EARLY CIVILIZATIONS (10,000 B. C.-500B.C.): • Mesopotamia (Babylon, Assyria, Sumer) • Egypt • Hebrews • China (Shang, Zhou, Qin dynasties) • India (Mauryan, Gupta Empire) CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS (1000 B.C.-500 A.D.): • Greeks • Romans • China (Han Dynasty) • Persia MIDDLE AGES (500-1300 A.D.): • Byzantine Empire • Japanese & European Feudalism • Maya • Aztec • Inca • Africa (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe) RENAISSANCE (1300-1600 A. D.): • Protestant Reformation • Age of Discovery • Commercial Revolution • Scientific Revolution • Age of Absolutism • Enlightenment NATIONALISM & IMPERIALISM (1700-1900 A. D.): • French Revolution • Industrial Revolution • Nationalism • Imperialism THE WORLD AT WAR (1900-1945) • World War I & II THE COLD WAR AND THE FALL OF COMMUNISM (1945-Present) • United States vs. Soviet Union


WORLD HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY NOTES The Neolithic Revolution (New Stone Age)
Results: 1. 2. 3. 4. People became settled-farmers instead of nomads People settled in permanent homes and villages Surplus of food Domestication of farm animals 5. barter economy-the exchange of goods and services without money 6. Classes formed-specialization of labor a. leaders/emperors/kings/generals b. priests, holy men-guidance c. warriors/soldiers-protection d. merchants-trade and commerce e. peasants, slaves-work, farming

• Berlin Wall Falls, Communist Soviet Union becomes democracy


The Rise of River Valley Civilizations
Why River Valleys? 1. Soil surrounding rivers were fertile/arable-good for farming 2. Provided a good source of fresh water 3. Transportation, trade 4. Irrigate crops 5. Mild climate

Common Characteristics of Early Civilizations
1. Formation of a central government with an organized set of laws 2. Use of written and spoken languages for communication-Cuneiform, Hieroglyphics 3. Specialization of labor-classes are formed 4. A culture supported by a large population over a long period of time 5. The development of religious beliefs→animism, polytheism, monotheism 6. Formation of villages, towns, and city-states

Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent), Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria -means “land between two rivers”→Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
-Although the climate was hot and dry-the rivers provided a means for farming. *Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria are all Mesopotamian city-states and often people from these city-states are grouped together and called Mesopotamians.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MESOPOTAMIANS: Sumer (c. 3500 –c. 2000 BC) (c. stands for circa or around!)
Cuneiform-wedge shaped writing in clay tablets 2. Development and use of the wheel 3. Building ziggurats-great religious temples

Babylon (c. 2000- c.900 BC)
(Chaldeans and Medes rebuilt Babylonian empire c. 612 BC) 1. Hammurabi’s code-first established organized, codified -written laws displayed throughout Babylon, harsh laws but promoted the ideal of justice. 2. The Babylonians believed in the study of astrology-that the movements of the stars and planets have a direct effect on human life.

The Assyrians (c. 1350 –c. 612 BC)
1. Perfected the use of iron 2. Divided their empire into provinces 3. Established first library

The Phoenicians (c. 1200-c. 300BC)
1. They invented the alphabet that contained letters that represented sounds of human voices. 2. Skilled ship builders and sailors

Hebrews (founded c. 2000 BC)-Jewish people
1. 2. 3. 4.

First major monotheistic religion-believed in a single all powerful God “People of the Book”-Torah (Jewish Bible)-Old Testament High moral behavior based on 10 commandments Descendants of Abraham and Noah Covenant with God

EGYPT-“Gift of the Nile”
-one of the earliest civilizations lasting predominately from c. 3200 BC-500 BC -developed and flourished along the Nile River-the longest river in the world(4,000 miles) flowing south to north into the Nile Delta and the Mediterranean Sea

Why was the Nile important to the development of the Egyptian empire?
1. The Nile River flooded every year and left a rich layer of soil that was good for growing crops 2. With the fresh water and the fertile soil provided by the Nile, Egypt grew large amounts of food, thus Egypt could grow and expand 3. A centralized government was more effective due in part to the ease of communication by the way of the Nile 4. The Nile made trade and transportation easier

Religious beliefs
-polytheistic -believed that a person’s body should be preserved after death in preparation for an afterlife (built great pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs)

