topography map from chapter 5. You' ll manually create a class to represent elevations below sea level.
Start ArcMap. In the Arc Map- Getting Started dialog box, under the Exi sting Maps section , click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already run ning, cl ick the Fil e menu and click Open .) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter06. Click ex06b.mxd and click Open .

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Click the View menu and cl ick Data View.

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The Topography data frame is active. In the table of contents, you see that the elevation values range from a high of5,825 to a low of -169 (in meters). You'll cha nge t he classification so that elevation values below sea level belong to their own class.
3 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Elevation Area .

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The map zooms in and the vector layers display. (The vectOr layers display at scales of 1:10,000,000 or larger. If you don't see them, zoom in until you do.) The area below sea level, oudined in yellow in the book (but not on your screen), lies along the northeastern border of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Classifjillgftnru reJ and rmterJ

147

4

In the table of contents, double-click the Elevation layer. In the Layer Properties dialog box, cl ick the Symbology tab.

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Click the Classes drop-down arrow and click 10. Right-click the color ramp and uncheck Graphic View. Click the drop-down arrow, then scroll down and set the color ramp to Elevation #2.

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The first class has a range of -169 co 287. You' ll reset [his break so that [he class values range from -169 CO O.

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In the Break Va lues box, click the first va lue, 287, to highlight it. The blue line in the histogram corresponding to that value turns red. Type 0 and then click the empty space at the bottom of the Break Values box.
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Manual classification
Replacing values in the Break Values box is one way to adjust classes manually. You can also drag the blue class break lines in the histogram to new positions, right-click a class break to delete it, or right-click any empty part of the histogram to insert a new break. To make sure each class begins and ends with a value that exists in the attribute table, you can check Snap breaks to data values at the bottom of the Classification dialog box. This usually results in gaps between classes, but more accurately describes the value distribution. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Extensions> Geostatistical Analyst> Visualizing and managing geostatisticallayers > Classifying data> .. .by manually altering the class breaks.

150

Section 3: Displaying data

9

Click OK in the Classification dialog box. The Symbology tab is updated.

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To make the areas below sea level show up better on the map, you' ll symbolize them with a brighter color.
10 In the Symbol column, double-clic k the light blue symbol assigned to the lowest elevation class (-169- 0). In the color palette, click Mars Red.

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11 Click the Label column heading and click Format Labels. In the Rounding frame of the
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5('oioI13: Displaying data

13 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Below Sea Level. The area below sea level
displays in Mars Red. (It isn't as bright as you might have expected, because the layer is 70 perce nt transparent.)

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14 In the table of co ntents, right-cl ick the Elevation layer and click Zoom To Layer.
The view zooms back to the scale that will be displayed on your poster. Th e areas below sea level are still faintly visible.

You' ll look at your Africa Arias poster.

15 Click the View menu and click Layout View.

ClassifyingJeatures tlnd rasters

153

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The poster is two-thirds finished. In the next exercise, you'll symbolize population density.

16 If you want to save your work, cl ick the File menu and cl ick Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Chapler06\MyDala. Rename the file my_ex06b.mxd and click Save.
17 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

154

Sution 3: Displaying data

Mapping density
Nigeria has more than 160 million people. Rwa nda has aboue 10 mill ion. Bue which of the tWO is more densely populated? To answer that ques tion, you would need to know the number of people per square unit of area. As long as you have both a population attribute and an area attribute, th is is a straightforward operation-you simply divide populacion by area. Dividing one attribuce by another to find the ratio between them is called normalization. Ie is commonly used to calculate density, but has other uses as well. For example, normalizing population by income gives income per capita.

Exercise 6c
In this exercise, you'll normalize population by area to make a population density map. You'!! symbolize the map with graduated colors and by dot density.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (I f Arc Map is already running, click the File menu and click Open .) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter06 . Click ex06c.mxd and cl ick Open.

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The seventh data frame in the Africa Arias is called Pop Density.
2 Cli ck the View menu and click Data View.

In the table of contents, the Pop Density data frame is active.

C/fwifyingfillt ures and rasters

155

3

In the table of contents, right-click the Countries layer in the Pop Densi ty data frame and click Open Attribute Table.

The KILOMETERS attribuce contains the size of each country in square kilometers .

You'll divide [he values in [he POP2000 field by these values to obtai n [he population
density of each country. 4 Close the table. Double-click the Countries layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Symbology tab. In the Show box, click Quant ities. The Graduated colors option is highlighted. In the Fields frame, click the Va lue drop-down arrow and clic k POP2000. Click the Normalization drop-down arrow and click KILOMETER S.

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The values in the Range column now express popu lation per square kilometer. In the Labels column , values are rounded, the default for normalized data.

156

Section 3: Displaying datil

6

If necessary, set the color ramp to Yellow to Dark Red. Click OK to close the Layer Properties dialog box .

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The class wirh rhe grearesr population densiry again has a single member, bue rhis cime ie's tiny Rwanda. The nexc highesc class comains cwo ocher small coumries, Burundi and Equatorial Guinea, along wich N igeria. Several countries wich large populacions [Urn aU[ to have low population densities_ (The labels chac are shown in che book are nO[ on your screen.) G raduaced color maps are one way co represem densicy. Anocher way is wich a doc densicy map.
7 Double-cl ick the Countries layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. The Symbology tab is active. In the Show box, click the Dot density option under Quantities.

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Classify;ngftlltures alld rasters

157

On the left side of the Field Selection frame. numeric fields in the attribute table are listed in a box. You are symbolizing the POP2000 field. 9 Click PO P2000 to highlight it. Click the right arrow symbol (» . The field is added to t he box on the right and a dot symbol is assigned to it. (The color of your symbol may be different than t he one shown in the graphic.)

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Next. you wi ll set the symbol color for the dots. You will also turn the country outlines off to make the map easier to read.

10 In the Symbol col umn, right-c lick the dot symbol. On the color palette, click Gray 60%. 11 In the Background fram e, click the Lin e button.

158

Section 3 : Displaying data

The Symbol SelectOr d ialog box opens.

12 Click the Color square. On the color palette, click No Color. Click OK to close the
Symbol Selector dialog box. This turns off the country outlines. 13 In the Densities frame of the Symbology tab, highlight the dot value and type 750000. The map will display one dot for every 750,000 people. Make sure the dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

The map shows, as you would expecc, chac che coascal coumries of Africa are more densely populaced chan che imerior.

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Because the dot placement is random within each country. the arrangement of dots on

youc map won't match the graphic exactly. Dot density maps reveal mea ningful overall patterns, hue the random distribmion of dots can be misleading if you focus on small areas. For example. the dots in Egypt are distributed th roughout the country. when, in
fact, almost all of Egypt's population lives along the N ile River.

Controlling dot placement
Clicking Properties on the Symbology tab opens the Dot Density Symbol Properties dialog box. By checking the Use Masking check box, you can specify either that dots be placed only within the mask area or that they be excluded from it. For example, you might use a lakes layer as a mask for a population density map to ensure that no dots were placed within lakes. Conversely, you might use a buffer layer to ensure that all dots were placed within the area of the buffer. (You will learn about buffers in chapter 12.)

You'll check your progress on the Africa Arias.

160

Section 3: Displaying data

4 Click the View men u and click Layout View.
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15 If you want to save your work , click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Chapter06\MyData. Rename the file my_ex06c.mxd and cl ick Save.

16 If you are cont inu ing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise , exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

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161

Using graduated and chart symbols
Graduated symbols use different marker sizes to represem features .

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Quantitative attributes are usually symbolized by one of the four Quantities options, bur they can also be symbolized as Charts. This method allows you to symbolize several attributes at once by drawing pie. bar, or stacked bar charts on each feature in a layer. Pie chans symbolize the percentages that various attributes contribute to a total. They might be used to show how much of a country's gross domestic product comes from agricultural production, industry, and services. They might show the percemages of a country's population that are 0 to 14 years old, 15 to 64, and 65 or older. Bar charts compare attributes in cases where the values do not make up a whole. They might be used to compare a country's 1990 population to its 2000 population or income to spending. Stacked bar charts represent the cumulative effect of attributes. For example, if you wanted to display the total number of personal communication devices in a country, you could symbolize the values for three different attributes-main-line telephones, cellular telephones, and computers with Internet access-as a stacked bar chart.

Exercise 6d
In this exercise you' ll create the last twO maps for the Africa Atlas. The nrst will use graduated symbols to show the size of diamond mines. The second will use pie charts to show the makeup of each country's electrical production.

162

5ectioIJ 3: Displaying data

Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (I f Arc Map is already running, click the File menu and click Open .) Navigate to C:\ ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter06. Click ex06d.mxd and click Open.
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2 Click the View menu and click Data View.

The points represent the locations of forry-eight diamond mines. Because all the point symbols are the same, you can't tell anything about the size of each mine .

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In the table of contents, right-click the Mines layer and click Open Attribute Table.

The layer attributes include the name of the mine, its size (small , medium, or large), and a SIZE_RANK field that translates the size values into numbers.

4

Close the table. In the table of contents, double-click the Mines layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Symbology tab. In t he Show box, click Quantities, then click Graduated symbols.

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164

Section 3: Disp/ayil1g data

6

Click the Value drop-down arrow and click SIZCRANK (the only numeric lield in the table).

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9 In the Symbol Size from boxes, highlight 4 and change it to 5. Highlight 18 and change it to 16.
You'll also replace the numeric labels w ith descriptions.

166

Section 3: Displaying dala

10 In the Label column, click "1." An input box opens wi th the label highlighted in it.
Type Small as the new label.

11 Press Enter to advance to th e label "2" and replace it with Medium. Press Enter and
replace the label "3" with Large. Click the empty white space to close the last inpu t box. Make sure the dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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The map now shows the locations and sizes of diamond mines across the continent.

C/nssifyillgftatures and rasters

167

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Now you'll use chart symbols to show the sources of electrical power in each country.

12 In the table of contents, click the minus sign by the Diamonds data frame. Right-click
the Power data frame and click Activate. Click the plus sign by the Power data frame.

13 Right-click the Countries layer and click Open Attribute Tab le. Scroll all the way to
the right.

The last three fields show what percentage of each country's electrical production comes from fossil fuels, hydroelectricity, and ocher means. You'll use pie charts to represent this data.

14 Close the table. Double-click the Countries layer to open the Layer Properties dialog
box. Click the Symbology tab.

168

Section 3: Displaying data

15 In the Show box, click Charts. Make sure the Pie option is highlighted. The dialog box
changes to show the choices for pie charts. The Field Selection box shows all numeric attributes in the table.

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16 In the Field Select ion box, cl ick FOSS Il. Hold down the Control (Ctrl ) key and click
HYDRO and OTHER. When all three fields are selected, click the right arrow (» to add them to the box on the right.
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A symbol color is assigned to each anribute from the currently selected color scheme. You'll pick different colors.

C/(wifyingfint1tre$ and rtWers

169

17 In the Symbol column, right-click the FOSSIL symbol. In the color palette, click Mars Red . Right-click the HYDRO symbol and click Moorea Blue. Right-cl ick the DTHER symbol and click Solar Yellow.

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170

Section 3: Displaying data

19 Click the Fill Color square. On the color pa lette, click Sahara Sand. Click the Outline Color square. On the color palette, click Gray 40%. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then cl ick OK to return to the Layer Properties dialog box.
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Classifying features and rasters

171

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Each country is displayed with a 3D pie chan show ing how much each energy source comributes to its production of electricity. On this map. the 3D effect is a bit overwhelming.

22 Near the bottom of th e Layer Propert ies dialog box, click Properties to open the Chart
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Section 3 : Displaying data

Removing the 3D effect from the chart symbols will make them seem a little too large.

(Click Apply if you want to check this.)

23 On the Symbology tab, click Size. In the Pie Chart Size dialog box, highlight the current
size of 16 points and type 12. Click OK in the Pie Chart Size dialog box and click OK to close the Layer Properties dialog box .

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The map shows that in northern Africa (where oil is plentiful and water scarce) fossil fuels are the main source of electric power, while in central and southern Africa (where water is plentiful) power is generated chiefly by hydroelectricity. It's time for a look at your finished poster.

24 Click the View menu and click Layout View.

Classifyingftatures and rasters

173

Your Africa Atlas poster is ready for Geography Awareness Week. In the meantime, you can send it to a plotter or printer and hang it on your wall. In the current map document, the map page size is set to E, 44 inches wide by 34 inches high. (You can confirm this by clicking the File menu and clicking Page and Print Setup.) If you have access to a plotter, print this version. If not, you can make a letter-size version of the poster by printing the map document letter_ size.mxd in

the IGTKArcGISIChapter0610ata folder. Map elements in this document have been
rescaled to fit a letter-size page. You'll find more information about printing maps in

chapter 19.

25 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
IGTKArcG1SIChapterOSIMyData. Rename the file my-exOSd.mxd and click Save.

26 If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 3: Displaying data

--

Chapter 7

Labeling features
U dynamic labels sing Setting rules for placing labels U interactive labels and creating annotation sing

176

Sectioll 3: Oispltqing data

Broadly speaking, a label is any text that names or describes a feature on a map, including proper names (Thailand, Trafalgar Square, Highway 30), generic names (Tundra, Hospital), descriptions (Residential, Hazardous), or numbers (7,000 placed on a mountain to indicate its elevation). In ArcMap, labels specifically represent values in a layer attribute table. You can add other bits of text to a map, bur, stricdy speaking, rhey are not labels and do not behave quite the same. Labels, for example, stay close to the features they are associated with as you zoom in or out. Text is not similarly sensitive. Its position relative to features may change markedly if you zoom or pan the map. As you have already seen in chapters 3 and 5, you can label all features in a layer with a single click. This process, called dynamic labeling, is fast but has some limitations. For one thing, ArcMap chooses the label positions. (You can set guidelines, but the actual placement is our of your hands.) If the scale of your map changes, or if different layers are added or removed, ArcMap may change the positions of labels. Dynamically placed labels can, however, be converted to annotation. As annotation, each label becomes a piece of text that can be independendy moved and modified. If you want significant control over the appearance and placement of labels, it is essential to convert them to annotation. If you only need to label a few features on your map, the best solmion may be the Label tool on the Draw toolbar. This tool allows you to label features one at a time by clicking them. Like annotation, interactively placed labels can be put wherever you want and changed individually.

Labelingftalltres

177

Using dynamic labels
Dynamic labels are easy to work with because they behave as a group. When you turn them on or off, change their symbols, or change the anribure value they express, these operations are applied ro all labels in the layer. The drawback to dynamic labels is that ArcMap doesn't always put them just where you'd like. For this reason, they are often convened to annOtation in the late stages of map production. In the following exercises, your map display will be redrawn many times as ArcMap adds and moves labels. If it fails to redraw as it should, click the Refresh View button at the bottom left corner of the map display.

t
The positions ArcMap chooses for dynamic labels depend on many factors, including the size of your application window. Your results may be slightly different from those shown in the graphics.

Exercise 7a
You work for the Ministry of Tourism in Mexico and are making a map to promote travel in the southeastern states of Cam pee he, C hiapas, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, and Yucatan. The map will be published on the Internet, allowing map users worldwide to turn on various layers and navigate to different pan s of the region, where beautiful beaches lie close to Mayan ruins. In this exercise, you' ll label the five states and their major ruins. You'll also add text to the map .

...

178

Section 3: Displaying data

Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under t he Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already runn ing, cl ick the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPres s\GTKArcGIS\Chapter07. Click ex07a.mxd and click Open.
Mexico is shown in yellow. The five scates that will be on your tourisc map are on the Yucaca.n Peninsula in the southeast. You'll zoom in to them.
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The Southeastern States layer displays only at scales larger than 1:20,000,000. You'll
label che scaces in chis layer dynamica lly.

Labelingfeatures

179

3

In the table of contents, right-click the Southeastern States layer and click Label Features.

Each feature in the layer is labeled. ArcMap tries to put the labels in the center of each

polygon. You'll change the font and colot of the labels.
4 In the table of contents, double-click the Southeastern States layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Labels tab.

The Label Field drop-down list in the middle of the dialog box shows you which field in the attribute table is being used for labels (ADMIN_NAME). Below this, you see the current label symbology. The labels for this layer ate drawn in black Book Antiqua 12
point. (If Book Antiqua is not one of your system fonts, another font, such as Arial, will

be substituted.)

180

S(ui01l 3 : D isplaying data

5 6

Click the Color square. On the color palette, click Gray 30%. Cl ick the drop-down arrow for setting the font. In the list of fonts, scroll up and cl ick Ar ial. In the Size drop-down list, click 12 and type 7 in its place. Click the B (Bold) button. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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The new label properties are applied to the map.

Map readers would be better oriented if you labeled the Gulf of Mexico in the northwest part of the map. Unfortunately, you don't have a layer that represents the ocean. (The blue water is simply the background color of the data frame.) Since there is no Gulf of Mexico feature, there is nothing to label. Instead, you'll add text with the New Text tool.

Labelillgftatures

181

9

On the Draw toolbar, click the New Text tool.

to

Move the mouse pointer over the map. The cursor changes to a crosshair with an "A." Cli ck in the Gulf of Mexico to add a text box.

In the text box, t ype Gulf of Mexico and then press Enter.

The text is drawn in Arial 10 point, as you can see on the Draw tool bar. The dashed blue line indicates that the text is selected. You'll increase the font size.

182

Section 3: Displaying data

12 Right-click "Gulf of Mexico." On the context menu, click Properties. On the Properties
dialog box, click the Text tab, if necessary, and click Change Symbol.

The Symbol SelectOr dialog box opens.

13 In the Symbol Selector, scroll down until you see the predefined label style for Ocean,
then click it. Make sure that your dialog box matches the follOWing graphic, then cli ck OK. Click OK again on the Properties dialog box to close it.

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The new properties are applied to the text. Now that it's larger, t'he text may have to be moved.

Labelillgfeaturrs

183

4 Move the mouse pointer over the text. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow. Drag the text so that it approximately matches the following graphic, then release the mouse button. Click an empty blue area to unselect the text.

Now you will display the locations of major Mayan ruins.

15 In the table of contents, turn on the Ruins layer.

The labels show the period to which each ruin belongs-interesting, but less important for your map than the ruin's name. You will choose another field in the layer attribute [able [0 use for labeling. Notice that ArcMap has moved some of the state labels to new positions to make room for [he ruin labels. (Again, your display may look different.)

184

Section 3: Displaying data

16 In the table of contents, double-click the Ruins layer. In the Layer Properties dialog
box, click the Labels tab. Click the Label Field drop-down arrow and click NAME. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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The ruins are now labeled w ith their names.
11 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter07\MyOata . Rename the file mLex07a.mxd and click Save.

18 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Lnbt'ling/enmrt's

185

Setting rules for placing labels
When you place labels dynamically. ArcMap chooses label positions according [0 rules that you set. Labels for points can occupy any of eight positions around the feature (above. below. above right. below right. and so on). You can rank these positions and prohibit particular ones. Labels for line features can be placed above. below. or on the features. and can be made [0 follow their curves. Labels for polygons. however. don't have placement opcions-ArcMap places each label as close to the center of the polygon as it can. In addition, labeling priorities can be set for each layer in a map. If there isn't room [0 label two nearby features in different layers. the feature in the layer with the higher priority will

be labeled.

Exercise 7b
In this exercise, you wil l change the rule for positioning the ruin labels. You wil l also turn on and label the Rivers layer. Finally, you will change the layer priorities that determine which feature is labeled when there is a conflict.
In ArcMap, open ex07b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapler07 folder.

The map, zoomed in on the Yucatan region, looks as it did at the end of the last exercise. The ruin labels are not bad where they are, but might look better directly above the ruins.

186

Section 3: Displtl)J datil ing

2

In the table of contents, double-click the Ruins layer. In the Layer Properties dialog box, click the Labels tab. Click Placement Properties. In the Placement Properties dialog box, click the Placement tab.

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When labels are offset horizontally around points (the default), each possible position can be ranked. The graphic on the dialog box shows the current setting. The feature is represented by the white square in the middle and the numbers in the surrounding squares rank each position- "1" is the most desirable and "3" the least. A "0" means that a label may not occupy that position. In the current setting, ArcMap places labels above and to the right of features as long as it can do so without overlapping other labels in any layer. All positions are allowed, although positions below and to the left of the feature are discouraged. You want to center the labels above the features.

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187

4

Click Change Location to open the Initial pOint placement dialog box.

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The ruin labels now appear directly above the features. If the map becomes crowded with other labels, the ruin labels will be shifted to the left or right of their current positions.

188

Section 3: Disp1a.yillg data

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Now you'll turn on the Rivers and Lakes layers. W hen you do, A rcM ap moves the Tabasco label to avoid overlapping a river.

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In the table of contents, turn on the Rivers layer and the Lakes layer. If the Tabasco label does not redraw, click the Refresh View button in the lower left corner of the map display.

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In the table of contents, right-click the Rivers layer and click Label Features .

Gulf of Mexico

Labai1Jgfoatur~s

189

Only two rivers. Jalate and Azul, are labeled. (Again. depending on the size of your
ArcMap window, your results may be differem .) At this scale, more river label s can't be

added without overlapping other labels.

Allowing labels to overlap
By default, ArcMap does not put labels on top of each other. This means that, depending on the scale and the part of the map you are looking at, some features in a layer may not be labeled. If you want to be sure that every feature in a layer is labeled, you can tell ArcMap to place overlapping labels. You ca n also control label-an-label and labelon-feature overlaps for individual layers. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Mapping and Visualization>

Adding text to a map> Displaying labels> Placing labels with the Standard LBbel Engine > Placing overlapping labels.

To label more rivers, yo u'll use the Labeling [Qolbar
Rivers layer.
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Click the Customize menu, point to Toolbars, and click Labeling.

The Labeling [oolhar, with several buttons for managing labels, opens and floats above the ArcMap application window.
9 Click the La bel Priority Ranking button.

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190

Section 3: Displaying data

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In the Label Priority list. click Rivers-Default. C lick the Top arrow to move the Rivers layer to the tOP of the list. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic. then click OK .
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191

Moving the Rivers layer to [he top of the list does not guarantee that all rivers will be labeled, but at least one more river, Mezcalapa, should be labeled. (Notice that the Tabasco label has moved again-overlapping the Mezcalapa river feature is less

problematic than overlapping the Mezcalapa label.)

Gulf of Mexico

You'll change the appearance of the river labels.
In the table of contents, double-click the Rivers layer. On the Layer Properties dialog box, click the Labels tab. Click Symbol, as shown in the following graphic.

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12 In the Symbol Selector, scroll down and click the River label style. Click the Bold
button. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK. Click Apply on the Layer Properties dialog box.

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13 Move the Layer Properties dialog box away from the map. The new properties are
applied to the river labels.

Gulf of Me lt. /co

Another river, the Usumacinta, is labeled. Label display depends on the subtle interrelationship of features, other labels, and the display scale-even a small change in symbology can make labels appear or disappear. Now you'll make the labels follow the curves of [he rivers.

Ll1belingftatures

193

On the Labels tab, click Placement Properties.

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194

Section 3: Displaying data

16 Click OK, then click OK again to close the Layer Properties dialog box.
The river labels now follow the curves of the features.

At the present display scale, the river labels are starting to clutter the map. You'll make them scale-dependent so that you don't see them until you zoom in.

11 In the table of contents, double-click the Rivers layer. Make sure the Labels tab is selected.
18 Click Scale Range to open the Scale Range dialog box.

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Lnbelillgfintures

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19 In the Scale Range dialog box, click the Don't show labels when zoomed option. In the Out beyond text box, type 3500000. When focus is off the Out beyond text box, it
turns into 1:3,500,000. Make sure you r dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK . Click OK in the Layer Properties dialog box to close it.

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On the map. the river labels are no longer visible. They will be visible on ly at scales larger chan 1:3,500,000. To see chern, you'll zoom in co a bookmark.

20 Click the Bookmarks menu, and click Rivers.

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Now when courists zoom in, they'll find the rivers labeled. When they zoom out, the river labels won't clucter the map.

21 Close the Labeling tool bar. 22 If you want to save your work, save it as mLex07b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapter07 \MyData folder.

23 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
appli cation . Click No if prompted to save your changes.

196

Sa'lion 3 : Disp1a.villg dtlffl

Using interactive labels and creating annotation
Although you have considerable comrol over dyna mically placed labels, you can't specify exact positions for them or symbolize them individuaHy. To do th at, you must convert the labels to annotation - this means, essemially, that you tell ArcMap to tum over full responsibility for label placement and appea rance to you. Typically, you do this when your map is nearly finished and you want to make final adjustments to it. Like other text and graphics, annotation is saved within your map document. If the data in your map is part of a geodatabase (such as the World.mdb geodatabase you worked with in chapter 4), you can also save annotation to the geodatabase. It then becomes much like any other spatial dataset: it can be copied, edited, and added to new map documents. If you only need to label a few features in a layer, it is convenient to use the Label tool on the Draw toolbar. This tool lets you click the particular featu res you want to label and gives you the same full control over placemem and appearance that you have with annotat ion. For more info rmation, click the Contents tab in ArcG IS Desktop Help and navigate to

Professional Library > Data Management > Geographic data types> Annotations.

Exercise 7c
In thi s exercise, you'll label the city of Merida. You'll also conven the labels for the So utheastem States layer to annotation so you can adjust their positions.
In ArcMap, open ex07c.mxd from th e C;\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter07 fo lder.

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Ll1bl'/ingfil1turt.f

197

2

In the table of contents, turn on the Cities layer. The map shows major ci ties in the region. (If the Yucatan label does not redraw, click the Refresh View button.)

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The norchernmost city on the peninsula is Merida. As the largest city in the region. and the one most tourists will fly into. it should have a label. 3 On the Draw tool bar, click the drop-down arrow by the New Text tool. On the tool palette, click the Label tool.

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198

Section 3: Displaying data

4

Close the Label Tool Options dialog box. Locate the city of Merida (map tips can help) and cl ick to label it. If you miss and label the Yucatan region by mistake, press the Delete key, then click the Label tool and try again.

Gulf of MS1(ico

The label for Merida may obscure the label for the ruin to a new position.

of Chichen Itza. You'll move it

5

On the Tools tool bar, click the Select Elements tool.
Tools ... )(

6

Move the mouse pointer over the Merida label. Th e cursor changes to a four-headed arrow. Drag the label to a place just above and to the left of the point feature. With the cursor over the Merida label, right-click to open the context menu. On the context menu, point to Nudge and click Nudge Left. The label moves slightly to the left. You can also use the arrow keys on your keyboard to nudge the labels.

7

The labels for Merida, Chichen Itza, and Yucatan should all be visible. (If you don'r see all three labels, click the Refresh button.)

Labeling /iatures

199

Gulf o f Mexico

(
8 Click somewhere in the blue area away from the Merida label to un select it.
Your map is almost finished. You'll convert the Southeastern States layer to annotation so you can make some final adjustments to the label positions.

9

In the table of contents, right-click the Southeastern States layer and click Convert Labels to Annotation . The Convert Labels to Annotation dialog box opens.

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200

Srction3: Displaying da ta

10 Click the option to store annotation in the map. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Convert.
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The labels are converted to annotation. In the process, their positions may change

slightly and affecc the display of other labels.
You'll move the labels for the states of Yucatan) Tabasco. and Chiapas to where they are less likely to be mistaken for the names of cities or ruins. Use the graphic following step 12 as a guide.

lIOn the Too ls toolbar, make sure the Select Elements tool is selected. Click the Yucatan
label and drag it to the northeast corner of the state.

12 Click the Chiapas label and drag it slightly to the southeast. Click the Tabasco label
and drag it west across the river. Click somewhere away from the label to un select it. Click the Refresh View button if necessary.

LabeNngftatures

201

Your map is ready for review at the Ministry of Tourism. One benefit of maps published
on the Internet is thar users can turn layers on and off according to their interests .

. You may eventually want to add and label such layers as roads, minor ruins, resorts, and campgrounds .

.3

If you want to save your work, save it as mLex07c.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapt~r07 \MyData folder. If you are continuing with the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 4: Getting information about features

Chapter 8

Querying data
Identifying, selecting, finding, and hyperlinking features Selecting features by attribute C reating reports

204

Sf'CIiOIl -I: Ci'/fing informatioll a /JvlIf fela llYl'S

A great strength of GIS is that it doesn't just show you where things are, it also tells you a lot about them. If you're curious about the road leading OUt of rown, for example, you may be able ro find out such things as its name, its length, its speed limit. and the number of lanes it has. If that road leads ro a place like Carlisle, Pennsylvania, you might wane to know the town's populacion (18,419), the median household income ($26,151), the median home value ($77,400), and many other things. Much information about features can be conveyed by the way they are symbolized and labeled. But, for most features, it isn't possible to di splay everything that is known on a single map. In ArcMap, there are several ways to retrieve unseen information about features. You can click features to display their attributes. This is called identifying features. You can click feat ures to highlight them and look at their records in the layer attribute table. This is called selecting features ineeractively. You can write a query that automatically selects features meeting specific criteria (for example, three-bedroom houses with swimming pools). This is called seleccing feat ures by attributes. Or you ca n provide ArcMap with a piece of information, such as a name, and see which feature it belongs to. This is called finding features . Anribuces are noc the only kind of informacion that ca n belong to a feature. Pictures, tex t documenes, and Web pages can also be associated with features through hyperlinks. C licking a hyperlinked fearure opens a file on disk. points your Web browser to a URL, or runs a macro (a sequence of commands).

QUe/ling data

205

Identifying, selecting, finding, and hyperlinking features
The fastest way to get informacion about a si ngle feamce is to identify ic. If you want to compa re in formation about several features. the best way is to seiect the features on the map and look at their records in the layer attribute table. When you have a piece of informacion-a place name or address. for instance- bur don't know which feature it belongs to,

you can use the information to search the map for the feature.
Hyperli nks associate features with things that can't be stored as attribute values. A feature representing a government office, for example, could be linked to the office's Web page.

Exercise Sa
You are a real estate agent in Redlands . California. Many of your clients are new ESRI employees who have recently moved to the area. Your acquaintance with people in the industry helped you decide to use GIS in your own business. Currently, you're working with a couple that has two children. They've asked to see properties in a neighborhood near the ESRI campus. They're looking for a three-bedroom house-preferably on a corner lot- and are willing to spend up to $175.000.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMa p-Getting Started dialog box, under the Exi sting Maps section , click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter08 . Click ex08a.mxd and click Open.

The map shows local streets, land parcels in a neighborhood. and surrounding lots. The parcels are classified as either fo r sale or not for sale.

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Section 4: Getting information about features

You will zoom in for a better look at the neighborhood and use the Identify tool to learn more about parcels that are for sale.
2 In the table of contents, right-click Neighborhood Parcels. On the context menu, click Zoom To Layer. On the Tools tool bar, click the Identi fy tool.

3

4

Move the Identify window out of the way, if necessary. On the map, click one of the parcels for sa le, such as the one in the following graphic.

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The bottom half of the Identify window displays the feature's attribute values. The box on the top tells YOll which layer is being identified (Neighborhood Parcels) and shows the value for the attribute that is set as the layer's primary display field (in this case, OWNER_NAME). If your window is not in a vertical orientation, click the Toggle Split Orientation button to change from a horizontal window orientation. The Identify from drop~down list at the top lets you pick the layer whose features you are idencifyi ng. By default, this is the topmost layer. (The topmost layer is the first one in the table of contents that contains a feature at the location you click.)
5 Click a few more parcels for sale. The information in the Identify window changes.

Identifying features is the fastest way to get information about them, but it isn't convenient for comparing the attributes of several features. To do this, you'll select features on the map, then look at their records in the layer attribute table.

Query;"g data

207

6

Close the Identify window. In the table of contents, click the List by Selection button .
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By default, all layers are selectable. You want to select only features from the Neighborhood Parcels layer. 7 Beside the Streets and Other Parcels layers, click the toggle selectab le button, as shown in the following graph ic.

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The Streets and Other Parcel layers are moved to a Not Selectable category.

Click the Selection menu and click Selection Options.

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SectiOl14: Getting information about fea tures

In the Selection Options dialog box, the select ion tolerance is set to 5 pixels. Because you ate working w ith small featutes that have many featutes adjacent to them, you'll reduce the tolerance. This ensures that when you click a location , you won't select more than one feature at a time.
9 In the Selection tolerance box, replace the va lue of 5 with 0 as shown in the following graphic, then click OK.

10 Click the Selection menu , point to Interactive Selection Method, and click Add to
Current Selection .

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11 On t he Tools toolbar, click the Select Features tool.
12 On the map, clic k each of the eight corner parcels that are for sale. Each parce l you

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click is added to the selection set. If you select a parcel by mistake, click the Selection menu, point to Interactive Selection Method, and click Remove From Current Selection. Th en click the selected parcel to unselect it. The table of contents shows how many parcels are selected and the names of the parcel owners.

Q"".ying data

209

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Selected parcel s are outlined in cyan. In the attribute table for the layer, the records

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13 Right-cl ick Neighborhood Parcels and cli ck Open Attribute Ta ble. There are eight records highlighted . If not, cl ick the Show selected records button.

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Sect ion 4: Getting information about features

14 Scroll through the table to the right to see its attributes. You can now compare values
like price or square footage for each house. Right-cl ick t he SALE_PR ICE field name. On t he context menu, click Sort Descending.

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Now the records are sorted in order from most expensive to least expensive. The first record shows a value of 166500 (or $166,500).

15 Click the gray tab to the left of the first record (the house at 901 Washington SI.).
The record is highlighted in yellow as is the corresponding map feature. You may need to move the attribute table to see the highlighted feature.

Queryillg da ta

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16 Close the attribute table. Th e ye llow highlight on the feature disappears. Cli ck the
Selecti on menu and cl ick Clear Selected Features.

Changing the selection color for features and records
The default selection colors can be changed. They can also be set independently for each layet in a map. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desk-

top Help and navigate to Professional Library> Data Management > Geographic data types> Tables > Displaying tables> Using field properties, aliases, and table display options> Understanding field properties, aliases, and table display options.

Attribute information is useful. but a photo conveys inform ation that table attributes can't- such as whether a house is attractive to you. Pictures, documents, Web pages, and macros can be hyperlinked to features.

The attribure rable of rhe Neighborhood Parcels layer has a field called IMAGE rhat
contains paths to photographs of the three-bedroom corner houses that are for sale. You

will hyperlink rhe fearures to the photos.

212

Section 4: Getti JIg illformtlt ;011 abollt jellttl res

17 In t he tab le of contents, double-cl ick Neighborhood Parce ls. In the Layer Properties dialog box, click the Display tab.
18 Check Support Hyperlinks using f ield. Click the drop-down arrow and click' IMAGE.

Below the drop-down list, make sure the Document option is selected , as shown in the followi ng graphic . Click OK .

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N ow your clients can see photos of the properties before deciding whether to visit them.

19 On the Tools tool bar, click the Hyperlink tool.

On the map, hyperlinked features are outlined in blue.

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213

20 Click any hyperlinked feature to display a photo of the property. The photo opens in
your default image-browsing software. After you look at it, close the application that opened it.
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There are two ways to create hyperlinks. One is to add document paths or URL addresses to a field in the layer attribute table. This is efficient if you are hyperlinking many features. The other way is to click a feature and specify the document path or UR L. This is easier if you are setting just a few hyperlinks. It is also the only way that lets you hyperlink a feature to more than one object. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcG IS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Mapping and Visualization> Working with layers> Interacting with layer contents> Using hyperlinks.

