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EARLY CIVILIZATIONS (10,000 B. C.-500B.C.): • Mesopotamia (Babylon, Assyria, Sumer) • Egypt • Hebrews • China (Shang, Zhou, Qin dynasties) • India (Mauryan, Gupta Empire) CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS (1000 B.C.-500 A.D.): • Greeks • Romans • China (Han Dynasty) • Persia MIDDLE AGES (500-1300 A.D.): • Byzantine Empire • Japanese & European Feudalism • Maya • Aztec • Inca • Africa (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe) RENAISSANCE (1300-1600 A. D.): • Protestant Reformation • Age of Discovery • Commercial Revolution • Scientific Revolution • Age of Absolutism • Enlightenment NATIONALISM & IMPERIALISM (1700-1900 A. D.): • French Revolution • Industrial Revolution • Nationalism • Imperialism THE WORLD AT WAR (1900-1945) • World War I & II THE COLD WAR AND THE FALL OF COMMUNISM (1945-Present) • United States vs. Soviet Union


WORLD HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY NOTES The Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)
Results: 1. 2. 3. 4. People became settled-farmers instead of nomads People settled in permanent homes and villages Surplus of food Domestication of farm animals 5. barter economy-the exchange of goods and services without money 6. Classes formed-specialization of labor a. leaders/emperors/kings/generals b. priests, holy men-guidance c. warriors/soldiers-protection d. merchants-trade and commerce e. peasants, slaves-work, farming

• Berlin Wall Falls, Communist Soviet Union becomes democracy


The Rise of River Valley Civilizations
Why River Valleys? 1. Soil surrounding rivers were fertile/arable-good for farming 2. Provided a good source of fresh water 3. Transportation, trade 4. Irrigate crops 5. Mild climate

Common Characteristics of Early Civilizations
1. Formation of a central government with an organized set of laws 2. Use of written and spoken languages for communication-Cuneiform, Hieroglyphics 3. Specialization of labor-classes are formed 4. A culture supported by a large population over a long period of time 5. The development of religious beliefs→animism, polytheism, monotheism 6. Formation of villages, towns, and city-states

Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent), Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria -means “land between two rivers”→Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
-Although the climate was hot and dry-the rivers provided a means for farming. *Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria are all Mesopotamian city-states and often people from these city-states are grouped together and called Mesopotamians.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MESOPOTAMIANS: Sumer (c. 3500 –c. 2000 BC) (c. stands for circa or around!)
Cuneiform-wedge shaped writing in clay tablets 2. Development and use of the wheel 3. Building ziggurats-great religious temples

Babylon (c. 2000- c.900 BC)
(Chaldeans and Medes rebuilt Babylonian empire c. 612 BC) 1. Hammurabi’s code-first established organized, codified -written laws displayed throughout Babylon, harsh laws but promoted the ideal of justice. 2. The Babylonians believed in the study of astrology-that the movements of the stars and planets have a direct effect on human life.

The Assyrians (c. 1350 –c. 612 BC)
1. Perfected the use of iron 2. Divided their empire into provinces 3. Established first library

The Phoenicians (c. 1200-c. 300BC)
1. They invented the alphabet that contained letters that represented sounds of human voices. 2. Skilled ship builders and sailors

Hebrews (founded c. 2000 BC)-Jewish people
1. 2. 3. 4.

First major monotheistic religion-believed in a single all powerful God “People of the Book”-Torah (Jewish Bible)-Old Testament High moral behavior based on 10 commandments Descendants of Abraham and Noah Covenant with God

EGYPT-“Gift of the Nile”
-one of the earliest civilizations lasting predominately from c. 3200 BC-500 BC -developed and flourished along the Nile River-the longest river in the world(4,000 miles) flowing south to north into the Nile Delta and the Mediterranean Sea

Why was the Nile important to the development of the Egyptian empire?
1. The Nile River flooded every year and left a rich layer of soil that was good for growing crops 2. With the fresh water and the fertile soil provided by the Nile, Egypt grew large amounts of food, thus Egypt could grow and expand 3. A centralized government was more effective due in part to the ease of communication by the way of the Nile 4. The Nile made trade and transportation easier

Religious beliefs
-polytheistic -believed that a person’s body should be preserved after death in preparation for an afterlife (built great pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs)

Important Pharaohs in Egypt
Pharaohs were kings and a few queens who ruled Egypt as gods -Ramses II-built the famous temple Abu Simbel in southern Egypt amongst other famous Egyptian structures, was said to have enslaved the Hebrew people -Akhenaten- pharaoh who worshipped one god (the sun god-Aten), after his death, Egyptians restored the faith in many gods -King Tutankhamen (Tut)- king when he was only 9 years old, his tomb found in 1922 was a great discovery since it was basically untouched, gave an insight to Pharaoh and Egyptian life -Cleopatra-last great Egyptian pharaoh, who actually was part Greek and Egyptian, intelligent and ambitious, she tried to make Egypt great again. Eventually killed herself after defeated by roman navy

Accomplishments of the Egyptians:
Hieroglyphics-one of the earliest forms of writing based on picture symbols 2. They made paper known as papyrus from reed plants around the Nile 3. They were great engineers and architects building great pyramids, obelisks, palaces, temples, and statues –Great Sphinx, Abu Simbel, etc. 4. They used geometric principles to build pyramids, obelisks, and other temples. 5. They developed a 365 day calendar.


They invented a shadoof, a crane like device for lifting water from the Nile and other tributaries.



Mesopotamian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

• Did not have protection from natural boundaries • Made up of city-states • No strong central government • Floods of the Tigris and Euphrates were violent and unpredictable • Affected greatly by *cultural diffusion and *cultural assimilation • Constant migrations from Europe and East Asia

• Protected by the Mediterranean Sea in the North and the Sahara desert in the south • Large unified kingdom • Strong central government • Nile provided more constant farming possibilities • Kept Egyptian identity, less integrated from other cultures • Fairly stable migrations from north and south

Both developed along river valleys Both developed early forms of writing-cuneiform and hieroglyphics People specialized in other activities besides farming, classes formed, specialization of labor

*Cultural diffusion-when a custom or item of a culture moves from one part of the world to another

Significance of Indus River Valley civilizations: 1. C. . C. -China’s first civilization emerged along the Huang He (Yellow River). C. C. Significance of the Shang dynasty: 1. C. it deposited rich soil along its banks. This area of the world is susceptible to many invasions from the West. C.) -As in Egypt and Mesopotamia. –1500 B. -Food surpluses allowed people to build large cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. [Unlike the Nile. and Indus rivers were more unpredictable and susceptible to disastrous flooding in the surrounding areas] -Around 1500 B. and dogs were also introduced -Around 1760 B. The people were farmers who grew wheat and raised livestock 2. The Huang He –China (2000 B. Built the first known Chinese cities 2. sometimes called the “river of sorrows” because of disastrous flooding of villages and communities. chickens. when the Indus River flooded.. They became skilled in making bronze 3. 6 OTHER RIVER VALLEYCIVILIZATIONS The Indus River Valley-India (2500 B. Chinese writing based on pictographs was developed. some people from the Huang He migrated southward to the Yangtze River where they learned to grow rice and irrigate the land -Rice cultivation. They had a written language 4. a ruling family known as the Shang took control of the region -Ruling families that last generations are called dynasties. these civilizations had disappeared due to invaders or natural disasters. raising of pigs. Each character represented a different word 4. Tigris.*Cultural assimilation-when customs or people are taken in or become part of another culture. Developed the ability to make silk from a silkworm’s cocoon. farming of soybeans. C. Euphrates. the Huang He. They used metal tools and weapons 3. –1500 B. The cities were large and well planned -By 1500 B.

and Han Dynasties) The Greeks The Romans -The Persian empire was located primarily in the Middle East along the Iranian plateau between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf -It eventually grew to expand from the Nile River to the Indus River -The Persian ruler Darius unified the empire: 1. Qin.): RELIGIONZoroastrianism-The religion taught that there was a constant battle between two forces GOOD & EVIL. All those who were on the bad side would go to HEAVEN and all those who were on the bad side would go to HELL. _________________________________________________________ INDIA:IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY -India lies on a subcontinent-a large area of land separated from the rest of the continent by a natural barrier -The natural barrier that separates India from the rest of Asia are the Himalayan mountains in the North and East of India. Defeated by the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon -Darius son Xerxes led a Persian army against the Greeks. More successful than Darius but in the end defeated at Salamis -Darius III will fight Alexander the Great unsuccessfully at Issus and Gaugamela THE PERSIAN EMPIRE (2000 B. which made the empire more manageable as well as promoting trade. 4. Introduced uniform weights and measures 3.100 B. China (Zhou. .7 THE CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS: • • • • • Persian Empire India (Mauryan and Gupta Empires). *Divided the empire into provinces. C. C.. He built many public roads 2.