Important Pharaohs in Egypt
Pharaohs were kings and a few queens who ruled Egypt as gods -Ramses II-built the famous temple Abu Simbel in southern Egypt amongst other famous Egyptian structures, was said to have enslaved the Hebrew people -Akhenaten- pharaoh who worshipped one god (the sun god-Aten), after his death, Egyptians restored the faith in many gods -King Tutankhamen (Tut)- king when he was only 9 years old, his tomb found in 1922 was a great discovery since it was basically untouched, gave an insight to Pharaoh and Egyptian life -Cleopatra-last great Egyptian pharaoh, who actually was part Greek and Egyptian, intelligent and ambitious, she tried to make Egypt great again. Eventually killed herself after defeated by roman navy

Accomplishments of the Egyptians:
Hieroglyphics-one of the earliest forms of writing based on picture symbols 2. They made paper known as papyrus from reed plants around the Nile 3. They were great engineers and architects building great pyramids, obelisks, palaces, temples, and statues –Great Sphinx, Abu Simbel, etc. 4. They used geometric principles to build pyramids, obelisks, and other temples. 5. They developed a 365 day calendar.


They invented a shadoof, a crane like device for lifting water from the Nile and other tributaries.



Mesopotamian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

• Did not have protection from natural boundaries • Made up of city-states • No strong central government • Floods of the Tigris and Euphrates were violent and unpredictable • Affected greatly by *cultural diffusion and *cultural assimilation • Constant migrations from Europe and East Asia

• Protected by the Mediterranean Sea in the North and the Sahara desert in the south • Large unified kingdom • Strong central government • Nile provided more constant farming possibilities • Kept Egyptian identity, less integrated from other cultures • Fairly stable migrations from north and south

Both developed along river valleys Both developed early forms of writing-cuneiform and hieroglyphics People specialized in other activities besides farming, classes formed, specialization of labor

*Cultural diffusion-when a custom or item of a culture moves from one part of the world to another

Developed the ability to make silk from a silkworm’s cocoon. –1500 B. C. . the Huang He.) -As in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Euphrates. these civilizations had disappeared due to invaders or natural disasters. They had a written language 4. raising of pigs. The Huang He –China (2000 B. This area of the world is susceptible to many invasions from the West. some people from the Huang He migrated southward to the Yangtze River where they learned to grow rice and irrigate the land -Rice cultivation. [Unlike the Nile. The people were farmers who grew wheat and raised livestock 2. They became skilled in making bronze 3. it deposited rich soil along its banks. chickens. Built the first known Chinese cities 2.*Cultural assimilation-when customs or people are taken in or become part of another culture. Significance of the Shang dynasty: 1. C. Chinese writing based on pictographs was developed. –1500 B. and dogs were also introduced -Around 1760 B. -China’s first civilization emerged along the Huang He (Yellow River). when the Indus River flooded. and Indus rivers were more unpredictable and susceptible to disastrous flooding in the surrounding areas] -Around 1500 B.. sometimes called the “river of sorrows” because of disastrous flooding of villages and communities. The cities were large and well planned -By 1500 B. 6 OTHER RIVER VALLEYCIVILIZATIONS The Indus River Valley-India (2500 B. Tigris. C. a ruling family known as the Shang took control of the region -Ruling families that last generations are called dynasties. They used metal tools and weapons 3. farming of soybeans. C. Each character represented a different word 4. Significance of Indus River Valley civilizations: 1. C. C. C. -Food surpluses allowed people to build large cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

All those who were on the bad side would go to HEAVEN and all those who were on the bad side would go to HELL. More successful than Darius but in the end defeated at Salamis -Darius III will fight Alexander the Great unsuccessfully at Issus and Gaugamela THE PERSIAN EMPIRE (2000 B. China (Zhou. _________________________________________________________ INDIA:IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY -India lies on a subcontinent-a large area of land separated from the rest of the continent by a natural barrier -The natural barrier that separates India from the rest of Asia are the Himalayan mountains in the North and East of India. Defeated by the Greeks at the Battle of Marathon -Darius son Xerxes led a Persian army against the Greeks. C. . C. and Han Dynasties) The Greeks The Romans -The Persian empire was located primarily in the Middle East along the Iranian plateau between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf -It eventually grew to expand from the Nile River to the Indus River -The Persian ruler Darius unified the empire: 1.7 THE CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS: • • • • • Persian Empire India (Mauryan and Gupta Empires). 4. *Divided the empire into provinces.): RELIGIONZoroastrianism-The religion taught that there was a constant battle between two forces GOOD & EVIL. He built many public roads 2. Qin. Introduced uniform weights and measures 3..100 B. which made the empire more manageable as well as promoting trade.