When you take your c1iems on a tour of rhe neighborhood, rhey see a house rhey like in spire of irs nor being on a corner. You jm down the address (83 1 Washington Sc.) so you can ger more in formation back ar the office. You'll use the Find tool to locate the house on the map and display irs att ributes.

214

Sution 4: G~tling information about featu res

21 On the Tools toolbar, cl ick the Find tool to open the Find dialog box.

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22 In the Find dialog box, click th e Features ta b. Type 831 Washington St in the Find box. (Do not t ype a period after the " St " abbrevi ation.)

To speed things up, you can specify a layer, and even a field, to search in.
23 Click the In drop-down arrow and click Neighborhood Parcels. In the Search options, click the In field option, then click the drop-down arrow and click ADDRESS. Make sure your window matches the following graphic, then click Find.
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Querying dtUa

215

24 Move the Find window away from the map but where you can still see it. Click 831 WASHINGTON ST at the bottom of window.

The pa rcel £lashes briefly in the lower righr corner of the map. (If the Identify window covers the parcel, move it and repeat step 24.)
25 On the Tools toolbar, click the Identify button and click the 831 Washington St parcel.

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26 In the Identify window, scroll down to find the price and number of bedrooms. Scan the other attribute va lues. When you finish, close the Identify window and the Find

window.
The house has three bedrooms, two-and-a-half bathrooms, and a swimming pool for an asking price of $159.900. It sounds great, and your clients are now w illing to consider other houses that aren't on corners.
27 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter08\MyData. Rename the file my_ex08a .mxd and click Save. 28 If you are cont inuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open . Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your cha nges.

216

Section 4: Getting information about features

Selecting features by attribute
Interactive selection works when you can see what you're looking for on the map-corner lots, for instance. To select features according to criteria that you can't see on the map (such as having three bedrooms and a sale price under $175,000), you write a query. A query selects features that meet specified conditions. The simplest query consists of an attribute (such as number of bedrooms), a value (such as three), and a relationship between them (such as "greater than" or "equal [0"). Complex queries can be created by connecting simple queries with terms like "and" and "or." Relationship terms and connecting terms are called operators. Queries are not written in ordinary English but in Structured Query Language (SQL). This is not as daunting as it might sound. To build a query, all you need to do is open a dialog box and click an attribute, an opera [Or, and a value. There is also a Query Wizard that lets you write queries by choosing from drop-down lists.

Exercise 8b
Although your clients like the house at 831 Washington, they see no reason not [0 search a litde further. You will help them select all three-bedroom houses in the neighborhood that have a sale ptice under $175,000.

In ArcMap, open exOBb.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\ChapterOB fo lder.
The map of neighborhood parcels displays.

Querying data

217

2

Click th e Selection menu and click Select by Attributes. In the Select By Attributes dialog box, click the Layer drop-down arrow and clic k Neighborhood Parcels.

The fields from the parcels attribute table appear in the Fields list near the top of the
dialog box. When a field is highlighted. you ca n display its attribute values in the Unique Values list on the right. The buttons on the left ace used CO choose operators.

The first condition you want STATUS of "Y."
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test is whether a house is for sale. Houses for sale have a

In the Fi elds box, scroll to "STATUS " and double-click it. Click the equals (=) button. Click Get Unique Values. In the Unique Values box, double-click "Y." Your query is displayed in the expression box at the bottom of the dialog box.

2 18

Sea ion 4: Getting information about features

When you apply the query, ArcMap searches the atcribute table for records that have "Y" in the STATUS field. The corresponding feacures are selected on the map.
4 Click Apply and move the dialog box out of the way. On the map, parcels that are for sale are selected.

You already knew which parcels were for sale from [he layer symbology. You'll make [he query more complex so that only three-bedroom houses for sale are selected.
5 In the Select By Attributes dialog box, click the And button. In the Fields box, doubleclick "BD_RMS". Click the equals (=) button. Click Get Unique Values, then double-click 3 in the Unique Values box. Your query should match the following graphic.
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Records wi ll be selected only if they have "Y" in the STATUS field and 3 in the BD_RMS field .

Query;ngdata

219

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Click Apply. On the map, fewer houses are selected because fewer satisfy both conditions.

You will add one more condition
7

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the query.

In the Select By Attributes dialog box, click the And button. In the Fields box, doubleclick "SALE_PRICE". Cli ck the Less than k) button. In the expression box, press the space bar and type 175000. Your query should match the following graphi c.

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In the attribute table, only records with "Y" in the STATUS field, 3 in the BD_RMS field, and a number under 175000 in the SALE_PRICE field will be selected.

220

Section 4: Gettillg information about feature;

8

Click Apply. On the map, one of the houses is unselected because its price was too high.

Eleven parcels are selected, including the house at 831 Washington and two corner lots from the original list. In the next exercise, you will make a report of the query results that your clients can take with them.
9 In t he Select By Attributes dialog box, click Clear to remove the query from the box. Click Close.

10 If you want to save your work, save it as my_ex08b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapler08
\MyDala folder.

11 If you are cont inuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Querying data

221

Creating reports
Reports let you organize, format, and print the information contained in an attribute table. ArcMap's built-in report generator, which you'll use in this exercise, allows you to create simple reports that can be added to a map layout. For more detailed reports, you can use Business Objects Crystal Reports. This report-creation software comes with ArcGIS Desktop and is optional to install.

Exercise Bc
In the previous exercise, you selected eleven houses that met your cliems' conditions. In this exercise, you will create a report they can take when they go to look at these houses.
In Arc Map, open ex08c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter08 folder.

The map with eleven selected parcels displays.

222

Section 4: Getting information about features

2

Click the View menu, point to Reports, and click Create Report. The Report Wizard dialog box opens .

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The Layer/Table drop-down list specifies the layer or table you will work with. The Available Fields scrolling box lets you choose the attributes to include in the report. Your clients want to have street addresses and information on sale price, square footage, and number of bathrooms. You don't need to include the number of bedrooms-all the houses are known to have three.
3 Make sure that the LayerfTable drop-down l ist shows Ne ighborhood Parcels . In the Available Fields box, cl ick ADDRESS. Cl ick the Add fields button (right arrow) in the midd le of the dialog box. The ADDRESS field moves from the Available Fields box to the Report Fields box.

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The ADDRESS field now appears in the Report Viewer Contents Field drop-down list. That means it will be displayed when you preview the report.
4 In the Avai lab le Fields box, double-click SA LE_PR ICE to add it to the Repo rt Fields box . Do the same fo r the SQJT and BTH_ R MS fie lds.

Querying data

223

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Click OK and cl ick Next in the Report Wizard dialog box. Click Next again . You will not be add ing any grouping leve ls. In the Fields co lumn, choose SA LCPR ICE from the drop-down list and in t he Sort column , choose Ascend ing from t he drop-down li st.

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Srcrioll 4: Crt/ing information about Jeaturn

The size of your dialog box may be different, but you probably can't see the whole report. The drop-down Ust me cop of me dialog box lees you change me preview scale. (Ie doesn', change me primed size of me repore.)

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The report is previewed. If you like the way the report looks you could click the Print button to send it to your printer.

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Most reports. including this one, need add itional work. For example. the street names, numbers, and types in the address column each take up two lines. Your clients might appreciate having the listings better organized and aligned. In the next steps you will give the report a professional look by setting a few of its properties.
11 Cli ck the Ed it button in the top left corner of the Report Viewer window.

The window changes to the Report Designer window. The top right box lists the report components you can customize. Below it are the element properties associated with the highlighted component and the current value of each property. When a report compo nent is highlighted, the element is selected in the report template view in the middle. The template area represents how your report pages will look. To fit each address on one line. you need to widen the report's Address column.
12 In the report components list , expand detail (click the plus sign beside it) and click txtADDRES S to high light it. In the Element Propert ies, sc roll down to the Layout category and expand the Size property. Th e current size is shown as l.208, 0.311 in.
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226

Section 4: Getting in/ormation about features

13 In the Width property, double-click its current va lue and replace the current value with
3 to all ow three inches for addresses on the printed page. Press Enter.

14 Click the Run Report button to preview your change.

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The addresses are now on one line and are easier to read. Buc the headings are still not aligned properly. Click the Edit button again to rerum the design mode.

15 In the template area, click the SALE]RICE header component. In th e Element
Properties, under th e Appearance category and change the Alignment property to Right.

Qlurying data

227

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and click the Run Report button to preview the report one more time.

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The SALE_PRICE. SQ..FT and BTH_RMS headings are now aligned properly
with their column values.
17 At the top of the Report Viewer window, click the Print button.

18 In the Print dialog box, cli ck Print to print the report. 19 If you want to save the report, click the Save Report button in the Report Viewer. In the Save Report Document dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter08\MyData. Name the file my_report and cl ick Save. If you don't want to save the report, click No.

228

Section 4: Getting information about features

AddinJ); reports to layouts
Within a map document, you can add a report to a layout by clicking the Add button in the Report Viewer dialog box. If you have saved a report to disk, you can add it to any map layout by loading it from the Report Properties dialog box. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library > Mapping and Visualization > Reports > Saving, exporting, loading and running and a report> Loading a report.

There is no need to save the map document. You haven't made any changes to it.

20 If you are continuing with the next chapter, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Section 4: Getting information about features

Chapter 9

Joining and relating tables
J oining tables R elating tables

230

Section 4: Getting information about features

Layer attribute tables contain descriptions of features (like the name of a town, the price of a

house, or the length of an airplane flight), and they also contain spatial information, which
is what enables ArcMap to draw a town, a house, or a flight path in the right place on a map. Spatial information, stored in the Shape field, specifies the type of feature in a layer (point, line, or polygon) and defines the location of each individual feature.

The Shape field of a layer attribute table specifies the feature type. It also stores each feature's geographic location. You don't see the location information when you look at the table, but it's there all the same.

The descriptive information in a layer attribute table, however, doesn't necessarily include everything you might want to show on a map. For example, the table below contains just a few basic facts about world countries.

joining aud rela ting IIlblt's

231

Suppose that you wanted to make a world map of per capita GDP or average life expectancy? You would need some attributes like those found in the next table of socioeconomic data.

Unlike the previous table, this one has lots of attributes, but no Shape field. In other words, it Stores descriptions but not spatial information. It's the sort of table you might find in a non-GIS database, or that you might even create yourself from facts based on your own research. By itself. this table can't be used to map data because its records have no relationship to features. The question then becomes, how do you connect a nonspatial table like this to a layer attribute table? You can do it in either of two ways: with a table join or a table relate. A join appends the attributes of the nonspatial table to the layer attribute table, making one big table. A relate keeps the two tables separate but linked, so that record selections in one table cause corresponding selections in the other. In either case, the process depends on making record matches between the nonspatial table and the layer attribute table. For records to be matched, the tables need a common attribute; that is, a field of shared values. In the example above, the Country field would be a common attribute, since both tables have a field of country names. Once the common attribute has been specified, then the Afghanistan record in the nonspatial table (along with all its attributes) can be matched to the Afghanistan record in the layer attribute table. The same goes for Algeria, Azerbaijan, and the rest. Whether you join or relate tables depends on a relationship called cardinality between the tables. You join tables when each record in the layer attribute table has no more than one matching record in the non spatial table.

232

Section 4: Getting illforlJlfltiOil about features

Common attribute

Layer attribute table

Nonspatial table

Joined table

Each record in the layer attribute ta ble has just one match in the no nspatial table (each country has just one capital). It so happens that the reverse is also true- each capital belongs to just one country. Another way to express th is relationship is to say that the table cardinal ity is one-to-one.

You relate tables when each record in the layer attribute table may have more than one match in the nonspatial table, as in the next example. When you select France in the layer attribute table, all the matching records in the nonspatial table are also selected.

Nonspat ial table

Here, the table cardinality is one-to-many. Each record in the layer attribute table has many matches in the nonspatial table (because there are many cities in a country). By joining the tables. you would lose information. For example, only one of the three matching records for France in the nonspatial table could be appended to the layer attribute table.

Joil/ ing and re/(lting tables

233

Joining tables
Once tables are joined, you can use the appended attributes of the nonspatial table to symbolize, label, query, and analyze the features in a layer.
Common attribute

Nonspatial table

When a nonspatial table of world energy statistics is joi ned to a layer attribute table of countr ies, features can be symbolized by energy attributes. Here, a graduated color scheme of light orange to red shows per capita energy consumptio n in mill ions of BTUs.

A table join is preserved only within a map document- the tables remain separate on disk-and can be undone at any time. You can permanently append attributes by exporting a joined layer as a new dataset. You'll learn how to export a layer in chapter 11.

Exercise 9a
Between 1993 and 1998, abandoned oil extraction sites (called pits) in coastal Louisiana were evaluated for their risk to the environment. The pits, dating back to 1906, include wells, storage tanks, and other equipment and structures that may leak oil and possibly contaminate nearby waterways. If these structures are exposed by erosion, as often happens, they may be struck by boats, risking an oil spill. During the study, each pit was given a hazard rating and most were assigned specific recommendations for cleanup. As a GIS analyst for the state of Louisiana, you'll make a map that symbolizes the most hazardous pits according to the type of cleanup that has been recommended for them. The map will show how many sites need each kind of cleanup and which parishes (counties) have the most serious problems. The map will help lawmakers decide which sites to clean up first, and how much money needs to be spent in each parish to do the job.

234

StCliOll 4: Getting information

about features

Start ArcMap. In the Arc Map-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If Arc Map is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter09. Click ex09a.mxd and click Open .

• filI .......... _

"

..
You see a map of Louisiana showing parishes, navigable waterways, and pits. Southern Louisiana has more than 24,000 abandoned pits. Each has been given a hazard rating from 0 to 90. The Pits_75 layer in the table of contents has 606 pits, each

with a hazard rating of 75 or higher.
2 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Southern Louisiana . The view zooms to the southern part of the state. Right-cl ick the Pits_75 layer and cli ck Open Attribute Table. If necessary, click the Show all records button.

3

Joining and relating tables

235

The IDNUMBER attribute identifies each pit, and PARISH names the parish it's found
in. Other attributes provide detailed information about the pits, but there is no attribute for the recommended cleanup. This information is stored in a nonspatiai table that

you'll join to the Pits_75 layer.
4 Close the Pits_75 attribute table. On the Standard tool bar, click the Add Data button.

5

In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter09\Data. Click Remedial_actions.dbf, as shown in the following graphic, then click Add .
The Remedial_actions table is added to the table of contents. When a table is added to a map, the button at the top of the table of contents switches from List by Drawing Order to List By Source. With the List By Source button enabled, paths to disk are shown for all data in the map. In this case, since all the data comes from the same folder, only one path is displayed. (The table of contents is shown here as floating for example purposes,

yours may be docked.)

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236

Section 4: Getting information about jeatures

6

In the table of contents, right-cl ick the Remedial _actions table and click Open.

The IDNUMBER attribute identifies pits and is the common attribute that will be used to join the tables. (The field name of the common attribute is the same in both tables, but it doesn't have to be. What matters is that the values identify the same pits; for example, that Pit 01_w_22317 in the Remedial_actions table is the same pit as Pit 0l_w_22317

in the Pits_75 table.)
7 In the Attributes of Remedial _actions table, right-click the IDNUMBER field heading. On the context menu, click Freeze/ Unfreeze Column. Scroll all the way to the right. The IDNUMBER field does not move.

8

The recommended cleanup is the last field in the table.

Joining and relating tables

237

9

Scroll down through the table.

For many sites, a cleanup plan has yet to be submitted. Other sites have specific recommendations: continued monitoring, repair or removal, and on-site treatment. Both the Remedial_actions table and the Pits_75 layer attribute table contain one record for each pit. The record relationship between the tables is therefore one-to-one. For each record in the Pits_75 table, there is no more than one matching record in the Remedial_actions table.

The Remedial_actions table has fewer records (472) than the Pits_75 table (606). It may
be that cleanup recommendations have not yet been made for the other 134 pits. Records that don't have matches in the Remedial_actions table will have <Null> attribute values appended to them.

o Close the Attributes of Remedial_actions table.

In the table of contents, right-click the Pits_75 layer. On the context menu, point to Joins and Relates, then click Join.

238

Section 4: G~ttillg illformation about features

11 In the drop-down list at the top of the Join Data dialog box, make sure "Join attributes from a table" is selected. In drop-down list number 1, click the drop-down arrow and click IDNUMBER. This specifies IDNUMBER as the common attribute in the Pits_75 table.

12 In drop-down list number 2, make sure the Remedial_actions table is chosen. In
number 3, make sure the IDNUMBER field is chosen. This specifies IDNUMBER as the common attribute in the Remedial_actions table. In the Join Options section, you want to keep all the records. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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13 Click Yes to build the index.
ArcMap joins the attributes in the Remedial_actions table to the Pits_75 table, matching

the records by their 10 numbers.

Joiuing and relating rabIes

239

14 In the table of contents, right-click the Pits_75 layer and click Open Attribute Table.
The joined table contains the attributes of both the Pits_75 table and the Remedial_actions

table. Scroll to the tight until you see IDNUMBER ' . (The' indicates that the field has been indexed.) To the right ofIDNUMBER ' are the fields from the Remedial_actions
table and are shown using field aliases. Field aliases are a more "user friendly" description of the content of the field.

8'

II
15 To turn off the field aliases, click the Table Options menu and click Show Field Aliases on the context menu.
The field names with the Remedial_actions prefix identifies that the attribute comes from the Remedial_ actions table. Resize the fields as necessary to see its entire name.

240

Section 4: Gl'Iting informlltion about features

16 Scroll all the way to the right. The Remedial_actions.CLEANUP field contains the
recommended cleanup for each pit.

The values are <Null> wherever a pit does not have a matching record in the Remedial_actions [able. 17 Close the table. In the table of contents, double-click the Pits_75 layer to open the Layer Properties dialog box. Click the Symbology tab.

j oining and relating tahlrs

241

18 In the Show box, click Categories. Cl ick the Value Field drop-down arrow, scroll to the
bottom of the list, and click CLE ANUP. Click the Add All Va lues button.

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In the Value column. the five cleanup procedures are listed. though some of the descriptions are cut off. (You can see the full description as a map tip by placing your mouse pointer over the value.) The Count column shows the number of features corresponding to each type of cleanup.

19 Click the Symbol column heading and click Properties fo r All Symbols. Th e Symbol
Selector dialog box opens. In the scrolling box, click Circ le 2. Highlight the default size and type 8. Make sure your dialog box matches the fol lowing graphic, then click OK.
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Sec/ion 4: Getting information abou t features

20 On the Symbology tab, uncheck the <all other values> check box. Click the Color
Ramp drop-down arrow and click the Basic Random scheme, the first one in the list. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic (your colors may be different) and click OK .

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The symbology is applied to the map.

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21 In the table of contents, place the mouse pointer over labels to see the ir full descriptions.
Pits that need to be repaired, removed, or treared are mostly located in a few parishes in the southeastern tip of the stare.

22 If you want to save you r work, click the Fil e menu and click Save As . Navigate to
\GTKArcGlS\ChaplerOS\MyDala. Rename the file my-exOSa.mxd and click Save.

23 If you are continu ing with the next exercise, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the
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joining and rdatiug tables

243

Relating tables
Tables should be associated by a relate instead of a join when a record in the layer attribute table may have many matches in the nonspatial table (a one-to-many relationship). When tables are related, you can highlight records in either table to see matching records in the other.

A nonspatial table of world airports is related to a layer attribute table of countries. You can select a country on the map to see the names of all its airports. You can also select a record in the nonspatial table to highlight a feature on the map.

Exercise 9b
Oil leaks and spills are not the only dangers posed by abandoned pits. The pits often contain toxic metals- barium, lead, and zinc among others-that should not contaminate water. Soil and water samples taken during the pit study have been analyzed for the presence of these metals. In this exercise, you'll relate tables to see the metals analysis for pits within a half mile of the Mississippi River. Besides examining individual pits for the metals they contain, it would be useful to have a series of maps showing the distribution of particular metals for all hazardous pits-a map of pits containing barium, another of pits containing chromium, and so on. You will not go that far in this exercise, but you will relate tables to select all pits that contain lead.

244

Sution 4: Getting information about ftatures

In Arc Map, open ex09b.mxd fro m the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapler09 folder.

You see the map of Louisiana with abandoned pits, navigable waterways, and parishes. There is also a scale-dependent layer called Lower Mississippi Buffer.
2 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Lower Mississippi River.

The view zooms to a scretch of the Mississippi River. The Lower Mississippi Buffer layer is now visible, showing a half-mile buffer on either side of the river as it runs through southern Louisiana.
3 Click the Windows menu and click Overview. The Abandoned Pit Study Overview window opens and shows you the area yo u're zoomed to.

Of the pits in the Pits_75 layer, only two are within a half mile of the Mississippi. You' ll check the toxic metals in each.

joining and relating tablt's

245

4

Close the overview window. Click the Bookmarks menu and click Site 1.

At this scale, the pits are labeled with their ID numbers.

5

On the Tools toolbar, click the Identify tool.

6

Click on pit 38_p_4375 to identify it.
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The attributes of the Pits_75 layer do not include an analysis of metals found on-site. This information is stored in a separate table, which you'll add to the map document.

246

Section 4: Getting informatioll about features

7 8

Close the Identify window. On the Standard tool bar, click the Add Data button. In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chaple,09\Dala. Click on Melals.db!, as shown in the following graphic, then click Add.

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The Metals table is added to the table of contents and the List By Source tab is selected.

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Jo inillg and relating tables

247

9

In t he table of contents, right-cl ick the Metals table and click Open.

8
The table's attributes include METAL, which shows the chemical symbol for each metal

sampled; SAMP_TYPE, either soil or water; and CONC_NUM, the concentration of
the metal in the sample (in milligrams per kilogram for soil and milligrams per liter for water), The common attribute for the Metals and Pits_75 tables is IDNUMBER. The Metals table has many records with the same ID number because there is a unique record for every sample taken at a pit. At most pits, several metals have been analyzed, and sometimes more than one sample of a metal has been taken. Because the Pits_75 table contains one record per pit and the Metals table may contain several, the Pits_75 table has a one-to-many relationship to the Metals table. If you joined the tables, ArcMap would find the first matching record in the Metals table, join its attributes to the Pits_75 table, and ignore any further matching records. To preserve the one-to-many relationship, you must relate the tables instead.

I

248

Section 4: Getting information about features

10 Close the Attributes of Metals table. In the table of contents, right-cl ick the Pits_75
layer, point to Joins and Relates, and click Relate.

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In drop-down list number 1 of the Relate dialog box, click the drop-down arrow and click IDNUMBER. This specifies IDNUMBER as the common attribute in the Pits_75 table.

12 In drop-down list number 2, make sure the Metals table is chosen . In number 3,
make sure the IDNU MBER field is chosen. Th is specifies IDNUMBER as the common attribute in the Metals table.

13 In drop-down list number 4, high light the defau lt name and type Metals Analysis.
Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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A relate is established between the two tables.

joiu ing and relating tables

249

1'1 In the table of contents, click the List By Selection button. Under Selectable, click the
toggle for the Navigable Waterways, Lower Mississippi Buffer and Louisiana Parishes layers so they are moved to Non Selectable. Only Pits_75 should be Selectable, as shown in the fo llowing graphic.

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15 On the Tools too lbar, cl ick the Select Features tool.

16 On the map, click pit 38_p_4375 to select it.
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250

Section 4: G~tting information about foatllrts

17 In the table of contents, right-click the Pits_75 layer and click Open Attribute Table.

18 At the top left, click the Table Options menu. On the context menu, point to Related
Tables and click Metals Analysis: Metals.

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jOinillg and relating tables

251

19 The Metals attribute table opens in a new tab. (Notice at the bottom of the table that
the Pits_75 tab le is sti ll available in a tab.)

Four records in rhe Merals rable march rhe record for Pit 38_p_4375. Two soil samples (SAMPID values I and 2) were taken from the pit and each sample was analyzed for barium and zinc (Ba and Zn in the METAL field). The concentration levels (CONC_ NUM) are relatively low-barium samples for all pits have a mean value of 5,1 16, while zinc samples have a mean value of 410.
Now you'll check the levels at the other pit.

20 Close the attribute tab les. Click the Bookmarks menu and click Site 2.
21 Make sure the Select Features tool is still selected on the Tools tool bar and click pit
38_p_4565 (the one in the buffer zone).

252

Section

4: Ceuing information Ilbou t /elll'url's

22 In the table of co ntents, right-click the Pits_75 laye r and click Open Att ribute table.

23 Cl ick the Table Options menu, point to Related Tables, and cl ick Metals Analysis: Metals. 24 The Metals attribute ta ble opens in a new tab.

The pit has two matching reco rds in the Metals table-a soil sample of barium and a soil sa mple of zinc. Again, both concentrations are relatively low. Your final task is to locate all pits that contain lead. To do this, you muSt use the relate in {he other direction: first makin g a selection on the Me tals table and then seeing which feacu res in the Pits_ 75 layer are selected.

joining and relati1lg tables

253

25 At the bottom of the Metals table, click the Show all records button . Click the Tab le
Options menu. On the context menu, click Select By Attributes.

26 Make sure the Method is set to Create a new selection. In t he Fie lds scrolling box,
double-click "METAL:' to start the expression. Click the equals (~) button . Click Get Unique Values, then double-click "Pb," the symbol for lead. Make sure your expression matches the following graphic, then click Apply.

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27 In the Meta ls attribute table, cl ick the Show selected records button to show only the
selected records.

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There are three records for lead samples. By comparing the ID numbers, you can see that each lead sample was taken from a different pit.

254

Section 4: Getting information abollt features

28 In the Metals attribute table, cl ick the Table Options menu , point to Re lated Tables,
and click Metals Analysis, Pits_75.

The Selected Attributes of Pits_75 table updates. Click its title bar to bring it forwa rd.

You see the records for the three pits that contain lead.

29 Cl ose the attribute tables. (Th e Select By Attributes dialog box closes by itself.) In the
table of contents, right-click the Pits_75 layer, point to Selection, and click Zoom To Selected Features.

ArcMap zooms

to

the smallest extent that shows all selected features.

joining and relating tables

255

To make a map of pits containing lead, you would create a layer from the selected features.

You'll learn how to create a selection layer in chapter 11 .
An interesting follow-up to your work would be to join the RemediaLactions table to

the Pics_75 table, then relate the Metals table to the joined table. You could then see
which cleanup options have been recommended for the three sites that contain lead.
30 If you want to save your work, save it as my-ex09b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapler09 \MyOata folder.

W hen you save a map document, joins and relates are saved with it and are restored the next time you open the document. If you want to remove a join, right-click the layer with joined attributes, point to Joins and Relates. point to Remove Join(s), and click the name of the join. To remove a relate, point to Remove Re1ate(s) and click the name of the relate.
31 If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exi t the application. Click No when prompted to save you r changes.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 5: Analyzing feature relationships

Chapter 10

Selecting features by location
Using location queries Combining attribute and location queries

258

Section 5: Ann/yzing/nllurl' re/llliomiJips

In chapters 8 and 9, you selected features according to their attribute values. In this chapter, you'll select features by location-that is, according to their spatial relationship to other features, whether in another layer or in the same layer. The four types of spatial relationships that can be used are distance, containment. intersection, and adjacency.

Points with in a given dista nce of the red point are selected.

• • • • • •• • • • •

tJ
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Points conta ined by the red polygon are selected. Lines that intersect the red line are selected.

QI
Polygons adjacent to the red polygon are selected.

ArcGIS defines thirteen spatial relationships, each a variation on one of the four types. For example, there is containment (where the contained feature may touch the boundary of the containing feature) and complete containment (where the boundaries may not touch).

Selecting fea tures by IOCll l ion

259

Using location queries
To select features by location, you choose two layers and specify a spatial relationship. Features in the first layer are then spatially compared to features in the second layer and selected if they satisfy the relationship. If the spatial relationship is one of distance, you also choose (he distance value and measurement units you want to apply. In the following example, cities are selected if they lie within one mile of rivers.

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ArcMap measures the distances from cities to rivers and selects cities that satisfy the relationship.

260

Section 5: AlIalyzillgfeature relationships

For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Deskcop Help and navigate co Professional Library> Mapping and Visualization> Working with layers> Interacting with layer contents> Using Select by Location.

Exercise lOa
You work for a small chain of gourmet food scores that is scouring locations for a new store in Riverside, California.

The location should be close to a freeway so it is accessible to shoppers in nearby cities and people coming home from work. It should be in or nea r a shopping center to be convenient for people running other errands. And because your products are expensive, the store should be in an area with a large number of affluent households. You'll begin by selecring neighborhoods that contain shopping centers and are dose to freeways. Some data in this chapter has been fictionalized to fit the scenario.

Selectingfelltures by location

261

Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap- Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter10. Click exl0a.mxd and click Open .

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The map extent is the city limits of Riverside. Layers include neighborhoods, freeways, and shopping centers. First, you'll select neighborhoods near freeways. 2 Click the Selection menu and click Select By Location.

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262

Section 5: Analyz ingJCtl fllre relationships

3 4 5

In the box of layers, check Neighborhoods. In the list of Source layers, click the drop-down arrow and click Freeways. In the list of Spatial selection methods, clic k the drop-down arrow and click "Target layer(s) featu res are within a distance of the Source layer feature." The check box to apply a search distance to the features is checked . This search distance (not drawn on the map) defines the distance around freeways within which features will be selected.

6

Replace the current distance va lue with 0.5. Click the distance un its drop-down arrow and cl ick Miles. You have specified that you want to select all neighborhoods within half a mile of a freeway. A neighborhood will be selected if any part of it is within this distance.

7

Make sure yo ur dialog box matches the fo llowing graphic, then cl ick App ly and move it away from the map.

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Now you' ll refine the selection by choosing those neighborhoods from the currently selected set that also contain a shopping center.
8 In the Select By Locati on dialog box, click the selection method drop-down arrow (the one at the top) and click "select from the currently selected features in." In the layers box, leave Neighborhoods checked. In the drop-down list of layers, cl ick Shopping Centers.

9

10 In the list of Spatial selection methods, click the drop-down arrow and click "Target layer(s) features conta ins the Source layer featu re." Leave the check box App ly for search distance unchecked.

ArcMap will examine the selected neighborhoods to see which ones contain a shopping center. Those that do will remain selected; those that don't will be unseiected.
11 Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic. Click Apply, then click Close .

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The neighborhoods are selecced on che map.

Six neighborhoods meec your criceria. In che nexc exercise, you'll narrow che search furcher by looking for che afHuem ones.

12 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Chapterl0\MyData . Rename the file my_exlOa.mxd and click Save.

13 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Selectingftatures by locfltian

26 5

Combining attribute and location queries
Location and attribuce queries can be used together to solve a problem. For example, if you're doing emergency plann ing, you might want to selecc cities of 100,000 or more (an auribuce query) th at lie within 10 miles of major fault li nes (a location query).

Exercise TOb
You have found neighborhoods th at are close to freeways and contain shoppi ng cemers. You also want to locate your store in an afHuem neighborhood. The Neighborhoods layer has no demographic info rm acion, but che Census Traccs layer does. You'll do an actribuce query to select the census (faccs that meec your criteria. Then you'll create a location query to select the neighborhoods that substantially overlap these census tracts. Once you decide on a neighborhood, you'll add zoning and build ing data to help you choose a specific location for the new store.
In ArcMap, open exl0b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPre ss\GTKArcGIS\Chapter10 folder.

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The map displays the city of Riverside and the neighborhoods selected in the previous exercise.

266

SeCtion 5: Ana/yzingjenrurr relationships

2

In the table of contents, turn on the Census Tracts layer.

Thin light lines oudine the census tracts. Some tracts cross neighborhood boundaries and some neighborhoods include more th an one tract.
3 In the table of contents, right-click the Census Tracts layer and click Open Attribute Table.

You' ll use rhe number of households (HH _99) and rhe average household income
(AVG INC_ 99) as criteria for locating your business.

Se/ecr;ngfin/ul"es

b..y loCtt/ioli

267

4

At the top of the table, click the Table Option s menu and cl ick Select By Attributes.
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5

In the Fields box, double·click [HH _99J. Click the > (Greater Than) button. Press the space bar and type 4000. Click the And button . In the Field s box, double·click [AVG INC99]. Click the > button. Press the space bar and type 65000.
Your expression will select census tracts with more than four thousand households and where the average yearly income is over $65,000.

6

Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Apply. Close the attribute table. The Select by Attributes dia log box closes with it.
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Section 5: Analyzingfeatttre reliltionshipJ

In the display, three census tracts are selected.

It's hard to pick out the selected tracts because they are highlighted in the same color as the neighbothoods.
7 In the table of contents, turn off the Neighborhoods layer.

The three tracts are located in the southeastern part of the city.
8 In the table of contents, turn the Neighborhoods layer back on.

You'll use the selected census tracts to select the neighborhoods they overlap.

Selectingfedlll res by location

269

9

Click the Selection menu and click Select By Location.

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11 In the Target layer(s) box, check the Neighborhoods check box. 12 In the list of Source layers, cli ck the drop-down arrow and click Census Tracts. 13 In the list of Spatia l selection methods, click the drop-down arrow and click " Target
layer(s) features have the ir centroid in the Source layer feature."

Neighborhoods with centers in one of the selected census tracts w ill be selected. This method w ill find those neighborhoods that substantially overlap the selected census tracts (and therefore substantially share their demographic characteristics). Underneath the Source layer drop-down list. the check box to use selected features is checked. This means that only the three selected features in the Census Tracts layer w ill be used in the spatial selection.

270

Section 5: AnalyzillgJeature relationships

14 Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Ap ply. When the selection is finished, click Close.

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15 In the table of contents, turn off the Census Tracts layer.

A si ngle neighborhood . Canyon Crest. is selected. It is populous. afHuent. contains a major shopping center. and is close to a freeway.

Selectingjelllures

by location

271

16 In the table of contents, right-click the Neighborhoods layer, point to Selection, and
click Zoom To Selected Features.

The map zooms to the Canyon Crest neighborhood. To look for sites in this neighborhood, you'll add two new layers to the map. One shows which parts of the neighborhood are zoned for commercial use. The other shows buildings within those districts.
17 On the Standard tool bar, click the Add Oata button.

18 In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChapterlO\Data. Double-click
RiversideCityData.mdb to see its contents. Click CCbuildings. Press the Ctrl key and click CCz"ning. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Add.

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272

Section 5: Ana/yzingfifllUrt' rdatio1lShips

The two new layers are added to the map. (Your colors may be different.) The layers contain zoning and building data clipped to the Canyon Crest neighborhood. You'll learn how to clip data in the next chapter.

19 In the tab le of contents, turn off the CCbui ldings layer, then double-click the CCzoning layer to open its layer properties. Click the Definition Query tab.

--

Sl'Il'ctillgftatures by loclltion

273

A definition query resembles an attribute query in that you write an expression to find features with particular attributes. The difference is that features satisfying an attribute query are selected, while features satisfying a definition query are displayed and the rest are hidden. Since you're interested in looking only ac commercial property, you'll write a query to display only those features in the CCzoning layer [hac are zoned for commercial use. 20 On the Definition Query tab, click Query Builder. 21 In the Fields box, double-click [DESC_l to add it to the expression box. (This attribute contains zoning code descriptions.) Click the equals (=) button. Click Get Unique Values, then double-click 'Com mercial '. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.
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Section 5: Analyzillgftature relationships

The query is displayed in [he D efinition Query box.

22 Cl ick OK on the Layer Properties dialog box.

Now the only features displayed in the layer are those zoned for commercial use . Of the two commercial areas, shown by arrows in the previous graphic, you want the one that contains the shopping center.
23 On t he Tools tool bar, click t he Zoom In tool.