Has acted as a barrier to TRADE and contact with other peoples to the north and northeast of the region. coal. art. maganese. Indian culture flourished The Gupta Empire (320 AD-550 AD) -“Golden Age of India”-time of great cultural and scientific achievements Accomplishments of the Gupta Empire: 1. Contains limited natural resources-iron ore. etc. – 184 B.-The Himalayan mountain range is the highest mountain range in the world. Medical doctors set broken bones. Promoted Buddhism in India and beyond. Ganges River 3. Indus River 2. surgery was performed 2. and cultural diffusion from the west and a little from the east. Everest is located here-the highest mountain in the world (29. and sculpture flourished . Literature. Tolerated other religions including Hinduism 3. invasions. Textiles like cashmere and calico were created 3.) -First empire to unite most of India under one central government -it centered and developed along the Ganges river Famous leader –Asoka –in the beginning. The Maurya Empire (300 B. The Ganges is a very sacred river for many Hindus. C. sending missionaries 2. he promoted warfare and wanted to conquer other lands. Then he became a Buddhist and began to practice more peaceful ways Asoka accomplished the following: 1. Mt. NOTE: The exception is the Khyber Pass between the Hindu Kush Mountains that has allowed trade.000 feet above sea level) POSITIVE impact of the Himalayas on India: 1. 3. Brahmaputra River *Early civilizations developed around the Indus river. Fresh water supply-source of the Ganges River 8 NEGATIVE impact of the Himalayas: 1. C. THREE GREAT RIVERS DOMINATE INDIA: 1. Acts as a natural barrier or defense to help keep enemies out 2.

There is no one sacred book like the Bible. 3. 1. continuos cycle of life. NEGATIVE EFFECT-little or no social mobility 2.Brahma-the creator Vishnu-the preserver of life Shiva-the destroyer and re creator Reincarnation-the rebirth of the soul in another body after death. Their holy books are collected in the Vedas.Early Religions of India HINDUISM 9 world’s oldest religion. Deities (gods). 5. Polytheistic religion-many gods. POSITIVE EFFECT-provided social order OCCUPATIONAL GROUPINGS –CASTE SYSTEM . 4. No one person founded Hinduism. body dies but soul doesn’t Karma-a person’s thoughts and actions affect his/her fate in the future Dharma-rules or obligations of a person born in a caste Hinduism and Society-Both a religion and a social system (caste system) The caste system is a system of social stratification or ranking of people by occupation.

Right Mindfulness 8.C. and the rest of Southeast Asia. Right effort 7. GREW OUT OF HINDUISM-RESPONSE TO IT! -Believe in Karma and reincarnation. Right viewpoint 2. Right speech 4. Suffering is caused by selfish desire and indulgence 3.10 BUDDHISMFounded in nearby India. Japan. There is a path. Desire can be eliminated 4. Right action 5. or way. by Prince Siddartha Gauntama (563-487 B. who rejected wealth and searched for the meaning of human suffering. Only a small percentage of East Indians today are Buddhists. -Rejected the Hindu caste system -Founded a Middle Way to achieve peace and harmony to a perfect state of mind called nirvana. to end desire. and indulgence in extreme hardship-choose the Middle Way! -Most Buddhists do not believe in a supreme being like a God -Nature worship and respect FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1. -Rejected indulgence in sensual pleasures. All life is suffering 2. Right meditation *Cultural Diffusion. but one can escape the cycle of death and rebirth through Buddhist practices.Buddhism spread from India to China. Right values 3.follow the Eight Fold Path NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH 1. Right livelihood 6. Korea.). .

Gobi Desert in the north and west 3. Reincarnation. and Southeast Asia -Nirvana. Korea. must develop balance -Simplicity and respect for living things.CHINA CHINA’S GEOGRAPHY: *Most of China is mountains or deserts *Only the river valleys of China have rich soil and good climate that people need for farming. The Middle Way . Eightfold Path. and Xi Rivers) *Natural barriers against invasions.-Emphasized strict moral conduct -Education should be the road for advancement in society-civil service exams to get the best people in government -Filial Piety-this meant that children and young people must honor and love their parents and all older family members -Rulers and government are like parents who should be obeyed. acceptance and yielding BUDDHISM: -Started in India but flourished in China. Karma. don’t resist it -Duality always exists Good→Evil. Himalayan mountains in the southwest 2. Japan. Four Noble Truths. accept nature. The children are the citizens -Everyone has a role in society and must carry out their obligations -“Do to other people as you would like them to do to you” RELATIONSHIPS! -The only equal relationship is friendship -Older people were superior to younger -men were superior to women -parents superior to children -elder brother was superior to younger brother -ruler superior to the subjects or people he ruled TAOISM (pronounced as DAOISM): -Founded by Lao Tzu (604 BC?-nobody can verify his existence) -Emphasizes a need to be close to nature. (Huang He. “Enlightened One”. Yangtze. Yin (Female)→Yang(Male). Dry treeless plains MAJOR CHINESE PHILOSOPHIES/RELIGIONS 11 LEGALISM: Started around the Zhou Dynasty. practiced ruthlessly by Chin Dynasty -Revolved around the idea that passing strict laws governing everyone was the best way to maintain an orderly society CONFUCIANISM: -Founded by Confucius 551 BC-479 BC -More of a philosophy than a religion. hinders trade 1.

China named after Qin. [NOT THE COMMON PEOPLE!] Dynasty Shang Zhou Dates 1500 BC-1027BC 1027 BC-256 BC Achievements Development of Chinese writing. Qin (Chin) 221 BC-207 BC Han Sui T’ang Song 202 BC-220 AD 581 AD-618 AD 618 AD-907 AD 960AD-1279AD . calendar. and ancestors continued favor of his personal behavior. trade on the Silk Road. The Chinese dynasties ruled by the “Mandate of Heaven”. first printed book. This meant the ruler’s power depended on heaven’s. and measure. BUT if ruler is unjust. Taoism (Daoism). trade increased FIRST “GOLDEN AGE” OF CHINA Development of the Grand Canal. weights. Weak military-suffered from invasions from the Mongols. paper money. bronze vases Growth of ideas: Confucius. Buddhism becomes influential. golden age of poetry. common standard of law. Civil service exams. the god’s. People must obey emperor because the heavens say so. short stories. development of porcelain. building of Great Wall of China. large ships. Other rival families will takeover to rule China. Legalism Shi Huang Di-ruthless emperor-burned many books did not want people to know about past. Buddhism flourishes Magnetic Compass. ivory and jade. Mandate of Heaven. ruler will LOSE Mandate of Heaven.12 Dynasties rule China: Dynasties-a succession of rulers from the same family.connecting the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River to the Huang He River SECOND “Golden Age of China”.

-The city-states all spoke a common language. poems. Practical developments: a) colonizationincreased wealth of city-state b) Use of Phoenician Alphabet Improved upon by Greeks c) Literature. 6. Socratic method-teaching by asking questions Hellenistic Period. *Alexander the Great spread Greek culture through conquering other empires and lands.wrote over 80 tragedies . 7.the time after the “Golden Age” of Greece that describes the spreading of Greek culture to other parts of the world. aristocracy-rule by a small group of nobles or upper-class people. -The city-states had sufficient farming land but were small and often had to depend on one another to survive -The Greeks were excellent sailors who traveled to distant lands -The Greeks were less likely to be invaded-high mountains in the north and the Mediterranean Sea in all other directions.THE GREEKS through elected officials (republic). 4. -The early Greeks grouped themselves in city-states. plays. democracy-a form of government in which the people rule themselves either directly or 2. *UNLIKE other river valley civilizations like Sumer or Babylon. comedies • Homer (poet) Illiad and Odyssey • Sophocles→Antigone • Aristophanes→The Birds. 3. tragedies. Greek civilization started by migrations and trading ventures! GEOGRAPHY -Greece was not a single united country -It is made up of many of small islands and peninsulas -The land is rugged they traded and prospered over the Mediterranean Sea. 8. philosophers-scholars who analyze the process of reason-love of wisdom. 1. monarchy-when a single person rules like a king or queen oligarchy-rule by a few people tyrants-rulers who exercise absolute power in an oppressive or brutal manner. 13 IMPORTANT VOCABULARY 1. 5. Peace • Eurpides→ Electra • Aeschylus→founder of Greek tragedy. The Clouds. The Wasps.

Geometry  Science: physics and medicine Hippocrates.Wrote The Republic . “Ignorance is the only Evil!” Sentenced to death for not believing in the gods and corrupting the young • Plato. astronomer.Hated Athenian Democracy for killing Socrates . slaves & foreigners STILL left out.d) City-States-THE POLIS 1) ATHENS-largest of Greek City-states 14 • Long distance trade=wealth  Gov't : began as monarchy Aristocracy • 621 BC-Draco harsh judge • 594 BC."Father of Medicine".Question technique (Socratic Method) to get people to come to absolute truth.Cleisthenes worlds 1st organized Democracy  Citizens enjoyed freedom of speech and equality before the law  Limited democracy-women. vases. could not vote 460-429 BC: "Golden Age of Pericles" “We cultivate the mind. A philosopher king would be the best ruler! .reflected everyday life • Drama: tragedies and comedies Intellectual developments: ATHENS: Math: Pythagoras. inventor-pulley for lifting objects. promise to treat their patients well-“Hippocratic Oath” Archimedes-mathematician.(470-399 BCE) Answer.showed balance and order within society) • Arts: pottery.measurements of right triangle Euclid. aristocracy ruled by highly intelligent was best gov't.set up the Academy (school) . without loss of manliness” • Architecture: Parthenon (temple for Greek goddess Athena)-built with columns. Archimedes screw for pumping water  Philosophy: Thinkers • Socrates.Solon aristocrat who reorganized society.(427-347 BC) student of Socrates. gave people more rights • 508 BC.