Fresh water supply-source of the Ganges River 8 NEGATIVE impact of the Himalayas: 1. Everest is located here-the highest mountain in the world (29. Ganges River 3. Has acted as a barrier to TRADE and contact with other peoples to the north and northeast of the region.-The Himalayan mountain range is the highest mountain range in the world. and sculpture flourished . Tolerated other religions including Hinduism 3. surgery was performed 2. Acts as a natural barrier or defense to help keep enemies out 2. invasions.000 feet above sea level) POSITIVE impact of the Himalayas on India: 1. – 184 B. Indus River 2. Medical doctors set broken bones. coal. Promoted Buddhism in India and beyond. Mt. NOTE: The exception is the Khyber Pass between the Hindu Kush Mountains that has allowed trade. C. The Ganges is a very sacred river for many Hindus. Indian culture flourished The Gupta Empire (320 AD-550 AD) -“Golden Age of India”-time of great cultural and scientific achievements Accomplishments of the Gupta Empire: 1. etc. The Maurya Empire (300 B. THREE GREAT RIVERS DOMINATE INDIA: 1. Literature. maganese. sending missionaries 2. Textiles like cashmere and calico were created 3. 3. art. Contains limited natural resources-iron ore. and cultural diffusion from the west and a little from the east. C. Brahmaputra River *Early civilizations developed around the Indus river. Then he became a Buddhist and began to practice more peaceful ways Asoka accomplished the following: 1. he promoted warfare and wanted to conquer other lands.) -First empire to unite most of India under one central government -it centered and developed along the Ganges river Famous leader –Asoka –in the beginning.

Deities (gods). continuos cycle of life. 4. NEGATIVE EFFECT-little or no social mobility 2. 5. 3. body dies but soul doesn’t Karma-a person’s thoughts and actions affect his/her fate in the future Dharma-rules or obligations of a person born in a caste Hinduism and Society-Both a religion and a social system (caste system) The caste system is a system of social stratification or ranking of people by occupation.Brahma-the creator Vishnu-the preserver of life Shiva-the destroyer and re creator Reincarnation-the rebirth of the soul in another body after death.Early Religions of India HINDUISM 9 world’s oldest religion. POSITIVE EFFECT-provided social order OCCUPATIONAL GROUPINGS –CASTE SYSTEM . There is no one sacred book like the Bible. 1. No one person founded Hinduism. Polytheistic religion-many gods. Their holy books are collected in the Vedas.

There is a path. and indulgence in extreme hardship-choose the Middle Way! -Most Buddhists do not believe in a supreme being like a God -Nature worship and respect FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1. -Rejected indulgence in sensual pleasures. Suffering is caused by selfish desire and indulgence 3. Only a small percentage of East Indians today are Buddhists.Buddhism spread from India to China. -Rejected the Hindu caste system -Founded a Middle Way to achieve peace and harmony to a perfect state of mind called nirvana.10 BUDDHISMFounded in nearby India. Desire can be eliminated 4. or way. Right livelihood 6. but one can escape the cycle of death and rebirth through Buddhist practices. . who rejected wealth and searched for the meaning of human suffering.C.).follow the Eight Fold Path NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH 1. and the rest of Southeast Asia. Right Mindfulness 8. Right action 5. All life is suffering 2. Right values 3. Right viewpoint 2. Right meditation *Cultural Diffusion. Right effort 7. by Prince Siddartha Gauntama (563-487 B. Right speech 4. to end desire. GREW OUT OF HINDUISM-RESPONSE TO IT! -Believe in Karma and reincarnation. Japan. Korea.

Four Noble Truths. acceptance and yielding BUDDHISM: -Started in India but flourished in China. Reincarnation. Eightfold Path. (Huang He. hinders trade 1. Dry treeless plains MAJOR CHINESE PHILOSOPHIES/RELIGIONS 11 LEGALISM: Started around the Zhou Dynasty. Yin (Female)→Yang(Male). Himalayan mountains in the southwest 2.-Emphasized strict moral conduct -Education should be the road for advancement in society-civil service exams to get the best people in government -Filial Piety-this meant that children and young people must honor and love their parents and all older family members -Rulers and government are like parents who should be obeyed. Yangtze. accept nature. The Middle Way . “Enlightened One”. don’t resist it -Duality always exists Good→Evil. Korea. The children are the citizens -Everyone has a role in society and must carry out their obligations -“Do to other people as you would like them to do to you” RELATIONSHIPS! -The only equal relationship is friendship -Older people were superior to younger -men were superior to women -parents superior to children -elder brother was superior to younger brother -ruler superior to the subjects or people he ruled TAOISM (pronounced as DAOISM): -Founded by Lao Tzu (604 BC?-nobody can verify his existence) -Emphasizes a need to be close to nature. Gobi Desert in the north and west 3.CHINA CHINA’S GEOGRAPHY: *Most of China is mountains or deserts *Only the river valleys of China have rich soil and good climate that people need for farming. and Southeast Asia -Nirvana. Japan. practiced ruthlessly by Chin Dynasty -Revolved around the idea that passing strict laws governing everyone was the best way to maintain an orderly society CONFUCIANISM: -Founded by Confucius 551 BC-479 BC -More of a philosophy than a religion. must develop balance -Simplicity and respect for living things. Karma. and Xi Rivers) *Natural barriers against invasions.