S~/utillgftt1lure$

by location

275

24 Drag a zoom rectangle around the commercial area containing the shopping center.

25 In the table of contents, turn on the CCbuildings layer.

The commercially zoned buildings vary in size. You need 4 ,0 00 to 6,000 square feet for your store. You can identify the buildings and get their square footage from the Shape_ Area field in the layer attribute table. Since you don't know what the buildings look like or whether they are available, your next step might be co drive out to the area and then call a real estate agent. 26 If you want to save your work, save it as mL exl0b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\ChapterlO \MyData folder.

276

Section 5: AnaLyz ingfttllUre relations!Jips

27 If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save you r changes .

Joining attributes by location
In this chapter, you selected features in one layer according to their spatial relations hips to features in other layers. You can use the same kinds of spatial relationships (containment, distance, intersection) to join the attributes of features in one layer to features in another. This operation, called a spatial join, may also create new attributes, such as a count of the features in one layer that are contained by features in another layer or

distance measurements between features in two layers.
Here, a layer of earthquake points is spatially joined to a layer of California counties. The output gives county-by-county tota ls for such earthquake attributes as damage and deaths.
Target layer (Counties)

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This spatial join is based on containment. The output table has the attributes of the Counties layer plus three new ones. For each county, you can see how many earthquakes there have been, how much damage has been done. and how many people have died. In the map at the right, the counties are symbolized by number of earthquakes.

(Continued on next page)

Selutingjetttures h.r locdtion

277

Joining attributes by location (continued)
Here, the same layer of earthquake points is spatially joined to a layer of cities to find the distance from each city to the earthquake nearest it.

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This spatial join is based on distance. The output table has the attributes of both the Cities layer and the Quakes layer. The LOCATION attribute from the Quakes layer shows the nearest earthquake to each city. The new Distance attribute shows how far away the quake was (in meters). You do a spatia l join in much the same way as the table join you did in chapter 9. In the table of contents, right-click the target layer (the one you are joining attributes to), point to Joins and Re lates, and click Join. In the Join Data dialog box, choose "Join data from another layer based on spatial location," then select the join layer. The output layer attributes vary according to the spatial relationship between the target and join layers and the options you choose in the dialog box. For more information, clic k the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Data Management> Geographic data types> Tables> joining tables by spatial query> About joining the attributes of features by their location.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 5: Analyzing feature relationships

Chapter 11

Preparing data for analysis
Dissolving features Creating graphs Clipping layers Exporting data

280

Section 5: AllaiyzillgjCfl wre reiiltio1lShips

GIS analysis projects usually begin with several datasets and the plans to process them to get a result. When you perform an operation on spatial data that creates a new dataset (often a slightly modified version of the original), you are doing geoprocessing. Geoprocessing tasks are accomplished with Toolboxes, a collection of tools that you add to the ArcMap or ArcCatalog interface from the Standard toolbar. Datasets are not always in exactly the condition you need for a project. For example, features may be either too detailed or too generalized for the map scale you are working at. Another problem may be not having all the attributes you want. And sometimes the problem is even one of too much data-you may have thousands of features cluttering your area of interest or extending well beyond it. Having too much data is, of course, a better problem than not having enough. Toolboxes contain a number of tools to help you streamline datasets. You can simplify data by dissolving a group of features with a common attribute value into one feature. You can trim a dataset to your area of interest by using features in one layer to clip features in another. Other techniques don't require special geoprocessing tools. For example, you can work with fewer features by making a selection on a layer and creating a new layer from it.

Prepl1rillg data Jor analysis

281

Dissolving features
A dissolve creates a new layer in which all features in an input layer that have the same value for a specified attribute become a single feature. In the following example, states are dissolved by sales region.

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States labeled by sales region

States disso lved by sales region

The new layer's attribute table has the standard geometry (Shape) and feature identifier (FID) attributes along with the attribute used in the dissolve (Region). You can include other attributes as well. In the sales region example. the input table has an attribute stOring the number of customers per state. In the output table, these values can be summed for each region.

Input sales
region table

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Output sales region table

282

Section 5: AtI(l/yzingfifllllre relationships

Exercise l1a
You work for a lumber company that plans to harvest timber in the Tongass National Forest in soucheasrern Alaska. Forest land can be divided into stands-groups of trees with something in common, such as type. age. or size. In a national forest, stands can be grouped into larger areas and leased to private companies by the U.S. Forest Service. Restrictions are placed on logging in sensitive pans of the lease areas. such as endangered animal habitat. The Forest Service is presently considering leasing five adjacent areas.

The Tongass National Forest, shown in dark green, covers 16,800,000 acres (about 68 ,000 square kilometers) of the Alaska pan handle.

Lease areas under consideration are shown in red.

As your company's GIS analyst. your job in this and the following chapter is to calculate the timber values of the potential lease areas. Your analysis will help your company decide how much to bid for each area. You have a polygon layer of forest stands provided by the forest service. Its attributes include the estimated value of each stand and the lease area each stand belongs to. In this exercise. you'll dissolve the sta nds into the five lease areas. You'll total the stand values to get a preliminary estimate of how much each lease area is worth. In chapter 12, you'll refine this estimate by eliminating areas that can't be harvested.

Preparing dOlO for olUzlysis

283

Start Arc Map. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chaptertt . Click exl1a.mxd and click Open .

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2 In the table of contents, right-click the Stands layer and cl ick Open Attribute Table.

The Stands layer has 1,405 stands, each represented by one record in the table. The StandValue attribute contains rhe dollar value of each stand in millions of dollars. It was obtained by mu ltiplying ValuePerMeter by Shape_ Area (Shape_Area stores the size of each feature in square meters) and then dividing by 1,000,000. The value of the first stand, for instance, appears as 1.00353, which is just over a million dollars.

b

284

SU"fiOll 5: Anniyzingjetttllre relatiowhips

3

Close th e tab le. Click the Geoprocessing menu and click Search For Tools.

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The Search window opens. If it is docked [0 the side of the main ArcMap window, it may look like [he graphic above. (If you have opened it before and cus[Omized its position , your Search window may be in a different loca[ion.) The Search window displays many system toolboxes. Each toolbox has tools for related geoprocessi ng tasks. You need the Dissolve tool, wh ich is found in the D ata Managemen[ Tools toolbox. (Alternatively, you could click the ArcToolbox window button, however, using the Search window is a convenient way to find a [001 quickly.)
4 In the Search window, click t he Data Ma nagement Tools lin k, then click the Genera li zation link. (You may need to scroll down to see it.)

The Search wi ndow graphics in this book assume [hat you are using an ArcView software license and that you have not installed optional extensions such as ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. If you have an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license, or jf you have installed extensions, your window will show additional toolboxes.

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Click the Dissolve tool to open the Dissolve dialog box.

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Although each tool has its own functionality and settings, all use a similar dialog box with some common elements. For example, each tool has a Show Help button in the lower right corner that describes the tool and its settings. Tools with lots of settings have a scroll bar on the right. As an alternative to scrolling, you can resize the dialog box by dragging on a side or corner. Once you do this, ArcMap remembers the new size and applies it to the next tool you open. (So if the dimensions of your Dissolve dia log box are different from the graphic, it means you have previously resized this or some other tool. That's fine- the dialog box can be whatever size you like.) The Dissolve tool requires that you select an input layer of features to dissolve, a location where the newly created layer will be saved to disk, and an attribute to dissolve on.
6 In the Input Features drop-down list, select Stands. (It's the only layer in the map.)

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When you select the input features, a default path and file name appear for the output data. The list of attributes that can be dissolved on appears in the Dissolve_ Field{s} box. The output data can be saved as either a shapefile or as a geodatabase feature class. You' ll save it as a geodatabase feature class because the reSt of the Tongass data is in this format. To leave the Tongass geodatabase intact, you'll save the output to a duplicate geodatabase called MyTongass that has been created for you.
7 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapterl1\MyData. Double-click MyTongass.mdb .

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286

Section 5: Anaiyzing/enture relatiombips

8

In the Name box, type Leases. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Save.

The Output feature class information is updated.

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Each set of polygons with the same Leasel D will be dissolved into a single feature.

Preparing datil for analysis

287

ArcMap can also summarize the attribute values of dissolved features by a variety of statistics. To find out the timber value of each lease. you will summarize the StandValue attribute by the Sum statistic type. This w ill total the values of all stands dissolved within a lease. (You can also get the mean, the range. the standard deviation. and other measures of numeric attributes.)

10 In the Dissolve dialog box, scroll down to the Statistics Field(s) area. Click the
Statistics Field(s) drop-down arrow and click StandValue to add it to the list.

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The field name displays in the Field column . The red circle with an x indicates that you still need to specify the type of statistic you want.
11 Click the first cell in the Statistic Type col umn. Click the drop-down list arrow and click SUM.
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12 Make sure your Statistics Field(s) list matches the following graphic, then click OK.

288

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Tools execute in the background, meaning you can continue working with ArcMap while the rool executes. You'll see a progress bar at the borrom of the main window displaying the name of the currently executing tool and the percentage to completion. When the rool finishes executing, a pop-up notification wi ll appear on the system tray.
GP: Dissolve

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13 When the operati on is completed, close the notification window (or the pop-up notificati on will disappear after a few seconds.)

The new Leases layer is added ro the map. (If you don't see it, d ick the Add Data burron, navigate to the MyTongass geodatabase, and add the layer. Then dick the Geoprocessing menu and click Geoprocessing Options. In the Geoprocessing Options dialog box, near the botrom of the dialog box, check the box Add results of geoprocessing operations to [he display box. Click OK. Any new geoptocessing layers wi ll be added to ArcMap automatically.) When a new geoprocessi ng layer is created and added to ArcMap, it displays in a random color. In many of the exercise steps in th is chapter and the next, the colors on your screen may not match the graphics in the book.
14 In the table of contents, right-click the Leases layer and cl ick Zoom to Layer.
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15 In the table of contents, right-click the Leases layer and click Open Attribute Table. If
necessary, resize the table to show all fields.

The original 1,405 stands have been aggregated into five lease polygons. LeaseID is the attribute you dissolved on. SUM_ StandValue is the statistical field you requested. It contains the sum of all stand values (in millions of dollars) in each lease area. The value of lease A, for instance, is about 626 million dollars. Shape_ Length and Shape_Area are measurement attributes automatically maintained by ArcMap for geodatabase feature classes. (Shape_ Length, for a polygon feature class, measures feature perimeters.)
16 Close the tab le.
17 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapterl1\MyData. Rename the file my-exlla.mxd and click Save.

18 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Cl ick No if prompted to save your changes.

290

SUfiOIl 5: Alllllyzillgfoature rellltionships

Creating graphs
The ArcGIS Graph W izard lees you creace many differem kinds of graphs, including column, pie, area, and scaccer graphs. You can set propercies for such elemems as titles, axes, and graph markers (the bars in a bar graph, for inscance). Graphs can be saved with a map documem or as files with a .grf extension thac can be added to any map document.

Exercise l1b
You have dissolved the foresc scands into lease areas and summed their harvestable values. In this exercise, you'll presem che values in a graph and add the graph to a map layout.
In ArcMap, open exllb.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapterll folder.

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Click the Views menu, point to Graphs, and click Create.
The Create Graph Wizard opens.

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In the first panel, you'll accept the default gtaph type (Vertical Bar) and the default
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Click the Value field drop-down arrow and choose SUM_StandValue from the list.

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292

Section 5: AlItI/yzjugftature relationships

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Click the drop-down arrow for X label field and choose LeaselD from the list.

The LeaseID values display on the x-axis.
5 Uncheck Add to legend. Make sure your wizard matches the following graphic.
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In the Title box under General graph properties, replace Graph of Leases with Lease Values. In the Footer box, type In millions of dollars. In the Axis properties panel (near the bottom of the wizard), make sure the Left tab is selected. Delete Sum_StandValue from the Title box, leaving it blank. Make sure Visible is checked.

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The left axis values display on the graph but the tide "Sum_ StandValue" does not. You' ll make the same change to the bottom axis .

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Make sure your wizard matches the fo llowing graphic, the n click Finish.

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The graph displays in a window that floats on the application window. The graph makes it easy to compare the lease area values. Lease F. the most valuable, is worth abom 1.5 billion dollars.

294

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Note: If you resize the graph window, values displayed along the left axis may change.

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You' ll add the graph to the map layout. 10 Right-click the graph title bar. On the context menu, click Add to Layout.
ArcMap switches to layout view.

11 Close the graph window.
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The graph displays in the middle of the layout page, marked with blue selection handles.
(Other layout elements, such as the map tide and lease labels, have been added for you.)

12 On the Tools tool bar, make sure the Select Elements tool is selected.
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13 Drag the graph to the upper right corner of the layout, as shown in the following
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15 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

296

SeClitJII 5: Alw/yzingjentltre relationships

Clipping layers
Clipping trims features in one layer using the boundaries of polygon features from another layer. It's like having a pair of scissors, or a cookie cutter, to cur away data that you don't need for your project. For example, you might have a shapefile of all the Streets in your county, while your study area encompasses just one ZIP Code within that county. If you have a polygon feature representing that ZIP Code, you can use it to clip our JUSt the streetS you need. Clipping can be a matter of convenience- since smaller datasets are easier to process- but it can also be important for analysis. To find our the total length of roadway within the ZIP Code, for instance, you must exclude streets and street segments that lie outside it. In the following example, a layer of interstate highways is clipped at the boundaries of the state of Oklahoma.

Input layer of U.S. interstate highways and clip layer of Oklahoma

Highways cl ipped at polygon bounda ry

Exercise 11c
The fo rest service has JUSt determined that, of the five lease areas, only lease F is mature enough for harvest. Your company will direct its attent ion to making a bid for this lease. Not every square meter of the lease area is harvestable. Logging is prohibited near streams and goshawk nests. (Goshawks are a protected bird species.) You have layers of streams and goshawk nests that cover all five lease areas, but now you'd like to work with darasets that cover only the area of lease F. In this exercise, you' ll clip a layer of streams
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the boundary oflease F.

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Preparing data for analysis

297

In Arc Map, open exllc.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapterll folder.

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The map displays the five lease areas and a Streams layer that contains 1,566 stream segments. To clip the streams to the lease F boundary, you must first select lease F. You'll turn the selection into a new layer so you can look at lease F apart from the others.
2 Click the List by Selection button. Click the toggle beside Streams to make it not selectable, as shown in the following graphic.

3

On the Tools tool bar, cl ick the Select Features tool.

298

SUfiofl 5: Alla/yzingfillfure relationships

4

On the map, click lease F to select it. It is outlined in cyan.

5

In the table of contents, right-cli ck the Leases layer and click Create Layer From Selected Features.

A layer called Leases selection is added co the cop of the table of contents. This layer references the same geodatabase feature class as the Leases layer. Unlike geoprocessing operations) creating a selection layer doesn't create a new dataset. (You can, however, export a selection layer, or a set of selected features, as a new dataset if you want to. You will do this in the next exercise.)
6 Click the white area of the map to deselect the feature.

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Preparing data fo r analysis

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7

Click the List By Drawing Order button in the table of contents. Turn off the Leases layer and drag the Leases selection layer to the bottom of the table of contents.
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Commonly used geoprocessing tools are listed in the Geoprocessing menu. Alternatively, search for more tools in the ArcToolbox, Search or Catalog window. You'll use the Clip tool to clip the streams to the boundary of lease F. 8 Click the Geoprocessi ng menu and click Clip.

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You'll select the layer with the input features co be clipped, the layer co clip with, and an output feature class. As with Dissolve, the output of a clip can be either a shapefile or a geodatabase feature class. You will add the clipped streams co the MyTongass geodatabase.
9 In the Input Features drop-down list, click Streams. In the Clip Features drop-down list, cl ick Leases selection.

10 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class drop-down list. In the Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapte,II\MyData and double-click MyTongass.mdb. 11 In the Name box, type StreamsF. Make sure your dialog box matches the follow in g graphic, then click Save.

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12 Click OK.

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13 When the operation is completed, close the Results window. In the table of contents, turn off the Streams layer.

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The StreamsF layer (assigned a random color), consisting of stream features clipped to the boundary of lease F, is added to the map.

302

Section 5: A1Jalyzingjearure relationships

14 In the table of contents, right-click the StreamsF layer and click Open Attribute Table.

The Clip operation has reduced the number of stream segments from 1,566 (in the Streams layer) to 358 . The table has attributes that will determine how much area around the streams is off-limits to logging. You will work w ith these attributes in the next chapter.

15 Close the table. 16 If you want to save your work, save it as my_exllc.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chaplerll
\MyData folder. 17 If you are continuing wit h the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, close the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Prepa ring da ta for analysis

303

Exporting data
Operations like Dissolve and Clip create new datasets automatically. Another way to make a new dataset from an existing one is to make a selection on a layer and export the selected features.

Exercise 11d
In addition to the streams layer, you have a layer of goshawk nests covering all five lease areas. You could clip this layer just as you did the streams. Unlike the streams, however, the nests are points and therefore don't cross polygon boundaries. (In the map it will look as if they do, but that is an effect of symbology.) Because nests are contained within polygons, you can use Select By Location to select the nests in lease F and then export the selected set.
In ArcMap, open exlld.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chaplerll folder.

The map contains a layer of goshawk nests and a layer of lease F.

304

S~ctiorJ

5: A,zalyzillg!earure relationships

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Click the Selection menu and click Select By Location. If necessary, click the selection method drop-down arrow and click " select features from."

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In the box of layers to select from , check GoshawkNests. In the Source layer drop-down list, make sure LeaseF is chosen. In the drop-down list of Spatial selection methods, click " Target layer(s) featu res are comp letely within the Source layer feature." Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click App ly.

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On the map, the four nests in lease F are selected.

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Close the Select By Location dialog box. In the Arc Map table of contents, right-click the GoshawkNests layer, point to Data, and click Export Data. The Export drop-down list is correctly set to Selected featu res. The option to use the same coordinate system as the layer's source data is also correct. (You' ll learn more about coordinate systems in chapter 13.)

7 8

Click the Browse button next to t he Output shapefile or feature class box. In the Saving Data dialog box, make sure the Save as type drop-down list is set to File and Personal Geodatabase feature classes. If necessa ry, navigate to \GTKArcGIS \Chapterl1\MyData and double-click MyTongass.mdb. In the Name box, replace Export _Outp ut with NestsF. Make sure your dia log box matches the following graphic, then clic k Save.

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306

S~CliOll

5: AllalyziJ1gfeatur~ relatiomhips

10 Click OK in the Export Data dialog box.

ArcMap exports the selected nests to a new feature class and prompts you to add the data to the map .

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11 Click Yes .

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.You don't see the point features of the new NestsF layer because they are covered by the selection highlights on the GoshawkNests layer.
12 In the table of conte nts, turn off the GoshawkNests layer.

The new layer contains only goshawk nests within lease F. The default symbol is not as informative as the one in the GoshawkNests layer.

Preparing data for analysis

307

13 In the table of contents, double-click the NestsF layer. In the Layer Properties dialog
box, click the Symbology tab and click Import.

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Section 5: AlIalyzingJentltre relationships

15 Click OK in the Layer Properties dialog box to close it.

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You have prepared the data for your analysis. In the next chapter, you'll create exclusion zones around the streams and goshawk nests in lease F. You'll use these zones to figure out how much timberland in the lease area is harvestable and how much it's worth.

16 If you want to save your work, save it as my-exlld.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapte,l1
\MyData folder. 11 If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

Section 5: Analyzing feature relationships ...

Chapter 12

Analyzing spatial data
Buffering features Overlaying data Calculating attribute values

310

Section 5: Analyzingftature relationships

Most of the problems you solve with GIS involve comparing spatial relationships among features- in one layer or in different layers-and drawing conclusions. Problem solving in GIS is called spatial analysis. and it can include everything from measuring the distance between points co modeling the behavior of ecosystems. The geoprocessing tools in ArcToolbox not only help you prepare data, they also help you analyze it spatially. In this chapter, you'll work with twO cools that are very useful in spatial analysis: buffers and overlays. A buffer is an area drawn at a uniform distance around a feature. It represents a critical zone, such as a floodplain, a protected species habitat, or a municipal service area. Features lying inside the buffer have a different status from features lying outside the buffer.

A 500·foot buffer around a school defines an area where billboard advertising is prohibited.

AIIn.0,z,illg spatial tlalll

311

Overlays {union and intersect} identify overlaps between features in two layers, and create a dataset in which the lines of overlap define new features. In a union overlay, nonoverlapping areas are included in the output dataset. A union dataset, then, has three types of features: those found only in the first input layer {with layer 1 anribme values}, those found only in the second input layer {with layer 2 anribute values}, and those created by areas of overlap between the twO layers {with both layer 1 and layer 2 attribute values}. In an intersect overlay, only the overlapping geometry is preserved, and features have attribmes from both input layers.
Before overlay Two layers, each with one feature After union A new layer with three features After intersect A new layer with one feat ure


10

Avocados

A fruit fly quarantine zone overlaps avocado groves (left). Overlay ana lysis-whether union or intersect-creates new features where input layers overlap. In this case, the analysis identifies areas where avocados must be destroyed.

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Section 5: Allalyzillgjetlture relationships

Buffering features
Buffers are created as polygons in a new layer. Buffers can be drawn at a constam distance (for example, 100 meters) around every feature in a layer, or at a distance that varies according to attribute values. For example, buffers representing the range of rad io signals from transmitters might vary according to an attribute describing the transmitter strength. Buffers ca n also be concentric rings represeming multiple distances. such as the areas within 100, 500. and 1,000 merers of a well.

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Allalyzing Jpfltial data

313

Exercise 12a
Your goal is co determine the value of harvest able land in lease F so that your lumber company can make a bid. In chapter 11 , you dissolved forest stands into leases. Then you clipped streams and selected goshawk nests within lease F. In this exercise, you'll buffer the nest and stream layers to show where logging is prohibited. According to government regulations, no trees may be cut within 800 meters of a goshawk nest, the range of goshawk fledglings. Nor can trees be cut w ithin 50 meters of a stream. Logging near streams leads to erosion of the stream banks, adding sediment co the water.

This kills aquatic plant life and disrupts the food chain. The prohibition on logging is
increased to 100 meters from streams where salmon spawn.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dia log box, under the Exi sting Maps secti on , click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter12 . Click ex12a.mxd and click Open.

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The map shows lease F, goshawk nests, and streams. You' ll begin by buffering the goshawk nests using the ArcToolbox Buffer tool.
2 On the Standard l oolbar, click ArcToolbox window button 10 open ArcToolbox.

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Depending on how you sec up your ArcToolbox window (Roacing, tabbed or docked), your display may look d ifferem. Also, depending on your ArcGIS license level, you may have more or fewer cools than the graphic above (which is usi ng an ArcView license).
4 Double -cli ck the Buffer tool.
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You' ll select the layer with the input features to be buffered, designate an output feature class, emer a buffer distance, and seiect a dissolve opcion.
5 Click the Input Features drop-down arrow and click NestsF. (Alternatively, drag the NestsF layer from the ArcMa p table of conte nts and drop it in th is location.) Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Ou tput Feat ure Class dia log box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter12\MyData and double-click MyTongass.mdb.

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Analyzing spatial data

315

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In the Name box, type NestS"f. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Save.

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The neighboring drop-down list shows the type of units, which are meters.

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Scroll down if necessary, click the Dissolve Type drop-down arrow and click All.

Wherever buffer polygons overlap each other, the overlapping boundaries will be dissolved to make a single feature.

316

Srt'rjOll 5: AlIlllyzillgJenture relationships

10 Click OK.

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When the Buffer rool finishes processing. a pop-up notification wi ll appear on the sys tem tray. Click the Buffer link in the pop-up notification ro view the Buffer tool 's results report .

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11 When th e operation is com pleted, close the Results wi ndow.

The new NestBuf layer is added to the map. Where buffers overlap, the barriers between them have been removed, as you specified.
12 If necessary, change the color of the buffers so they are vis ible against the Lease F ba ckgrou nd .

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13 In the table 01 conten ts, right-click the NestBul layer and click Open Attribute Table.

The table contains juSt a single record. Buffers created with the dissolve ALL option form a single feature called a multipart polygon (a polygon with discontinuous boundaries). The attributes are the standard four for a geodatabase polygon feature class:

OBJECTID, Shape, Shape_Length, and Shape_Area. Because of the dissolve, none of
the NestF layer attributes are passed on to the Output table. Now you' ll buffer the Streams layer. The buffer sizes for this layer w ill va ry according to whether or not salmon spawn in a stream.

14 Close the Attributes 01 NestBul table. In the table of contents, right-click the StreamsF
layer and click Open Attribute Tab le.

13

The HasSpawning field shows whethet Ot not a stream has spawning salmon. The Distance field values of 50 and 100 correspond to the No and Yes values in the Has-

Spawning field. (Recall that logging is prohibited within 50 meters of streams, and
within 100 meters of streams where salmon spawn.)

15 Close the attribute table. In the table 01 contents, turn off the NestBul and NestsF layers. 16 In the ArcToolbox window, double-click the Buffer tool.
17 Click the Input Features drop-down arrow and click StreamsF.

18 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Feature
Class dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI 2\MyData and double-click MyTDngass.mdb .

318

SUlion 5: AnalyzingJeatllre relationships

19 In the Name box, type StreamoBuf. Make sure your dialog box matches the following
graphic, then click Save.

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20 For the Buffer distance, cli ck the Field option. Click the Field drop-down arrow and
click Distance.

Distance is [he field in [he ScreamsF layer [able that comains the values 50 and 100. This time you won't dissolve [he stream buffers as you did with the nest buffers.

21 Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, the n click OK.
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Analyzillg spatial dato

319

When the operation is completed, the new StreamBuf layer is added to the map. At the current scale, however, you can't get a good look at the stream buffers.
22 Close the ArcToo lbox window. Click the Bookmarks menu and clic k Streams Closeup.

Now you can see the difference between the 50-meter buffers and the IOO-meter buffers.
23 In the tab le of contents, right-click the StreamBuf layer and click Open Attribute Table.

In addition to its standard attributes, the output table has att ributes from the input table. (Because you did not dissolve the buffers. the OUtput and input tables have the same number of records -there is one buffer for each strea m. This correspondence makes it possible to copy attributes from one table to the other.)
24 Close the attribute table. Turn off the StreamsF layer. Turn on the NestBuf layer. In the table of contents, only the two buffer layers and the LeaseF layer should be turned on.

320

Section

5: Antllyzingfitltllrt reiatio1lShips
In the table of contents, right-click the LeaseF layer and click Zoom to Layer.

The two buffer layers define the areas within which trees cannot be cut. In the next exercise, you'll use overlays to define the areas in which they can be cut.

26 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Chapler12\MyDala. Rename the file my_ex12a.mxd and click Save. 7 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Anll(yzing splltilll dafll

321

Overlaying data
A union overlay combines the features in two input layers to create a new dataset. In the following example. one polygon layer represents a land parcel and the other an oil spill. Part of the parcel lies outside the spill and part of the spill lies outside the parcel; in the middle. the two layers overlap. W hen the layers are unioned. the two original polygons become three. The area of overlap becomes a new feature. while the non-overlapping areas become muhipart polygons.
Parcel Oil spill Oil spill and parcel overlap each other Oil spill and parcel overlap each other

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Th e oil spi ll and pa rcel layers are un ioned to create three new po lygons.

W hat kind of attributes does the un ion layer have? In add ition to its own standard attributes. it includes all the attributes of boch input layers. This doesn't mean. however. that every record has a value for each attribute. In this exa mple. Featu re 1 in the output table has no Spill_Type value because it is outside the oil spill. while Feature 2 has no Owner or Landuse va lues because it is outside the parcel. Only Feature 3. which spatially coincides with both input layers. has a va lue for every attribute.
Input tables

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The output table conta ins the attributes of both input layers. Output feat ures get the attri butes val ues of inp ut feat ures with which t hey are spatia lly coincident.

322

Sf'nion 5: Ana<yzingjetllllre re/rJtionships

A complication arises with the identifier attribute. One of the standard attributes of the union layer, assuming it is a geodatabase feature class, is the OB]ECTID field, which assigns a unique ID number to each feature. (With other data formats, the identifier attribute is called FID or OlD.) In this case, both of the input layers also have OB]ECTID fields. ArcMap doesn't want to delete these fields-they may be useful to you-but at the same time, ir doesn't want a table with three OB]ECTID fields. To resolve the conflict, the OB]ECTID fields from the input layers are renamed in the union layer. The new name consists of the prefix "FID _" followed by the input layer name. Thus, the parcel layer's identifier attribute is renamed "FlO_Parcel" and the oil spill layer's is renamed "FJD_ OilSpil!."

Renamed OBJECTID fiel ds

In an intersect overlay, the process is a little simpler, since only the area of overlap is pre· served. An Intersect of the oil spill and parcel layers would consist of a single feature:
Oil spill and parce l Intersect ion overlay of oil spill and parcel

One polygon Two polygons

As with a union layer, an intersect layer includes its own sta ndard attributes plus all the attributes of both input layers. In an intersect, each attribute is populated for every record. A union overlay requires that both inpuc layers be polygon layers. In an intersect, the input layers can either be two polygon layers or a polygon layer and a line layer. In the latter case, the output is a line layer.

A1lalyz ing spatial da ta

323

Exercise 12b
In this exercise, you'll union the nest and stream buffer layers from the previous exercise to create a single layer of the land that cannot be harvested. Then you'll union this layer with a layer of stands in lease F. Because new features will be created wherever stand polygons and buffer polygons overlap, every output feature will lie either entirely inside or entirely outside a buffer. The set of features lying outside buffers represents harvestable land.
In ArcMap, open ex12b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter12 folder.

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The map shows the buffers for streams and goshawk nests. The other layers are turned off.
2 3 On the Standard toolbar, clic k the ArcToolbox window button. In the ArcToolbox window, expand the Analysis Tool s if necessa ry, then click the plus sign next to Overlay. Double-cl ick t he Union too l.

4

You'll specify the layers to overlay and designate an output feature class.

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6 7 Cl ick th e Inpu t Features drop-down arrow again and cl ick StreamSuf. Click the Srowse button next to th e Output Feature Class box. In th e Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate to IGTKArcGISIChapter121MyData and double-click MyTongass.mdb. In the Name box, type NoCutArea . Make sure your dialog box matches th e following graphic, t hen click Save.

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By default. the Output layer attribute table conta ins its standard attributes plus the attributes from bOth input layers. Optionally. you can omit the input layer identifier attributes. Alternatively, you can omit all input attributes except the identifiers. This creates a smaller output table and is convenient if you don't need to work with attributes. (If yo u later decide that you do need the input att ributes, you can join or relate back to the input layer tables using the common identifier attribute.) Right now, all you need are the identifier attributes .

Analyzing Sp"t;,t! datn

325

9

Click the JoinAttributes drop-down arrow and click ONLYJID. (You might have to scroll down in the dialog box to see it.)

10 Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

When the operation is completed, the NoCutArea layer is added to the map. The new layer, consisting of all buffered areas from the two input layers, defines the zone where no trees may be harvested.

326

Section 5: Anfl~)'zingft(llIlr(' relfltiomhips

11

In the table of contents, right-click the NoCutArea layer and click Open Attribute Table.

The table contains the four standard polygon feature class attributes (OB]ECTID, Shape, Shape_ Length, and Shape_Area). It also comains the renamed identifier attributes from the input layers: FlO_NestBuf and FlO_StreamBuf. In the exercise introduction, you saw that attributes are nOt populated for every record in a Union attribute table. Identifier attributes, however, are completely populated. Every record in the Attributes of No CutArea has not only an OB]ECTID value, but also an FID_StreamBuf value and an FID_NestBuf value-regardless of which input feature is spatially coincident with the output feature.

For example, the second record in the NoCutArea table has an OB]ECTIO value of 2. This value is the featu re's new identifier. The record's FID_StreamBuf value is 10. Th is means that the feature coincides spatially with the feature that has the OB]ECTID of 10 in the StreamBuf table. The record 's FID_NestBuf value is -1. The -1 value means that the feature does not coincide spatially with any feature in the NestBuf layer. Notice that the first record has an FID_StreamBuf value of -1. Th is means that the feature does not coincide spatially with any feature in the StreamBuf layer.
Later in this exercise, you will see how to use this information to your advantage.
12 Close the table. Turn on the StandsF layer.

Analyz ing spatial dntll

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To find the harvestable land, you will union the NoCutArea layer with StandsF. After the overlay. you will be able to select the polygons that represent harvestable areas,
13 In the ArcToolbox window, double-click the Union tool. 14 Click the Input Features drop-down arrow and click NoCutArea to add it to the list of
input layers. Do the same for Stand sF.

15 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChapterI2\MyData and double-click
MyTongass.mdb.

16 In the Name box, type Final. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic,
then click Save .

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328

S~("/ioll 5: Analyzingftlllllr~ relationships

Leave the Join Attributes drop-down list set to ALL. This time you will include all input attributes in the Union layer. (You wi ll need anributes like StandValue and Va luePerMeter co recalculate the scand values in che next exercise.)
17 Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK .

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W hen the operation is completed. the Final layer. which has more than 5,000 features, is added to the map.
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Analyzing sptltial data

329

18 In the table of contents, right-click the Final layer and click Open Attribute Tab le.

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The FID_ NoCutArea attribute is the renamed OBJECTID from the NoCutArea
layer. If a record has a value other chan -1 in this field, it means the output feature coincides spatially with a buffer feature; in other words, it's not harvestable. If a record has the value -1, it means the output feature does not coincide with a buffer and therefore is harvestable. The harvestable area of lease F, therefore, is the area composed of all polygons in the

Final layer that have the value -\ in the FID_NoCutArea field.
19 Close the Attributes of Final table. Close ArcToolbox. In the table of contents, turn off
all layers except Final.

20 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Close-up.

330

S~Clion 5: AlUzlyziug Jeature rf'lationships

To see which areas can be harvested, you will turn on labels.

21 In the tab le of contents, double-cli ck the Final layer. On the Layer Properties dialog
box, click the Labels tab. Check the " Label features in this layer" check box. Click the Label Field drop-down arrow and click FID_NoCutArea. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK .

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Analyzing spatial dflla

331

It would be easier to read the map if you used colors instead aflabels. Applying symbology is not part of this exercise, but you are welcome to do it on your own, using what you learned in chapter 5. Your result might look like this:

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In the next exercise, you will recalculate the Final layer's 5tandValue attribute to get an accurate total value far harvestable land.
22 If you want to save you r work, save it as my_ex12b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapler12 \MyDala folder. 23 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

332

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5: Analyzillgftature relationships

Calculating attribute values
You ca n write an ex pression to calculate attribute va lues for all records in a table or juSt for selected ones. For numeric attributes, the expression can include constants, functions, or values from other fields in the table. Fo r text attributes, the expression can include cha racter str ings that you type or text values from other fields.

Exercise 12c
The graph you made in chapter 11 showed the timber va lue of lease F to be about 1.5 billion dollars. In this exercise, yo u'll adjust that value to take into accou nt only harvestable areas. You' ll create a definition query to display these areas, then you' ll recalculate stand values to determine how much the total harvestable area is worth.
In ArcMap, open ex12c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter12 folder.

The map contains the Final layer you created in the last exercise. In the previous exerci se, yo u saw that harvestable areas have t he value -1 in t he FID_NoCutArea field. Using that value, you will create a definition query to display only the harvestable areas.
2 In the table of contents, double-click the Fin al layer. In the Layer Pro perties dialog box, clic k the Defini tion Query tab.