WOMEN TREATED BETTER 2. boxing and wrestling • could own business • little bit more equal status than Athenian women ATHENS 1.Founded the Lyceum-school . SPARTA 1.More down to earth than Plato. EMPHASIS ON THE MIND 3. Council of Elders. WOMEN TREATED AS UNEQUAL .• Aristotle. DEMOCRACY VS.needed to be strong to produce strong sons . RULED BY OLIGARCHY 2. classified many forms of life through observation .Wrote about logic.Tutored Alexander the Great 15 2) SPARTA • military state  Gov't: oligarchy. controlled education.(384-322 BC) Plato's student .trained in gymnastics. Of age Assembley. -ALL advised the king • Ephors (5)=watched the king.2 kings elected every 9 yrs. monitored citizens • • •  Military Life: For all Spartans • 7 years old placed in military camp • 12 years old trained for combat and survival • 20 years old could marry • 60 years left military  Spartan Society: • Athletes • Little trade.Spartan men over 30 yrs.28 men over 60 yrs. little cultural advancement  Spartan Women: • Athletes. loved the natural world . EMPHASIS ON THE BODYPHYSICAL STRENGTH 3.

ECONOMY-MAINLY AGRICULTURAL AGRICULTURAL 5. 2. ENCOURAGED CREATIVITY 5. They developed the world’s first democracy. but limited) They created magnificent buildings and beautiful sculptures. The Parthenon in honor of the Goddess Athena was one of the greatest structures ever built. Egypt & Indus River Valley →LARGEST EMPIRE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD b) Alexandria in Egypt Most important city of his Empire  major center of learning and trade  Encouraged Innermarriages of Persians. EMPHASIZED SOCIAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE 16 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE GREEKS_______________________ 1. They created outstanding literature and poetry.(direct. ECONOMY-TRADERS AND 4. Archimedes. Ionic.4. and Pythagoras were some of the great early scientists and mathematicians. 5.conquered Persia and Darius III. Syrians and others . Doric. ALEXANDER THE GREAT Hellenistic Civilization of Greece/ Alexander's Empire: a) 334 BCE. Three of the world’s greatest philosophers were Socrates→Plato→Aristotle. Two great poems the Iliad and the Odyssey as told by Homer are still around today. They were the first people to take a scientific approach to medicine and science by observing and experimenting and theorizing. and Corinthian style columns. 3. 4. Euclid. Egyptians. They developed the art of philosophy to search for wisdom and truth.Alexander (of Macedonia) the Great at 22 years. Hippocrates.

In the early paret of its history Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings.17 mix of all these people became the HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION • Cultural Diffusion with EAST and WEST • Science (270 BCE) Aristarchus. The shepherd brought them up as his own sons. goats. pigs. They both wanted to rule. The boys grew up into brave young men and searched for a city to rule. Six vultures flew over Remus-his followers cheered. They were unable to compromise they decided to let the gods decide. went searching for the dead wolf’s cubs and surprisingly found Romulus and Remus. sheep. Romulus took a rock and struck Remus in the head killing him. and olive trees • Kept oxen. fruits. a shepherd killed the she-wolf. knowledge of building roads . Soon afterwards twelve vultures flew over Romulus. Remus stood on top of a hill named Aventine awaiting a sign from the gods while Romulus did the same on top of Palatine. Their wicked uncle who wanted to kill them set them afloat on the river Tiber in a basket. Romulus began to build a wall for his city. and chicken FOUNDING OF ROME: Legendary story (folklore-mythical): Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus and Remus-descendants from the Trojans. Romulus was eventually named king. The wall was two feet high and Remus still angry and jealous made fun of his brother’s wall and jumped over it. They were founded by a she-wolf thinking they were her lost cubs. The two brothers quarreled. The Etruscans influenced the Romans in the following ways: 1. Romulus becomes king in 753 BC and names the city after himself-ROME! Early Romans-historical The Romans can trace their ancestry to the Latin immigrants.astronomer (earth revolves around sun) • c) Impact -Spread Greek culture throughout his empire -Greek classical ideas spread through expansion and absorption by the Roman Empire ANCIENT ROME GEOGRAPHY: • Peninsula • Less rugged mountains than Greece • Fertile farm land • Developed around the Tiber River) • Irregular coastline-(good natural harbors) • Grew wheat. Soon after.

mythology-minor role (most of the mythology came from Greeks) 4.) 2.18 2.roads (some still used today). Aphrodite→Venus. fortune telling through animal sacrifice a. make weapons and tools out of bronze Influence from the Greeks: 1. common people) won full rights as citizens • The Romans divided their government up into a Senate. • at 1st only Patricians or aristocrats(wealthy landowners) had right to run for gov't • 287 BCE.use of the arch 5. b) ROMAN LAW. etc. aqueducts. the arch. Practical developments. a) GOVERNMENT-In 509 BC. mythology-gods (Zeus→Jupiter. done until Christianity becomes the official religion of Rome 3. architecture. drainage system • aqueduct. art work 3. religious practices and concepts 1.written down on Bronze tablets. examine the liver b. use of an alphabet 4.designed to protect lives and well being of citizens • Codified.placed in public so all people could see and know what the laws were.carried water to cities through pipes for many miles • public baths. the Romans overthrew the monarchy and set up a republic-a form of indirect democracy in which people elect representatives to run government for • Concrete. (450 BCE) • “Equality under the law” • “Innocent till proven guilty” c) ENGINEERING.12 Tables (Tablets). Hermes→Mercury.used for roads and buildings • Colosseum and The Pantheon-two great Roman architectural buildings .Plebeians (non aristocrats. Assembly and consuls (kings).arose from need to maintain order in Roman society -Citizenship was offered to defeated groups by the Romans as a way to win loyalty of the people they conquered. the dome.

2. Economic Problems-The costs of defending and administering the empire Invasions-Rome was under continual attack by fierce tribes from Northern Europe and Central Asia. TWO IMPORTANT ROMAN LEADERS-Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar Julius Caesar-a popular general and conqueror of Spain and Gaul (present-day France). equality. Political Weakness-Many later emperors were corrupt and ineffective leaders.Blend of ideas lead to Greco-Roman Civilization 19 IMPACT OF ROME: Roman contributions in law and engineering spreads throughout Europe during the Empire and later to be preserved by the Byzantine Civilization throughout the Middle Ages. such as the Goths and Huns. Government-established a republic which promoted democratic ideas 2. . Military Decline-Many of the soldiers recruited to serve in the Roman army in the late empire were outsiders and were less loyal to Roman citizens. but they couldn’t killed Caesarism!” Augustus Caesar-Augustus brought a long period peace to Rome known as the Pax Romana. He used his military fame and his political skills to win the love of the soldiers and masses. 3. Was killed by people in the Senate when he wanted to be declared emperor of all Rome. He ended the Roman republic in 46 BC when he forced the Senate to declare him dictator (one who rules all) for life. conditions for the poor were improved. the empire expanded. the army was reformed and the empire made more secure. and natural freedoms. –kind of “Golden Age of Rome” when many architectural projects were undertaken.d) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS borrowed and adapted from Greek thought and applied it to their practical needs -. After Julius Caesar the Roman Republic ended FOREVER! “The Senate killed Caesar. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 1. Law(Twelve Tables)-written forms of laws based on “innocent until proven guilty” and “equality before the law” promoted justice. 4. REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 1. Once killed a civil war broke out and Augustus Caesar took over as emperor.

Jewish and Christian religions. Roman Empire 1.Barbarian attacks -roads and canals were in disrepair -heavy taxespeasants revolted -220 CE warlords overthrew the emperor and the dynasty fell. Tibet. Korea. . took census (count of people). Christianity kept spreading even being adapted later as the official religion of the Roman Empire itself. and Central Asia.Wealthiest of Ancient world civilizations 3. 5.20 3. northern Vietnam. B. used concrete. Engineering-The Romans built aqueducts. EXPANSION -borders grew beyond the great wall -Chinese armies conquered areas in Manchuria. Organization-Rome built roads. all things that contributed to the success of the largest empires in the world. and divided empire into provinces.-Constantine The Rise and Fall of Great Empires: The Chinese Han Empire and Roman Empire: A. FACTORS LEADING TO GROWTH -strengthening of the central government and the economy -improved canals and roads . established a stable currency. made use of arches and domes and created magnificent structures like the Colosseum and the Pantheon.imposed a monopoly on salt and iron to ensure an income other than taxes -trade on the Silk Road increased -civil service exams required (rich or poor could take it) -focus on education -influence of Buddhism and Confucianism begins to unite Chinese people 2. Rise of Christianity-Although the Romans persecuted both 4. CAUSES OF DECLINE -emperors could no longer control powerful warlords in the provinces . FACTORS LEADING TO GROWTH -expansion cultural diffusion -rights of citizens protected by code of laws-Twelve Tables . The Han Empire (206 BCE-220 CE) 1.