building of Great Wall of China. This meant the ruler’s power depended on heaven’s. development of porcelain. Legalism Shi Huang Di-ruthless emperor-burned many books did not want people to know about past. Mandate of Heaven. Other rival families will takeover to rule China. and measure. BUT if ruler is unjust. China named after Qin. short stories. Buddhism flourishes Magnetic Compass.12 Dynasties rule China: Dynasties-a succession of rulers from the same family. Taoism (Daoism). Buddhism becomes influential. People must obey emperor because the heavens say so. Weak military-suffered from invasions from the Mongols. the god’s. calendar. ivory and jade. Qin (Chin) 221 BC-207 BC Han Sui T’ang Song 202 BC-220 AD 581 AD-618 AD 618 AD-907 AD 960AD-1279AD . paper money. golden age of poetry. [NOT THE COMMON PEOPLE!] Dynasty Shang Zhou Dates 1500 BC-1027BC 1027 BC-256 BC Achievements Development of Chinese writing. and ancestors continued favor of his personal behavior.connecting the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River to the Huang He River SECOND “Golden Age of China”. trade on the Silk Road. weights. Civil service exams. ruler will LOSE Mandate of Heaven. common standard of law. trade increased FIRST “GOLDEN AGE” OF CHINA Development of the Grand Canal. bronze vases Growth of ideas: Confucius. first printed book. The Chinese dynasties ruled by the “Mandate of Heaven”. large ships.

-The early Greeks grouped themselves in city-states. *Alexander the Great spread Greek culture through conquering other empires and lands.THE GREEKS through elected officials (republic). The Wasps. -The city-states had sufficient farming land but were small and often had to depend on one another to survive -The Greeks were excellent sailors who traveled to distant lands -The Greeks were less likely to be invaded-high mountains in the north and the Mediterranean Sea in all other directions. 3. Peace • Eurpides→ Electra • Aeschylus→founder of Greek tragedy. Practical developments: a) colonizationincreased wealth of city-state b) Use of Phoenician Alphabet Improved upon by Greeks c) Literature. 6. aristocracy-rule by a small group of nobles or upper-class people. plays. Greek civilization started by migrations and trading ventures! GEOGRAPHY -Greece was not a single united country -It is made up of many of small islands and peninsulas -The land is rugged they traded and prospered over the Mediterranean Sea. 4. *UNLIKE other river valley civilizations like Sumer or Babylon. comedies • Homer (poet) Illiad and Odyssey • Sophocles→Antigone • Aristophanes→The Birds.the time after the “Golden Age” of Greece that describes the spreading of Greek culture to other parts of the world. -The city-states all spoke a common language. 5. 8. Socratic method-teaching by asking questions Hellenistic Period. philosophers-scholars who analyze the process of reason-love of wisdom. monarchy-when a single person rules like a king or queen oligarchy-rule by a few people tyrants-rulers who exercise absolute power in an oppressive or brutal manner. tragedies. 7. 1. democracy-a form of government in which the people rule themselves either directly or 2.wrote over 80 tragedies . The Clouds. poems. 13 IMPORTANT VOCABULARY 1.

slaves & foreigners STILL left out.Cleisthenes worlds 1st organized Democracy  Citizens enjoyed freedom of speech and equality before the law  Limited democracy-women.reflected everyday life • Drama: tragedies and comedies Intellectual developments: ATHENS: Math: Pythagoras.Solon aristocrat who reorganized society."Father of Medicine".Hated Athenian Democracy for killing Socrates . aristocracy ruled by highly intelligent was best gov't. gave people more rights • 508 BC.measurements of right triangle Euclid.(470-399 BCE) Answer. vases.Question technique (Socratic Method) to get people to come to absolute truth.Wrote The Republic . could not vote 460-429 BC: "Golden Age of Pericles" “We cultivate the mind.set up the Academy (school) . astronomer. inventor-pulley for lifting objects.(427-347 BC) student of Socrates.d) City-States-THE POLIS 1) ATHENS-largest of Greek City-states 14 • Long distance trade=wealth  Gov't : began as monarchy Aristocracy • 621 BC-Draco harsh judge • 594 BC. Archimedes screw for pumping water  Philosophy: Thinkers • Socrates. promise to treat their patients well-“Hippocratic Oath” Archimedes-mathematician.Geometry  Science: physics and medicine Hippocrates. without loss of manliness” • Architecture: Parthenon (temple for Greek goddess Athena)-built with columns. “Ignorance is the only Evil!” Sentenced to death for not believing in the gods and corrupting the young • Plato.showed balance and order within society) • Arts: pottery. A philosopher king would be the best ruler! .