Analyzing spatial data

333

3

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In the Fields box, scroll down and double-click [FID_NoCutAreaJ to add it to the expression box, Click the equals (=) button, then click Get Unique Values, In the Unique Values list, double-click -1. Make sure your expression matches the following graphic, then click OK,

The query displays in the Definition Query box.

334

Sutioll 5: An(1lyzingftatllr~ re/Iltiomhips

5

Click OK on the Layer Properties dialog box.

On the map, only features satisfying the query are displayed. The layer attribute table

will show only the records corresponding to these features.
Now you'll update the StandValue attribute for these features.
6 In the table of contents, right-click the Final layer and click Open Attribute Table .

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The table shows 372 records, rather than the original 5,439.
The values in the StandValue field need to be updated. Although some of the original stand polygons were preserved intact in the Final layer (and still have correct stand values), many other stands-all those chat were overlapped by a nest or stream buffer- were split in the last overlay. The resulting smaller polygons have correct area values because ArcMap automatically updates che Shape_Area attribute, but cheir stand values, which were simply copied over from the StandsF table, are wrong. To correct the stand values , you will multiply the area of each feature by its value per meter.
7 Right-click the field name StandValue and click Field Calculator. If necessary, click Yes on the message warning you that you cannot undo the ca lculation.

The Field Calculator dialog box opens.

Analyzing spatial data

335

8

In the Fields box, double-click Shape_Area to add it to the expression box. Click the multiplication (') button. Again in the Fields box, double-click ValuePerMeter.

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This expression will give you the updated stand values in dollars. In the table, however, the stand values are expressed in millions of dollars.
9 Click at the beginning of the expression and type an opening parenthesis "(" followed by a space. Click at the end of the expression and type a space followed by a closing parenthesis ")". Click the division ( / ) button. Type a space and type 1000000. Make sure your expression matches the one in the following graphic, then click OK .
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The values in the StandValue field are recalculated.

336

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10 Right-click the StandValue field name and click Statistics.
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The sum of the value, i, 1,052 .08379. The harvestable value of lease F is therefore just over a billion dollars-about two thirds of the original calculation shown in your graph from exercise ll b, step 9.
11 Close the Statistics window and the table.

Your company wi ll use this information m make a competitive bid. It's a big investment, but tree harvesting is expensive. You have to move heavy equipment into the area, supply the labor force. and construct roads . A more detailed analysis would consider additional facmrs, such as the locations of existing roads, the slope of the land. and other protected areas like stands of old-growth trees.
12 If you want to save your work, save it as mL ex12c.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI2 \ MyDal a folder.

In the next chapter, you' ll launch ArcMap from ArcCaralog. So even if you are continuing, you shou ld exit ArcMap now.
13 Close ArcMap. Cl ick No if prompted 10 save your changes.

Al/fdyzillg spatial daftl

337

Building a spatial model
In chapters 11 and 12, you carried out many spatial analysis operations, such as Dissolve, Clip, Buffer, and Union, using ArcToolbox. These operations were not ends in themse lves, but steps in a larger analytical process. Before undertaking a similarly com plicated GIS project, you might find it useful to draw a flowchart or diagram that identifies the goal and the analytical steps that lead to it. What data wi ll you need' What geoprocessing wi ll be required? Which outputs will become inputs to new operations' In ArcGIS Desktop 10, ModelBuilder is available to help you do that. ModelBuilder provides a design window where spatial analysis operations can be defined, sequentially connected, and carried out, all with the use of drag-and-drop icons. ModelBuilder is both a workflow diagramming tool and a processing environment. It keeps track of the operations that you run, their resu lts, and their interdependencies. It gives you a conven ient way to bu ild a large project from its component parts and run its processes separately or together. Your model can be cha nged at any time to incorporate new data, add new cond itions, or try different assumptions (best case, worst case, what if. .. ). Chapter 20 in this book revisits the Tongass Forest Lease analysis and shows you how to design and execute the same project in ModelBuilder.
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Section 5: Analyzing feature relationships

Chapter 13

Projecting data in ArcMap
Projecting data on the fly Defining a projection

340

S(,ffioll 5: AI1(I~yzingji:atllre relationships

Loca[ions on [he earch's surface are defined with reference to lines oflatitude and longitude. Latitude lines, or parallels, run parallel to the equacor and measure how far norch or somh you are of the equacor. Longitude lines, or meridians, run from pole co pole and measure how far ease or west you are of the prime meridian (the meridian that passes through G reenwich, England).

Athens, Greece Latitude = 3]0 56 ' north (of the equator) Longitude =23° 39' east (of the prime meridian)

The mesh of intersecting parallels and meridia ns is called a graticu le.

Latiwde and longitude are measuremems of angles. not of dis[ances. Laticude is the angle be[ween the point you are locacing. [he center of [he earch. and [he equator. Longitude is the angle between the prime meridian, [he center of [he earch, and [he meridian on which the point you are locating lies. Because lacitude and longiwde are angles. their values are expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

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Why use angles instead of distances? Because as meridians converge toward the poles, the distance between them shri nks. At the equator, a degree of longitude is about 69 miles; at the 45th parallel, it's about 49 miles; at the north pole, it's zero. In other words, there is no constant distance value to represent the spacing between a pair of meridia ns. The angle between a pair of meridians, on the other hand, stays the same.

Starting from the equator. latitude values go to +90· at the north pole and to -90' at the south pole. Starting from the prime meridian, longitude values go to +180' eastward and to -180' westward. (The +180' and - 180' meridians are the same.)

Projecting dlltll ill An'Mllp

341

Latitude and longitude are the basis of a geographic coordinate system, a system that defines locations on the curved surface of the earth. Because different estimates have been made of the earth's shape and size, there are a number of different geographic coordinate systems in use. Although they are similar, the precise latitude- longitude coordinates assigned to locations vary from one system to the next.
Most geographic coordi nate systems are based on the assumption that the earth is a spheroid. {A spheroid is to a sphere as an oval is to a circle.} Th is is a more accurate model becau se the earth bulges slightly at the equator and is flattened at the poles. Historically, severa l spheroids of varying dimensions have been calcu lated. (Th is picture greatly exaggerates the flattening, which is really only a fraction of a percent.)

Some geographic coordinate systems are based on the assumption that the earth is a sphere. This simple model is adequate for many purposes.

To make a map, the earth must be represented on a Rat surface. This is accomplished by a mathematical operation called a map projection.

A map projection flattens the earth. Locations on the earth are systematical ly assigned to new positions on the map. This can be done by many different methods (infinitely many, in fact).

342

Section 5: A JlIl/yzillgftfl ture relllliomhips

Locations on a map are defined with reference to a grid of intersecting straight lines. One set of lines runs parallel to a horizoneal x-axis; the other set runs parallel to a vertical y-axis. The coordinates of any point are expressed as a distance value along the x-axis and a distance value along the y-axis (from the intersection of the axes).

Athens, Greece
x = 2.633 ,000 meters (along the x-ax is) y = 4,436,000 meters (along the y-axis)

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A projected coordinate system, a system that defines locations on a Rat map. is based on x,y coordinates. The x,y coordinates of any given poine, such as Athens, depend on the map projection being used, the units of measure (meters, feet, or something else), and on where the map is centered. If Athens is made the center of the map, for example, its x,y coordinates will be 0,0. Thus, the number of possible projected coordinate systems is unlimited. Since the world is more or less round and maps are Rat, you can't go from one to the other without changing the properties of features on the surface. Every map projection distorts the spatial properties of shape. area, distance, or direction in some combination.

The Mercator projection preserves shape but distorts area. On the map, Greenland is much larger than Brazil, but on the earth it is smaller.

The sinusoidal projection preserves area but distorts shape. The proportional sizes of Greenland and Brazil are correct, but not their shapes.

Projecting data in ArcMap

343

The Winkel tripel projection balances distortion. No single property is faithfully preserved, but none is excessively distorted.

The azimutha l equidistant projection preserves true distance and direction from a single point (in this case, Athens) to all other locations on the map.

Your choice of map projection lets you control the type of distortion in a map for your area of interest. If you are mapping an area the size of a small country, and using an appropriate projection, the effects of distortion will be insignificant. If you are mapping the whole world, distortion will always be noticeable, but you can reduce or eliminate certain types of distortion according to your purpose. For more information about coordinate systems and map projections, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Guide books> Map
projections> Projected coordinate systems> About map projections.

344

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Projecting data on the fly
Every spatial dataset has a coordinate system. If it's a geographic coordinate system, its features store latitude- longitude values. Ific's a projected coordinate system, its features store
x,y values.

Besides storing feature coordinates, a dataset contains other coordinate system information. The defi nition of a geographic coordinate system, for example. includes the dimensions of the sphere or spheroid it's based on and other details. The definition of a projected coordinate system includes the projection it's based on, the measurement units, and other details. Each projected coordinate system is also associated with a particular geographiC coordinate system, since

its x,y coordinates were at some time prOjected from a set of latitude-longitude coordinates. You can find the coord inate system of a dataset in the Description tab in ArcCatalog (to view its metadata). You can also find it in the XY Coordinate System tab of the Proper ties dialog box (right-click a feature and click Propenies.) Alternatively, find it in ArcMap by clicking the Source tab of the Layer Propenies dialog box.
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When you first add a layer [0 a data frame in ArcMap, it displays according [0 the coordinate values of its features-geographic or projected, as the case may be. What happens when you add a second layer [0 the data frame? If it has the same coordinate system as the first layer, there's no problem. But what ifits coordinate system is different? Since coordinates tell ArcMap where to draw features, there is a potential conflict. ArcMap resolves this conflict amomatically. You already know th at a map projection is a math operation that changes geographic coordinates to projected coordinates. ArcMap knows the equations (forward and backward) for hundreds of projections. So when the second layer you add has a different coord inate system from the first, ArcMap changes Layer 2's coordinates to match Layer 1'so This process is called on-the-Ay projection.

Proj('rling datil ill ArcMap

345

How does it work? Suppose you add a layer of world countries to a data frame. Say it's in the Miller cylindrical projected coordinate system. ArcMap stores the information abom this coordinate system {and the geographic coordinate system it's based on} as a property of the data frame. Suppose you next add a layer of world capitals in the sinusoidal projected coordinate system. ArcMap checks the data frame properties and knows it can't display this layer according to its sinusoidal coordinates-it has to change them to Miller cylindrical coordinates. To do this. it looks at the geographic coordinate system that the world capitals layer is based on, "unprojects" the sinusoidal coordinates to latitude-longitude coordinates, and then projects these latitude- longitude coordinates to Miller cylindrical coordinates. The result is that the capitals display in their correct relationship to the countries. Now suppose you add a third layer of world rivers that is in a geographic coordinate system. The process is simpler. All ArcMap has to do is project (he latitude- longitude coordinates to Miller cylindrical coordinates. All three layers now occupy the same "coordinate space" and display in correct spatial alignment. even though the coordinates stored with the features are different for each layer.
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The data frame adopts the coordinate system of the first layer added to it (in this case, Miller cylindrical). Layers added subsequently are projected on the fly to this coordinate system. You don't have to use the coordinate system of the first layer you addthis is just the Arc Map default. You can assign any coordinate system you want to the data frame (even one that no ne of the layers have) and all layers will be projected to match it.

On-the-Ay projection doesn't change the feature coordinates of the dataset on disk, or the dataset's coordinate system information. On-the-Ay projection has effect only within a Single data frame. If you were to add these same three layers to another data frame in the same map document-but if you added the world capitals layer first- all the layers would display in the sinusoidal projected coordinate system.

346

Section 5: AlIll(yzingfi'nrure /"l'!llliow!Jipi

On-the-fly projection works best when layers are based on the same geograph ic coordinate system. If Layer 2 has a different geographic coordinate system from Layer I, you'll get a message like this:
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The message tells you that ArcMap can display the layer, but that the spatial alignm ent probably won't be just right. That's because ArcMap can't convert one geographic coordinate system to another without some help from you. W ithout that help, the data will be misaligned to the extent that the geographic coordinate systems differ from each other. This difference is usually too small to notice at the scale of a world map, or even a continental map. But if you are making a map that demands highly accurate feature positioning. or if you are geoprocessing the data. you will first want to convert one layer's geographic coordinate system to that of the other. This operation is called a geographic coordinate system transformation (or a datum transformation). ArcMap supports it, but the process is not described in this book. For more information. click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional

Library> Guide books> Map projections> Geographic transformations> Geographic transformation methods.

Exercise 13a
You work for the U.S. Census Bureau and are creating a map of the United States that shows population change between 1990 and 2000. The map will have three data frames: one for the lower forty-eight states, one for Alaska, and one for Hawaii. The same shapefile of U.S. states (in a geographiC coordinate system) will be used in all three data frames. You'll set a different projected coordinate system for each data frame and ArcMap will project the data on the fly. Why use three data frames instead of just one? Showing all fifty states in the same data frame would mean including all the space that separates Hawaii and Alaska from the contiguous forty-eight states. You would have to zoom OUt so far that little states would be hard to see. By putting Alaska and Hawaii in their own data frames, however, you can zoom in on them and move them close to the other forty-eight states.

Projecting data in A rcMap

347

u .s . P opulation Growth

u .s. Population Growth
lIi$O.2C1X1

The United States drawn in a si ngle data frame.

The United States drawn in three data frames. Alaska and Hawai i aren't shown in true proportion or at true distance from the lower forty-eight states, but that isn't important to the purpose of your map.

You will use three versions of the Albers equal area conic projection. This is an excellent general-purpose projection for areas in middle latitudes, especially those having an east-west orientation. It preserves the spatial property of area, which means that map features are displayed at their true proportional size. Shapes are only minimally distOrted for an area the size of the United States.
Start ArcCatalog. In the ArcCatalog tree, double-click the connection to C:\ESRIPre ss \GTKArcGIS. Double-click the Chapter13 folder. Double-cl ick the Data folder.

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348

Se('fioll 5: Aualyzillgjenrufe relationships

There are two shapefiles: FastCicies and States. Each has a co rresponding layer file. In this exercise, you'll use the States data. (You'll work with FastCities, which contains the fastest-growing city in each state, in the next exercise.)
2 In the catalog window, click States.lyr and click the Preview tab.

~~I;"li5:::2irjr--- Montana

....

=-----jf--- Texas

The layer has been symbolized with a color ramp that shows population change. The states, displayed according to their geographic coordinates, are distorted both in shape and area. The northern boundary of the United States appears to be a straight line, for instance, while Alaska looks stretched out. Montana seems to be roughly the same size as Texas, while in reality Texas is nearly twice as large.

3

Click the Preview drop-down arrow and click Table. Scroll to the right.

The table has 1990 and 2000 population figures for each state, as well as the population change in raw numbers and percentages. Every state grew during the decade. The layer is classified and symbolized on the PctChange attribute. You'll confirm that the States shapefile has a geographic coordinate system.

Projecting data in A reMap

349

4

In the catalog tree, right-click States.shp and click Properties.

Nllme: Detllils:

IGCS_North_Amerk:an_19B3
~I

AngWr lklit: Degree (0.017453292519943295)
Prine Meridian: Greenwich (0,0000000000000000)

Datum: DJbrth_Amerk:lln_19B3 Spheroid: GRS_1980 Semrnlljor Axis: 6378137.00(00 .. .. ( .. .. .. • .. Semiminor AxIs: 6356752.314140356100000000 Inyerse Flattening: 298.2572Z210100Cl020000

vi

The Shapefile Properties window shows a geographic coordinate system called GCS_ North_American_ 1983. (This is a common geographic coordinate system for spatial data covering the United States, It is also called NAD83 or North American Datum of 1983,) Next, you'll start ArcMap and add the States layer file to a map document,
5 Click Cancel to close the properties window. In the catalog tree, double-click ex13a.mxd.
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350

Section 5: Analyzillg[elllllre relationships

ArcMap opens in layout view.

U.S. Population Growth
\1I90 · ~OOO

Fl ~

The map contains three empty data frames: Alaska, H awaii, and Lower 48 . Lower 48 is active. A tide and legend have already been added to the map. You'll add the States layer to each data frame, zoom in appropriately, and apply map proj ections to the data frames.

6

Position the ArcCata log and Arc Map windows so you can see the cata log tree and the ArcMap table of contents. In the cata log tree, click States.lyr and drag it to the bottom of the ArcMap table of contents. Click the ArcMap title bar to bring ArcMap forwa rd .

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Projecting data in ArcMnp

351

The layer is added to the table of contents and displays in the data frame. It looks as it did when you previewed it in ArcCatalog. You'll use a bookmark to zoom in to the lower forty-eight states.

•• •

1",,··,1 .

U.S. Population Growth
1980 · 2000

8

Click the Bookmarks menu and click Lower 48.
U.S. Population Growth

Il==J

············

ulio.:moo

352

Sutioll 5: Alla~vzjl1gfi'a fllr(' relflliombips

9

In the table of co ntents, double-click th e Lower 48 data frame. In the Data Frame Properties dialog box, click the Coordinate System tab.

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By default, the data frame is set to the coordinate system of the first layer added co it. As you saw in step 5, that is GCS_ North_ American_1983.

10 In the Select a coordinate system box, click the plus sign next to Predefined.

11 Click the plus sign next to Projected Coordinate Systems, the plus sign next to Continental, then the plus sign next to North America.

A variety of projected coordinate sys tems for North American data is listed.

12 Click USA Contiguous Albers Equal Area Conic . (You ca n hold the mouse pointer over
a name to see all of it.) The details of the projection appear in the Current coordinate system box. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then cl ick OK .

Projecting data ill A reMap

353

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The layer is projected on the fly. You'll use a bookmark to zoom in closer.
13 Click the Bookmarks menu and cl ick Lower 48 after Projection.

U.S . Population Growth
' 8IIO.2OIXI

···············H

The states are displayed in the Albers equal area projecdon. Now you'll copy the States layer to the other two data frames and set their coordinate system properties.

354

Sect;oll 5: AlUziyzillgfi'afure relationships

14 In the tab le of contents, right-c lick the States layer and click Copy. In the table of
contents, right-cli ck the Hawaii data frame and click Paste Layer(s). Again in the table of contents, right-cli ck the Alaska data frame and click Paste Layer(s).

U.S. Populallon Growth
11&0 . 2Q)C

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~-0 .· .0
•0-211 211'r.7

The Scaces layer now displays in all chree daca frames .
15 In the table of contents, right-click the Alaska data frame and click Activate.

16 In the table of contents, double-click the Alaska data frame. In the Data Frame
Properties dialog box, click the Coordinate System tab if necessary.

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Proj t't.'ting data ill A reMap

355

As before. the data frame's coordinate system is set to GCS_North_American_1983.
You'll set an Albers projection developed for Alaska. 17 In the Select a coordinate system box, click the plus sign next to Predefined, the plus sign next to Projected Coordinate Systems, the plus sign next to Continental, and the plus sign next to North America. 18 Click Alaska Albers Equal Area Conic. Make sure that your dialog box matches the foll owing graphic, then cl ick OK.

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The layer is projected on the fly. Notice that the lower forty-eight states are set at an odd angle. The projection minimizes distortion for Alaska, but other areas may be severely distorted. You won't show rhese areas in rhe data frame, so it doesn't matter.
19 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Alaska.

II

U.S. PopulaUon Growth
'.0· 2000

20 In the table of contents, right-click the Hawaii data frame and click Activate.

356

SI'clion 5: A nalyziJlg/(,Il /ur(' rrlHliollShips

21 Following the same steps you used for the other data frames, set the coordinate system
of the Hawaii data frame to Hawa ii Albers Equal Area Conic.

22 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Hawaii.
u .s. Population GroWlh
1_·2OOl

Each of the three data frames now has a different projected coordinate system . (All use the Albers equal area con ic projection, but the projection settings are customized in each case to represent the area of interest as accurately as possible.)

23 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to
\GTKArcGIS\Ch apterI3\MyData . Rename the file my-exI3a.m xd and click Save.

24 If you are continuing with the next exercise, keep ArcMap open; otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes. 25 Close ArcCatalog.

PI'Ojl'tlillg dfU(1. in Al'cMnp

357

Defining a projection
Features in a dataset never lose their coordinates, but the dataset may not have the information · that identifies its coordinate system. This can happen in particular with shapefi les, where the coordinare system information is stored as a separate file (with the extension .prj). If you add a layer that is missi ng its coordinate system information, ArcMap will look at the feature coordinate values before proceeding. If it sees that all the values are between and 180, it knows that the data is in a geographic coordinate system. It won't know which one, but it will make a default assumption that enables it to display the layer with other layers already in the data frame. (The spatial alignment probably won't be exact-just as when you add layers that have different geographic coordinate sys tems-bur it will usually be acceptable for small-scale maps.) If ArcMap sees that the coordinate values are big six- or seven-digit numbers, it knows that the data is in a projected coordinate system, bue aga in, it doesn't know which one. You'll get a message similar to this one:

°

Tne folowi1g daU! stUces you added are mi:uing spatial reference infOlmation. This: datil can be i'1ArcMap. but carnot be Ploject$d:

a--.

I~

OK

J

The message telis you that the layer can't be projected on the By. In other words, ArcMap can add the layer to the data frame, bue it can't change the layer's coordinates to match the data frame's coordinate system. The result is often a serious display problem, because very different sets of coordinates are trying to fit in the same map space. For example, if the data frame is set to a geographic coordinate system, the unknown layer probably won't be visible (its projected coordinates are too far apart from latitude-longitude values). If the data frame is set to a projected coordinate system, the unknown layer may display, but will probably be seriously misaligned. Sometimes you get lucky, though. If the data frame happens to have (he sa me projected coordinate system as the unknown layer, the data will line up correctly on its own. If a dataset is missing its coordinate system information. you should try to find out what it is. This may involve contacting the data provider or looking through files for supporting documentation. Once you know the coordinate system, you can assign it to the dataset using ArcToolbox. This process is called defining a projection.

358

SutiOlJ 5: AlJll/yzhlg/ellture reillfiowhips

Exercise 13b
In this exercise, you'll add a layer of the fastest-growing cities in each state to your map. From a colleague at the Census Bureau, you have acquired a shapefile of projected data along with a corresponding layer file. Unfortunately, the shapefi le is missing its projection (.prj) file. This means that ArcMap can't recognize the coordinate system and is unable to project the data on the fl y. After e-maili ng your colleague, you have received the follow ing reply: "Sorry that the projection wasn't defined. The FastCities shapefile is in the North America Lambert conformal conic projected coordinate sys tem." You' ll add th is coordinate system infor mation [0 the shapefile with the D efine Projection [001 in ArcToolbox.
In ArcMap, open ex13b.mxd fro m C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter13 .

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The map opens in data view. The Lower 48 data frame is active.
2 On t he St andard tool ba r, c lick the Add Data bu tton.

Projecting dato in ArcMap

359

3

In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter13\Data and click FastCities.lyr, as shown in the following graphic. Click Add.

Looic.ln:

IE:I Data

Name:

Showr:l type:

IFMtCtIes.1yr I =="" == ~Dat"", ==_,========;:,,~1 v

Add 1 c..ul

ArcMap warns you that the layer is missing spatial reference information.

A lIllklloWIl 'j lloltl<11 RelelellCf"

I? Ilx l

The foIowing data $CUCO$ you added ale rmsr.g spatial refefence infonnation. Tm data can be d'awn i'lAleMap, but carnot be pmject:ecI:

OK

·~i

I

If you don't see the warning, that's okay. In your ArcGIS past, you may have come across the Warning dialog box shown on page 346 and checked its Don't warn me again ever box. If you would like coordinate system warnings to appear again, run the AdvancedArcMapSettings.exe executable file, which is located in the Utilities folder of your ArcGIS installation. On the Advanced ArcMap Settings dialog box, click the Miscellaneous tab and uncheck Skip datum check.

360

Sec/ion 5: Awzlyzing[elllllre rt'ltl/;oltships

4

Click OK on the warn ing message.

ArcMap adds the FastCities layer. At nrSt glance, things appear normal. If you take a closer look, though, you'll see that some cities are lying outside the U.S. boundary. The data frame's current coordinate system is the USA contiguous Albers equal area conic (the one you set in the previous exercise). From your colleague, you now know that the coordinate system of the FastCities layer is North America Lambert conformal conic. ArcMap, however, does not know this. Because it couldn't project the FastCities layer on the Hy, ArcMap simply drew the features where their Lambert coordinates said they should go. But since these Lambert numbers were being plugged into Albers coordinate space, the locations are wrong. (It's SOrt of like digging for buried treasure in the right place on the wrong island.) As it happens, the Albers and Lambert coordinates for the United States are not hugely different; therefore, although the layers don't align correctly, you can at least see them both together. You'll zoom in for a closer look.
5 Click the Data View button. Then click the Bookmarks menu and click Southeast.

Among other problems, Myrtle Beach is in the ocean; Grand Rapids, Michigan, is in Indiana; Columbus, Ohio, is in Kentucky; and Nashville, Tennessee, is in Alabama.
H""old• •
York

Fortunately, you can use ArcToolbox to add the missing coordinate system information. Once you do that, ArcMap will be able to reproject the FastCities layer, and you' ll see the cities display in their correct locations.

Projecting data in ArcMap

361

6 7

On the Standard tqplbar, click the ArcToolbox window button.
"

In the ArcToolbox window, click the plus sign next to Data Management Tools. Click the plus sign next to Projections and Transformations.

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Double-click the Define Projection tool to open it. Click the Input Dataset or Feature Class drop-down arrow and click FastCities. lyr.

You see that the layer's coordinate system is Unknown.

362

Section 5: Analyzingfotttllre refm iomhips

10 Click the Properties button next to the Coordinate System box.

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In the Spatial Reference Properties dialog box, you can seiect from coordinate systems already defined by ArcGIS, import a coordinate system from another dataset, or create an entirely new coordinate system. (You might do this, for example, if you were making a map of a newly discovered planet, since ArcGIS only has predefined coordinate systems for planets in our solar system.) The Lambert conformal conic for North America, however, is defined by ArcGIS.
11 Click Select.

12 In the Browse for Coordinate System dialog box, double-click the Projected Coordinate
Systems folder, the Continental folder, and the North America folder. Click North America Lambert Conformal Conic.prj. (You may need to widen the Name header to see the full projection names.) Make sure th at your dialog box matches th e following graphic, then click Add.

Projecting dlltll i1l ArcMap

363

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36 4

Section 5: Ant1lyzingftdtlir~ relafiombips

14 Click OK.

The D efine Projection tool runs and you see a progress report.
15 Click Close on the progress report. Close the ArcToolbox window.

With [he correct coord inate system information , ArcM ap reprojects the FastCities layer into the A lbers equal area conic projection. The cities appea r in their correct posit ions.
16 From the Bookmarks menu , click Lower 48 after Projection.

You will copy [he FastCities layer to the other two data frames .
17 On the View menu, click Layout View. 18 In the table of conten ts, right-click FastCi ties.lyr and click Copy.

PrQjcoIlIg dllld III Arc/Illtl/,

365

19 In th e table of contents, right-click the Hawaii data frame and click Paste Layer(s).
Aga in in the table of conte nts, right-click the Alaska data frame and click Paste Layer(s). 20 Click the Layout View button.

Honolulu and Anchorage appear in their respective dara frames.

u.s. Population Growth

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. ztlb>~

10
c.

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. --

. ,

In rhe Alaska dara frame, rhe FasrCiries layer is reprojecred to Alaska Albers equal area conic. In rhe Hawaii dara frame, it is reprojected to Hawai i Albers equal area conic. Your map shows which srares and ciries have experienced rhe mosr growrh berween 1990 and 2000.
21 If you want to save yo ur work, save it as my-exI3b. mxd in t he \GTKArcGlS\ChapterI3 \MyData folder.

In rhe nexr chapter, yo u will work exclusively wirh ArcCara log, so you'll exir ArcMap now.
22 Close ArcMap. Click No if prompted to save your cha nges.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 6: Creating and editing data

Chapter 14

Building geodatabases
Creating a personal geodatabase Creating feature classes Adding fields and domains

368

Sea ion 6: Creating " nd l>diting dll/II

Spatial data comes in a variety of formats that can be managed in ArcCatalog and added as layers to ArcMap. Many of these formats, including shapefiles, coverages, CAD files . and geodatabases. organize spatial data into feature classes. A feature class is a group of poi nts, lines, or polygons representing geographic objects of the same kind. li ke countries or rivers. A shapefile is a single feature class. Cities.shp, for example, might be a point feature class representing cities. Geodatabases, by contrast, are sets of feature classes. World.mdb might comprise a polygon feature class of world countries, a polyline feature class of world rivers, a point feature class of world cities, and more. (Coverages and CAD files are also sets of feature classes, though in a different way. In a coverage of countries, a polygon feature class would represent countries as polygons, while an arc feature class would represent the same countries as lines.)
Geodatabase
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One of the main reasons for the variety of data formats has to do with the rapid changes in GIS technology over the past several years. Shapefiles and coverages, for example, are associated with stages of ESRI software development. While rhere are differences among spatial dara formats, there is also a great deal of mutual compatibiliry and even interconvenibility. When you add spacial data to ArcMap, you see it and work with it as a layer. and usually you aren't interesred in the format of the source file. You should know, however. that geodatabases. as the latest and mOSr sophisticated spatial dara format, have cen ain advantages. One of these is the ability to srore multiple feature classes. Another, mentioned in chapter 7, is the ability to store labels as annotation. A third is the ability to create domains for attributes. A domain establishes valid values or ranges of values for an attribute field and minimizes data entry mistakes by prohibiting invalid values. For example. if "Open" and "Closed " were the domain values for a water valve status field, it would be impossible to enter other values in the attribute table.

Building geodatabases

369

Geodatabases offer other important benefits, but many of these require an ArcEditor or Arclnfo license and are beyond the scope of this book. Two types of geodatabases are file and personal. In this chapter, you will create and work with a file geodatabase. A file geodatabases is designed to store datasets in a folder of files on your computer. They can store large datasets (up to one terabyte) and can be accessed by several users at the same time, but only edited by one person at a time. Personal geodatabases have been used in ArcGIS since their initial release in version 8.0 and have used the Microsoft Access data file structure (the .mdb file). They support geodatabases that are limited in size to 2 GB or less. However, the effective database size is smaller, somewhere between 250 and 500 MB, before the database performance starts to slow down. Multiuser geodatabases, on the other hand, are suitable for large workgroups or enterprises. They have no size limit, permit simultaneous editing by different users, and work with relational database management systems such as Informix, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM OB2, or Oracle. For more information about the new file-based geodatabase, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Data Management> Managing

geodatabases > An overview ofthe geodatabase > Types ofgeodatabases.

370

Srrlion

6: CrCfuhlg fwd editing dlllll

Creating a personal geodatabase
In ArcCatalog, you can create geodatabases, shapefiles, or coverages. (To create coverages, though, you need an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license.) You can also import and export data from one format [0 another. In this exercise, you will create a personal geodatabase and import coverage and shapefile data inco ic.

Exercise 14a
You work in the GIS department of a medium-sized city in Kansas. You are part of a team that is deciding whether the city should convert its shapefile and coverage data [0 geodatabase format. One question that needs to be answered is how difficult the process would be. To find OUt, you will create a personal geodatabase and import a land parcels coverage, a water valves shapefile, and a fire hydrants shapefile.
Start ArcCatalog. In the catalog tree, double-click C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS. Doubleclick Chapte r14. Right-click MyData, point to New, and click File Geodatabase.

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A new personal geodatabase is created in the MyData folder.

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2 Make sure the name New Personal Geod atabase.mdb is highlighted inside a black rectangle. (If it isn't, right-click it and click Rename.) Type CityData and press Enter.

The geodatabase is now named CityData.gdb.
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372

St'rtion 6: Creating alld ('dieing data

Next, you'll import the polygon feature class from a land parcels coverage to the new CityData geodatabase.
3 In the ArcCata log display window, right-click CityData.mdb, point to Import, and click Feature Class (single).

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4 Move the dialog box away from ArcCatalog. In the catalog tree, double-click Ex14aDala, then click the plus sign next to the parcels cove rage. Click the polygon feature class and drag it to the Input Features box of the dialog box.

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The path [0 the feature class displays in the Inpuc Feacures box. In the Q ucput Location box. ArcCataiog correctly assumes that you want [0 import the data [0 the CityData geodatabase. (You could change the Oucpuc location if you wanted to.)
5 In the Output Feature Class box, type Parcels. Make sure you r dialog box matches the fo llowing graphic, th en click OK.

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When the operation is completed. a pop-up notification appears by the system task bar. The coverage polygons are converted [0 a feature class in the CityData geodatabase.

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In the catalog tree, expand the My Data fo lder, if necessary, and double-click CityData.gdb to see the new feature class. (If you don't see it, cl ick the View menu and click Refresh.)

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Section 6: Creathlg and editing data

Now you will preview the data to make sure ir looks okay.

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In the catalog tree, cl ick the Parcels feature class. In the display window, click the Preview tab.

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Move the dialog box away from ArcCatalog. In the catalog tree, make sure the Ex14aData folder is expanded. Click WaterValves.shp and drag it to the Input Features box of the dialog box.

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When you drop WaterValves.shp, its path displays beneath the Input Features box in the first row of a list that can hold multiple feature classes.
10 In the catalog tree, click FireHydrants.shp and drag it to the Input Features box.

The path to rhe fire hydrants shapefile is added to the list. The Output Geodarabase box is already correctly set to the CityData geodatabase.

376

SUri011 6: Creating and editing data

11 Make sure you r dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.
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W hen the operation is completed. a pop-up notification appears by the system task har.
12 In t he catalog t ree , expand th e My Data folder, if necessary, and double-cl ick CityData.gdb to see the new feat ure classes. Cli ck the FireHydrants featu re class to preview it, then click WaterValves to preview it as well.

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13 In the display window, click the Contents tab. 14 If you are continuing to the next exercise, leave ArcCata log open. Otherwise exit the application.

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Creating feature classes
When you imported data in the previous exercise, you accepted the spatial properties of the existing data. When you create a new feature class, you have to define these properties yourself. This means specifying the feature class geometry- point, line, or polygon-and the spatial reference. A spatial reference is made up of a coordinate system, a spatial domain, and a precision. As you learned in chapter 13, a coordinate system is a framework for locating features on the earth's surface using either latitude- longitude or x,y values. A spatial domain defines the bounding coordinates for a feature class, beyond which features cannot be stored. Precision defines the smallest measurement that can be made in the coordinate system. For example, if the coordinate system units are feet, a precision of 12 allows you to make measurements as small as an inch. If the coordinate system units are kilometers, a precision of 1,000 allows you to make measurements as small as a meter. The task of defining a spatial reference is simplified by the fact that you can select from a list of coordinate systems. ArcCatalog will set default domain and precision values for you. You can also import the spatial reference from another dataset and modify it or use it as is.

Exercise 14b
You now know that you can convert the city's existing spatial data to a geodatabase. You also need to know how to create new data in the geodatabase format. In this exercise, you will make a featu re class for water lines, although you won't put any features in it until the next chapter.
If you have completed exercise 14a, skip to step 2. Otherwise, start ArcCatalog. In the catalog t ree, double-c lick C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS. Double-cl ick Chapter14. Double-click Ex14bData . Right-cl ick CityData.gdb and click Copy. Right-cl ick MyData and click Paste.

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2

Start ArcCatalog, if necessary. In the catalog tree, double-click C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS . Double-click Chapter14, then double-click MyData. Right-click the City Data file geodatabase, point to New, then click Feature Class .

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3 In the Name box, type Waterlines.

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Click the Type drop-down arrow and click Line Features.

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10 Click Next.