CAUSES OF DECLINE -EMPIRE JUST BECAME TOO BIG TO CONTROL -government was weak and corrupt.they put their needs above the empire -Rome open to invasion by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns-Rome fell in 476 AD 21 Christianity (Middle East) -started by a Jewish prophet named Jesus 1. Eventually these differences led to an official division of the Christian church in 1054 CE into the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the Greek Orthodox Church in Constantinople . high unemployment and decline in trade and manufacturing -lack of patriotism had to rely on mercenaries to protect the empire -selfish attitude of the people. Christianity spread quickly through the Roman Empire and eventually the Roman Catholic Church became the most powerful institution in Europe. 3. including the Ten Commandments. Christians believe: a) Jesus Christ is the Messiah (savior) b) Jesus Christ is the Son of God c) the New Testament is the basis for their beliefs d) the Old Testament.heavy taxes. Modern Christianity a) Great Schism-different views on religious authority and teachings developed between the church in Rome (headed by the pope) and the church in Constantinople-Byzantium (headed by the Patriarch). as do Muslims 2. middle of the Mediterranean .no line of succession . mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless h) in equality of all before God. to acknowledge divine judgment of one’s actions on earth. became too large to control 3. to love God. through expansion. is the foundation for their ethical and religious beliefs e) they must practice Jesus’ teachings. to accept Christ’s death as atonement (forgiveness of sins) f) in salvation (to be saved) and eternal life g) in forgiveness of sin. -good geographical location.-system of roads.the Roman empire.

because of the abuses 2) Expression of faith through the arts -artists used different means. Islam’s holiest book.with help of printing press (J. c) Luther translates the Bible into German. but his teachings were recorded in the Koran or Qu’ran. people and Bible stories. Renaissance: Encouraged the Protestant Reformation 1) People began to QUESTION Church authority.sculpture. Mohammed fled from Mecca to the city of Medina in 622 known as the Hegira (AD 622 marks year ONE for many Moslems). THE RISE OF ISLAM -BACKGROUND: -Islam founded by the prophet Mohammed. Not any Moslem can just called for a jihad-must be a sacred and important undertaking) -In 632. Protestant Reformation-protesting the Catholic Church and breaking away from it. Gutenberg) d) People are encouraged to read the Bible-education increases e) End of religious unity in Western Europe as many other Christian religions are formed f) Increase in the growth of secular (outside the church) independent thought g) Luther will be excommunicated. two years after recapturing Mecca. Fearing for his life.22 4. Mohammed gathered an army to retake Mecca in a jihad or “holy war.kicked out H. money lending) and let others know about them by posting these abuses (95 theses) on the church door in Wittenberg. -In Medina.” (A jihad does not have to be violent it can be used to struggle within one’s own self or a peaceful struggle against an unjust depict religious themes. Mohammed died. -Mohammed preached Allah was God and for Arabs to stop worshipping idols and all other Gods. . -Merchants in Mecca (important town on the Arabian peninsula) were jealous of Mohammed’s growing influence. 1517 CE a) Started by Martin Luther (German Catholic Monk) b) Luther saw abuses by the church (sale of indulgences and church offices. painting.

• The Shiite’s believed that the descendants of the Prophet were divinely inspired. b) THE GROWTH OF ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND ASIA -The Islamic religion began to dominate the Arabian Peninsula around 7th Century A. Charity to the Poor 4.-The followers of Mohammed saw him as the last of the great prophets that included Abraham and Moses (Judaism). should be a descendent of Mohammed’s son-in-law Ali. 23 -THE 5 PILLARS OF ISLAM (rules for everyday life for Moslems) 1. Ali and many of his own descendants were killed fighting the Sunni’s. 1. Two different sects within Islam a) Shiite. and Jesus (Christianity). Make one pilgrimage (trip) to Mecca once in their lifetime. Guidelines for men and women. 2. drinking of alcohol and gambling (ideally!). -After Mohammed’s death Abu Bakr became the first caliph-religious leader of a Moslem state. Pray 5 times a day facing East towards Mecca 3. 2. D. -REMEMBER: Islam is the religion. . 5. Moslems must not make or worship idols or images. Sunnis believe that inspiration came from the example of Muhammad.believed their leader and religious authority. -The followers of Islam are called Moslems. 3. The Koran tells Moslems how they should lead their daily lives. -Islam united Arabs with a common language and religion. Wives traditionally MUST always listen to their husbands. That there is only ONE God-Allah. Islam is a way of Life The holy book of the Moslems is the Koran.believed their religious leader (caliph) should be chosen from their community-but he was not a religious authority. Forbids the eating of pork. Moslems are people who believe in Islam. The Shiites came to admire martyrdom as a demonstration of their faith Sunni. Fasting during the Holy Month of Ramadan. Husbands must support their wives financially.

Islamic Empires 24 1. D. . but his empire fell apart after his death. Wrote literary works and founded great universities. spread Christianity. borrowed concept of zero from India. The serfs or peasants would work and serve the lord in exchange for protection. D. and Europe. 2. made their own laws. The Dark Ages. Decline in trade 3. -The Shiite Moslems believed that ONLY direct descendants of Mohammed could rule a Moslem state. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1055 A. and social system based on the control of land. -The Sunni Moslems believed other Moslems besides DIRECT descendants from Mohammed could rule a Moslem state (caliphs). Africa. military. THE MIDDLE AGES (500 AD-1300AD) **Also known as The Medieval Period. 6. Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 A. They performed surgery. like measles and smallpox. Economic System -Kings granted land (fiefs) to their nobles for their pledge of military support. and The Age of Faith** -What happened to Europe after the collapse of Roman Empire? 1. Preserved Greek and Roman economic. Made advances in algebra and geometry.) -After Mohammed died there was a split between Moslems. 2. A Germanic king Charlemagne (AD771-814) established a great empire.) -The greatest expansion of Islam took place during this time -The Islamic empire became a crossroads of trade between three continents-Asia. -“Golden Age of Islamic Culture”: 1. Decline in formal learning 4. geometric designs) 3. They learned to diagnose many diseases. These nobles or lords or vassals ruled their own lands. 5. Mathematics-Arabic numerals developed. There was no more strong central government 2. political. 4. Medicine-Arab doctors discovered that blood moves to and from the heart. Architecture-Moslem rulers built beautiful palaces and mosques. Arts and Crafts flourished (mosaics. EUROPEAN FEUDALISM__________________________________ Feudalism. and controlled their armies made up of knights. textiles.

monks scribing versions of the Holy Bible. the leading nobles controlled political life.made laws concerning births. THE CRUSADES (1095-1291AD) **The Crusades were attempts by the Christians of Western Europe to regain control of Jerusalem (modern day Israel) and other parts of the Holy Land (primarily the Middle East) from Muslims by force** BACKGROUND -A crusade is a campaign against any injustice (The comic book hero Batman is often called the “Cape Crusader”) -A pilgrimage is a journey to a sacred place. Social System -Feudalism divided society into classes of lords. and increased their wealth. marriage. since the manor which consisted of the lord’s house and the land around it was a town. -Class was determined by birth and there was little social mobility. but the Seljuk(SEL-jook) Turks or Muslim Turks were seemingly more hostile to the Christians. feudal lords defended their estates. and they often fought among themselves or challenged the king’s authority. seized new territories. knights. Through warfare. people divided by occupation] Political System -Under the feudal system. Center of Learning-encouraging people to read holy books. The king relied on them for his armies. CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES .-The control of the land-NOT trade was the basic economic unit. and preached-the Holy Land. 25 -Sometimes this self sufficient system was called manoralism. hope for a better life 2. During the Middle Ages many people wanting to be good “Christians” would take a pilgrimage to where Jesus was born. Arab Muslims were very tolerant of Christians. lived. peasants or serfs. Served as a substitute for local government. Pilgrims returning to Europe spread the word that Christians were being killed and persecuted in the Holy Land. The Role of the Roman Catholic Church Gave peasants hope-provided a place of refuge. [related to Hindu caste system. It was the dominant religious institution in Western Europe [REMEMBER-The Eastern Orthodox Church under the Byzantine Empire dominates the EAST!] 3. and burial rights. 4. 1.

riches. and glass mirrors-goods that came in demand in Europe by the middle class. OTHER FACTORS THAT LED TO THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES 1. 4. 4. it created LASTING resentment between the two groups. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a holy war to retake the Holy Land and preserve the Byzantine Empire. WHY DID PEOPLE TAKE UP ARMS TO CRUSADE? 1. art. Christian pilgrims were being persecuted in the Holy Land. Because of the brutalities of these Crusades by Europeans and Muslim Turks. THE REVIVAL OF TRADE! Trading cities like Venice and Genoa Italy grew rich because of the increase in trade between Asia and Europe. science. Europeans began to take interest in other parts of the world particularly Asia (beginning of the Age of Exploration). 7. Many common people or serfs took up arms to better their life and maybe even have a greater life in heaven if they proved themselves in the crusades. Some people were truly religious 2. 3. Many nobles died in the Crusades resulting in many Kings gaining more power (beginning of Absolute rule). Some people wanted the glory and adventure (remember the code of chivalry of many knights)[chivalry-code of bravery and courtesy of a knight] 3. 6. Growth of towns-people moving from rural areas for opportunities . write. and power. in the end the MOSLEMS REGAINED CONTROL-led by such charismatic Moslem leaders as Saladin and other Molsem sultans. The Seljuk Turks were also threatening the takeover of the Byzantine capital of Constantine-the eastern capital of the Christian Empire. RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES **The Crusades was a series of religious wars. and do arithmetic. and literature. Manufacturers and traders needed people who could read. 2. Developments of the Golden Age of Islam brought a renewed interest in learningmathematics. perfumes. Many nobles took part to gain land. BUT it essentially began the END of the Medieval Period in Europe opening trade routes once gain between Europe and Asia** 1. _ Although Christians armies like the one led by Richard II of England (Richard “the Lionhearted”) did win back control of Jerusalem and other parts of the Holy Land. 2. carpets. Manufacturing began to grow from the result of supplying weapons and supplies to keep up fighting. 3. Crusaders brought back spices. Also rediscovered Greco-Roman writings. 5. not just one that lasted until about 1291.26 1. The Holy Land was not recaptured by the Christians.