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The fifth panel of the wizard displays the field names, dara rypes, and field properties that belong to the new feature class. OB]ECTID and SHAPE are required fields, automatically added by the software. The OB]ECTID field stores a unique 10 number for
every feature in the class. The SHAPE field stores each feature's shape and location. Depending on the type of feamre class created, ArcGIS also creates and maintains

measurement fields. A SHAPE_ Length field is created for line featute classes. A SHAPE_Length and a SHAPE_Area field are created for polygon feature classes. (The
SHAPE_Length attribute for polygons stores perimeter lengths.) These measurement fields appear only after the feature class is created .

11 In the Field Name col umn, click SHAPE. The field properties for the SHAPE field are
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Notice that the geometry type is set to Line.

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WaterLines has been added to the list of feature classes. In the next exercise, you will add two new attributes to the Waterlines feature class: one for the date water lines are installed and one for the type of water line.

14 II you are contin uing to the next exercise, leave ArcCatalog open. Otherwise, exit the
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384

S('ction 6: Creating dnd tditillg data

Adding fields and domains
When you create a feature class, you add fields to it to store attribute information. A field is defined by a name, a data type (for instance, text or integer), and properties that vary according to both the data type and the spatial data format. One such property, which can be defined for fields in geodatabases, is a domain. A domain is either a list or a range of valid values for an attribute. A city zoning attribute, for example, might have a dozen or so appropriate values, such as "residential," "industrial," and "commercial." By defining these values as a domain, you prevent any other values from being mistakenly added to a table during data entry or editing. Similarly, you might want to restrict the possible values for a numeric attribute to a particular range. such as 0 to 14 for a soil pH anribute.

Unlike other field properties, which apply exclusively to the field they are defined for, a domain can be applied to more than one field in a feature class and to more than one feature class within a geodatabase.

Exercise 14c
In this exercise. you will add twO fields to the Waterlines feature class you created previously. One will Store installation dates. the ocher the type of water line. There are three types of water lines: mains (which run under streets), domestic laterals (which run from mains to houses), and hydrant laterals (which run from mains to fire hydrants). After you add the fields. you will create a domain and apply it to the field for water line type. The domain will ensure that no values other than the three valid ones can be entered in the attribute table. You will then specify one of those three to be the default.
If you have completed exercise 14b, skip now to step 2. Otherwise, start ArcCatalog. In the ca talog t ree, double-c lick C:IESRIP ressI GTKArcGIS. Double -click Ch apler14. Double-click Ex14cDal a. Right-click Cit yDal a.gdb and click Copy. Right-click MyDala and cl ick Paste.

BuildilIg geodtltabases

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2

Start Arc Catalog, if necessary. In the catalog t ree , double-click C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS. Double-click Chapter14. Double-c lick My Data and double-click CityData.gdb .

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In the Field Name column, type Install_Date in the first empty row. (Spaces are not allowed in field names.)

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In the Data Type colu mn, click the empty cell next to Insta ll _Date. In the drop-down list that displays, click Date.

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In the Field Name column, type Line_Type in the next empty row. In the Data Type column, click the empty cell next to Line_Type. In the drop-down list, click Texl. Make sure the dialog box matches the fol lowing graphic, then click OK.

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Now that you have added the two attribute fields, you will create a domain and apply it
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In the Domain Properties list, the default Field Type value is Long Integer and the Domain Type is Range. The field type must match the data type of the feature class it is being applied to. Since you made Line_Type a text field in step 6, you must do the same here.
9 Click the Long Integer va lue. In the drop-down list, click Text.

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388

Section 6: Creating and editing datil

The domain type changes aucomatically from Range to Coded Values.

A Coded Values domain is used when the anribuce values you want to enforce are best defined as a list. (The values may nonetheless be numeric because numbers are commonly used as codes for descriptions.) A Range domain is used when the values you wane to enforce are quantities with upper and lower limits.

10 In the Coded Values list at the bottom of the dialog box, click the first empty cell in
the Code column. Type M. Cl ick the first cell in the Description column and type Main .

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In the next empty cell in the Code column, type DL. Type Domestic Lateral as its description. 2 Type HL in the next empty Code co lumn ce ll. Type Hydrant Lateral as its description. Make sure the dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

Building geodatabases

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After a Coded Value domain has been applied to a feature class. you will pick from a drop-down list of the descriptions when you enter attribute values. The coded values are stored in the geodatabase. but you only see the descriptions in the attribute table. Now that yo u have created the domain. you will apply it to the Line_Type field of the Waterlines feature class.
13 In the catalog tree, right-click the Waterlines leature class and click Properties. In the Feature Class Properties dialog box, click the Fields tab il necessary. 14 In the Field Name col umn, click Line_Type. Its properties display.

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15 In the Field Properties list, click the empty cell next to Domain. In the drop-down list,
click WaterLineType.

You have created a domain and applied it to the Line_Type field. Finally, you will assign the field a default value. Mains are the most common type of water lines, so you'll make "Main" the default. Whenever a water line is added to the feature class, it w ill automatically get this value in the Line_Type field. As you'll see in the next chapter, you can easily change the value if the line is a lateral.

16 In the Field Properties frame, click the empty cell next to Default Value and type M, the
code for mains. Make sure the dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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17 Close ArcCatalog.

Section 6: Creating and editing data

Chapter 15

Creating features
D rawing features U feature construction tools sing

392

SUlion 6: Crentillg fwd ediling datil

Much of the vec[O r spatial data used in a GIS has been digidzed from paper maps and aerial or satellite photographs. Digitizing data involves placing a map or pho[O on a digitizing tablet (a drawing table connected [0 a computer) and tracing features with a puck, which is a device similar [0 a mOlise. In a variation called heads-up digitizing, features are drawn with a mouse directly on the computer screen by tracing an aerial photo, a scanned map, or other spatial data.
Oregon's Crater Lake digiti zed heads-up from a satell ite image.

Features can also be digitized without tracing. ArcGIS has several tools for creating circles, rectangles, curves, and ocher shapes of exac t dimensions. Points are the simplest feat ures to digitize-all it takes is a si ngle click. Lines are more complicated because they start, end, and may change direction. Polygons, from the paine of view of digitizing, are just special cases of lines- they are lines that rerurn to their origins. The places where a line begins and ends are called endpoints. The places where a line changes direction or is ineersected by another line are called vertices. The segmencs between vertices are called edges.

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When you look at line or polygon features on a map, you don't see them as edges. vertices. and endpoints, but when you create or edit features, you may. When you see a feature in this way, you are looking at its edit sketch. A new feature exists only as an edit sketch until it is saved.

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393

In ArcGIS, all digitizing-whether to create new features or modify existing ones-is done in the course of an edit session. An edit session begins when you click the Start Editing menu command on the Editor tool bar and ends when you click the Stop Editing command. After starting an edit session, creating features is accomplished through the use of feature templates. Feature templates define all the information required to create a feature: the layer where a feature will be stored, the attributes a feature is created with, and the default tool used to create that feature.

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A window, called the Create Features window, is the central place to create and manage feature templates. The window has three main components: a tool bar to manage your templates and their properties, a list of templates used to create new features, and a set of tools used to define the features' shape. You'll learn how to use this window and its options in this chapter.
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Drawing features
In this exercise. you will create water lines for the feature class you made in the CityData geodatabase in exercise 14b. New features are often connected to existing features. For example, the boundaries of new land parcels may be adjacent to boundaries that have already been digitized. New streets intersect or extend to existing ones. New power lines run to and from poles. Making sure that features are connected would be difficult if it depended entirely on your eyesight. ArcMap can automatically connect (or snap) features placed within a certain distance of each other. The rules specifying which features, and which feature parts, snap to others make up the snapping environment. The distance at which snapping occurs is called the snapping tolerance.

Exercise 15a
In a subdivision of your growing city. a contractor has laid new water lines, including an extension to a main and a li ne connecting a main to a fire hydrant. During construction, the city's project inspector recorded the locations of water valves and hydrants with a Global Positioning System (GPS) device. These locations have been imported as point feature classes in your geodatabase. As the city's GIS technician, you will use this point data and the ArcMap editing tools to digitize the new water li nes.
Start Arc Map. In the ArcMap- Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, cl ick Browse for more. (If ArcMap is alre ady running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPre ss\GTKArcGIS\Chapter15. Click ex15a .mxd and click Open.

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CrentingJetttures

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The map shows a subdivision under construction. Layers for water valves, fire hydrants, water lines. and parcels are listed in the table of contents. The Waterlines feature class you created in exercise 14b has no features in it yet. Before starting the edit session, you will zoom to the area where you are going to digitize water lines.
2 Click t he Bookmarks menu and click New Water Lines.

The display zooms to an area where there are several water valves and a fire hydrant. The field crew has laid three new water lines: from valve 763 to valve 813, from 813 to 831, and from 813 to the nearest fire hydrant. You will digitize these three lines. First, you'll add the Editor tool bar and start an edit session.
3 On t he Standard tool bar, cl ick the Editor Toolbar button.

The Editor toolbar opens. The tools are disabled.
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The editing tools are now enabled. The Create Features window appears (it may appear docked, tabbed, or floating depending on how you arranged your windows.) By default, no feature template is selected. You need to change the target to the water lines layer.

396

Se£"liol/ 6: Crrating ({nd editing data

5

In the Create Features window, clic k th e Waterlines templ ate .

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Because the water lines mUSt conneCt (snap) to each other and to other featu res, such as va lves and hyd rants. you'll set the snapping envi ronment before you sta n digitizi ng.
6 On the Edi tor tool bar, click the Editor menu, poi nt to Snapping and click Snapping Toolbar. The Snapping Toolbar open s.

Setting the snapping environment
The Snapping toolbar contains buttons of the main snap types, although additional ones are available on the Snapping menu. As you digitize a new feature, the cursor snaps to existing features according to which boxes are enabled. (Enab ling either the Vertex Snapping or Edge Snapping for a point layer makes the cursor snap to point features.) The cursor snaps when it comes withi n a specified distance of a featu re. To set this snapping tolerance, click the Snapping menu in the Snapping toolba r, Ihen click Options. The Snap To Sketch option in the Snapping menu sets snapping rules that an edit sketch uses on itself. For example, it is useful when you are creating a feature that intersects or connects to itself, su ch as a boundary line that fo rms a closed loop. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcG IS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library > Data Management> Editing data> Using snapping> About snapping

Creof;ng/entul"l'S

397

7

Click the End, Vertex, and Edge Snapping buttons to disable them. Only the Point Snapping bu tton is left enabled .

You need to digitize the water lines.
8 9 In the Create Features window, in the Construction Tools panel, click Line. Move the mouse pointer over the map display. The cu rsor changes to a crosshair. Move the cursor toward valve 763.

When you come within the snapping tolerance of the valve , a circle appears and a "WaterValve: Point" identifies it.
Away from feature Near and snapping to feat ure

.-

+

Now you will digitize the first water line, from valve 763 to valve 813. To draw a line feature, you click once to begin the line, click again for each vertex, and double-click to finish the line. Because the water lines don't change direction, you won't need any vertices.

10 With the cu rsor snapped to valve 763, click to start the first water line. Move the
cursor toward valve 813. The edit sketch of the line moves with the mouse (an effect known as rubberbanding).

1
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,

The Feature Construction toolbar appears nearby the cursor (for convenience). Leave it set to Straight Segment.

398

Section 6: Cretlting (llId l,diling dflttl

11 Move the cursor over valve 813. When the cursor snaps to it, double-click to end the
line. (If you make a mistake, click the Undo button on the Standard toolbar and repeat steps 10 through 12.)

The line is created. Now you will add a second line connecting valve 813 to valve 831.

12 With the cursor still snapped to valve 813, click to begin a new line . Move the cursor
over valve 831. When the cursor snaps to it, double-click to end the line.

,-

The first line changes from cyan (the default color of edit sketches) to Cretean blue (the color symbolizing water lines in the map). Now, you will digitize the third and final water line. from valve 813 to the fire hydrant. 13 Move the cursor over valve 813 so that the cursor snaps to it. Click to start the line.
Move the cursor over the fire hydrant. When the cursor snaps to it, double-cli ck to end the line.

Crf'llti llg /ell tures

399

Now you will view the attributes for individual water lines that you just created.
14 With the water line to the fire hydrant sti ll selected, on the Editor tool bar, click the Attributes button.
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The Attributes window opens.

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The Attribute window can show one or more features at a time. Use the Edit tool on the Editor toolbar to select features to see their attributes. Alternatively, open the attribute table of the Waterlines layer in the table of contents to view all of the records without the need to select them. The length of each line, in feet, has been calculated in the SHAPE_Length field. (Length and area attributes maintained by the software accurately measure features in the geodatabase, but they do not have legal autho rity. An official utility database would include an "as-built" length attribute containing the results of field surveys.) The Install_Date field is <Null> because no attribute values have been entered for it. The Line_Type attribute values have been set to Main for all three water lines, in accordance with the default value for water lines you specified in exercise 14c. The default value isn't right for the last line you digitized, which connects a valve to a hydrant.

14

400

S~ctioll 6: Creating Il nd ed;ting data

5 In the Line_Type field, click Main. In the drop-down list that appears, click Hydrant Lateral.

You are finished digitizing for now and can save your work.

16 Close the attribute table. On the Editor toolbar, click the Editor menu and click Stop
Ed iting. Click Yes to save your edits. Close the Snapping too lbar. Close the Editor tool bar. (If you docked a tool bar, you must undock it, then close it.)

There is no need to save the map documenc. Your edits were saved to the feature class in the geodatabase. Any map documenc that contains the Waterlines layer will include the new features .
If you are continuing to the next exercise, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes .

Crcfltingfitlture,'

401

Using feature construction tools
In this exercise, you will digitize features representing land parcels. The basic procedurestarring an edit session and setting the snapping environment-is the same as in the previous exercise, but you will use some different tOols. ArcMap can set the lengths and angles of edit sketch edges to precise specifications. It also has tOols for automatically completing some operations (like finishing a square) once you provide the necessary information.

Exercise 15b
You have left your job with the city and gone to work for a developer who is planning to subdivide a large tract ofland. Having obtained parcel data from the city's GIS deparrment, you will use preliminary field measurements to digitize some new parcels in accordance with the developer's proposal. Eventually, your map will go to the city's planning department for review. If the design is approved, the developer will commission a licensed survey crew to conduct a legal survey of the parcel boundaries.
In ArcMap, open ex15b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter15 fo lder.

The map shows the parcels displayed against a background photo that lets you see what has been built on the parcels. Some have finished houses, some have houses under construction, and some are vacant.

402

Section 6: Cretlting lind editing data

You will zoom in and digitize a new parcel next to parcels 2731 and 2726. 2 Click the Bookmarks menu and click First Parcel Site.

3

On the Standard tool bar, click the Ed itor Toolbar button .

4

On the Editor toolbar, click the Editor menu and click Start Editing. First, you will set the snapping setting so that boundary lines for the new parcels snap to the vertices of existing parcels. In the Create Features window, the Parcel feature template is chosen since there is only one feature in the map document.

5

On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu, point to Snapping, and click Snapping Toolbar. In the Snapping tool bar, check the Vertex button to enable it as shown in the following graphic. Close the Snapping toolbar.

Creatillgfeatures

403

The new parcel will share two sides with existing parcels, as shown in the following graphic. A task called Auto Complete Polygon is used to digitize features that share boundaries with existing features. You will digitize the two new sides and ArcMap will

finish the polygon.

6

In the Create Features window, click Parcels, and then click Auto Complete Polygon in the Construction Tools panel.
( reate f eatures

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In t he table of contents, turn off the Subdivision Photo layer to see the parcels more clearly.

404

5ut i01l 6: C reating Ilnd ~diljllg dntn

8

Move the cursor over the northern most corner of parcel 2731 so that the cursor snaps to its vertex (the label Parcels: Vertex appears). Click to begin the polygon. (The Feature Construction toolbar appears nearby, you may move it out of the way if you wish.)

The two boundaries you'll digitize must be aligned with the boundaries of the existing parcels. Your field notes say that the new parcel's northwest boundary should be parallel
to

the northwest boundary of parcel 2731 and that it should be 118 feet long.

9

Right-click anywhere on the northwest boundary of parcel 2731 to open the context menu. On the context menu, click Parallel. (If you left-click by mistake and add a vertex, click the Undo button on the Standard toolbar.)
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Crratingfttrtll res

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You can use the Escape key on the keyboard to close the context menu without choosing a menu command. The Escape key will also cancel the effect of a menu command.

10 Move the cursor over the map display without clicking. Th e line is constrained to be
parallel to the line segment you just clicked.

11 Wi th the cu rsor located anywhere in the display, right-c lick. On the context menu, click Length. In the Length pop-up box, delete the existing value and type 118 as shown in
the following graphic, then press Enter. (The graphic shows both the context menu and the pop-up box; in real ity, the menu disappears when the box displays.)

Di'ectIm...

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406

Section 6: Crt'l1lillg Ilnd editillg dllltr

The first side of the new parcel is finished. It is 118 feet long and runs parallel to the boundary of parcel 2731. The cursor moves ro anticipate the next line segment. (Yours may move ro a different position from the one in the graphic.) 12 Move the cursor over the northern most corner of parcel 2726 so that the cursor snaps to its vertex. Double-click to end the line segment. If you moved you r cursor away from the vertex, right-click anywhere and click Finish Sketch in the context menu. The third and fourth sides of the polygon are completed automatically, using the existing parcel boundaries.

Now you will add a second parcel to a different part of the subdivision. 13 In the table of contents, turn on the Subd ivision Photo layer. Click the Bookmarks menu and click Second Parcel Site . You will digitize the new parcel in the area shown by the yellow box below. (The box appears only in the book, not on your screen.)

This time you don't have ex isting boundaries ro work from, so you'll change the task ro Polygon in the Construction Tools panel. Your nOtes tell you that the new parcel shou ld have a corner at a point exactly 61.1 feet from a corner of parcel 2719 and 119.4 feet from a corner of parcel 2707. You will use the Distance- Distance tool, on the Sketch rool drop-down palette to choose the point of beginning for the new parcel.

Creatillg jeatures

407

14 In the Create Features window, click Parcels, and then click Polygon in the
Construction Tools panel.
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15 Click the Sketch tool drop-down arrow and click the Distance-Distance tool.

16 In the table of contents, turn off t he Subdivision Photo layer.
17 Move the cursor over the northwest corner of parcel 2719 and cl ick when the cu rsor snaps to its vertex. Press the 0 key on the keyboard once . In the Distance pop-up box, type 61.1 , as shown in the following graphic, then press Enter.

Parcels: Vertex
271 9

A circle appears on the map. Its center is the vertex you clicked; its radius is 61.1 feet.

408

S~cl ioll 6: Creatillg I1nd edilillg d011f

18 Move the cursor over the northeast corner of parcel 2707 and click when the cursor
snaps to its vertex. Press the 0 key on the keyboard once. In the Distance pop-up box, type 119.4, as shown in the following graphic, then press Enter.

A second circle is drawn, with a radius of 119.4 feet. The circles intersect at tWO points.

19 In the area of intersection, move the cursor left and right without clicking.

The highlighted dot is constrained to move from one point of intersection to the other. Theoretically, either could be the correct point of beginning. h so happens, however, that the poine on the left would starr the parcel in the middle of an unbuilt road. The point on the right is the one you want.

Cretltingjentlfres

409

20 Move the cursor to the point on the right and click. The circles disappear. Move the
cursor slight ly away. A red square marks the spot. The Feature Construction t ool bar appears nearby.

You are now ready to digitize the parcel, using field notes detailing the length and angle of the parcel sides.

21 On the Feature Construction tool bar, click the Straight Segment too l.

This tool is the same as the one on the Editor toolbar.

410

Section 6: Cre(llillg fi nd ('diting drua

22 Right-click anywhere on the map display. On the context menu, click Direction. In the pop-up box, replace the current value with 73.4, as shown in the following graphic, then press Enter.

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The line is constrained to the angular direction you set. The Direction command uses east as 0 degrees and measures positive angles counterclockwise. Note: If your Direction pop-up box looks different from the one shown in step 22, your Direction Type may be set incorrectly. To change the setting, on the Editor wolbar, click the Ediwr menu and click Options. In the Editing Options dialog box, click the Units tab. Change the Direction Type to Polar. Make sure your setti ngs match those shown in the following graphic.
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Creatingfetltures

411

23 Right-click anywhere above the starting point. On the context menu, click Length.
In the pop-up box, replace the current value with 54.87, as shown in the following graph ic, then press Enter.

The first side of the parcel is complete. The starting point changes to a green square and the current vertex becomes a red square. You will now set a direction and a length to create the second line segment.
24 Right-c lick anywhere to the right of the red vertex. On the context menu, click Direction. In the pop-up box, replace the current value with -15.72 (note the minus sign), as shown in the following graphic, then press Enter.

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412

Sectioll 6: Cretlling aJ/d edilillg d ati'

25 Right-click anywhere to the right of the red vertex. On the context menu, click Lengt h. In the pop-up box, replace the cu rrent va lue with 117, as shown in the following graphic, then press Enter.

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The second side of the parcel is done. To complete the last twO sides, you' ll use the Square and Finish command, w hich completes a polygon by d rawing a right angle.
26 Right-click anywhere below the red ve rtex. On the context menu , click Square and Finish.

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The parcel is drawn to your specifications.

27 On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Stop Editing. Click Yes to save your edi t s. In the table of contents, turn on the Subdivision Photo layer.

You have added two proposed parcels to the subdivision. The developer has more in mind, but you won't have to digitize them in this book. You don't need to save the map document. Vou r edits were made directly to the feature class in the geodatabase. W hen you saved them , the geodatabase was updated.
28 Close the Editor toolbar. If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open . Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes .

.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 6: Creating and editing data

Chapter 16

Editing features and attributes
Deleting and modifying features Splitting and merging features Editing feature attribute values

416

Section 6: Creating and editing dlltll

Creating features is one part of maintai ning a geodatabase. Another part. equally important. is making changes to existing features. Features can be edited in several ways. They can be deleted. moved. split. merged. resized. reshaped. or buffered. In addition co the tasks on the Editor toolhar. there are commands on the Editor menu for changing features. When features are edited, their attributes often need to be updated as well. In a geodatabase, length and area attributes are updated automatically b y ArcMap; other attributes mUSt be updated manually. Sometimes attribute values need to be edited even when features don't change-for example. when a land parcel is sold, the owner name needs to be changed. And sometimes new attributes are added to a table. W ith an ArcView license. you can edit file and personal geodatabases and shapefiles. With an ArcEditor or ArcInfo license. you can also edit coverages and multiuser geodatabases. Files in CAD format cannOt be edited directly. but can be converted to an editable format. To edit raster layers. you need the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension.

Ed;tingfefltures and attributes

417

Deleting and modifying features
To mod ify a feature, you add, delete, or move vertices on the feature's edit sketch. If a feature shares an edge or vertex with another feature, you may wa nt [0 ensure that no gap or overlap resu lts. You ca n make touching features behave as if they are connected by creating a map [Opology within your edit session.

Exercise 16a
You are the GIS specialist for the city's planning department. To prepare for a meeting of the City Commission, you will make some changes proposed for parcels in a new subdivision. Since the changes are recommendadons only, you will noc work with the city's live geodarabase, bur with a copy designated for plannin g use. Your first task is [0 delete twO parcels on land the city is negotiat ing [0 buy back from the subdivision developer. Your second task is [0 enlarge the boundaries of two parcels [0 make room for a pond [0 catch water runoff from a nea rby road and sidewalk. The map is simply for discussion, so your edits don't have [0 be exact. If the proposals are implemented, a licensed survey crew will resurvey the parcels.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter16. Click ex16a.mxd and click Open.

The parcels are outlined in black against an aerial pho[O of the subdivision. You will zoom in on the parcels to be deleted.

418

SutiOll

6: Creating and t dilillg data

2

Click the Bookmarks menu and click First Parcel Site.

The parcels are labeled with their ID numbers. (The labels are set to display at scales of 1:4,000 and larger.) You will delete parcels 27 12 and 2718 in the middle of the display.
3 On the Standard toolbar, click the Editor Toolbar button .

4

On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Start Editing.

The target layer is Parcels, the only editable layer in the map. The task is set to Create New Feature. You can delete selected features regardless of which task is set.
5 On the map, click anywhere on parcel 2712. It is outlined in cyan to show that it is selected. Hold down the Shift key and click parcel 2718 to select it also.

Editiugfeatures dnd attributes

419

The small blue "x" in the center of the selected pa rcels is called a selection anchor. Every selection in an edit session , whether of one feature or many, has one. (Selection anchors are used to rotate and sca le features, which you won't do in thi s exercise.)

6

With parcels 2712 and 2718 selected, click the Delete button on the Standard tool bar.

The selected features are deleted.

7

On the Editor tool bar, click the Ed itor menu and click Save Edits.

420

Srcrioll 6: Crt'llting and rditillg dara

Now you will modify the shapes of two parcels to accommodate the proposed detention pond. You need to move the parcel edges co a nearby sidewalk. You will add a ve rtex co one parcel's ed it skecch and move another vertex that is shared by two parcels.
8 Click the Bookmarks menu and click Second Parcel Site.

The proposed pond is ouclined in yellow in the book (but nor on you r screen). The parcels ro be edited are 2768 and 2845. The parcels will be ex tended ro the sidewalk at the bo((om of [he display. The sidewalk appears on the image as a thin white line that runs east-west and lies just north of the road. To make the edits, you will zoom in closer.

Editingftntures and attributes

421

9

Click the Bookmarks menu and click Proposed Drainage Change .

You will make four ed its. First, you' ll move an existin g vertex in pa rcel 2768 to the sidewal k. Second, you' ll add a new vertex to pa rcel 2768. Third, you' ll move the new vertex to the poine where the sidewalk jogs. Fourth, you' ll move a vertex shared by parcels 2768 and 2845.
10 On the Ed itor too l bar, click the Edit tool if necessary.

11 Double-click anywhere on parce l 2768 to select it and display its ed it sketch .

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41

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6: Crt'll/ing Ilnd ~dilillg da/Il

On the edit sketch, the vertices are green squares. (Only [he last digiti zed vertex- which you don't see because you are zoomed in on a corner of the parcel- is a red square.) On the Editor toolbar, ArcMap has automatically enabled the Edit Vertices tool bar.
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12 Place the cu rsor over the first vertex to be moved. The cursor changes to a four-headed

arrow.

13 Drag the vertex down to the sidewalk and re lease the mouse button.

The green line shows [he new shape of the feature. The highlighted cya n line remains in place as a reference. It will disappear when you unselect the polygon or select another feacure. Now you'll add a new vertex and move it
[0

accommodate the jog in the sidewalk.

14 On the Edi t Verti ces tool bar, click Add Vertex.

Editingfeatures n!td attributes

423

15 Click the black line about where the arrow is in the following graphic.

A new vertex is added where yo u cl icked .

16 Place the cursor over the new vertex and drag the vertex to where the sidewalk changes direction. Release the mouse button.

17 Click somewhere outside the polygon to complete the edit.

424

Section 6: Creating flIld editing data

18 On the Editor toolbar, click the Editor menu and cl ick Save Edits.

Now you' ll move a vertex shared by parcels 2768 and 2845 to the sidewalk. This
"shared" vertex is actually tWOvertices (one belonging ro each polygon) that lie on exactly the sa me spot.

You could use the Edit rool to move each vertex separately. Since you want [he parcels to remain adjacent , this would mean setcing (he snapping environment, movi ng one parcel's vertex, then moving the second pa rcel 's vertex and snapping it to the fi rst. Th at wouldn't be toO hard this time, but if you had to do it several times, or if you had four or five polygons sharing a vertex , it might start to ge t inconvenient. A better approach is ro creace a map topology. Map topology makes features awa re of their connectedness [0 ocher features, so that common vertices and edges ca n be moved [Ogether.
19 Click the Customize menu, point to Toolba rs, and click Topology. (You may need to scroll down in the list of tool bars.)

The Topology toolbar opens. O nly one of its tools is enabled.
20 On the Topology tool bar, cl ick the Map Topology button.
Topology- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- X ·

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Editillg/etttures and attributes

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The Map Topology dialog box opens.

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You can choose the layers for which you want to create map topology (in this case, Parcels is the only possibility). You can also set a cluster tolerance, which is the distance at which ArcMap considers nearby edges or vertices to be coincident, or shared.

21 On the Map Topology dialog box, check the Parcels check box and leave the cluster
tolerance at its default value. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.
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On the Topology toolbar, the Topology Edit tool is now enabled.

426

Section 6: CrMfing dlld editing data

22 On the Topology tool bar, click the Topology Edit Tool.

23 Place the cursor over the map display and click the location of the shared vertex. The
vertex highlights in purple. (If you highlight a polygon edge by mistake, click outside the parcel and try again.)

24 Place the cursor over the purple vertex. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow.

25 Drag th e purple vertex to the point whe re the sidewalk changes direction again. As you drag, both polygons move together. Release the mouse button.

While dragging the vertex

After releasing the mouse button

26 Close the Topology tool bar.

Editillgfeatures and attributes

427

27 On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Stop Editing. Click Yes when
prompted to save your edits. Close the Editor tool bar.

The map is ready for the City Commission meeting. You don't need to save the map document because your edits were made directly to the feature class in the geodatabase.

Map topology and geodatabase topology
Map topology can be created for shapefiles and geodatabase feature classes. It lasts only for the duration of an edit session and allows you to edit features (within the same layer) as if they were connected to each other. With an ArcEditor or Arclnfo license, you can create a more sophisticated topology for geodatabase feature classes. Geodatabase topology lets you enforce some twenty-five spatial rules within and across feature classes, helping to guarantee the integrity of your data. For example, you can specify that polygons may not overlap or have gaps, that lines must be connected to other lines, or that points in one feature class must lie within polygons of another feature class. Geodatabase topology is stored within the geodatabase and is thus independent of a particular map document or edit session. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Ubrary> Data Management> Edit-

ing data> Editing topology> Editing shared geometry> About creating a map topology.

28 If you are continuing to the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

428

Section

6: Crulfillg dlld editi lLg diltil

Splitting and merging features
To split a polygon or a line (create two features from one), you digitize a line across the feature where you want to split it. You can split several features at once.

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Se lect po lygons to sp lit and draw a split line.

Each selected polygon is split in two.

To merge polygons or lines (creare one feature from two or more), you select them and click the Merge command on the Editor menu. The merged features do not have to be contiguous. For example, you could merge a large polygon representing a co untry and smaller polygons representing its offshore islands. The country and islands would then exist as a multi pan feature with a single record in the attribute table. Merge resembles the Dissolve tool that you used in chapter II, but whereas Dissolve combines polygons that have the same attribute value, Merge combines any selected polygons, regardless of their attribute values.

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The three po lygons are merged into one.

Select po lygons to merge.

When features in geodatabase feature classes are split or merged. ArcMap updates their Shape_Length and Shape_Area attributes. This is not done for features in mher data formats, such as shapefiles. For all feature classes, ArcMap updates the new feature's identifier attribme that keeps track of the number of features. Changes to other attribures, including user-defined IDs (like parcel numbers) or legal measurements oflength and area. must be made manually.

Editingfeatl/res and attributes

429

Exercise 16b
The planning department has been notified of two pending property changes. In one case, an owner wants to subdivide her land so that she can sell a piece of it. In the other, the owner of one half of a duplex has bought the other half. Because the duplex had two owners, there was a parcel boundary dividing the house. Now the boundary needs to be removed.
In ArcMap, open ex16b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter16 lolder.

When the map opens, you see the fami liar subdivision. You'll zoom in to the parcel to be split.
2 Click the Bookmarks menu and click First Parcel Site.

430

Section 6: Creating lind editing datil

The display zooms in on parcel 2707. The yellow line (which appears in the book but not on your screen) shows ~here the parcel is to be split. When the parcel is split, ArcMap will update the attribute table with the correct area of the two new parcels. To see this for yourself, you'll check the area of parcel 2707 before you split it . 3
On the Tools tool bar, click the Identify tool and click parcel 2707. The orientation of your Identify window may look different from the grap hic.
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4 5 6 Close the Identify window. In the table of contents, turn off the Subdivision Photo layer. On the Standard toolbar, click the Editor Toolbar button. On the Editor toolbar, click the Editor menu and click Start Editing. In the Create Features window, click Parcels, the only editable layer. On the Editor toolbar, make sure th e Edit tool is selected.
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Double-click parcel 2707 to select it and display its edit sketch. You wi ll draw the split line between the vertices ind icated by red arrows in the graphic.

Editingfemures and attributes

431

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When you double-dick to display a feature's edit sketch, certain tasks on the Editor toolbar are available to use such as the Reshape Features Tool and Cut Polygons Tool. In this exercise, you will use the Cur Polygons Tool. Before digitizing the split line, you will set the snapping settings so that the line snaps to vertices.
9 On the Editor toolbar, click the Editor menu, point to Snapping, and click Snapping Tool. In the Snapping toolba r, click Vertex Snapping, as shown in t he fo llowing graphic. Close the tool bar. (If you are continuing from the previous exercise, this may already be enabled.l

Next, you will choose the Cut Polygon Tool.

10 On the Editor tool bar, click the Cut Polygon Tool.

Although the parcel vertices no longer display when the task is changed, the split line you digitize will still snap to them.

432

Section 6: Crl'tuillg and editi1lg doto

11 On the display, the cursor changes to a crosshair. Move the cursor to the position shown in the following graphic. When it snaps to the vertex, click the left mouse button .

12 Move the cursor over the second vertex. When it snaps to it, double-click to end the split line. If you moved your cursor away from the vertex, press F2 on your keyboard to finish the sketch.

The parcel is split in two. Each parcel is labeled with the same PARCELS_ ID of 2707. In the next exercise, you'll update the PARCELS_ ID for the smaller parcel. 13 On the Editor too l bar, click the Editor menu and click Save Edits.

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Editil1gftalltres find attributes

433

14 On the Too ls tool bar, click the Identify tool. Click each of the two new parcels.

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The sum of the areas of the two new parcels equals the area of the original parceL The PARCELS_ ID number, a user-defined attribute, does not change. The new parcel is assigned a new OB]ECTID number. Your next task is to merge two parcels where the owner of one half of a duplex has bought the other half.
15 Close the Identify window. Click the Bookmarks menu and click Second Parcel Site. 16 Turn on the Subdivision Photo layer.

In the center of the map display, two parcels- 2855 and 2861-are located on a cul-de-sac. The parcel boundary crossing the duplex needs to be removed.

434

Seclion 6: Crell t ing lind editing ddltl

17 On the Editor tool bar, click the Edit tool.

18 Click anywhere on parcel 2855 to select it. Hold down the Shift key and click parcel 286 1 to select it as we ll.

19 On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Merge. In the Merge dialog box, click Parcels - 2855, as shown in the following graphic, then click OK.

The cwo parcel s become one . The merged parcel retains [he an ribures of parcel 2855.

Editillgjeatures and attributes

435

20 In the tab le of contents, right-click the Parcels layer and click Open Attribute Table.
Click the Show selected records button at the bottom of the table to display

selected records.

The record that remains is for the feature you chose in the Merge dialog box. Its

Shape_Length and Shape_Area values are updated.
21 Close the table. On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Stop Editing.
Click Yes to save your edits. Close the Editor tool bar.

You don't need to save the map document because your edits were made directly to the Parcels feature class in the geodatabase.