Growth of middle class or business class that promoted trade and commerce. Shinto-“way of the gods”. landslides. 5. Accumulate wealth through money NOT JUST PROPERTY. Will colonize and takeover other territories for raw materials and natural resources 3. 3. Uses trade in modern times to its advantage. Japan had to rely on the surrounding seas for food. EARLY TRADITIONS Two major early religions1. volcanic eruptions. -Because the land of Japan is mostly rugged and mountainous. much of Japan’s land is NOT arable (suitable for farming) -In addition. Rise of nation-states.2. Increased use of gunpowder. Japan lacks an abundance of natural resources-which heavily affects Japan in the later 1800s and in the 20th century RESULT.loyalty now to the monarch and the country. 4. 2. knights in armor became obsolete Renewed interest in learning about other people and the world around them Rise of nationalism-loyalty and devotion to own country and land. 27 EARLY JAPANESE HISTORY Japan’s Geography -Japan is an archipelago made up of 4 main islands and over 3000 smaller islands -Japan’s island location helped isolate it from the Asian continent and protect it from outside invasion. form of nature worship-animism . and tsunami (large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes) afflict the islands of Japan.1. RESULT-Japan developed a sense of cultural unity and a major distrust of foreigners -Earthquakes.

THE EMPEROR’S ROLE WAS PRIMARILY CEREMONIAL AND RELIGIOUS! -In 11th and 12th centuries-Japanese feudalism became the dominant political structure. Merchants . 2. spiritual enlightenment-Nirvana. trees. (E. and personal loyalties. Shinto also dictates order and unity which sometimes leads to blind loyalty to the emperor or higher leaders Japanese people believe that torii gates serve as entrances into the spirit world. and ridding of material things. sculpted gardens that includes pebbles and rock arrangements. -Classes included the Shogun. POWER WAS IN THE HAND OF FAMILIES like the Fujiwara. etc. class distinctions. Daimyo. Peasants and Artisans. great heroes.g. the emperor unlike in China usually had no real power. Samurai. The practice of zazen meditation is to clear the mind of any thoughts and desires. rivers. Ikebani flower arrangements. Torii gates are al laround sacred Japanese sites. meditation.belief in Kami-spirits or gods found in natural things like 28 winds. rocks. Bonsai tree growing. This feudalism was primarily based on land holding. sand trees. and emperors. flowers. ponds and running water) Kami can also include worshipping the souls of ancestors. JAPANESE FEUDAL SOCIETY -Early Japanese government was ruled by families. Zen Buddhism-most Japanese people practice this form of Buddhism that emphasizes meditation and self-discipline to achieve enlightenment. *Japanese society as well as Chinese society traditionally and today practice a combination of the above religions and philosophy. Buddhism-*Early Japanese culture was heavily influenced by China* Buddhism believes in leading a simple life.

Merchants-even though this class may have been wealthier than others. (1) most samurai swore allegiance to a daimyo or to the shogun. could be hired or serve own needs. 3. From early times until 1911. ANCIENT CHINA TO THE RULE OF THE MONGOLS BRIEF REVIEW OF ANCIENT CHINA (2000 BC TO 1279 AD) -There are three important facts to keep in mind about Chinese history: 1. they still held the lowest social order-similar to European Gypsies! In 1274. Bringing dishonor to samurai class could result in ritual suicide called seppeku or hari kari. courage.29 1. Shogun. honor. All samurai observed a code of conduct called bushido that stresses simplicity. Daimyo-(vassals or lords) great landholders who swore allegiance to the shogun-very powerful lords in their own right. 5. 4. but unfavorable winds (kamikaze) destroyed the ships.similar to European serfs worked the land in return for protection. Chinese civilization began in the Huang He (Yellow River) Valley. 2. generations of families or dynasties have ruled China.the military governor or general who served as the actual ruler over the noble class of landowners. Samurai-TWO KINDS. river valleys as elsewhere in early civilizations fostered growth. Japanese feudalism would be way of life until the mid 1800s. 2. divine (holy-god like) rule or authority. and in return received land and states (2) Ronin-samurai soldiers with no lords. Peasants and Artisans. Kublai Khan tried to invade Japan with a massive fleet. ceremonial. 6. Emperor-no real power. Along with the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Samurai defeated those enemy soldiers who reached Japan. and strict obedience to lord. .

AD 589-AD 618 Sui Dynasty-Grand Canal built-connecting the Huang Ho River to southern China. the grandson of Genghis Khan took control of China. art and literature became important. AD 618-AD 906 T’ang Dynasty-second “Golden Age” of China. the Romans. paper was invented. Their leader was Genghis Khan (known to be a ruthless leader-reputation for killing and plundering villages and towns-no different than Alexander. Great Wall began to be built to keep out Huns 202 BC. Confucius lived during Chou dynasty 551-470 BC-mandate of heaven 221 BC-206 BC Ch’in Dynasty-word China comes from this dynasty. Weak military-suffered northern invasions from the Mongols. and irrigation systems. paper money. Persia.AD 222 Han Dynasty-first “Golden Age of China”-trade increased. trade with Japan. and southern Russia. worship of ancestors 1123 BC-256 BC Chou Dynasty-ruled over feudal society. pottery and bronze in use.-Yuan Dynasty The Mongols’ Way of Ruling China . poets. the Middle East and Central Asia grew. use of iron. -The 30 Significant Chinese dynasties REVIEW! 2000 BC-1122 BC Hsia and Shang Dynasties-early Chinese writing. or the Moslems. Confucianism became official governmental policy. reservoirs. and scholars flourished. built canals.AD 1279 Sung Dynasty-magnetic. Mongols use of bows and horses were unmatched!) and he and the Mongols conquered much of China. Kublai Khan. Chinese had to take Civil Service exams to get government jobs. block printing invented. history of China written. There was always a cultural exchange between the Chinese and outside invaders (like the Mongols) and conquerors. artists. compass. China was united. ruthless emperor Shi Huang Di –standardized weights and measures. was overthrown. India. Persians.3. AD 1279. In reality very smart leader. set a uniform system of weights and measures. AD 960.1368 Yuan (Wan) Dynasty-the Mongol Dynasty BACKGROUND HISTORY OF THE MONGOLS -The Mongol people ruled Mongolia in central Asia. Buddhist religion spread from India to China.

31 -Europeans learned about the Mongols and Kublai Khan from Marco Polo. goods-jewels. Opened China to foreign contacts 4. art of refining and sugar . spices. furs. silk. Created capital at Beijing 3.A book by Marco Polo about his trip to China encouraged an interest in trade with China and the rest of Asia. Encouraged art. literature. ideas-Christianity. printing. They had the Chinese people help run the government 3. sorghum. These provinces were ruled by one of the emperor’s men. They didn’t force their own religion on the Chinese 2. paper money. The most famous Marco Polo published book in 1299 that encouraged more European interest in the Far East. First foreigners to rule all of China (didn’t change China dramatically. medicines 2. adopted many Chinese ideas and customs). They just took over the Chinese government 4. Marco worked for Kublai Khan. goods-jewels. They started to dress like the Chinese -The Mongol dynasty had a central government. ideas-gunpowder. ebony 2. spaghetti From the West: 1. but the country was also divided into provinces. wine from grapes. and plays in China How did the Mongol Empire Open up the East to the West? -Mongols removed Turkish rulers in central Asian region (who had prohibited travel by European traders to China) -promoted economic activity and prosperity -improved land and water communications -encouraged contact and trade for about 100 years (around 1250-1350) -European traders and missionaries were able to visit the East in person -Visit by the Venetian family the Polos. 2. They absorbed the Chinese language 5. *IMPORTANT. architecture. playing cards. How the Opening of Trade Affected both the East and West: From the East: 1.-The Mongol rulers did not try to change China too much 1. carpets.* Achievements of the Mongol (Yuan Dynasty) 1.

Established only loose control of Russia 2. Tried to force them to convert to Islam 2. Overthrown by Ivan the Great in 15 century 4. 32 Mughal or Mogul dynasty ruled India until mid 18th century Mughals or Moguls were Asian Mongols who were MoslemsRULERS: Babur grandson→ Akbar “the Great” Akbar’s accomplishments(1555-1605) 1. and work of artists Sha Jahan (1628-1658) Built Taj Mahal for his dead wife ruled with less sympathy for the Hindus. ISOLATED Russia from Western Europe and Byzantium th 3.AD 1644 -former Buddhist monk overthrew Mongol dynasty -new Ming rulers wanted to throw away Mongolian influences and revitalize Chinese traditions and customs RESULT: Chinese trade flourished for a while. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)-TREATED HINDUS BADLY! 1. 2.EFFECT OF MONGOL RULE IN OTHER AREAS: INDIA 1. dance. Helped to keep Russia in the Middle Ages!!!! The Ming Dynasty AD 1368. 3. ethnocentrism (a feeling that your country or culture is superior to all others) was the prevailing thought in the Chinese culture once again. Tolerated Hindus (remember he was a Moslem) Divided his empire into provinces-more efficient way of ruling Brought overall peace and prosperity to India Promoted artistic expression-music. education was limited. He destroyed many Hindu Temples RUSSIA 1. 2. Taxed non-Muslims 3. then under later Ming leadership DECLINED dramatically to virtual isolation of China. 4. THIS ATTITUDE AND MISTRUST OF FOREIGNERS WILL KEEP CHINA .

000 years ago. 5. 3. Europe. 33 AFRICA Geography -Africa is the second largest continent after Asia -With more than 11.huge.5 million square miles). farming. *People to the South of the desert were isolated for the most part from N. PROBLEM: Large rivers. . and prosperity. 6. Architecture developed. BUT they are interrupted by waterfalls. plateaus-90 percent of Africa’s land is higher than 500 feet above sea level and a substantial portion is not arable (suitable for farming). the Zambezi river in southern Africa.Sahara-largest desert in the world (3. 3. 4. supports sparse vegetation. the Congo or Zaire river in central Africa. rivers-Nile river in the northeast. wet and humid conditions have created a barrier to trade and has isolated certain African people. and Asia as trade increased during the end of the Middle Ages. the continent of Africa is THREE times larger than the size of the United States Geographic features of Africa(great geographical diversity-mostly savanna) 1. but desertification (spreading of the desert) has expanded the Sahara to such an extent it is a great barrier to trade. isolates as well. coarse grassland areas 2. Niger in the west. Trade grew initially between Europe and India. Deserts. was smaller over 5. 2. the dense forest. rainforests-although it is a relative small portion of Africa’s geography. making navigation difficult-another BARRIER to trade and development.FROM ADVANCING INTO AN INDUSTRIAL POWER LIKE JAPAN OR BRITAIN IN THE 1800s! ACHIEVEMENTS1. savannas.7 million square miles. Developed valuable pottery and vases (Ming vases valuable today!). Africa. Sahel-southern coastline of the Sahara desert-fragile.

AD 200)[c. They were farmers and cattle raisers. and North Africa interacted with the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean civilizations and institutions. BUT it is difficult to build roads and railroads because of the steep cliffs. and copper. Meroe became one of the biggest iron making cities in the ancient world (One text claims that Meroe was so rich that its . and deep valleys. Kush (Nubia). miles)located in southern Africa 7. Great Rift Valley-located in eastern Africa. cattle. ebony. gold. Kingdom of Kush-Nubia (c. Many Egyptians came to live in Kush and the Kush began to worship the same gods-cultural assimilation and diffusion. They mined gold and copper.000 sq. but before 1000AD. -Historically.AFRICA HAS BEEN A VERY DIVERSE CONTINENT SINCE THE NEOLITHIC ERA!** Africa before the Middle Ages -First human beings lived in Africa around 2 million years ago. Travel was difficult due to geographic landscape 2. Egypt. **REMEMBER. ivory. it hardly influenced sub-Saharan Africa. 752 BC conquered Egypt. The people of Meroe began to use iron. animal skins. Many different ethnic and cultural groups developed because of the natural isolation. The Kushites ruled Egypt for nearly a 100 years before the Assyrians conquered them. When the Egyptian empire weakened c. The soil is fertile and rich in minerals and metals. cobalt. Kalihara-less harsh than the Sahara. built up their armies and c. 1700 BC to c. Exchange of ideas with outside world limited until Age of Exploration & Discovery 3. the Kush became independent. then Islam spread across this area. the Kushites moved their capital to Meroe (MEHR uh wee). They realized they had lost to the Assyrians because they had iron weapons (remember it was the Hittites who developed iron first. BUT the Assyrians really used iron weapons to their advantage!). The Egyptians went to Kush and took gold. **Geographic barriers made Africa mostly a place of mystery (the “Dark Continent”) for thousands of years** 1. smaller (100. break or fault in the Earth’s crust that has formed valleys and mountains. -Africa has rich mineral resources-diamonds. and slaves back to Egypt. After their defeat. wood.34 *People North of the Sahara became part of the Mediterranean/Middle Eastern culture. Christianity. 1100 BC. high mountains. The Kushites were conquered and ruled by the Egyptians for thousands of years. The Kushites used Egyptian hieroglyphics to create their own alphabet. means circa or around] The Kushites lived along the Nile River.

A written language developed 2. the Middle East. Engineering (paved roads) and architecture (great obelisks) 4. . To the north was the Sahara Desert. *The Wangara people of the south east would trade their gold for SALT (keeps food from spoiling & keeps people healthy) and the Berber traders of the north and west would trade their merchandise for gold. -The people of Ghana lived along an important trade route. *Ghana became wealthy by controlling the roads and charging taxes for trade between the Wangara people of the Senegal River and the Berber (Arab) traders of the desert. and remarkable architecture. and Rome 3. It was from Kush that the knowledge of iron making spread south and west of Africa. written script. 1200 AD) -The FIRST great empire in West Africa. They controlled the gold and salt trade 3. (Some Ethiopian religious leaders claim the famous Arc of the Covenant is located in Ethiopia) During the eight century Axum was being dominated by Muslims from the East. GHANA (c. 3 Great Western African Empires I. Kush slowly assimilated to into other cultures and societies. creating a wealthy nation. (The Egyptians instead continued to use bronze instead of iron for tools and weapons). The rich trade that flourished between Egypt. Today much of the Axum culture survives integrated with influences from Islamic culture. which isolated much of its Christian culture from the rest of the world. The Kushites were defeated by the king and army of Axum about AD 350. Being one of the oldest Christian Kingdoms in the world.prisoners were held in gold chains!). 500 BC to c. GHANA GREW RICH BY CONTROLLING THE TRADE OF GOLD AND SALT! *Their development of iron weapons helped to maintain a powerful army. 400 AD to c. They controlled roads and charged taxes for passage. China. Accoplishments of the Ghanians 1. 35 Kingdom of Axum (c. India. Axum or Askum developed a very distinctive civilization with its own language. Around 700 AD Axum’s trading diminished. To the south of Ghana was a large forest. AD 1300) Located in east Africa around modern Ethiopia. Axum’s advanced culture is known for: 1. In 330 AD Axum became one of the first ancient kingdoms to accept Christianity as its national religion. They established important trade routes 2. After this.

1300 AD to c. 1200 AD to c. *Mali became a dominant Islamic empire in West Africa *Their rulers were called mansa. He divided his empire into provinces and placed governors in control. the arts. 1400 AD to c.36 II. Mansu Musa promoted trade and commerce. the Holy City of Islam. SONGHAI Empire (c. (Some archaeologists have speculated the legendary King Solomon’s mines are located here) . the Mali kingdom declined to an unimportant state. He also encouraged Islamic teachers and writers to settle in Timbuktu. The empire of Mali contained the former Ghana as well as much more territory. *The builders of Zimbabwe were very skillful. and is part of the Five Pillars of Islam. Mansa Musa’s hadj promoted the wealth and power of Mali. He followed the teachings of Islam. Neither mortar nor square corners were used. 1600 AD) -The Songhai leader Sunni Ali Ber came to the throne in 1464. He also promoted the principles of Islam. Such a pilgrimage is called a hajj. Accomplishments of the Malians 1. The structures they built were sturdier and higher than other kingdoms. Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca. 3. Zimbabwe became wealthy from its gold and ivory trade by the Bantu people. Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage was one of the grandest of all times. paintings. yet the stones fit together perfectly. They built a great stone city ruled by kings. architecture. MALI (c. He became famous and many people traveled to his kingdom. *Sunni Ali was a fierce leader.The city of Timbuktu a trading center on the Niger River became a center of learning under Mansa Musa’s rule. They promoted learning and education. 1450 AD) -Mali succeeded Ghana as the major kingdom in western Sudan. conquering Timbuktu and most of the Mali empire. which means emperor or sultan *Mansa Musa was the most famous ruler in the history of the Mali empire. III. They established trade and commerce throughout their empire. *After his death Askia Muhammad helped Songhai to reach its peak. He spread his wealth throughout the cities he passed. but organized his government well. 2. After Mansa Musa’s death. and literature. ZIMBABWE (c. Timbuktu became a center of learning. 1500 AD)-located in South-central Africa -Zimbabwe means “great stone house” -Located in southern Africa between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers.

Most of this region is made up of plateaus (high. and civil wars.37 Reasons for the fall of the great African Empires 1. grassy plains called the pampas in the south and the llanos in the north. Plateaus. CENTRAL AMERICA. 4. EFFECT: hindered trade and travel. strait-small body of water that connects two larger bodies of water . very fast river. 3. Even though geographically they lived close. they were very different. isolation created many different ethnic groups. *Africa is a very diverse continent. 3. The influences of Christianity and Islam disrupted most traditional animistic (pagan) beliefs. GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN MEXICO. SOUTH AMERICA -The Atlantic Ocean is on the eastern side of Latin America and the Pacific Ocean is on the western side of Latin America. Competition for trade led to shifting alliances. Mountains-The Andes mountain range extends from the north and south of the continent of South America along the western coast. civil strife increased. *Geographical terms: 1. 5. The “backbone” of South America. One of the driest places in the world receiving an average rainfall of zero. particularly when new weapons were introduced. Most of the kingdoms were loosely organized and not unified. Rain forests. Some of the empires were just conquered and assimilated into by other African kingdoms or conquerors from the Middle East and Europe. Patagonia-dry plateau area located in the south receives little precipitationscrubby grasses and shrubs can only grow there Grasslands-These lands are fertile. 2. 4. EFFECT: causes isolation and diversity.located near the equator where it is wet and humid. with many sandbars making navigation difficult. peninsula-land surrounded by water on three sides 2.isolated people. Loyalties shifted. Desert-The Atacama desert located in Northern Chile. 2. flat land) and hills. Rivers-Amazon River-second longest river in the world stretching from the Andes mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. 6. Abundant vegetation and wildlife. 1. The Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico located west and east of Mexico. personal ambitions.

squash. The Incas had an empire. MAYAS. people moved to the countryside. drainage systems. 4. warfare began to decimate the city-states. All of them were polytheistic 3. Polytheistic civilization ruled by priests. . traded in raw materials such as jade 3. All believed in some type of human sacrifice to please their gods 4. -they began to decline several hundreds years before the arrival of Europeans. formed the FIRST truly complex Mesoamerican culture 2. -empire made up of city-states Chinchen Itza-major capital on Yucatan Peninsula Tikal –another great Mayan city located in present day Guatemala -the Maya were ruled by a noble class and priests were held in high regard because every part of Mayan life had some kind of religious connection. All of them had theocracies-governments that is ruled and run on religious principles. great temples and monuments. and cotton. None of the civilizations used the wheel like the Europeans or had horses! 5. created great carved heads of stone. built stone pavements. Organization and Contributions 1. The MAYAN EMPIRE (1000 BC. Incas had a hereditary dynasty 8. Advanced civilizations before European encounter 6. They were farmers and lived in thatched huts. IMPORTANT SIMILARITIES BETWEEN AZTECS. Most of the Maya were farmers who grew corn. thought to be Olmec rulers. AND INCAS: 1.1200 AD) -built one of the most highly developed civilizations in Mesoamerica. All three civilizations did not develop along river valleys 7. may have been due to restructuring of government-no longer did the kings have all the power. Aztecs and Mayas were composed of city-states. They built at least 80 cities for trade. All of them worshipped some kind of Sun God 2.EARLY CIVILIZATIONS 38 The Olmec Empire (1200 BC-400 BC) -Lived along Mexico’s Gulf Coast in the area called Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central American cultural areas).