22 If you are continuing to the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

436

Section 6: Creating aud editing data

Editing feature attribute values
In ArcMap, you can change attribute values one at a time by typing new values into the table during an edit session. You can also change values for a selected set of records or for all records in a table with the Field Calculator. As you know from chapter 12, the Field Calculator assigns values to a field according to an expression, which may simply be a value, like "101" or "Residential," or may be an expression using math operators. The Field Calculator can be used either in or oue of an edit session. Besides editing attribute values, you can add and delete records or add new fields to a table and define properties for those fields. Records are added and deleted during an edit session. Fields are added and deleted outside an edit session.

Exercise 16c
Having split parcel 2707, you need to assign a new PARCELS_ID number to one of the new parcels. After that, you will add an attrihuee to the parcels feature class. In a previous meeting with the City Commission, you found that parcel sizes were often given as acres rather than square feet. The Parcels feature class doesn't have an acreage attribure. You will add one and have ArcMap calculate values for it by converting square feet to acres. In ArcMap, open ex16c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter16 folder.

The map shows the parcels you split in the previous exercise. Boch have an ID of 2707. You will assign a new ID number to the smaller parcel.

Edilillg /{'(ltures and attributl's

437

2 3

On the Standard tool bar, click the Ed itor Toolbar button. On the Ed itor toolbar, click the Editor menu and cli ck Start Editing.

The target layer is Parcels since it is the only layer available to edit.
4 5 On the Editor toolbar, click the Edit tool if necessary. Click the small parcel 2707 to select it.

6

In the table of contents, right-click the Parcels layer and click Open Attribute Table. Click the Show selected records button at the bottom of the table.

Field names on gray backgrounds indicate fields that are maintained by ArcMap. They cannot be edited. Names on white backgrounds indicate fields that can be edited.

438

Section

6: CrMting find editing dellP

7

Click in the cell for the PARCELS_ID field. Highlight and delete the existing value of 2707. Type 4001 and press Enter.

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The va lue 400 1 does noe duplicaee an ex iseing pa rcel ID. This is the only va lue you need to edit. If there were other anribuces, such as an add ress or owner name, you wou ld updaee these as well.
B On the Editor tool bar, click the Editor menu and click Stop Editing. Click Yes to save your edi ts. Move the table away from the map display.

When the ed it session is fin ished, there are no longer any selected records in ehe table or selected features on the map. On the map, the smaller parcel is labeled w ith its new

PARCEL_ID.

Now you wi ll add a field to the table to store parcel size in acres.

Editingftatures llnd attributes

439

9

At the bottom of the Parcels attributes tab le, click the Show all records button.

Currently, the Shape_Area field contains the square footage of each parcel. After adding the new field, you will write an expression in the Field Calculator to convert square feet to acres.

10 Click the Tab le Options menu and click Add Field. (If t he Add Fie ld command is
disabled, you may not have concluded the edit session in step 8.)
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In the Add Field dialog box, you name the new field, specify its data type, and set field
properties. (This is equivalent to what you did in chapter 14 when you added fields to the Waterlines feamre class in ArcCatalog.)

Adding fields from ArcCatalog
New fields can be added from ArcCatalog or Arc Map. With an ArcView license, fields can be added only to file and personal geodatabase or shapefile feature classes. With an ArcEditor or Arclnfo license, fields can also be added to feature classes in coverages and ArcSDE geodatabases. For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Data Management> Geographic data types> Tables> Creating and editing tables> Adding fields.

440

Sectioll 6: Creating and edit ing datil

11 In the Name text box of the Add Fie ld dialog box, type Acres. Click the Type drop-down arrow and click Float, as shown in the following graphic. (Float is a numeric field that allows decima l points.) Click OK.

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The new field is added to the table. Its values are set to <Null>.

Now you will calculate values for the Acres field, which you can do whether you are in an edit session or not. Field calculations made in an edit session take longer but have an Undo option. Calculations made outside an ed it session ate faster but can't be undone. (To replace an incorrect calculation, you ca n make a new one.) For the sake of speed, you will make your calculation without starring an edit session.
12 In the attribute table, right-click the Acres fie ld name and click Field Calcu lator.

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The Field Calculator opens.
You'll create an expression to convert feet to acres. Since one acre equals 43,560 square feet, dividing the values in the Shape_Area field by 43,560 will give each parcel's acteage.
13 In the Fields box of the Fi eld Calculator, double-click Shape_Area to add it to the expression box. Click the division ( / ) button. Type a space and type 43560. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

I
The values are calculated and written to the Acres field of the table.

When you edit a feature in a geodatabase feature class, ArcMap automatically updates its Shape_ Length and Shape_ Area values. ArcMap does not, however, manage fields that you have added yourself. Therefore, when you make changes to parcels that affect their size, you'll have to recalculate the Acres field. You don't need to save the map document. YOut edits were made directly to the feature class attributes in the geodatabase.

14 Close the attribute table. Close the Editor tool bar. If you are continuing to the next
chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes .

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 6: Creating and editing data

Chapter 17

Geocoding addresses
C reating an address locator Matching addresses Rematching addresses

444

Section 6: Creating ,wd editing data

In chapter 15, you learned that much spatial data was originally digitized from paper maps. It's also possible to create spacial data-specifically, point feacures-from information thac describes or names a location. The most common kind of information that does this is an address. The process of creating map features from addresses, place-names, or similar informacion is called geocoding. The value of geocoding is that it lets you map locations from data that is readily available. If you own a business, you can't buy an atlas that has a map of your custOmers. With a list of your customer addresses, however, you can make this map for yourself. Geocoding requires that you have an address table-a list of addresses stored as a database table or a text file. You also need a set of reference data, such as streets, on which the addresses can be located.

Address tab le

Reference data

ArcGIS uses address informacion in the attribute table of the reference data to figure out where to locate address points. The more detailed the reference data, the more accurately addresses can be located.

The same table of addresses is geocoded using two sets of reference data. On the street map of Riverside, California, address points are placed in the correct location on the correct street. On the ZIP Code map of the United States (zoomed in to Southern Ca lifornia), the same address points are placed in the center of the correct ZIP Code. Because all five points have th e same location, they look like one point.

Geoc()ding addreJses

445

Street-level reference data is commercially available. Its attributes include street name, street type (Avenue, Boulevard, and so on), and directional prefixes and suffixes necessary to avoid ambiguity in address location. Each street feature is divided into segments that have beginning and ending addresses, much as you see on neighborhood street signs. This makes it possible to estimate the position of an address along the length of a street segment. There may be separate address ranges for each side of the street, so an address can be placed on the correct side of the street.
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To geocode the address 2846 Central Avenue, ArcGIS examines the reference data and finds the street segment of Centra l Avenue that has the correct address range. Since 2846 is midway betwee n 2800 and 2892, the address poi nt is placed in the middle of the street segment, on the even-numbered side of t he street.

In addition to an address table and reference data, geocoding requires an address locator. An address locator is a file that specifies the reference data and its relevant attributes, the relevant attributes from the address table, and various geocoding rules and tolerances. The output of the geocoding process is either a shapefile or a geodatabase feature class of points. The geocoded data has all the attributes of the address table, some of the attributes of the reference data, and, optionally, some new attributes, such as the x,y coordinates of each point.

446

Sectioll

6: Cretllillg tllld editing dfl/fl

Creating an address locator
Geocoding starts with creating an address locator. Address locators come in different styles, each appropriate to reference data with different attributes. For exa mple, the style called "Single Field" is used with reference data that contains only a single attribute of geographic information. In a reference map of the United States, for insta nce, this would probably be a state name field. The data to be geocoded could be located in the correct state, but no more precisely than that. The address locator style called "ZIP" is used with reference data that has a ZIP Code attribute. A table of U.S. addresses could be located within the correct Z IP Codes. The "US Streets" style is used with street reference data that contains a street name attri bute and begi nning and ending address ranges for each side of a street. A table of U.S. addresses could be geocoded to their approximate positions along the length of a street and on the correct side of the Street. Each address locator style requires that certain attributes be present in the address table as well. For more information about address locator styles, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Data Management> Geographic data types> Locators> Working with address locators and geocoding.

Exercise 17a
You work for an online business directory that sells advertising-everything from listings and banner ads to interactive storefronts. A new service you plan to offer is a digital map that displays the location of a client's business. Your job is not to create the Internet map service itself but rather to test the technology for converting customer addresses to map points. Being inexperienced wi th geocoding, you'll work with a small sample of your potencial customer base.
Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap-Getting Started dia log box, under the Existing Maps section, cl ick Browse for more. (If Arc Map is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKA rcGIS\C hapter17. Cl ick ex17a.mxd and click Open.

Geocoding addresses

447

The map shows a portion of downtown Atlanta, Georgia, with layers of streets, interstate highways, and ZIP Codes.
2 At the top of the table of contents, click the List By Source button .

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When Lisc By Source is selecced, che cable of contents shows nonspatial cables, such as dBASE files, chac belong [0 che map document. In chis case, you see a cable of cus[Omers, which contains a sample of your cus[Omer dacabase. This is the address table you'l! geocode in the next exercise.

448

Section 6: Creating and tditillg data

The address locacor style you choose depends on the ar cribures in your reference layer (the Atl anta stree ts layer) and in your add ress table. You'll open the two tables to look at thi s information.

3

In the table of contents, right-click the Customers table and click Open.

The atcributes include customer ID, name, screet address, five-dig it ZIP Code, and business type. For geocoding, the relevant atcributes are ADDRESS and ZIP.

4

Close the Attr ibutes of Customers table. In the table of con tents, right-click the At lanta streets layer and click Ope n Attri bu te Table.

The four address range attributes are L_F_ADD (left "from" address), L_T_ADD (left
"to" add ress), R_ F_ ADD (right "from" address), and R_T_ADD (right "to" address). These are the beginning and end ing screet numbers on each side of a street segment.

Geocoding addresses

449

There are several other address attributes: • PREFIX is a direction that precedes a street name, like the "N" in 139 N. Larchmont Blvd. • PRE_TYPE is a street type that precedes a street name, like ''Avenue'' in 225 Avenue D. • ZIPL and ZIPR are the ZIP Codes for the left and right sides of a street segment. • CITYL and CITYR are the city names for the left and right sides of a street segment. • NAME, TYPE, and SUFFIX direction are the familiar attributes of a street address. The attributes in the Atlanta streets table most closely match the "US Address-Dual Ranges" address locator style.
5 Close the table , On the Standard tool bar, click the Catalog Window button , (Your Catalog window may be docked or floating,)

6

In the cata log t ree, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter17\MyData, Right-click My Data , point to New, and cl ick Address Locator,

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The Creare Address Locator window appears.
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The Dual Ranges style is used for address ranges that have data for both sides of a street segment. Below, the Field Map section populates with fields that are required using the Dual Ranges locator style. Now you' ll specify the reference data that wi ll be used with it.

C eocoding addresses

451

8

Click the Reference Data drop-down arrow and click Atlanta streets. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic.
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The Field Map list shows the types of address information in the reference data that the address locator style can use. Required information is represented with an asterisk in front of the field name. The values in the corresponding drop-down lists show the reference data attributes that contain this information. In each case, ArcGIS has already selected the correct field name. If it hadn't, you could use the drop-down arrows to choose the corresponding fields.

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452

Secli01J 6: CrNlring and editillg daln

10 Click the Browse button next to the Ou tput Address Locator box. In the dialog box,
navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter17\MyData and t ype Atlanta customers into the Name box. Make sure you r dialog box matches the fo llowing graphic, then click Save.

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When the Create Address Locator tool completes. a pop-up notification appears by the system task bar. Click the link if you want to view the progress report.

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G~ocoding (/ddr~sus

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In the next exercise, you'll add the Atlanta customers address locator to ArcMap and use it to match addresses.

12 If you're continuing with the next exercise, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

• •i • I

454

Section 6: C reating and I,dil ing data

Matching addresses
Now that you've created an address locator, you can compare [he table of addresses to the reference data anributes and look for matches. The first step in address matching is standardizing the addresses in the address table; that is, dividing them into their component parts. This is done by the address locator. For example, the address "500 Rankin Street NEt> has four parts: the street number (SaO), the street name (Rankin), the street type (Street), and a suffix (NE). The reference data is already standardized-each address part is a separate attribute. ArcGIS takes each standardized address from the address table and looks for features in the reference data with matching parts. For each address. it generates a list of prdxtble or possible matching locations, called candidates, in the reference data. Each candidate gets a score that rates its likelihood of being the correct location. For ArcGIS to make a match and create a point feature, a candidate's score must reach a certain level. You can choose both the score that defines a location as a candidate and the score that defines a candidate as a match. By default, the minimum candidate score is 10, on a scale of 100, and the minimum match score is 60. 'When ArcGIS has made as many marches as it can, it creates a new daraset, which has a point feature for each address, whether matched or not Features that have unmatched addresses are not assigned spatial coordinates. and therefore do not display. Yo u can adjust the geocoding options and try to find matches for unmatched addresses. Most of the time, geocoding is done from a table of addresses, but as long as you have created an address locator. you can also geocode by typing address information into the Find dialog box. Geocoding this way does not create new features, hut wi ll flash a matching location on the map or place a graphic there. It's useful in situations where you need to locate a single address or a few addresses quickly-for example. ro make immediate deliveries.

G~ocoding addr~sus

455

Exercise 17b
Before geocoding your customer table, you' ll test the address locator by locating the address of the Ace Ma rket, a downtown Atlanta business.
In ArcMap, open ex17b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapl er17 folder.

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The map shows the layers of Atlanta streets, interstate highways , and ZIP Codes. The Customers table is at the bottom of the table of contents. (If you don't see it, click the List By Source button at the top of the table of contents.)
2 Click the Customize menu, point to Toolbars, and click Geocoding.

The Geocoding toolbar appears.

You' ll add the address locator to the map document.

45 6

Section 6: Crealillg and editing datil

3

On the Geocoding toolbar, cl ick the Address Locators drop-down arrow and select <Manage Add ress Locators ... >.

The Address Locacor Manager window appears .
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Click Add. In the Add Address Locator browser, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter17 \MyData folder. Click the Atlanta customers address locator you created in the previous exercise. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Add.

The Atlanta customers address locator and a description of the style appear in the Address Locator Manager window.

Geocoding addresses

457

5

Make sure your window matches the following graphic, then cl ick Close.
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The asterisk beside Atlanta customers signifies that it is the active address locator. Now that the address locator has been added to the map document, you can find addresses on the map.
6 On the Tools tool bar, click the Find button.

7

In the Find dia log box, click the Locations tab . The Atlanta customers address locator should be displayed in t he Choose an address locator drop-down list. If it isn't, click the drop-down arrow and select it. In the Full Address box, type 1171 Piedmont Ave, the address of the Ace Market. Make sure your dia log box matches the fol lowing graphic, then click Find .

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The address range for odd street numbers, RightFrom and RightTo, is correct because it includes the street number 1171. The street name, street type, and suffix directions are also correct. A score of 94 is high, but to be sure, include more information for the Ace Market

address: the suffix and ZIP Code.
10 In the Find dia log box, click the Fu ll Address box and type 1171 Piedmont A NE 30309. ve Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Find.
The candidate, listed first, now gets a perfect score. You could display all candidates by

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Geocoding addresses

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460

Section 6: Creating and editing data

ArcGIS places a black dot on the map at the location of the candidate.

Since you geocoded the Ace Market only to make sure that the address locator was working, you can now delete the graph ic.
12 On the Tools tool bar, click the Select Elements tool.

13 Click the graphic to select it. (Blue selection handles appear.) Press the Delete key on your keyboard.

Now you'll geocode the customer table.
14 On the Geocoding toolbar, click Geocode Addresses.

In the Choose an Address Locator to use dialog box, [he Atlama customers address locator is high lighted.

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16 Click the Browse button next to the Output shapefile or feature class box.

462

Surioll 6: Crl'llting and l'diling datil

17 In t he Saving Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter17\MyDala. Make sure the Save as type drop-down list is set to Shapefile. In the Name box, highlight t he default name of Geocoding_Result.shp and type Geocodel .shp. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click Save.

The Geocode Addresses dialog box updates with the new path.
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ArcMap geocodes the addresses and creates the output shapefile. When the process is done, a results window appears .

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Of the sixteen addresses in the Customers table, thirteen were matched. Three addresses were unmatched. You'll match the unmatched addresses in the next exercise. For now, you'll look at the attributes of the geocoded shapefile.
19 In the Geocoding Addresses window, clic k Close.

The Geocoding Result: Geocodel layer is listed at the top of the table of contents. There are thirteen point features displayed on the map, representing the locations of the matched addresses.

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SectiOll 6· Creating and editing data

20 In the table of contents, right-click the Geocoding Result: Geocodel layer and click Open Attribute Table.

The table contains sixteen records, one for each address in the Customers table. The Status attribute tells you whether or not each address was matched (M), unmatched (U), or cied (T) with another address for the highest score. Point geomecry is created only for records with the status M. The Score attribuce contains the match score and the Side attribute tells you whether an address is on the right or left side of the street. The next twO attributes, ARC_Street and ARC_ZIP, contain the information from the ADDRESS and ZIP fields in the Customers table. The remaining attributes are the same as those in the Customers table. Although the ARC_Street and ARC_ZIP atrributes contain the same values as ADDRESS and ZIP, they serve a different purpose. When you rematch unmatched addresses, you can edit the values in ARC_Street and ARC_ZIP to make matches. You would do this, for example, if you found mistakes in the Customers table. The ADDRESS and ZIP attributes, on the other hand, preserve the original information from the Customers table.
21 Close the table . You have already saved the geocoded shapefile. There is no need to save the map document. 22 If you're continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

Ceocoding addresses

465

Rematching addresses
When you geocode at the street address level, it's common to have addresses that aren't matched. Occasionally, this is the result of reference data that has errors or is incomplete. For instance, an address may belong to a subdivision that is newer than the reference data. More often, there is a mistake, such as a spelling error, in the address table. In some cases, the problem is with the way ArcGIS has standardized an ambiguous address. Unmatched addresses can be rematched automatically (ArcGIS does all of them at once) or interactively (you do them one at a time). If you rematch automatically, you need to adjust the matching options, particularly the minimum match score and the spelling sensitivity, or your results won't change. If you rematch interactively, you have additional options. You can edit the way ArcGIS has standardized an address, and you can match a candidate with a score below the minimum match score.

Exercise 17c
So far, the address locator has found matches for thirteen addresses in the Customers table, leaving three unmatched. In this exercise, you'll match these three. First, you'll modify the address locator's settings to generate more candidates. Then you'll interactively match each address. In ArcMap, open ex17c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter17 folder.

466

Sectioll 6: Cr~tlting and editing data

The map layers include the familiar streets, interstate highways, and ZIP Codes of downtown Atlanta. If necessary, click the List By Source button at the top of the table of contents. Now you'll add the layer of geocoded addresses you created in the previous exercise. 2 On the Standard toolbar, click the Add Data button.

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In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter17\MyDala . Click Geocodel .shp as shown in the following graphic, then cl ick Add.
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Gl'ocoding addresses

467

Now you'll rematch the unmatched addresses.
5 In the Tabl e of contents, click the Geocodel layer. On the Geocoding tool bar, click Review/Rematch Addresses. (If the Geocoding tool bar is not visible, click the Customize menu, point to Toolbars, and click Geocoding.)

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Sterion 6: Crellting and t ditillg data

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7 In the ZIP Code box in the middle of the dialog box, highlight the value 30309 and type 30308. Press Enter.

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Six match ca ndidates appea r at the bottom of the dialog box. The top ca ndidate has a perfect score of \00.

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470

Section 6: Creating and editing data

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13 Make sure that the top candidate is high lighted, t hen click Match.

The record's status changes from U to M, and its name is changed in the ARC_ Street

field.

Ceocoding addresses

471

You've matched all the addresses in your customer table. The Statistics panel shows you thac sixteen addresses (100%) were matched.

14 Close t he Inte ractive Rematch dialog box.
On the map there are now sixteen geocoded points.

15 In the table of contents, right-click t he Geocodel laye r and click Zoom to Layer. Rightclick the layer again and click Label Features.

The points are labeled with the names of your customers' businesses.

472

Sution 6: Cre(lting find editing data

16 In the table of contents, right-c lick the Geocodel layer and click Open Attribute Table.

A ll the records have the value M in the Status field. Edits that you made during rematching ("M irtel" to "Myrtle" for exa mple) are re Aected in the A RC_Street and

ARC_ ZIP fields.
Now that you know how ro geocode addresses, the project to offer d igital maps as one of your compa ny's advercisi ng services can move forward .
17 Close the table.

18 If you want to save yo ur work , save it as mLex17c.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapler17
\MyDala folder.

19 If you are continui ng to t he next chapte r, leave ArcMap open. Othe rwise, exit the
application. Click No wh en prompted to save your changes.

Section 7: Presenting data

Chapter 18

Making maps from templates
Opening a map template Adding X data to a map ,Y D rawing graphics on a map

474

Section 7- Preunting datil

Making a map that's accurate, informative, and nice to look at usually takes time, as you'll see in the next chapter. Sometimes, however, you have to make a professional-quality map on short notice. ArcMap comes with a number of templates to help you do this. In a template, the map elements you need (data frames, legend, tide. north arrow, background color, and so on) are already in place. All you do is add data and the map is ready to print. You may nO[ even need to add data- many ArcMap templates already contain layers for the world and the United States. A Single template may be all you need. or you may want to use a template as a basemap and add your own layers to it.

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The Wortd

The LandscapeClassic template (left) has layout elements but no data. The World Robinson template (right) has countries, cities, rivers, and lakes in a Robinson projection.

Ma king maps fro m templares

475

Opening a map template
By default. every ArcMap document uses a template called the normal template. When you open a new document and switch to layout view. the layout page (also ca lled the virtual page) is blank and has a Single data frame. This is the appea rance prescribed by the normal template.

In [he course of making a map. you may add data to this data frame. resize it. insert more data frames. and add such elements as legends and scale bars. When you save the map. you save it not as a template but as a map document. a file with an .mxd exte nsion. That way. the template does not change. Then. when you create a new ArcMap document. you start again with a blank page. Rather than designing your own layout. you ca n open a custom template (that is. a template other than the normal template). Again. any changes you make are saved as a map document, so the template is not affected.
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On the left is the PortraitClassic template. On the right are three maps that use it, each with different data. In map A, a title has been specified but the template is otherwise unchanged. In map S, the legend, north arrow, and sca le bar have been moved from their default pos iti ons. In map C, the backgroun d color has been changed.

476

Sl'crioll 7: Prl'sf'1lfillg drlla

You can also create new templates. If you've made an arrangement of map elements and d ata frames (with or without data) that you want to use again , simply save the map document (.mxd). Essentially any map document can be used as a template as long as it is opened as a template. ArcMap CUStom templates are stored in the \Bin\Templates folder of yo ur ArcGIS installation path (for example, C:IProgram FilesIESRIIDeskroplO.OIArcMapITemplates). You can add your own templates to this folder or to any folder you choose. New categories for templates are made available by creating folders beneath the templates folder locations. Categories will only appear in the Getting Starred, New Map, and Select Template dialog boxes if a map document is present in the fo lder under the Templates or My Templates locations. Beginning with ArcGIS 10, ESRI no longer creates map templates (.mxt) files (but can still open them.) For more information, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library > Mapping and Visualization> Whats new for map templates.

Exercise fSa
It's early June 1999. As the information officer for the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, you've been asked to talk to a group of journalists about Typhoon Maggie, also known as Etang. Typhoon Etang was first spotted off the coast of Samar, an island in the east central part of the Ph il ippines. It has si nce traveled northwest, and is currently about 250 kilometers off the northeast coast of Luzon, where the capital, Manila, is located. The typhoon will probably pass harmlessly north of Luzon, through open ocean, bur should it strike land it cou ld be devastating. The presentation is scheduled for romorrow, bur you weren't told about the briefing until today. Now it's 11:00 PM and you're trying ro create a Microsoft PowerPoint slide presentation and still have time for a little sleep. You want ro show the path of the typhoon and its current location on a map of the country with rivers, populated places, and other useful geography. You'll use an ArcMap template for the basemap and draw the typhoon path you rself.

Making maps from templates

477

Start ArcMap. In the Arc Map-Getting Started dialog box, cl ick Browse for more templates. (If Arc Map is already running, click the File menu and click New.)

The Open dialog box appears. You'll use a template that was specially created for this exercise.
2 In the Open dialog box, navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapler18. Click ex18a.mxd and click Open.

478

Section 7: Prest1Jtillg dahl

The ArcMap-Getting Scarred dialog box shows ex18a as a new map template.
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Making maps from templates

479

Although the map is based on a template (.mxt file), you are now working in a new map document (.mxd file). Any changes you make are made to the map document, not to the template-this is what keeps the template reusable. (If you wanted to modify the template itself-which in this case you don't-you would click the File menu and click Open instead of New.) With the entire map displayed, you can't read the text and labels. This is because the page in the window (the virtual page) is smaller than the printed page would be. The Layout toolbar shows you the size of the virtual page relative to the actual page. (Your percentage may be different.)
II On the Layout tool bar, cli ck the Zoom to 100% button .

The layout zooms to actual size and you see the map at the resolution it would have on a printed page. You can no longer see the entire layout.

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Sl'c/ion 7: Presemillg data

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On the Layout tool bar, click the Zoom Whole Page button.

The layouc recurns to full view. The data frame shows all of Asia. buc you are only interes ted in the Philippines . You'll use a bookmark to zoom in .

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The map zooms in on the Ph il ippines . The graticule, with its relatively wide intervals of 10 degrees. will not help the journali sts describe the typhoon's location. You'll reduce the size of the intervals to make the map more in formative.

Making maps from temp /aus

481

9

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13 On the Tools toolbar, click the Select Elements tool.
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The graticule is now divided into intervals of 5 degrees. Parallels and meridians are labeled on the layout. but the labels are too small to see when you are zoomed to the whole virtual page. To add a graticule to a data frame that doesn't have one. open the Data Frame Properties dialog box. click the Grids tab. and click New Grid to start the Grids and Graticules wizard. (Graticules mark latitude and longitude coordinates. Measured grids mark projected coordinates.) Grids and graticules display only in layout view. You now have your basemap. In the next exercise, you' ll display points that show Etang's progress.
15 If you want to save your work, cli ck th e File menu and clic k Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI8\MyDala. Rename the f ile my_exI8a.mxd and cli ck Save. 16 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

Making mllps from fl'lIlpllltes

483

Adding x,Y data to a map
As you know from the previous chapter, ArcMap can turn geographic information from a table into points on a map. When the information consists of street addresses, the process is fairly elaborate. If, however, you have a table of coordinate values (obtained from a Global Posicioning System device or other source). ArcMap can create point data with linle preparation. A table of coordinates must contain two fields, one for the x-coordinate and one for the y-coordinate. The values may be in any geographic or projected coordinate system.

Exercise tSb
As part of your presentation to the press, you want to show the location. speed. and path of Typhoon Etang. You have been given a text file of latitude- longitude coordinates showing where the typhoon has been at different times. You'll add (his file to the map document and display the coordinates as points on the map.
In ArcMap, open ex18b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter18 fo lder.

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484

Section 7: Pr~unting data

2 3

On the Standard toolbar, click the Add Data button. In the Add Data dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter18\Oata . Click lationLetang.txt, as shown in the followi ng graphic, and click Add.

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In the table of contents , right-click latlong-cetang.txt and click Open.

The table shows the typhoon's position and speed over the course of two days .

Making maps f rom templates

485

Although latitude and longitude are measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds, the values in the table have been converted to decimal degrees so that ArcMap can store and process them efficiently. Decimal degrees represent minutes and seconds as fractions. For example, the value 30"15' is 30.25 decimal degrees because 15 minutes is a quarter of a degree.
5 Close the table. In t he table of contents, ri ght-cl ick lationg_etang.txt and click Display XY Data .

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486

Stctioll 7: Preunting data

7

Click Import. In the Browse for Dataset dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Ch apter18 \Data. Click City.shp, then click Add. Click OK .

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8 Click the check box next to Show Details to see more information about the Coordinate System of Input Coordinates. Click OK.
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Making maps from tempfaus

487

9

Click OK in the Display XY Data dialog box to display the points on the map. Click OK to dismiss the "Table Does Not Have Object-ID Field" message .

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A layer called larlon~etang.txt Events is added to the table of contents. ("Events" is a technical term for points created from x,y coordinate values.)

Note: If the table on which an XY event layer is based does not have an ObjectiD field,
you get a warning message and you won't be able to perform certain tasks on the layer. You' ll give the layer a simpler name, then resymbolize the points with a symbol for

typhoon s.

10 In the table of contents, double-click the latlong_etang.txt Even ts layer. In the Layer
Properties dialog box, click the General tab.

11 Repla ce the layer name with Etang, as shown in the following graphic, then click OK.

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SrClio n 7: Pr(unting data

12 In the table of contents, click the symbol for the Etang layer. The Symbol Selector
dialog box opens.

13 At the top of the Symbol Selector, type Typhoon into the search bar and press Enter.
Under the Weather style heading, click the Typhoon symbol.

14 Change its size from 18 points to 4. Make sure that you r dialog box matches the
following graphic, then click OK.

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In the next exercise, you'll draw a line along the typhoon's path.

15 If you want to save your work, save it as my_exI8b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI8 \MyData folde r.
16 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

Making maps from umplates

489

Drawing graphics on a map
With the tools on the Draw (oolbar, you can add graphics and text to a layout. You should wait to do this until you're satisfied with the display scale because graphics, unlike features, do not scale proportionately as you zoom in or out on data. A graphic box that encloses a feature at one display scale, for instance, may not enclose it at another.

Exercise lBc
Now that you have added the point locations of Typhoon Etang to your map, you'll draw the typhoon's path by connecting the symbols. Then you'll add some descriptive text and change the map title. When your map is ready. you'll export it in a format that Microsoft PowerPoint supports so you can include it in your presentation.
In Arc Map, open ex18c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKA,cGIS\Chapte,18 folder.

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The map looks as it did at the end of the previous exercise. You'll zoom in on the layout to draw a line connecting the typhoon symbols.

490

Sution 7: Presmting data

2

On the Layout toolbar, click the Zoom In tool.

3

Drag a zoom rectang le corresponding to th e red box in the following graphic.

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The layout zooms in to the area of the storm's path .

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On the Draw tool bar, click the drop· down arrow by the Rectangle tool and click the Curve tool.

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Draw the typhoon path on the map. Start by clicking the symbol farthest to the east. Click each symbol to draw a line connecting them. Double-click the last symbol to end the line . If you make a mistake, end the line, press the Delete key, and start again.

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With the graphic selected, move the mouse pointer over the line and right-click. On the context menu , click Properties. In the Propertie s dialog box, click the Symbol tab if necessary. Click the co lor square. On the color palette, click Electron Gold, as shown in the following graphic. Click OK in the dialog box.
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492

Section 7 Presenting data

8

Click outside the data frame to unselect the line.

Now you'll add text to show the typhoon's time and speed at its last recorded position.

9

On the Tools tool bar, click the Identify tool.

10 Click the symbol at the last recorded position of Etang.

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M aking maps from templates

493

Close the Identify window. On the Draw tool bar, clic k the drop-down arrow by the New Text tool and click the Callout tool.

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2 Click the same typhoon symbol again. In the pop-up text box, type June 5 12:00 am • 170kph and press the Enter key.

The text is added to the map and the text box is selected.
On the Draw tool bar, click the Font Size drop-down arrow and click 14.
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494

Section 7: Preunting data

14 Drag the callout text to the right of the typhoon symbol. Click outside the data frame to
unselect the text.

Since the map is no longer a map of Asia, you need to change its tide.

15 On the Layou t toolbar, click the Zoom Whole Page button,

16 Double-click the ti tle Asia at the bottom of the map. 17 In the Properties dialog box, on the Text tab, rep lace Asia wi th Path of Typhoon Etang,
as shown in the following graphic. Click OK.

Makillg maps from {('Iup ia us

495

18 Click outside the page to unselect the ti tl e.

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Finally, you'll export an image of the map in EMF {.emf} format for your Microsoft PowerPoint slide presentation. EMF files can be added to common W indows applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint and Microsoft Word and resized without distortion. To learn more about the many graphic file formats ArcMap supports, click the Contents

tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Mapping and
Visualization> Map export and printing> Exporting your map.
19 Click the Fi le menu and click Export Map. 20 In the Export Map dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapler18\MyDala. Click the Save as type drop·down arrow and click EMF (*.emf), Replace the default file name with elang, as shown in the following graphic, then click Save.

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496

Sution 7: Pr~unting data

If you want to save your work, save it as my-ax18e.mxd in the \GTKAreGIS\Chapter18 \MyData folder. If you are continuing to the next chapter, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No when prom pted to save your changes.

Section 7: Presenting data

Chapter 19

Making maps for presentation
Laying out the page Adding a title Adding a north arrow, scale bar, and legend Adding final touches and setting print options

498

Sea;on 7: Prnnllillg data

A good map should inform, reveal, clarify, or convi nce. The e1emems for accomplishing these pu rposes include carefully prepared and symboliz.ed data, a legend [0 explain the symbols, a descriptive tide, projection information, and a source statemem. A north arrow and scale bar often help to oriem the map reader. In this chapter, you'll create the map shown below of proposed tiger conservation areas in India.

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Making maps for pr~sm/(uioll

499

Laying out the page
The amount of space on which elements can be arranged may be anything from a letter-sized sheet of paper to a wall poster 44 by 34 inches. The orientation may be vertical (portrait) or horizontal (landscape). Choosing the dimensions and the orientation of the map before you sta rt makes the layout process easier. ArcMap has rulers, guides, and a grid to help you arrange map elements on a page. You can also align, nudge, distribute (space evenly), rotate, and resize selected elements to place them where you want.

Exercise 19a
You are a research associate for the World Wildlife Fund and have just finished an analysis of tiger populations in India. Loss of habitat is bringing wild tigers to the edge of extinction as forest lands are claimed for residential, commercial, and industrial use. Though poaching is not common in reserves or other protected areas, it is a problem in areas where there is little threat from the law. Present wildlife reserves in India have been of some help, but are too small and scattered to maintain existing populations. After studying the data, you have developed a plan to connect existing reserves along vegetation corridors, consolidating them into larger areas that can better support the tigers. The plan identifies the priority of proposed reserves as high, medium, or low. Reserves with higher priority have a better chance of sustaining a large tiger population for many years. The plan also identifies potential reserves for which research has yet to be completed. You will create a map as part of a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program seeking support for the tiger conservation project.

500

Section 7: Presenting data

Start ArcMap. In the ArcMap- Getting Started dialog box, under the Existing Maps section, click Browse for more. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open.) Navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter19. Click ex19a.mxd to highlight it and click Open .

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The map document contains three data frames: Existing reserves, Proposed reserves, and Overview. Existing reserves is active. Reserves are symbolized in green. All three data frames will be part of your map layout. You'll show existing reserves next to proposed reserves. For orientation. you'll include a map of the world with India framed on ir.
2 Cl ick the View menu and click Layout View.

Making mapfor p r f'Sl'IItll tiOI!

501

The data frames are stacked on rhe virtual page according to their order in the table of contents. It will be easier to see what you're doing if you make the ArcMap application window as large as possible. 3 In the ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to maximize the application window. On the Layout toolbar, click the Zoom Whole Page button.

4

The vircual page is enlarged within the layout window. At che moment, ics orientation is ponrait. 5 6 Click the File menu and click Page and Print Setup. In the Map Page Size frame of the Page and Print Setup dialog box, set the orientation to Landscape, as shown in the following graphic. Click OK.

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502

Seaion 7: Presenting data

7

Click the View menu and click Guides.

The guides display on the layout.
8 Place the mouse pointer over the vertical ruler on the left side of the display. Click to add a guide at 8 inches as shown in the following graphic .