Conquered and dominated neighbors for tribute (protection payments).CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. mythology. Elected by the nobility (aristocracy). Developed a sophisticated agricultural economy. strictly hierarchical (social classes) society 1. Great architectural buildings. or glyphs-very complex *THE MAYANS WERE VERY SKILLED IN MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY!!! 39 THE AZTEC EMPIRE (1300-1535 AD)-Central Mexico ORGANIZATION: Founded island capital Tenochtitlan (Present Day Mexico City) Created a highly specialized. They built chinampas-artificial “floating” gardens made of earth piled on reed mats that were anchored to the shallow lake bed 2. NOT FOR TERRITORY! 2. Drafted conquered neighbors for battles and wars 4. Produced a severe legal code of laws with judgments based on generally accepted ideas of reasonable behavior CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. invented a math system that included zero 3. Formed a powerful priestly hierarchy to administer government 6. established religious rituals which included human sacrifice. Forced neighbors to worship their sun and war god-Huitzilopochtli-(wee-tseel-opotch-tlee) 3. A massive pyramid-temple mayor at the center of Tenochtitlan was topped with shrines to the gods and an altar for human sacrifice. the ruler/emperor had near god status and supreme authority 5. carefully adjusted to the land with crop rotation and extensive aqueduct and irrigation systems. and ancestor worship 5. produced a complex astronomical calendar 2. . developed a writing system of symbols. built flat top pyramids as temples and rulers’ tomb 4.

Adapted an intricate 12. Disease brought by the Europeans weakened the Aztecs and Incas. the Inca Empire controlled 12 million people. Kill from a distance with these weapons. REASONS FOR VICTORY BY Cortes and Spaniards: 1. . A destiny that was unavoidable and had to be accepted. and slash and stabbed effectively.1535 AD) ANDES MOUNTAINS (Peru. To unite their empire. As tens of thousands died some Aztecs saw this as a sign that their gods were less powerful than the god of the Spanish. 2. Spanish muskets and cannons were effective in breaking the front lines of the Aztecs. That the Spanish conquerors were bringing about the determined end of their society and their world. the Incas imposed their own language –Quechua (KECH wuh). 3. Established largest empire of Latin America. 4. Believed emperors descended from the Sun god and worshipped them as divine beings. THE INCA EMPIRE (1200 AD. Horses made maneuvering easy and the animal frightened some of the Aztecs.FALL OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE 40 Conquistador. Ecuador) ORGANIZATION: 1.Spanish conquerors of Latin America *Hernan Cortes made alliances with rival Indian groups to overthrow Montezuma II. over 100 cultures with 20 different languages. 2. The Incas ran an efficient government with a chain of command reaching into every village. Superior military technology. Formed a strong monarchy ruled from Cuzco by using strategic resettlement of rebels or conquered people. Steel swords were strong.000-mile road system. These were the Indians conquered by the Aztecs. At its height. swift. The Spanish gained some Indian allies. and religion on the people. They were willingly to help Cortes defeat their enemy. Metal helmets and armor protected the Spanish soldiers.for traveling messengers and services for traveling bureaucratic officials. Acceptance of religious fate. 4. Hereditary dynasty-rulers inherited their right to rule like kings or queens CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. 3.

THE RENAISSANCE-THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES DECLINE OF FEUDALISM: Labor shortage caused by the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague. 6. or priests. A rediscovery of classical Rome and Greece 2. Became skilled in the use of copper. Adapted crops to different climates. 4. They cleaned the operating room thoroughly and even performed surgery on the skull. Beginnings in Italy-rich traders promoted arts and education. Built elaborate cities such as the religious city Machu Picchu built high in the Andes Mountains using no cement or mortar!. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE RENAISSANCE ART: 1. Professional armies used instead. 3. 2. sculptor. baron. 3. 2. Emphasis on the individual and relationship around him –humanism. and gold. painted the ceiling of Sistine Chapel with scenes from the Bible. or were not bound by the land anymore. THE RENAISSANCE: (1350-1650) -MEANS “REBIRTH”-(Europe coming out of the medieval or dark ages) 1. Urbanization-people moving from rural areas to cities. FALL OF THE INCA EMPIRE *Conquistador Francisco Pizarro and a small force of 180 Spanish troops had Emperor Athualpa executed and in the next 50 years the Inca Empire collapsed. Venice. 7. . 4. inventor. sculpture of David. 1. 5. different variety of potatoes for different climates 4. 2.Created agricultural terracing-farming in hills and mountains and irrigation 41 systems. silver. Many serfs went to work on their own. and Paris-all important Renaissance cities. Nationalism-loyalty and devotion to monarch and country. London. Instituted quipu (knotted cords) record keeping system. Leonardo Da Vinci-(1452-1519)painter. Decline of knights. Use of drugs (like modern day antiseptics) to make a patient unconscious before surgery. (secularism) 3. painted the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa Michelangelo-(1475-1564)painter. The emergence of powerful kings-loyalty to king only instead of divided loyalty to lord. Renewed interest in secular-non-religious matters. 5.

Hamlet.(classical. TECHNOLOGY: 1. pope not head of church) . “The end justifies the means. used the scientific method-which emphasized observation. Galileo Galilei-law of falling bodies. Help to expand learning and communication. William Shakespeare-English poet/playwright/writer who wrote plays and dramas like Romeo and Juliet.” 3.Spanish writer wrote the satire Don Quixote poking fun at romances and chivalry. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: 1. 5. QUAKERS.3. reach salvation by yourself-don’t need supreme church authority-bishop or pope. The church had become too rich. 2. realistic) Botticelli-(1445-1510)Primavera and Birth of Venus LITERATURE: 1. Isaac Newton-3 laws of gravity (i) a body at rest remains at rest (ii) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (iii) force = mass x acceleration [f=ma] THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION: Brought on by ideas of the Renaissance-EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL. Nicholas Copernicus-stating that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun. Hypothesis→Experiment→Conclusions 3. 2. allowing a buyer into heaven. measurement. powerful. and experimentation. Luther called for reforms within the Catholic Church. ETC. Miguel de Cervantes. and corrupt. including force and deceit. and Macbeth. 42 Raphael-(1483-1520)painter of classical forms-The School of Athens Donatello –(1386-1466)Statue of David-thought to be the first freestanding sculpture made since ancient times. 4.. inertia. (REMEMBER: The printing press gave more access to common people to read the Bible in their own languages) Martin Luther-In 1517. Niccolo Machiavelli –Italian writer who wrote The Prince stating that rulers could do anything necessary to maintain and increase their power. Martin Luther posted 95 theses (statements) on a church door in Germany. NO MORE ONE CATHOLIC CHURCH-UNITY OF CHRISTIANS SPLIT CATHOLICS (pope head of church) PROTESTANTS (BAPTISTS. Johann Gutenberg-invented printing from movable type in Europe. EFFECTS OF THE REFORMATION: 1. confirmed theories of Copernicus. He especially challenged the Pope’s right to sell indulgences-pardons for punishments for committing a sin.

Heresyopinion or beliefs that goes against church teachings. Torture was often used in the trial of heretics. To spread Christianity. REASONS FOR EXPLORATION: 1. • Vasco Da Gama (1497)-sails around southern tip of Africa encouraging trading by water to obtain Asian goods. & GLORY. astrolabe. riches. movable rudder. sheep. converts. NEGATIVE-Europeans brought diseases such as smallpox. • Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1520)-though Magellan is killed. grapes.. GOD. the power of European Kings began to grow. medicine. and better navigation skills allowed Europeans (SPAIN AND PORTUGAL LEAD THE WAY) to sail farther than ever before. onions. SEARCH FOR AN ALL WATER ROUTE TO EAST ASIA. influenza that decimated the native population. wheels. wheat. 2.43 2. (rats. cattle. Starvation. for the fame and power. etc. 2. 3. killings. Ottoman Turks who were Moslem disrupted overland trade through the Middle East. goats. and cats also were imported that had a negative impact). . abuses. THE AGE OF DISCOVERY: The spirit of inquiry of the Renaissance led Europeans to explore the world. Persecution of non-Catholics or non-Protestants. King Henry VIII broke with the Pope and became head of the Church of England in 1534 3. compass. GOLD. EFFECTS OF THE ENCOUNTER: (cultural diffusion increased!) ON NATIVE AMERICAS: 1. TECHNOLOGY-better instruments. and slaves. Growth of Royal Power-without a powerful central Church. and trade. 3 EARLY EXPLORERS: • Christopher Columbus (1492)-lands in the Caribbean marking a “discovery” of the Americas-new sources of wealth. mice. etc. POSITIVE-new technologies-guns. The Inquisition-used by Church officials to end heresy by force. his crew circumnavigates (circles) the world confirming that the world was round. for money. In England. and promote missionary work (the Jesuits) to spread the faith by working directly with the poor. oranges. THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION: MAIN PURPOSE: To reform Catholic church limiting corruption. and ending the sell of indulgences.

The Colonial Experience in Latin America-Colonialism -Royal governors called viceroys ruled the colonies of Latin America. tomatoes. capitalism-free enterprise and private ownership of businesses. Gold and Silver in particular made Spain into a rich and powerful country.enslavement. COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION. beans. CHOCOLATE. *Many Native Americans died from starvation. and mercantilismcolonies make “mother countries wealthy. and obedience to the Spanish crown. importation of African slaves. RESULT: Many landowners turned to African slaves for farming and mining Influence of spanish Catholicism on Latin America -Catholic Priests and Missionaries worked hard to convert many Native people to Christianity -They often had much power and some worked for the rights of Native people and defended them as well. TOBACCO. 2. corn. NEGATIVE-moral dilemma of treatment of Native Americans. Portugal.based on trade. *Catholicism remains the LARGEST Christian religious denomination in Latin America Social Classes in colonial Latin America REMEMBER: The higher classes of people were the PURE Europeans. forced labor. POSITIVE-Europeans and their countries (Spain. -Although the exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas was beneficial to the Native people to Latin America. England. Importation of POTATOES. while others saw them ONLY as inferior pagan beings to be civilized through conversion. and competition between countries leading to warfare. and the TOTAL decimation of some cultures and native groups 44 ON EUROPEANS: 1. Iberian refers to the Iberian peninsula (Portugal & Spain) . The NativeAmerican work force declined and many ran away or fought their oppressors. and from the brutal oppression and conditions made for them by the Spanish. ETC. disease. The Spanish monarchs appointed them. -The Encomienda System. the lower classes were the pure blood Africans and Native Americans! Peninsulares were European born nobles from Spain and Portugal sent to govern colonies in the New World. The Spanish conquerors and Spanish plantation owners were granted the right to use Native Americans for forced labor. and Holland) were becoming rich from the wealth of the Americas. France.

Black Africans were looked upon as strangers-easier to justify enslavement 2. etc. Arabs captured slaves and sold them in Egypt. coffee. 2. or people in debt -In East Africa. Third these manufactured goods were traded in Africa for slaves. and laborers . 2. First slaves from Africa were traded to the colonies for raw materials (like cotton). WHY SLAVERY? 1. 3. Many Africans were already skilled farmers. The Europeans wanted cheap labor to work the large plantations of sugar. [Circular continuous trade!] WHY AFRICAN-BLACK SLAVERY? 1. etc. guns. tobacco. TRIANGULAR TRADE -▲ 1. India. Africans did not know terrain like Native Americans-less likely to succeed in escaping 3. and other parts of Asia *The European slave trade developed slavery on an even more massive and inhumane scale. criminals. Second these raw materials were traded in Europe for manufactured goods (clothes. artisans.). They became an important trade item to obtain goods and manufactured products to make a profit.45 The European Slave Trade (mid 1400s-1800s) BACKGROUND: -Slavery has existed since the beginning of civilization -At first slaves were captives from wars.

-By the 1500s under the leadership of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire and military expanded to its greatest heights.justify blacks as savages by nature of looks. Technological. Created a legacy of violence. bridges. Saladin was their most famous leader.the Ottoman Empire was the largest in the world. Increased cultural diffusion-the exchange of ideas and goods increased 2. (Strict followers of the Koran) 2. and stereotypes ( a belief about a person or group of people that is not in reality true) The Legacy of the Slave Trade to Africa and North and South America NEGATIVE: 1. Encouraged warfare-encouraged tribes to war with each other to obtain slaves. 4. -Suleiman ruled as a powerful sultan (king) Suleiman accomplished the following: 1. The Shi’ite Moslems believe that only direct descendants from Muhammad should rule Moslem people anywhere. 2. skin 46 color. . RACIST ATTITUDES. scientific. and a lasting bitterness and resentment towards Western Europe and the United States. to trade for guns and other goods. and medical advancements that Europeans introduced to some African civilizations.4. The Sunni Moslems were willing to follow other Islamic leaders. Great mosques. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1453-1918) BACKGROUND: There are two major branches of Islam 1. leaders. (Not as strict in following Koran) -The Ottomans were Sunni Moslems from Central Asia that came to power around 1453 taking over from the Seljuk Turks as the most dominate Moslem group in the Middle East. schools. social upheaval. Encouraged and promoted the growth of the arts and sciences 4. Disrupted African culture-skilled artisans. 2. Disrupted and ruined the traditional economies in Africa POSITIVE: 1. REMEMBER: The Seljuk Turks were Moslems that fought the Christian Crusaders. and monuments were built during his reign. He let Christians and Jews for the most part govern themselves (worshipped the same god) 3. and intellectuals were lost 3.

and neighboring countries 4. the “sickman of Europe”-WHY? Corrupt and ineffective sultans 2. achieved world power by defeating Spanish Armada (navy) in 1588 Known as the “Sun King” represented a model for absolute monarchs.. science. *In 1914 the Ottomans fought WITH Germany and Austria-Hungary against the U. Wars with Austria. and weapons. learning. punished critics and Protestants England France . Russia. Too many groups of people to control 3. Absolute Monarchy-monarch rules absolutely with unlimited power. Absolute Monarch Henry VIII RULED-1509-1547 “Limited monarch” Elizabeth I 1558-1603 “Limited monarch” Louis XIV 1643-1715 Country England Significance Defied the Pope divorced his wife and became head of Church of England Preserved Protestant religion in England. built extravagant court. His or her commands expresses God’s wishes. THEY LOST!-AND THEY LOST MOST OF THEIR CONTROL OF OTHER MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES! -In 1923 the Ottoman Empire became a republic-the new country was called Turkey under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk who westernized or modernized the country EVOLUTION OF THE COUNTRY OF TURKEY Byzantine Empire (Eastern Orthodox Christian)→Ottoman (Islam)→Turkey (Islam) THE RISE OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY: Definitions Divine Right Theory-the belief that a monarch’s power comes from God. Russia. Failed to modernize and keep up with growth of industry. trade. S. technology. and England in World War I.47 1800s-The Ottoman Empire Declines. 1. France.

Congress to manage taxes-began to limit King’s power in England The Puritan Revolution-Parliament shows power – has King Charles I executed. exerted limited power and control-“enlightened despot” 48 Frederick the Great 1740-1786 Prussia (Germany) LIMITING THE MONARCHY IN ENGLAND: Magna Carta –in 1215 English nobles forced King John to sign the “Great Charter” or Magna Carta. Expanded the territory of Russia and the army. King James II is . S. like U. Enlightened despot? Added Poland to his kingdom. Despite some reforms-she kept absolute power. This guaranteed that Englishmen could not be fined or imprisoned except according to the laws of the land. Continued expansion and westernization of Russia. BUT King James II came back in power in 1660. culture and technology.Ferdinand & Isabella 1479-1516 Phillip II 1556-1598 Peter the Great 1682-1725 Catherine the Great 1762-1796 Spain Spain Russia Russia Made Spain a world power by sponsoring explorers like Columbus to conquer new lands Strict Catholic monarch that was defeated in a major naval battle with England in 1588 Introduced Western (modern) ideas. Rise of Parliament-formed around in 1295.

No excessive fines.replaced (too Catholic) in a peaceful turn over called The Glorious Revolution 49 English Bill of Rights: English monarchs could not collect new taxes or raise army without Parliament’s consent. THOUGH ENGLISH KINGS WILL HAVE POWER TO RUN THE COUNTRY UNTIL THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY-ENGLAND LEADS THE WAY IN LIMITED THEIR POWER! .

Their thinking could improve society by questioning the divine right of kings and the power of the Church. " Locke . liberty. -Observation: Life is better with liberty -Hypothesis: Freedom of speech & religion. Name From Wrote Two Treatises on Gov't Main Ideas -Observation: gov't exists to "preserve life. By applying reason and scientific laws. there is no liberty (freedom)" -Hypothesis: Gov't must have "Separation of Powers" -. Gov't must be what people want. separation of church & state -"I disapprove of what you say. & property" -Hypothesis: people should be sovereign (rule) -Hypothesis: monarchs not chosen by God -Observation: Life without gov't is "solitary. & short.Hypothesis: Gov't is contract between people & rulers. but I will defend to the death your right to say it." . nasty.50 THE ENLIGHTENMENT (“THE AGE OF REASON”): -MOVEMENT IN Europe in the 18th century that brought together the ideas of the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. 2. The Enlightenment thinkers believed that: 1." -Hypothesis: Absolute gov't needed to control evil behavior (not divine right) -Observation: "When the legislature & executive are united in the same person. but everywhere he is in chains. poor. brutish. people could better understand both nature and society.3 branches -Observation: "man is born free.

51 FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 476 AD THE MIDDLE AGES (MEDIEVAL. AGE OF FAITH. DARK AGES) 500-1300AD England THE RENAISSANCE THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION THE AGE OF DISCOVERY COUNTER REFORMATION COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION England Leviathan Hobbes France Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws ABSOLUTE MONARCHY THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION France Rousseau The Social Contract THE ENLIGHTENMENT (AGE OF REASON) 1700s France Voltaire Limited Monarchy in England 1776 The American Revolution in The French Revolution in 1789 Independence movements in Latin America in the 1800s .

*Democracy and more individual rights survive best in the United States and England. France and Latin American countries have setbacks with the rise of Napoleon and Latin American dictators! 52 .