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The guides will be more useful if map elemencs snap (automatically align) to them.

Making mapsfo r prest'ntatioll

503

9

Right-cl ick an empty part of the virtua l page. On the context menu, point to Guides and click Snap to Guides.

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Now you'll resize and arrange the data frames on the page. beginning with Proposed reserves (the largest data frame).

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In the display area, click the Proposed reserves data frame to select it. Once selected. it is outlined with a dashed blue line and marked with blue selection handles.

Move the mouse pointer over the data frame. The cursor has a four-headed arrow. Drag
the frame so that its upper right corner snaps to the guides at 8 inches on the vertical ruler and 10.5 inches on the horizontal (top) ruler.

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504

Section 7: Presrnting data

You'll make the data frame smaller by dragging a selection handle. W hen you resize a data frame, ArcMap automatically adjusts the map extent and display scale. (If you want to make sure one or the other stays the same, you ca n set a fixed scale or extent on the Data Frame tab of the Data Frame Properties dialog box.)

12 Place the mouse pointer over the selection handle at the lower left corner of the data
frame. The cursor changes to a two-headed arrow. Drag the corner of the data frame until it snaps to the guides at 3.1 inches (vertical ruler) and 6 .1 inches (horizontal ruler).

13 On t he Standard too l bar, click t he Sca le box and type 28000000.

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Later, you'll use this number to set the scale of the Existing reserves data frame.

Making map s for p rt'smlotiDn

505

Next, you'll move the Overview data frame, which shows the map of the world with India marked by a red rectangle.

14 In the display area, click the Overview data fra me to select it. Drag the frame so that its upper left corner snaps to the guides at 3 inches (vertical ruler) and 1.6 inches
(horizontal ru ler) .

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Now you'll resize the Existing reserves data frame to match the Proposed reserves data frame.

506

Sea ion 7: Presen ting data

15 In the display area, click the Existing re serves data frame to select it. Put the mouse
pointer over the selection handle at the bottom center of the data frame. The cursor changes to a two-headed arrow. Drag the data frame until its bottom edge snaps to the guide at 3.1 inches (vertical ru ler).

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The data frames now have their final sizes and positions. (Another way to resize a data frame is with the Size and Position tab on the Data Frame Properties dialog box. The tab lets you set a height and width for the data frame and move a corner, midpoint, or the center of the frame to a page position you specify.) In the Existing reserves data frame, India is displayed at a smaller scale than in the Proposed reserves frame. Yo u'll change its display scale to match the Proposed reserves frame.

16 Make sure that the Existing reserve s data frame is still selected. On the Standard
tool bar, highlight the current view scale and rep lace it with the scale value of the Proposed rese rves data frame. (If you didn't make a note of the value in step 12, type 28000000.) Press Enter.

The display scale changes appropriately (yours may be slightly different). India , however, is not centered in the data frame.
17 On the Tools toolbar, click the Pan tool.

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Makillg maps for presematiOll

507

8 Pan the data so that India is similarly positioned in both data frames.

9 On t he Tools tool bar, click the Select Elements tool.

20 Click an empty part of the virtual page to unselect the data frame. In the next exercise, you'll add a tide to the map. 21 If you want to save your work, click the File menu and click Save As. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\ChapterI9\MyData . Rename the file m y_exI9a .mxd and click Save. 2.2 In the ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to restore the application window to its former size. 2.3 If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

508

Srctioll 1· Preseming data

Adding a title
All maps have tides, and many have subtides as well. A good tide helps the reader understand what (0 look for in the map.

Exercise 19b
Now that you have laid out the three data frames. you'll add a tide to convey {he subject of the map (tiger conservation) and a subtide to convey the speci fic focus (suitable habitat).
In ArcMap, open ex19b.mxd from the C:IESRIPressIGTKArcGISIChapter19 folder.

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2 In the ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to maxim ize the application window. On the Layout toolbar, click the Zoom Whole Page button.

3

Makillg mapJfo r pr~Jl'Tlftl tiOll

509

Now you'll insert the tide.
Cl ick the Insert menu , and click Ti tle.

A text box is added to the page. The default tide is the name of your ArcMap document. ex19b.mxd.
5 Double-click the text box. In the Properties dialog box, type Tiger Conservation and cl ick OK.

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If you make a mistake and need to change the text. double-click the tide again to open its text properties. The tide is too small. You can change its font. size. style. or color on the Draw toolbar.
6 On the Draw tool bar, for Font size, highlight the current value and replace it with 62. Press Enter.

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510

Section 7: Presenting data

The title size changes to 62 points. Before positioning the title, you'll add a subtitle.
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Click the Insert menu and click Title.
A text box is added to the page. Again, the default title is the map document name.

8

Double-click the text box. In the Properties dialog box, type an assessment of critical habitat in India and click OK.

You'll change the font and style of the subtitle.
9 On the Draw tool bar, cl ick the Font Size drop-down arrow and click 22. Click the Italic button.

The subtitle is changed on the map.

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Milk ing mllps f or p resentlltion

511

You'll position the twO elements, then group them.
10 Drag the subtitle directly below the t itle, close but not touching. Position it so that the first word in the subtitle, " an," is underneath the "r" in " Tiger." Use the following graphic as a guide.

The subtitle needs to be very close to the title to fit in the space prepared for it.
11 Right-click the subtitle. On the context menu, point to Nudge and click Nudge Up. (You can also press 8 on your keyboard's numeric keypad.) Keep nudging until the subtitle is as close as possible to the title without touching it.

If you go tOO far, you can use Nudge Down (or press 2 on your numeric keypad). You can also delete the subtitle and try again.
12 With the subtitle selected, hold down the Shift key and cli ck the titl e. Both elements are selected. Right-click either title. On the context menu, click Group.

Anything you do to the grouped title, such as changing the font size or color, will affect both elements. (To ungroup an element, select it, right-click it, and click Ungroup on the context menu.) Now you'll rotate the grouped title and move it to the left side of the page.
13 With the grouped title selected, right-click it. On the context menu, point to Rotate or Flip and click Rotate Left.

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512

Satioll 7: Presenting daw

It will be easier to put the title in the right place if it snaps to the guides.
Right-click an empty part of the virtua l page. On the context menu, point to Guides and cl ick Snap to Guides.

15 Drag the title to the left side of the virtual page so that th e upper right corner snaps to the guides at 8 inches (vertical rulerl and l.5 inches (horizontal rulerl.

16 Click an empty part of the virtual page to unselect the grouped title.
Your tide is not quite complete. You'll add a background rectangle to frame it.
17 On the Draw tool bar, clic k the Rectangle tool.
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Making mnps for presentation

513

18 Drag a rectangle that snaps to the guides around t he ti tle. The upper left corner should
snap to 8 inches (vertica l ruler) and 0.5 inches (horizontal ruler). The lower right corner should snap to 0.5 inches (vertical ruler) and 1.5 inches (horizontal ruler) .

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By defaulc, che reccangle is pale yellow. You'll change ics color and move ic behind che citle.
19 Make sure the rectangle is selected. On the Draw tool bar, cl ick the Fill Color drop-down
arrow. On the color palette, cl ick More Colors.

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514

Section 7' Preu nling d ll tll

20 On the Color Selector dialog box, cl ick the Color tab if necessary. Replace the R (red)
value with 176. Press the Tab key on your keyboard. Replace the G (green) va lue with

204 and press Tab again. Repla ce the B (blue) value with 204. The custom colo r is
previ ewed in the lower left corner of the dialog box. Make sure your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

The rectangle color changes to a blue gray.
21 Ri ght-cl ick the selected rectangle, point to Order, and click Send to Back.

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Finally, you'll center the tide within the rectangle. Because ArcMap aligns elements in relation to the last selected element, you' ll select the tide first.

22 Click the ti tle. Make sure the title, not the rectangle, is selected.

Making maps for prl'sl'llttztioll

515

2~3

Hold down the Shift key and click the bottom of the rectangle, outside the title's selection box.

Both the grouped title and the rectangle should be selected. The rectangle's sel~ction color is blue, indicating that it is the last selected element. The tide's selection color changes to green.

24 Right-click either selected element, point to Align, and click Align Vertical Center.

5 Right-cl ick either selected element, point to Align, and click Align Center. The title is centered vertically and horizontally within the rectangle.

516

Section 7: Prrsenling data

~6 Right-click either selected element once more and click Group, t hen click an empt y

part 01 t he virtua l page to unselect the grouped element.

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In the nex[ exercise, you'll add a nonh arrow, scale bar. and legend reserves da[a frame.

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II you want to save yo ur work, save it as mLex19b.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\Chapler19 \MyDala lolder.
8 In the ArcMap appl icatio n tit le bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to

restore the application window to its former size.
~

II you are continu ing wi th the next exercise, leave ArcMap open . Otherwise, exit the application . Click No il prompted to save your changes.

Making maps for presellftltioJl

517

Adding a north arrow, scale bar, and legend
North arrows, scale bars, and legends are associated with the data frame that is active when they are inserted. A scale bar changes when the display scale of its data frame changes. A legend is updated when layers in its data frame are deleted or resymbolized. Although these elements can be moved anywhere on a map layout, it is usually best to keep them within the data frame they belong to. ArcMap has many different styles for north arrows, scale bars, and legends and allows you to cuscomize them.

Exercise 19c
The people who review the proposal and your map will be familiar with the geography of India. Still, legends are necessary for imerpreting any map, while scale bars and north arrows provide geographic orientation.
In ArcMap, open ex19c.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter19 folder.

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The map opens in layout view. It looks as it did at the end of the previous exercise, except that some additional elements (such as the legend and scale bar in the Existing reserves data frame) have been added for you. You will add more elements to the map. beginning with a north arrow in the Overview data frame.

518

SutiOll 7: Prest'1ll illg datil

In th e ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to maximize the application window. 3 4 On the Layout tool bar, click the Zoom Who le Page button. In the display area, click the Overview data frame to select it.

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Drag th e north arrow to the lower left corner of the Overview data frame. Make the north arrow smaller by dragging one of its selection handles, then adjust its position to leave a little space beneath it. (Use the following graphic as a guide.) When you're finished, click an empty part of the virtual page to unselect the north arrow.

Makillg maps/or prese1ltdtion

519

Now you'll add a scale bar to the Proposed reserves data frame. Scale bars tell you how to convert measuremems on the map into the real distances they represent on the ground.
;] Click the Proposed reserves data frame to select it.

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Click the Insert menu, and click Scale Bar. In the Scale Bar Selector dialog box, click Alternating Scale Bar 1, as shown in th e following graphic, and click OK.
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The scale bar is added to the layout. Before moving it into posicion, you' ll change some of its properties to match the scale bar in the Existing reserves data frame.

520

Section 7: Prest'nting dllin

10 Right-click the scale bar and click Properties. In the Alternating Scale Bar Properties dialog box, click the Scale and Un its tab if necessary.
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The sca le bar currendy has four divisions. The left-most division itself has four subd ivisions. The sca le bar un its are meters.

11 In the middle of the dialog box, click the When resizing drop-down arrow and click
Adjust width.

Th is w ill make the width of the sca le bar change if [he display sca le of the data frame changes.

Adjusting scale bars
A scale bar changes as you zoom in or out on its data frame. If the scale bar is adjusted by division va lue, the distance represented by a scale bar division is variable. As you zoom in, it represents less distance; as you zoom out, it represents more. If the scale bar is adjusted by the number of divisions, the distance represented by a division stays

the same, but there are fewer divisions as you zoom in and more as you zoom out. If the
scale bar is adjusted by width, the distance represented by a division and the number

of divisions stays the same, but the entire scale bar grows wider as you zoom in and
narrower as you zoom out. (If a scale bar is adjusted by width, you cannot widen it by dragging; its width changes only with the display scale.)

12 In the Division value box at the top of the dialog box, replace the current va lue with 500.

Making maps for presCIltatioJ!

521

13 Click the Number of divisions down arrow and change the value to 3. Click the Number of subdivisions down arrow and change its value to 2.

14 Check Show one division before zero.
15 In the lower portion of the dialog box, click the Division Units drop-down arrow. Scroll
up and click Kilometers. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

In the layout, the scale bar reflects the new properties you set.

16 Drag the scale bar to the lower left corner of the Proposed reserves data frame, just
above the line of text.

You'll change its height to match the other scale bar. (You can't change the scale bar's width because of the resizing choice you made in step 11. But you don't need to change its width- as long as the two data frames have the same display scale, their scale bar

widths will also be the same.)

522

Section 7: Preunting datil

17 With the scale bar selected, hold down the Shift key and click the scale bar in the

Existing reserves data frame .

18 Both scale bars are selected. The Exi sting reserves scale bar, selected last, is outl ined
in blue.

19 Right-click either sca le bar. On the co ntext menu, paint to Di stribute and click Make
Same Height. Right-click again on either scale bar. On the context menu, poi nt to Align and click Align Bottom.

The two scale bars now look the same and have the same property settings. Next, you'll add a legend to the Proposed reserves data frame.

20 Click the Proposed reserves data frame to select it. Click the Insert menu and click
Legend to open the Legend Wizard.

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Makillg maps fo r presentation

523

21 Click Next to accept the defaults.

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In the second panel you choose a tide and style properties for the legend.

22 Replace the default title with Proposed reserves, as shown in the following graphic.
Click Next.

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In the third panel, you' ll add a border to the legend.

23 Click the Border drop-down arrow and click 1.0 Point. Click the Background drop-down
arrow, scroll to the bottom of the list, and click White.
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524

Section 7: Presenting datil

The next twO panels set symbols and spacing for the legend, but you w ill nO change t these. Clicking Preview at any time displays the legend on the map in its current form and allows you to ex it [he w izard or retu rn and ma ke further changes.

24 On the wi zard panel, cl ick Preview. Move the wizard away from the map.

The legend is added to [he map and [he w izard remains open.

25 On the wizard panel, click Finish.
Fi nally, you'll resize and move [he legend.

26 Drag the legend somewhere over the Proposed reserves data frame. Place the mouse
pointer over any sel ection handle, drag t he legend to about half its ori gina l size, and position it as shown in the follow ing graphic. When yo u're finished, click an empt y part of the virtual page to unselect the legend.

Making maps for pr~""

525

In the next exercise, you'll add a few more map elements and prepare to print your map.
If yo u want to save your work, save it as my_exI9c.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI9 \MyDala folder. In the ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to restore the application window to its former size. If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the applicat ion. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

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526

S~ction 7:

Prl'Jl'lllillg

data

Adding final touches and setting print options
Before sending a map to print, you should check your page semp options and preview the map in ArcMap.

Exercise 19d
The map is almost ready. You'll add a picture and a neaciine, preview the map, and send it to a printer.
In ArcMap, open ex19d.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter19 folder.

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The map opens in layout view. It looks as it did at the end of the previous exercise.
2 In the Arc Map application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to maximize the application . On the Layout tool bar, click the Zoom Who le Page button.

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Making maps for prt'unttzr-io"

527

4

Click the Insert menu and click Text.

The text box appears in the middle of the layout with the word "Text" highlighted.
5 6 In the text box, type Projection: Geographic and press Enter. The text is selected. On the Draw toolbar, highlight the value in the Font Size drop-down list and replace it with 6.5. Press Enter.

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Drag the text to the lower left corner of th e Overview data frame and place it beneath the north arrow. Unselect the text.

You'll add a photograph of a tiger. Who could resist a picture of such a magnificent animal?
8 9 Click the Insert menu and click Picture. In the Open dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter19\Data. Click tiger.jpg and click Open.

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The tiger image is added to the map.

528

Section 7: Pr~unting dtlttl

10 Right-click an empty part of the virtual page. On the context menu, point to Guides
and click Snap to Guides.

11 Place the mouse pointer over the image and drag it so that its lower right corner snaps
to the guides at 0.5 inches (vertical ruler) and 10.5 inches (horizon tal ruler).

12 Place the mouse pointer over the selection handle in the upper left corner of the
image. Drag to resize the image so that its left edge snaps to the guide at 7.4 inches (horizontal ruler). Make sure the tiger image does not hide the text that is posi tioned above it. Unselect the image.

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The map is almost finished. The last element you add will be a nearline, a bounding line thac frames the other elements.

M liJdllg /IIaps for prew/l(uiol!

529

14 In the Neall ine dialog box, choose the opt ion to place the neatl ine around all elements.
Click the Border drop-down arrow and cl ick 2.5 Point.

15 Cl ick the Background drop-down arrow and click None. Make sure that your dialog box
matches the fo llowing graphic, then click OK.

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Before you print a map. you should make sure chat your map size and printer setup specifications match. Otherw ise. your map may be Cut off or misaligned.
17 Cl ick the File menu and click Page and Print Setup.

In exercise 19a, you changed the map page orientation from Portrait to Landscape. Now you'll change your paper orientation, too.

18 In the Paper frame of t he Page and Print Set up dia log box, click the Landscape option.
If necessary, click the Name drop-d own arrow and click the printer you want to use. Accept th e default paper size (Letter). Make su re th at your dialog box matches the following graph ic (except for the printer name). Click OK.

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Section 7: Presenting

data

You are ready to preview your map. The preview shows you how the map will look on the printed page, so you can correct any mistakes in advance.
19 Click the File menu and click Print Preview.

At this point, you should be mainly concerned with the alignment of elements on the page. Your alignment will depend on the type of printer you are connected to and its configuration. If the map elements overlap the page edge, you'll correct this problem in a moment. Don't worry that the quality of the tiger image is poor in the preview-it will be fine when it prints.
20 Click Print to open the Print dialog box.

Making maps for presentation

531

21 If the map looked good in the print preview, click OK to print it.

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22 If the map went over the edge of the page, click the Scale Map to fit Printer Paper
option in the lower left corner of the dialog box. Click OK. You have finished the map.

23 If you want to save your work, save it as mLexl9d.mxd in the \GTKArcGIS\ChaplerI9 \MyDala folder.

24 In the ArcMap application title bar, click the middle button in the upper right corner to
restore the application window to its former size.
In the next chapter, you'll launch ArcMap from ArcCatalog. So even if you are continuing, you should exit ArcMap.

2.5 Close ArcMap. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

Section 8: Modeling

Chapter 20

Creating models
Starting a model Building a model Enhancing a model

534

Section 8: lvlode/ing

GIS is often defined as a computerized system for the crearion, management, query, analysis, and display of spatial data. The organization of this book reflects that task-oriented definition. But GIS is also defined as a decision support system, in which computer software is used to model spatial processes and to solve problems analytically. This process-oriented definition applies to the book's final chapter. In chapters 11 and 12, during the tree-harvesting analysis, you learned how to use some of the geoprocessing tools in ArcToolbox, such as Dissolve, Clip, Buffer, and Union. Individually, these tools are useful for completing particular tasks, but their real power, as you saw, lies in their being used together to solve a complex problem. The tools in a real toolbox (hammers, saws, screwdrivers) have their own special uses, too. But again, if you want to accomplish something significant-like building a house-you have to use these tools together in a carefully planned sequence of steps. Carpenters build a house from a blueprint or scale model. In ArcGIS, you can use ModelBuilder to make a blueprint of your analysis. Like a good carpenter, ArcGIS will then carry out the individual procedures in order according to your plan. ModelBuilder is a graphical interface for diagramming solutions to spatial analysis problems. The diagrams you make are called models. Below, a very simple model shows a Buffer operation being applied to an input dataset to create a new Output dataset.
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A complete model is an interconnected set of such processes, each consisting of input data, a tool, and the resulting output data. The next model consists of three processes: two buffers and a union. Notice that the outputs of the buffer processes become the inputs to the union process. The elements of a process are distinguished by their symbology. By default, input data is represented by a blue oval. Tools are represented by yellow rectangles. Output data is represented by a green oval. The representative shapes can be switched if you wish.

Creatillg models

535

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Once you have diagrammed a model, you can run ir wirh a single click. ModeiBuilder runs each of the processes in rurn, passing the output of one process on to the next process until a final dataset is produced. Suppose you were asked to re-create the analysis you did in chaprers 11 and 12, bur wirh a slight variation, such as a different goshawk nest buffer? Or suppose you were asked to do exactly rhe same analysis, but for a different lease area? You could do it, of course, by reworking the chapter exercises. You would open the tools in ArcToolbox, set their parameters, and run them- and it would take you just as long (or almost as long) as it did the first time. In fact, whenever you wanted to calculate harvest stand values, assuming this was a regular part of your job, you would have to go through the same lengthy process. Now imagine that you have already modeled the analysis in ModeiBuilder. When a new piece of information comes in-the protected zone around goshawk nests has been changed from 800 to 1,000 meters-you don't have to reconstruct your entire workflow. Instead, you just open the model, change a parameter in the nest buffer process, and rerun the model. That's all it takes. When the time comes to bid on a different lease, you can copy the model and change the data sources used as the initial inputs. ModeiBuilder can save you huge amountS of time if you perform repetitive spatial analyses.
It also lets you evaluate the changing conditions and what-if scenarios that arise in decisionmaking situations.

Furthermore, models are a good way to evaluate the soundness of your methodology, to document this methodology for others, and to develop and refine it over time. Sharing models with colleagues helps to standardize decision-making processes. Of course, your timber
company might not want to share its successful model with competitors, but if you worked

for a government agency, you could use models to exchange knowledge and to establish
uniform practices.

For more information about spatial modeling and ModelBuilder, click the Contents tab in ArcGIS Desktop Help and navigate to Professional Library> Geoprocessing> Geoprocessing
with ModelBuilder > What is ModelBuilder'

536

Senioll 8: Modelillg

Starting a model
ModelBuilder is not a free-standing software application like ArcMap or ArcCatalog, but it's
more than just a geoprocessing tool: it's a design environment for creating workflow diagrams

called models. Like tools, however, models are stored in a toolbox. In earlier chapters, you used some of the tools and toolboxes that come with ArcMap. In this exercise, you will learn how to create a new toolbox and put a model inside it. A new toolbox can be created in ArcToolbox, or in an ordinary fi le folder, or in a geodatabase. Since models are stored in toolboxes, these are also the three locations in which models can be created. The ModelBuilder window has its own menu and toolbat. Many of the controls have the
same icons and functions as ArcMap controls.

Exercise 20a
In the next three exercises, you will create a model of the harvest profitability analysis from chapter 12. (The data preparation you did in chapter 11 is assumed to be complete, although you could include those operations in your model as well.) The logic of the analysis is not repeated in detail here. If you feel unsure abour the order of the steps or the reasons behind them, you can refer to chapter 12. The focus of this chapter is mainly on how to diagram the analysis in ModelBuildet. In this exercise, you'll make a new toolbox to store your model. Then you'll create a model and add one process to it.
Start ArcCatalog. In the cata log tree, navigate to C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter20 \MyToolboxes. Right-click MyToolboxes, point to New, and click Toolbox.

Creating models

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2 In the catalog display, change the new toolbox name to Harvest Models and press Enter. In the catalog tree, expand the MyToolboxes folder if necessary.
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538

Section 8: M odeling

3

In the catalog tree, right-click the Harvest Models toolbox, point to New, and click Model.
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4 In ModelBuilder, click the Model menu and click Model Properties. In the Model Properties dialog box, the General tab is selected. In the Name box, replace Model with HarvestProfitability (the model name cannot contain any spaces). In the Label box, repl ace Model with Harvest Profitability (the model label may contain spaces). Make sure the dial og box matches the following graphic, then click OK.
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5 On the ModelBui lder toolbar, click the Save button.

Creating models

539

6 7

Click the Model menu and click Close. In the catalog tree, click the plus sign next to the Harvest Models toolbox.

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The new toolbox is not automatically added to new ArcMap documents. To work with the Harvest Profitability model, you must first add the Harvest Models toolbox to ArcToolbox from within ArcMap.
8 In the catalog tree, double-click ex20a.mxd to launch ArcMap and open the map document. (If ArcMap is already running, click the File menu and click Open. Navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter20. Click ex20a.mxd and click Open.)

The map contains layers for lease F, goshawk nests, and streams. It should look familiar as it has the same data and symbology as ex12a.mxd.

540

S"",iOlI 8: Mode/illg

Now you w ill open the A rcToolbox w indow and add the H arvest Models toolbox to it. 9 On t he Standard tool bar, click the ArcToolbox window button to open ArcToolbox. (Depend ing on how you previously setup your ArcToolbox window, it may be floating, docked or tabbed along the side of the main window.)

10 Position ArcMap and ArcCatalog so that the ArcToolbox window and the catalog tree
don't overlap . Make ArcCata log the act ive appl ication. In the catalog tree, click the Harvest Mode ls toolbox and drag it to the bottom of the ArcToolbox wi ndow.

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to expand it. Right-click the Harvest Profitability model and click Edit. When the ModelBu ilder window opens, move it so tha t it doesn't overlap either the ArcToolbox window or the ArcMap table of contents.
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Now you will create a process ro buffer the goshawk nests. You will drag and drop the Buffer rool from ArcToolbox and the NestsF layer from the ArcMap table of contents. 13 In the ArcToolbox window, click the plus sign next to Analysis Tools, then click the plus
sign next to Proximity.

14 Click the Buffer tool and drag it to ModelBuilder. Drop it in the center of the
ModelBuilder window.
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The Buffer roo!, represented by a rectangle, is added to the model. An arrow connects the tool to its output data, represented by an oval. Blue selection handles indicate that the elements are currently selected. The fact that they are not colored in means that they are incomplete- they are waiting for input data ro be attached. 15 In the ArcMap table of contents, click the NestsF layer. Drag it to the ModelBuilder
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The NestsF layer, represented by an oval, is automatically connected to the tool it was dropped onto. Now you will change the tool and Output data settings. 16 In the model, double-click the Buffer tool rectangle.

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The Buffer dialog box opens-exactly as if you had double-clicked the Buffer tool in ArcToolbox. You will fill in the tool's parameters just as you did in chapter 12. By default, the output feature class is set to the Tongass.mdb fi le in the chapter 20 Data folder. To keep rhe model data separate from the book's exercise data, you will change the output location to the MyData folder. 17 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feat ure Class box. In t he Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\C hapter20\MyData and double-clic k MyTonga ss.mdb. 18 In the Name box, type NestBuf, the n click Save. The output feature class information is updated in the Buffer dialog box. 19 For the buffer distance , make sure t he Lin ear un it option is selected. In t he Linear unit box, type 800.
The distance units are correctly set to meters. Trees cannot be harvested within 800 meters of a goshawk nest.

20 Click the Disso lve Type drop-down arrow and click All. Overlapping buffer polygons will be dissolved to make a single feature.

Creating models

543

21 Make sure the dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK to close the tool.
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Clicking OK here does not run the tool, it just closes the dialog box. In ModeiBuilder, you can double-click a tool whenever you like to view or change its parameters.
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The elements are colored in now, which means the process is ready to run.

When you run the process, a new feature class will be created and saved to disk. The output data is not automatically added as a layer to ArcMap, however. If you want the data added to the map, you have to set a ptoperty on the output data element.
22 In the model, right-click the NestBuf oval and click Add To Display to check it on.

23 On the ModelBuilder toolbar, click the Run button to run the model.

544

Section 8: Modeling

As a model runs, each of its tools tu rns red . Your model has only one tool, so if you weren't watching closely (or if the progress report covered the model), you may not have seen it. W hen the tool is fi nished , it turns yellow agai n.

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24 Click Close to close the progress report. Right click NestBu! and select Add to display.

The NestBu f laye r is added to A tcMap. (Yo u may need to move the ModelBuilder window to see it.) In ModelBuilder, drop shadows beh ind the tool and Output data elements indicate that the process has been run. O nce a process has been run, it does not run aga in unless you change a parameter, or choose Run Entire Model or Validate Entire Model from the Model menu .

25 On the ModelBuilder toolbar, cl ick the Save button to save the model.
26 Cl ick the Model menu and cl ick Close to close the model. In ArcMap, close the ArcToolbox window.

Creating models

545

The model and all its settings are stored in the Harvest Models.tbx file you created at the beginning of this exercise. There is no need to save changes to the map document.
If you are continuing with the next exercise, leave Arc Map open. Otherwise, exit the application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

546

Section Be Modeling

Building a model
Most models consist of several connected processes. To connect processes-that is, to define the output of one process as the input to another-you draw connector lines

between them with the Add Connection tool.

Exercise 20b
In this exercise, you will add a second buffer process for streams. Then you will add a Un ion process that overlays the stream and nest buffers to define the area where trees cannot be harvested (the "no-cut" zone). Finally, you will union the no-cut zone with the original layer of forest stands. The output of this union will be a dataset in which forest stands are split wherever they cross the no-cut zone-in other words, harvestable land will be geometrically separate from unharvestable land.
In ArcMap, open ex20b.mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter20 folder.

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In the map you see the nests, strea ms, and stands of lease F.
2 If needed, click the ArcToolbox window button to open ArcToolbox .

In the last exercise, you dragged the Harvest Models toolbox from ArcCata log to ArcToolbox. You can also add toolboxes from within ArcMap.

Creati ng moe/els

547

J

In the ArcToolbox window, right-cli ck a blank area and click Add Toolbox. In the Add Toolbox dialog box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter20\MyToolboxes. Click Harvest Models and click Open. In ArcToolbox, click the plus sign next to Harvest Models to expa nd it. Right-click Harvest Profitabil ity and cl ick Ed it to open the model. Move the ModelBuilder window so t hat it doesn't overlap the ArcMap table of contents or the ArcToolbox window. In ArcToolbox, click the plus sign next to Ana lysis Tools, th en clic k the plus sign next to Proxim ity. Cl ick the Buffer tool, th en drag and drop it at th e top center of th e Model Bu ilder window, as shown in the following graphic .
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6 In th e ArcMap table of conten t s, click the StreamsF layer. Drag and drop it directly on top of the Buffer (2) tool. In the context menu that appears, click Input Features.

W hen you drop the layer, the input data is automatically connected ro the tool as an input feature. Before the model is ready to run, however, yo u need to change the
cool's senings.
7 8 Double-click the Buffer (2) tool. Click th e Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Feature Class dia log box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter20\MyData and double-click MyTongass.mdb. In the Name box, type StreamBuf, then click Save.

You may recall from chapter 12 that logging is prohibited within 50 meters of streams, and within 100 meters of streams where salmon spawn . The StreamsF layer attribute table has a field called Distance, which contains values of either 50 or 100 for each stream feature . Yo u wa nt the buffer size for each stream feature to be determined by the values in this field.

548

Section 8: Modelillg

9

For the buffer distance, click the Field option. Click the Field drop-down arrow and cl ick Distance. Make sure that your dialog box matches the following graphic, then click OK.

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Your model now has two processes and will soon have more. Aligning elements to keep the model looking neat could be a very time-consuming business. Fortu nately, ModelBuilder has an Auto Layout button that takes care of this fo r you.
10 In ModelBuilder, click the Auto Layout button, then click the Ful l Extent button.

The processes are moved and aligned.
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Before adding a third process, you will zoom out and pan the model.

11 Click the Fi xed Zoom Out button once, then cl ick the Pan tool.

12 Move the two processes to the left side of t he Model Builder window, as shown in th e
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N estBuf and StreamBuf together define the area in which trees cannot be harvested. To make a single no-cur zone, you will add a Union process to overlay these two buffer layers.

13 In the ArcToolbox window, click the plus sign next to Overlay (i n t he Ana lys is Tools
toolbox) . Click th e Union tool. Drag and drop it on th e ri ght side of the mode l, between NestBuf and Stream Buf, as shown in the fol lowing graphic .
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Sec /ioll 8: Modelillg

Don't worry that the output dataset is only partly visible. You'll fi x this later with the Auto Layout tool. The Union tool is not yet colored in because it has no input data. To define the two buffer darasets as the inputs, you will add connector lines. (Previously, you d ropped input data directly on rhe buffer tools and Mode/Builder made the con nections for yo u.)
14 Cli ck the Ad d Connect ion tool.

15 In t he Model Builder window, not ice that t he cursor changes (it looks like a magic
wa nd .) Cl ick the green NestBuf oval and t hen click the Union tool. In the context menu that appears, click Input Features.
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Creating modds

551

16 Click th e green StreamBuf oval, th en click t he Union tool to add a second connector line.
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The new connector line is cyan, and the one you added before turns black. Now you will arrange the model and zoom out to see all its elements.
17 Click the Auto Layout button, then click the Full Extent button.

You see the entire model, although you may not be able to read the labels. Enlarge the ModeiBuilder window if you like, and again click the Auto Layout and Full Extent buttons.
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Section 8: Madd ing

18 Double-click the Union tool.

In the Union dialog box, NestBuf and StreamBuf are the input features <as you specified}. You will change the name of the output feature class.
19 Click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Feature Class dialog box, navigate, if necessary, to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter20\ MyData and doubleclick MyTongass.mdb. In the Name box, type NoCutArea. Click Save.
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20 Click OK to close the tool.

The NoCutArea layer marks the territory rhat is off-limits to tree harvesting. But the NoCutArea polygons are simply zones drawn around nest and stream features-they don't tell you which forest stands can or cannot be harvested. To find Out, you must overlay the no-cut area with a layer of forest stands for Lease F. This overlay will split forest stand polygons wherever they cross NoCutArea polygons. In the output dataset, every polygon will lie either completely inside the no-cut area or completely outside it. <Stands that do not cross the no-cut area don't have to be split.) After the overlay, you will have a layer of forest stands in which every polygon has an attribute that identifies it as harvestable or not. You will then go on to recalculate the values of the harvestable stands in the next exercise.

Crt'flling mot/l'ls

553

21 In the ArcToolbox window, click the Union tool. Drag and drop it underneath the
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554

Smioll 8: Modeling

23 Make sure the Add Connection tool is still active. Click the green NoCutArea ova l, then
click the Union (2) tool to add a connector line. In the context menu that appears, click Input Features.

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24 On the ModelBuilder tool bar, click Auto Layout, then click Full Extent.
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Creating lII udels

555

26 In the Union (2) dialog box, click the Browse button next to the Output Feature Class box. In the Output Featu re Class dialog box, navigate, if necessa ry, to \GTKArcGIS \Chapler20\MyDala and double-cl ick MyTongass.mdb. In the Name box, type NoCulAndSlands, then click Save .
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27 Click OK to close t he tool. 28 In the model, right-click the green NoCut AndStands oval (the element fa rthest to the right in the model) and click Add To Disp lay.

The model now has four processes- two buffers and two overlays-and is ready to run . The nest buffer process, which ran in the previous exercise, will not run again. (It still has drop shadows under the tool and output data elements.)
29 Click t he Ru n button to run the model.

In the processes that have not been run, the tools turn red as they execute.

556

Sarion 8: Moddil/g

30 When th e model is done, click Close on the progress report.

In the ModelBuilder window, all processes are drop-shadowed. In ArcMap, the
NoCutAndStands layer is added to the map. 31 On th e ModelBuilder tool bar, cli ck the Save button.

32 Close the model. 33 Close the ArcToolbox window.
Your edits to the model are saved to the model 's tOolbox file when you click the Save button in ModelBuilder. You don't need to save changes to the map document.

t

34 If you are cont inu ing with th e next exercise, leave ArcMap open. Otherwise, exit the
application. Click No if prompted to save your changes.

Enhancing a model
So far, your model has made use of two ana lysis tools, Buffe r and Union. ModelBuilder lets you use many other kinds of tools as well. The Data Management toolbox contains the
Make Feature Layer tool, which creates an ArcMap selection laye r from a query, and the Calculate Field tool, which uses a logical or mathematica l ex press ion ro change record values

for a field in a tab le.

Exercise 20c
In this exercise, you wi ll complete the Harvest Profitability model. First, yo u will use the Make N ew Layer too l to qu ery for ha rvestable stands and to create a selection layer from them.

You may recall from chapter 12 that when two laye rs are overlaid, the output layer has the attributes of both input layers, includ ing their flO fields. If an output fea ture spatially corresponds to an inpu t feature from Layer X, it gets that feature's identifier in its flO_Layer X field . Otherwise, it gets the value -1 in this field instead . The prev ious output from your model was the NoCutAndStands layer. It has FlO attributes from the two layers it unioned: NoC utArea and StandsF. The important attr ibute for you r ana lysis is FlO _NoCu tArea. If a NoC utA ndStands polygon has the value -1 in this field, it means that the polygon does not spatially correspond to a featufe from NoC utArea; in other words, the polygo n is harvesrable. This is the vital piece of information you need to construct yo ur query.

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NoCulAndStands po lygons with FID_NoC utArea > 0 are inside the no-c ut area and cannot be ha rvested.

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NoCutAndStands polygo ns with FID _NoCutArea = -1 are outside th e no-cut area and ca n be harvested .

558

Seerioll 8, Modding

After selecting harvestable stands, you will use the Calculate Field tool to recalculate their values. Many of these stands are new polygons that were split during the union of the StandsF and NoC utArea layers in the last exercise. These new polygons have correct atea values, because ArcM ap updated their Shape_Area arrribure automatically. They have incorrect StandValue attributes, however. StandValue is calculated by multiplying Shape_ Area and ValuePerMeter, but ArcMap does not update calculated fields on irs own.
In Arc Map, open ex20c .mxd from the C:\ESRIPress\GTKArcGIS\Chapter20 folder.

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In the map you see the nests, streams, and stands oflease F. Once again, you will add the Harvest Models toolbox to ArcToolbox.
2 Click th e ArcTool box window button . In ArcToolbox, right- click a blank area and click Add Toolbox. In t he Add Toolbox dia log box, navigate to \GTKArcGIS\Chapter20 \MyToolboxes. Click Harvest Models and click Open. In ArcToolbox , click th e plus sign next to Harvest Models to expand it. Right-c lick t he Harvest Profitability model and click Edit.

3

Creating modds

559

The model looks as it did at the end of the previous exercise.
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5 In ArcToolbox, click the plus sign next to the Data Management Tools toolbox. Click the plus sign next to the Layers and Table Views tools. Click the Make Feature Layer tool, then drag and drop it to the upper right corner of the model, as shown in the following graphic.
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560

Smioll 8.. Morle/mg

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Creati ng wudels

561

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Doub le-cli ck the Make Feature Layer tool. (It is now the yellow rectangle fart hest to the right.)

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You will write an SQL query to select harvestable stands and make a selection layer
from them. This operation does not create a new dataset. The selection layer is based

on the NoCurAndStands dataset that already exists. (NoCutAndStands is the last actual dataset that the model will produce.)
10 In th e Output Layer box, replace the defau lt name with Harvest Stands. 11 Next to th e Expression box, click the SQL button to open t he Query Builder dia log box.
To select stands outside the no-cut area, you will create the expression [FID_NoCutAreal = -1.

12 In the Fields scro lling box, double-c lick [F ID_NoCutAreaJ to add it to t he expression box. Click the equals (=) button . Press the space bar, and type -1.

562

Swioll 8: Alodelillg

13 Make sure t hat your expression matches the fo llowing graph ic, then cl ick OK .
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14 Click OK on the Make Feature Layer dialog box.

Next, you will recalculate the stand value of the harvestable stands. Some of these stands (the ones that weren't split during the las t overlay) still have correct stand values, but many do not. 15 In the ArcToo lbox window, undern eath Data Ma nagement Tools , click t he plus sign
next to Fi elds. Click the Calcul ate Fi eld tool. Drag and drop the too l in th e upper right corn er of t he model, as shown in the fo llowing graph ic .

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Creating lIIodels

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16 Make sure the Add Connection tool is still active. Click the green Harvest Stands oval ,
th en cl ick the Ca lcu late Field tool to add a connec tor line between them . In the context menu that appears, click Input Table.
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17 Click the Auto Layout button, then cl ick t he Fu ll Extent button.

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18 Double-cl ick the Ca lculate Field tool (the white rectangle) to open the Ca lculate Field dialog box.

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19 Cl ick the Field Name drop-down arrow and click StandValue. 20 Next to the Expression box, click the Calculator button to open the Field Calculator. 21 In the Fields scrolling box, double-click Shape_Area to add it to the expression box. Click the multiplication (*) button. In the Fields scrolling box, double-click ValuePerMeter.
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Cmllillg models

565

22 Click at the beginning of the expression and type an open parenthesis "(" followed
by a space . Click at the end of the expression and type a space followed by a close parenthesis ")". Click the division ( I ) button, then type a space and type 1000000. Make sure your expression matches the one in the following graphic, then cl ick OK on the Field Calcu lator.

The Calculate Field dialog box is updated with the expression.

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23 Click OK to close the tool.
Now that the expression has been entered, the process is colored in. You are ready to

run the model. (Again, only processes that haven't run before will run .)

24 Cli ck the Run button to run the model.

566

Seer;on 8: Modcling

25 When the model is fini shed running, close the progress report.

You will add the Harvest Stands (2) layer to ArcMap and check the resul ts of your calculatio n.
26 In the model, right-click the green Harvest Stands (2) oval and cl ick Add To Display.

ModeIElI:InseIt~'tIo\'Idows~

iI ~

...

w ~ )(

.., f"

~

:: fJ :=:: l!4 e1 It .'

~ .,

I~~~~~~;:}.~:.J~t{.i:.~.LJ:4.~~-(

Harvest Stands (2)

I

~

..
.

Although Harvest Stands and H arvest Stands (2) are separate elements in the model, they represent the same selection layer. Th is layer is added ro ArcMap.
27 In t he ArcMap table of contents, right-c lick the Harvest Stands layer and click Open Attribute Table. Right-click the StandValue fi eld name and click Statistics.
\I,."" ,,,,110' ", ~ ,,"\I

""I>

?

fx

0.0

1.8

) .2

U

1.5

' .1

U

The sum of the recalculated values is 1,052.076982. Since the values are in millions, this is slightly over a billion dollars. Note: You may have noticed ModelBuilder has given a slightly different sum than when you performed each step separately in chapter 12. This is due ro rounding tech niques, and the effect is negligible.

Creatillg models

567

28 Close the statistics window. Close the Attributes of Harvest Stands table. 29 On the ModelBuilder tool bar, click the Save button to save the model.

30 Click the Model menu and click Close. In ArcMap, close the ArcToolbox window.
31 Click the File menu and click Exit. Click No when prompted to save your changes.

The model that you have created in this chaptet is really just a part of a complete Harvest Profitability model. The model could be expanded to include the data pteparation operations- like Dissolve and Clip-that you used in chapter 11. Another piece could analyze the costs of harvesting: ctews have to be brought in to cut down the trees, load them on trucks, and remove them from the forest. Some of the analysis might be geospatial and some might be purely computational-you have seen that ModelBuilder can do both. At the end of this exercise, you got the total harvestable stand value the old-fashioned way: by opening the table, right-clicking the field, and opening the Statistics window. With a little programming knowledge, you could write a script to do this using the Python programming language that comes with ArcGIS. (Scripts can be added to a model as tools.) When the model ran, the script would access the table, sum the stand values, and report the total in a pop-up window. Your model would then be fully automated. As mentioned in the chapter introduction, ModelBuilder makes it easy to repeat an analysis on different project data. In this chapter, you calculated the hatvest value for lease F, but you might be asked to do the same for anothet lease. The Data folder for chapter 20 contains a geodatabase called LeaseB.mdb with feature classes for the stands, nests, and streams of lease B. On your own, you might want to try adapting the Harvest Profitability model to work with this data. If you decide to do that, you have a little more modeling ahead of you. If not, your work is done. You have come to the end of Getting to Know ArcGIS Desktop.

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

Scanned by Sunbeam Rahman

APPENDIX A

Data license agreement

Inportant: Read carefully belore opening the sealed nedia package
ENVTRoNNTENTAL

SysrEMs REsEARoH

lNsrrurE lNc, (ESRI)
coNDtroNs

rs

wrtrruc ro

LrcENsE THE ENcLosED DATA AND RELATED

MATERIALS TO YOU ONLY UPON THE COND TION THAT YOU ACCEPT ALL OF THE TERN,IS AND CONDITIONS CONTAINED IN THIS LICENSE

eentrvrtqt. PLrese

READ THE TERMs AND

CAREFULLy BEFoRE opENtNG THE SEALED MEDTA pAcKAGE.

By

opENtNG

THE SEALED rvrEDrA PAOKAGE, ARE TNDTCATTNG youR AccEprANcE oF THE ESRI LtcENsE AGREEMENT, lF you Do Nor AGREE To rHE TERMS AND coNDrroNs AS srATED, THEN ESRI rs UNW|LLTNG To L]CENSE THE DATA AND RELATED tvrATERlALs ro you,

you

lr sucr rvrrr,

you sHouLD

RETURN THE MEDTA pAcKAGE

wtrH

THE sEAL UNBRoKEN AND ALL orHER corvlpoNENTS To

ESRI.

570

Ditd |i[e

te

aqftana t

ESRI

license agreenent

This is a license agreement, and not an agreement for sale, between you (Licensee) and Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI). This ESRI License Agreement (Agreement) gives Licensee cenain limited rights to use the data and related materials (Data and Related Materials). All rights not specifically granted in this Agreement are reserved to ESRI and its Licensors.
Reseruation of Ownership and Grant of License: ESRI and its Licensors retain exclusive rights,

title, and ownership to the copy ofthe Data and Related Materials licensed under this Agreement and, hereby, grant to Licensee a personal, nonexclusive, nontransferable, royaltyfree, worldwide license to use the Data and Related Materials based on the terms and conditions ofthis Agreement. Licensee agrees to use reasonable effort to protect the Data and Related Materials from unauthorized use, reproduction, distribution, or publication.
Proprietary Righx and Copyight: Licensee acknowledges that the Data and Related Materials are proprietary and confidential property ofESRI and its Licensors and are protected by United States copyright laws and applicable international copyright treaties and/or conventions.

Permitted Ues: Licensee may install the Data and Related Materials onto permanent storage device(s) for Licenseet own internal use.
Licensee may make only one (1) copy of the original Data and Related Materials for archival purposes during the term ofthis Agreement unless the right to make additional copies is granted to Licensee in writing by ESRI. Licensee may internally use the Data and Related Materials provided by ESRI for the stated

purpose of GIS rraining and education.
Ues Not Permhted: Licensee shall not sell, rent, lease, sublicense, lend, assign, time-share, or transfer, in whole or in part, or provide unlicensed Third Parties access to the Data and Related Materials or portions ofthe Data and Related Materials, any updates, or Licensee's rights under this Agreement. Licensee shall not remove or obscure any copyright or trademark notices

ofESRI or its

Licensors. license granted to Licensee by this Agreeme nt shall commence upon the acceptance ofthis Agreement and shall continue unril such time that Licensee elects in writing to discontinue use of the Data or Related Materials and terminates this Agreement. The Agreement shall automadcally terminate without notice iflicensee fails to comply wirh any provision ofthis Agreement. Licensee shall then return to ESRI the Data and Related Materials. The parties hereby agree that all provisions that operate to protecr the rights ofESRI and its Licensors shall remain in force should breach occur.

hrm and Termination: the

Appel]dt^-

A

57I

Disclaimer of Wananty:1he Data and Related Materials conrained herein are provided "as-is," without warranty ofany kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or noninfringement. ESRI does not warrant that th€ Data and Related Materials will meet Licenseet neids or expectations, that the use ofthe Data and Related Materials will be uninterrupted, or that all nonconformitie s, defects, or errors can or will be corrected. ESRI is not inviting reliance on the Data or Related Materials for commercial planning or analysis purposes, and Licensee should always check actual data. Data Disclaimer:The Data used herein has been derived fiom actual spatial or tabular information. In some cases, ESRI has manipulated and applied certain assumptions, analyses, and opinions to the Data solely for educational training purposes. Assumptions, analyses, opinions applied, and actual outcomes may vary. Again, ESRI is not inviting reliance on this Data, and the Licensee should always verifr actual Data and exercise their own professional judgment when interpreting any outcomes.

Limitation of Liability:

E SF.I shall not be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages related to Licensee's use ofthe Data and Related Materials, even if ESRI is advised ofthe possibility of such damage.

No Implied Waiuers: No failure or delay by ESRI or its Licensors in enforcing any right or remedy under this Agreement shall be construed as a waiver ofany future or other exercise ofsuch right or remedy by ESRI or its Licensors.

Orderfor Precedenrr: Any conflict between the terms ofthis Agreement and any FAR, DFAR, purchase order, or other terms shall be resolved in favor ofthe terms expressed in this Agreement, subject to the government's minimum rights unless agreed otherwise.
Export Regulation: Licensee acknowledges that this Agreement and the performance thereof are subject to compliance with any and all applicable United States laws, regulations, or orders relating to the export ofdata thereto. Licensee agrees to comply with all laws, regulations, and orders ofthe United States in regard to any export of such technical data. Seuerability: If any provision(s) of this Agreement shall be held to be invalid, illegal, or unenforceable by a court or oth€r ffibunal ofcompetent jurisdiction, the validity, legality, and enforceability ofthe remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby. Gouerning Law: This Agreement, entered into in the County ofSan Bernardino, shall be construed and enforced in accordance with and be governed by the laws ofthe United States ofAmerica and the State of California without reference to conflict of laws principles. The parties hereby consent to the personal jurisdiction ofthe courts ofthis county and waive their rights to change venue. Entire Agreement: The parties agree that this Agreement constitutes the sole and entire agreement ofthe parties as to the matter set forth herein and supersedes any previous agreements, understandings, and arrangements between the parties relating hereto.

lnstalling the data and software
Getting to Know ATcGIS Deshtop inch:des one CD with exercise data. A trial version ofArcGIS Desktop 10, ArcEditor license (single use) software can be downloaded at www.esri.com/esripress. Use the code printed on the inside back cover of this book to access the download site. Note: the code can only be used once.

Installation ofthe exercise data CD takes about five minutes and requires 153 megabytes ofhard
disk space.

Installation ofthe software requires at least 2.4 gigabytes ofhard disk space (more ifyou choose to load the optional extension products). Installation times will vary with your computer's speed
and available memory.

Ifyou already have a licensed copy ofArcGIS Desktop 10 installed on your computer (or accessible through a network), do not install the software. Use your licensed sofrware to do the exercises in this book. Ifyou have an older version ofArcGIS installed on your computer, you must uninstall it before you can install the software from the download site.
The exercises in this book have been modified to work with ATcGIS 10. Using another version the software is not recommended.

of

574

/t,',,t/llt,4 rl., ,t,t,t ,t.t,l t'1n,,1.,

Installing the exercise data
Follow the steps below to install the exercise data. Do not copy the files directly from the CD to your hard drive. A direct 6le copy does not remove write-protection from the files, and this causes data editing exercises not to work. In addition, a direct 6le copy will not enable the automatic uninstall feature.

1

Put the data CD in your computer's CD drive. A start-up screen will appear. lf your auto run is disabled, navigate to the contents of your CD drive and double-click the Setup.exe file to begin.

Read the welcome screen, then click the lnstall exercise data link. This aunches the Setup wizard.

wetolle to tt€ tnst lstl€5 wL.rd tor
6etth9 to

llr

Ardls D€sftop - lrer*e
yd @puFr Toofru, dd
l Gctrr{

firrrEdshrld8)l.a:dn{ ftt
D.*to9

.EEd

06r. F

L (no{

ATCGIS

e
GIL

\

llRt8{6r n$ progrM

is

Fot

rrd bv

..proht hq sd

,

i.,'

T-N",r

'---'l

f- c.,.r-l

3

Click Next. Read and accept the license agreement terms, then click next.

lppcndix

I)

575

Accept the default installation folder or click Browse and navigate to ihe drive or folder location where you want to install the data. lf you choose an alternate location, please make note of it as the book's exercises direct you to CIESRlPress\GTKArcolS.

ffir*",...'*t
hilC.!t!t l(d lr.GE c:FPrdt; as\

*,rdi ';n*..,
D.C(!p

t'0.. O
f elr-r.a":l

-Eltts

D.b br

l .!.4- --f-

tr't >---')

- t-.d--I

Click Next. The installation will take some time. When the installation is finished, you see the following message:

tnstaGih&ld

wkad cdpbred

n

I6t l6hl& w6d

rcE* arccls

d@ ' Esd.

hB

*rt*tu

y

D!ts. dd( Fni+

rEt.|ld c.{ino t t drt iltr

.i"; 'l- A---] L' i"".a

:

Click Finish. The exercise data is installed on your computer in a folder called
GTKATcGIS.

Ifyou

have a licensed copy ofArcGIS Desktop 10 installed on your computer, you are ready to start Getting to Know ATcGIS Deshtop. Otherwise, follow the "Installing the software" instructions to install and register the software.

576

Installing the data and sofrware

Uninstalling the exercise data
To uninstall the exercise data from your computel open your operating system's control panel and double-click the Add/Remo-ve Programs icon. In the Add/Remove Programs dialog box, select the following entry and follow the promprs to remove ie

.

.

Getting to Know ATcGIS Desktop Exercise Data

Appendix

B

577

lnstalling the software
A
180-day trial version ofArcGIS Desktop 10, ArcEditor license (single use) software can be downloaded at www.esri,com/esripress. Use the code printed on tLe inside back cover ofthis book to access the download site, and follow the on-screen instructions to download and

register the software.

574

Installing tbe dau and sofrwn,e

Uninstalling the software
To uninstall the sofrware from your computer, open your operating system's control panel and double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon. In the Add/Remove Programs dialog bo:6 select the following entry and follow the prompts to remove it:

.

ATcGIS Desktop

INDEX

adding data ro ArcMap,74J5, lOO, 113, 235, 484 adding 6elds, 385-86, 439-40 addrcss locator services. Sae geocoding: address locator
servic€s address matching. Saa geocoding: matching addresses

attribute values,44. Sea a/so artributes; 6elds in buffer operations, 312, 317 calctiating, 332, 334-35, 436, 440-41, 557,

562-65

defa t,393,399
in dissolve operations, 281, 285286 edtttng, 400, 476,436-38,463, 472 in overlay operations, 311,321,326,329, 557 attributes, 6-8, 99, 204,230. See also attribrte vahes;
6elds; selecting features: by attribute common, in table join s and relates,230-231,237,

advancedArcMap settings, 359 annotation, 17 6, 19 6, 199 -201 ArcCatalog, 14-17, 54-55 6le extensions, displaying, 56, 370 folder connections, 56-58 geodatabases, creating in, 370-71 launching from ArcMap, 449 rr,erad,atl., 64-65, 68, 344, 351 previewing data in, 60-61, 63, 7 1-73 searching for data in, 66-71 thumbnails, 60-61 toolboxes, creating in, 536 ArcEditor, 74, 284, 369, 370, 41,6, 427
ATcGIS Desktop, 14-17 ATcGIS extension

238,243,248
default values for, 390, 399 domains for, 368, 384, 387-90 identiGer (saa identifier attributes)

prodrcts,76

17,

122,416

bookmarks, 34 41 brtrers, 244, 262, 3lO, 312 crel'ting, 31420, 547-43, 547 -48 dissolving barriers in, 312, 315, 3I7

ATcGIS system, 18

Atclnfo, 74, 284, 368, 369, 416,427 ArcMap, 14-15,20-27
application window, sizlng, 21, 5Ol, 507 d,ata,view,7415, 80 launching from ArcC atalog, 76, 349-50, 539
layout view, 74, 80 ArcReader, 14

CAD 6les, 54, 368, 416
calculating 6elds, 332, 334 35, 436, 440 41, 557, 562-65. See ako editing attribure values cardinality, of tables, 231 32 chartsymbols, 161, 168J0
charts.
Saa

Ariloolbox, 280, 288-89,536.
names

See

abo aolboxes; and

graphs

of specifc geoprocetsing operations ArcYlew, 14, 284, 416, 427 anribute tables.
Saa tables

classirying featur€s and rasters, 132 33 by Defrned Interval method, 134 by Equal Interval method, l34, l4O

histograms, 138 49, 148-49 by Manual method, 134, 145, 147-50

580
c Iass ify i n g fea ta re r ax

d u * e r s (con t i nu e d) by Natural Breaks me thod., 134, 136-38,

140-42,147
number ofclasses, setting, 138, 142 by Quantile method, 134, l4l showing class ranges using feature values, 143-44 clipping features, 280, 296, 299 -302
cluster tolerance, 425

Data Frame Properties dialog box, opening, 86, 352 date f rames, 74-1 5, 7 8 -19, 47 5 activating, 105, 354 background color of, 96, 181 and coordinate systems, 344-47,352, 357, 360 and discontinuous geo gtephy, 346-47

inserting, 78
and map elements, 517, 520 moving, 80, 504

color ramps,

l2l, 126J8,

132, 137

color schemes, 102-4 colors, custom,513-14

renaming, ST-88
resizing,

504-5

coordinate systems, 4-5 , 357,377. See also map pro.jections; projecting data and data frames, 344- 47, 352-53, 357, 360 geo?raphic, 347,344, 346,357, 483 importing (ree projecting data) and rnetadaa, 64, 344,350 ptojected,, 342, 344, 483 s€tting (rrr projecting data) unknown, 352 379-80
coordinates, 5, 8, 344 -45,357,360, 376. See also data, x,y, displaying geographic (latitude-lo ngitude), 68, 345, 357,

selecting,503 unselecting, 486
data view 15, 74J 5, 80, 100 decimal degrees, 48J default values for attributes, 390,400

definition queries, 2/2 J 4, 33243 deleting features. .ire editing features: by deleting them density, mapping, 132-33, 154-59 digitizing features, 392-93, 397-400
dissolving features, 28 distance, measuring, domains

0-81,282-89, 428

377,482-83
pro lecred,,

41 42, 259,261-63,276

342, 482-83

copying and pasting
data in ArcCatalog, 377, 384 layers in ArcMap, 82-83,354,365 coverages, 368, 370,

attrilxtre, 368, 384, 387 -9 0 spat\el,377
dot density maps, 132-33, 156-59 Draw toolbar, 20, 176, 181, 196-97, 489-95 drawing graphics. Sae graphics, adding to maps; texti adding to maps

372J 3,

416, 439

creating features, 392-93 with Auto Complete Polygon tool, by digitizir'g, 39 2-93, 39 6 -9 9

403-6

with Distanc€-Distance tool, 406-8 by geocoding, 460-61 with line segment tools

eatth, shape of, 341
edges (edit sLetch), f!3, 397,400,417, 424 edit sessions, 393,400, 419, 441

direction,4l0 letgth,405,417
parallel, 404

beginning,393, 395 erding,393,396
and freld calculations, 436,441 and topology, 427

with Square and Finish command, 412

data- See aho layers

addingto ArcMap,77J8, 112, 123,234, 484

fo ' 54, 59, 368 exporting, 303, 305-6 formats, 54 ptgecting, 344-346, 352-56, 357, 37 I J 9
icons
raster,

4,

121

renaming, 370 searching for, 66-70
vector, 3, 392
x,y, displaying, 484

edit sketches, 393, 396, 397, 417, 420J2, 464 editing attribute valu€ s,400,416, 436-38, 464, 472. Saa a/sa calculating 6elds editing feaures, 416 -17, 428 by deleting them, 418-19 by merging them, 423 by modi$'ing their sh apes, 421J7 by splitting them, 430-33 Editor toolbar, 393, 395 endpoints (edit sketch), 393
Equal Interval classification, 134, 140

Intltt
Escape key, using on context menus, 405 events, 487 geocoding (continued)

581

exporting data, 303, 305-6 ,370 exporting maps, 495 extension products, 16-17, 122, 416
extensions, 6le, 54, 371

creating,448-53 finding addresses, 456-58
matching addresses, 454, 456- 64 rematching addresses, 465 by editing addresses, 468-69 by editing standardization, 47 lJ 3 by lowering spelling sensit*ity, 47012 scoring ofcandidates, 454, 456, 463
table, our"prt, 463, 474 geodalrbases, 168-69.
geodatabases
See

feature classes, 59, 368 creating in g€odatabases, 377,

378-83

alra multiuser

importing to geodatabases, 37 21 6 FID 6eld. Saa identifier attributes features, 3-10. .9aa a/ro records
buffering (rae buffers, creating) clipping (saa clipping features) creating (re? creating f€aures)

annotation in, 177 appearance ofin ArcCaralog, 58 area and length attriburcs in,288, 400, 416,428

creatlng,355-56
creating feature classes in, 377, 378-83 default values in, 390 domains in, 368, 384, 387-89,390 importing feature clas ses to,373J7 toolboxes in, 540

digitizing (rra digitizing features)
dissolving (saa dissolving feaures) editing (see editing features) 6.nding, 204, 205,213-15, 456-58 hid\ng, 273J4,332-34 hyperlinkl,ng, 204, 205, 213-15

topology 483

h,

427

geographic coordinate systems, 341, 344, 346, 357, geographic information systems (GIS), 1-l Geography toolbar, 61, 62 geoprocessing, 280, 287, See abo names of specifc ge oP r o c e5 t in g op e la tiorl t graduated colors, 132, 136-37, 155-56 graduated symbols,

identifying
labeling

(saa

identifying features)

intersecting,3ll,322
(.ree

l,

534

labeling features)

selecting (ra? s€lecting features) selection color, changing, 211

symbolizing

(ree

symbolizing features)
323

lnloning, 3ll, 327-22,

-25,

553

-56

\3213,

161,

163-67

8e1ds,6,43,384. See a/ro attributes; records; tables; and names of Eecifc felds

graphics, adding to maps, 489, 490-91, 512-13 .9ea a/ro text: adding to maps
gr

addtng,385-86, 439-40

calculatirry, 332, 334-35, 436, 440-41, 557-60 common, in table joins and relates, 230-31, 236,

238,243,248
freezing,236

Eta'phs,290,291-94 eti(ltles, 24, 3 40, 47 8 adding to maps, 480-82 guides (layout view), 501-3

hiding,44-45
order, changing,

46-47
histograms, 138-39, 140-41 hyperlinking features, 204, 205, 211-13

renamed,322, 326,329
resizing, 44-45 statistics for, 49-50, 286-87,566

file extensions, showing, 56, 371 Fnding features, 204, 205,213-15, 456-58 formatting labels (symbology), 142-43, 150-51

identifier attributes (FID and OBJECTID), 44, 281,

381,428,432 in Union operations, 321J2,324-26, 557 identifying features

geocoding, 460-61
address locator services, 446

ir

AtcCaralog, 62, 66

in ArcMap, 32, 204, 206, 275

addtng, 455-56

582
importing symbology, 307-08
intersecting features,
layouts (continued)

3ll,

322

joining tables, 23 0-33 , 235 -39, 247, 255. See also relatirg tables

labeling features. Sea a&o labels dynamically, 30-31, 95-96, interactively, 197-98
labels, 176, 177, 185, 196

17

8-80, 331

legends tn,517,522J4 neatlines in, 528-29 north arrows in, 518 ordering map elements in, 514-15 page orientation of, 499,501,529 pictur€s in, 528-29 previewing and printi ng, 529-30 reports, adding to, 227 rotating map el€ments in, 5ll
scete D^ts tn, ) | /, )

t)-22
table of contents

annotation, converting to, 199-200 attribute used for, 178-80, 183-84 moving, 198, 200-l overlapping, 189, 191 placing, 185, 186-87, 193-94 prioritizing, 189-90 scale-dependency of, 3 6, 194-95, 245, 418 symbolizing, 179-80, 182, 190-91

sizing map elements in,504-6, 522, 524, 528 titles in, 78, 494, 508, 509-10 leger.ds, 577,

522J4.

Sce a/.ra

lines, de6ned, 3, 5, 392

latitude-longitude,

2J

,345,357, 377, 476

magniEcation window, 38-39 manual classification, 134, 144, 147-50
map documents, 24, 33, 58, 74, 479 map layouts. .Scr layouts

layer attribute tables. Saa tables layer 6les (.1y0, 54, 59,73,91,111

-80

previewirg,7lJ3,348
saving layers as,
layers, 2,

ll8-l!

map projections, 341-43,344-47. See aho coordinate systems; projecting data

Layer Properties dialo gbox,

opening,26J7, 106

de6,ning,357-64
map templates,

aho data; layet frles adding to display, 288, 543 copying and pasting, 83-84, 354, 365 default symbology for, 82,92, 287 draw order of, 25J6, 125 map tips for, 31 projecting (.raa projecting data) renaming, 29 saving as .lyr 6les, ll8-19 scale-dependency of, 3 6, 146, 244 s€lected features, makirg from, 280, 297-98,
See

9-ll, 24J5.

475J9

map tips, 31, 198, 241 measuring distance, 4l-42, 259, 261-63, 276 metadara, 64-65, 69, 344

ModelBuilder, 337, 53 4-36. See abo models ModelBuilder toolbar, 536, 538
models, 534-36 aligning elements in, 548, J51 creating, 536-37 displaying output in AtcMap, 543, 555, 566 edltlng, 540, 547 processes in, 534

557,559-62
setting selectable, 206, 249, 297 symbolizing (see symbolizing features; symbolizing rasters) transparency of, 128-29, 152 turning on and off, 2J with unknown coordinate systems, 357, 379-80 zooming to, 126 Layout toolbar, 78
lavour vrew.

addiry,541,549,559 connecl"in}, 549-50, 554, 560
states of, 547, 544, 555^56

running, 544, 555 multipart polygons, 317, 321, 428 multinser geodatabase s,368, 416, 439

t), /4. /u
Natural Breaks classification, 734, 136-38, 140-42, t47 neatlines. 528-29 normalizing data, 154, 155-56
north arrows, 517-18

layovs, 498, 499
aligning map elements \n, 501, 502-3, 514-15, 522 data frames in, 79, 500-1, 503*5 graphs, adding to, 294 grouping map elements in, Jll guides in, 501-3

583
OBJECTID 6eld.
See identifier attributes on-the-fly projection, 344^46, 352-56, 357 overlapping labels. Sea labels, overlapping

rePotts,221 adding to layouts, 228

overlay analysis, 9-11, 311,321J2. See abo intersecting features; unioning features

cteatilr8,222-23 formatting,225-27 pteviewing,226,228 prlntlng,227

pannlng, 31, 36, 479-80, 506-:7, 549 pictures as hyperlink objects, 204,212-13 inlayotns, 527--28 points, de6ned, 3, 5, 392 polygons, defned, 3, 5,392.
See

scale,

5-6,30,36,90
519-22

scale 6a:,s, 517,

scale-d€pendency. .Src labels: scale-dependency of; layers: scale-dependency of selecting features by attribute, 205, 216, 217-20, 253, 267-68
(rea

abo

multipart polygons
previewing data, 60-61, 63, 7 1-72 prime meridian, 24, 340

alo defnition

queries)

interactively, 204, 208-9, 249, 297-98

by location, 258-59, 261-64, 269
selection anchors, 419 selection

J0, 304-5

printing
mePs,529-30 reports,227 projected coordinate systems, 342, 344, 483

color,2ll

selection layers, making, 280, 297-98, 557, 559-62 selecdon method, settirg, 208, 259, 261, 263 selection tolerance, setting,
shape fr,eld,,

prgecting data, 344446, 352-56, 357, 379-80.
Sre a/ra coordinare sysrems; map

projections

2O6J

projection 6les (.prj), 357, 358, 362 proportional symbols, 132, 133 pyramids (tasters), 124

44, 230, 317, 381

Shape_Area 6eld, 275 , 283, 289, 317, 334,382, 428 Shape-Length 6eld, 289, 317, 382, 427 shapefrles,368
appearance

ofin ArcCatalog, 59 coordinate sysrem information oi 357
importing to geodatab ases,374J6
map topology, creating for, 427

Quantile classification, 134, 14l queries, .Srr dcGnition queries; selecring features: by arrriburel selecring features: by location

Sketch tool,392, 397, 406, 437 snapping environment, 394, 396-97, 405, 424, 431

sorting records.
rasters,

See

lecords

a/ra dassifring features and rasters; symbolizing rasters
See

4,7OJl, l2l-22,123-25.
See a/sa

sorting spatial analysis,3l0, 332 538. Sae also buffers; intersecting features; unioning features spatial data. Ser data spatial joilLs,276J7

rc.otds,7,44,47.

6elds; tables

in buffer operations, 317, 319 clearing selected, 48 in dednition queries, 334 in merge operations, 432,438 in overlay opetations, 321-22
selecting, 47-48,209 selection color, changing, 211 showing selected, 210, 250 sorting, 49-50, 210 refreshing

speti^l rcfetence, 377. See aho cootdin te systems: unknown; map projections: defrning;
pro.iecting data spatial relationships, 8 -9,258,259,276, sel€cting f€atures: by location Standard toolbar
See

ako

avie*,

177, 373

in ArcCatalog, 54, 56 in ArcMap, 20-21, l13
statistics, 50-51, 189-90, 336, 566 Structured Query Language (SQL), 216, 561 styles (symbology),90, 111, 115-lZ 488 surfaces, 3.
S??

relating tables, 230-32, 243, 247-55
Sre a6o joining tables rcnaming data in ArcCatalog,3Tl

renaming layers in ArcMap, 28

46, rasters

584
symbolizing features, 9O-92,132-33.
See

also

classifying features and rasters; table ofcontents: formatting labels in; text: symbolizing by category, 100-4, 106-9, ll4-18, 240-42 by chart, 161, 168-71 by quantity with dot density, 13243,156-59 with graduated colors, 132-33 136-37, 155-56 with graduated symbols, 132-33, 161, 163-67

vertic.es.392. 421,43L See a/so crearing fearuresr edrUng tearures adding, 397, 404,422J3 color of, 477, 426

moving,422
sharedl 417, 424 vi,rtual page, 74, 79,
47 5,

479.

See

ako layonts

with proportional symbols, 132-33 by single symbol, 85-86, 94-95
symbolizing rasters, 721, 127.
See abo classlfying features and rasters by classified values, 147-49,146 by stretched values, 12l-28

xy data, displaying, 484

symbology, importing, 307

zooming, 5,29 in ArcCatalog, 62 in data view to a bookmark,40-41, 130 to full extent, 33, 34

table ofcontents, 2, 20, 21, 24

to alayer,37,l30
to selected features, 254, 271

formatting labels in, 142-43, 150-51, 164-65
Source tab in, 235,

246,447,484

obles,7,43.

to a uset-defined extent, 29, 35 in layout view

See

ako frelds; records

adding to ArcMap, 235,246,484

to

100 percent, 479

catdinality of, 232, 243

joiting, 230-33, 236-40, opening, 44,236, 484

247, 255

to a user-defined €xtent, 490 to whole page, 282, 494

relatirg, 23 0 -32, 243, 247 -55 tabular data, displaying, 485-87

templates,475J9

te\t,176
adding to maps, 179-81,493 moving, 183, I98 symbolizing, 182, 493, 509 thematic maps, 8 thumbnails in ArcCatalog, 60
toolbars, 20, 21, 54, toolhoxes, 284.
See

abo namet ofspecifc nolbar:

See also

Ariloolbox

qe ting, 536-37 'f ools toolb ar, 20, 21, 22 opology, 417, 424-26
transparency, 129, 152

adding to Ariloolbox , 540-41, 546,47, 558

Undo button, 393, 397, 440 unioning features, 311 ,121-22,323-25,549 53

values.

.9ee attribute values vector data, 3, 392

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