SPARTA 1.• Aristotle. EMPHASIS ON THE MIND 3. loved the natural world . controlled education.trained in gymnastics. little cultural advancement  Spartan Women: • Athletes. RULED BY OLIGARCHY 2. classified many forms of life through observation .28 men over 60 yrs. monitored citizens • • •  Military Life: For all Spartans • 7 years old placed in military camp • 12 years old trained for combat and survival • 20 years old could marry • 60 years left military  Spartan Society: • Athletes • Little trade.Tutored Alexander the Great 15 2) SPARTA • military state  Gov't: oligarchy. WOMEN TREATED BETTER 2. -ALL advised the king • Ephors (5)=watched the king. Of age Assembley.More down to earth than Plato. DEMOCRACY VS. Council of Elders.Founded the Lyceum-school . EMPHASIS ON THE BODYPHYSICAL STRENGTH 3.Wrote about logic.Spartan men over 30 yrs.needed to be strong to produce strong sons . boxing and wrestling • could own business • little bit more equal status than Athenian women ATHENS 1.2 kings elected every 9 yrs. WOMEN TREATED AS UNEQUAL .(384-322 BC) Plato's student .

4. Three of the world’s greatest philosophers were Socrates→Plato→Aristotle. but limited) They created magnificent buildings and beautiful sculptures.conquered Persia and Darius III. They developed the art of philosophy to search for wisdom and truth. Euclid. ENCOURAGED CREATIVITY 5. and Pythagoras were some of the great early scientists and mathematicians. ALEXANDER THE GREAT Hellenistic Civilization of Greece/ Alexander's Empire: a) 334 BCE. 3. 5. The Parthenon in honor of the Goddess Athena was one of the greatest structures ever built. Doric. Egyptians. Two great poems the Iliad and the Odyssey as told by Homer are still around today. They created outstanding literature and poetry. They developed the world’s first democracy. Ionic. Egypt & Indus River Valley →LARGEST EMPIRE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD b) Alexandria in Egypt Most important city of his Empire  major center of learning and trade  Encouraged Innermarriages of Persians. ECONOMY-MAINLY AGRICULTURAL AGRICULTURAL 5. Archimedes. and Corinthian style columns. Syrians and others . They were the first people to take a scientific approach to medicine and science by observing and experimenting and theorizing. Hippocrates.(direct. ECONOMY-TRADERS AND 4. 4. 2.Alexander (of Macedonia) the Great at 22 years. EMPHASIZED SOCIAL CONTROL AND DISCIPLINE 16 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE GREEKS_______________________ 1.

In the early paret of its history Rome was ruled by Etruscan kings. and olive trees • Kept oxen. Remus stood on top of a hill named Aventine awaiting a sign from the gods while Romulus did the same on top of Palatine. Romulus was eventually named king. The Etruscans influenced the Romans in the following ways: 1. and chicken FOUNDING OF ROME: Legendary story (folklore-mythical): Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus and Remus-descendants from the Trojans. Romulus took a rock and struck Remus in the head killing him.17 mix of all these people became the HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION • Cultural Diffusion with EAST and WEST • Science (270 BCE) Aristarchus. They were unable to compromise they decided to let the gods decide. a shepherd killed the she-wolf. went searching for the dead wolf’s cubs and surprisingly found Romulus and Remus. The wall was two feet high and Remus still angry and jealous made fun of his brother’s wall and jumped over it. The boys grew up into brave young men and searched for a city to rule. knowledge of building roads . The shepherd brought them up as his own sons. Romulus becomes king in 753 BC and names the city after himself-ROME! Early Romans-historical The Romans can trace their ancestry to the Latin immigrants. They were founded by a she-wolf thinking they were her lost cubs. They both wanted to rule. Soon after. Soon afterwards twelve vultures flew over Romulus. fruits. sheep. pigs. Six vultures flew over Remus-his followers cheered. goats. Their wicked uncle who wanted to kill them set them afloat on the river Tiber in a basket.astronomer (earth revolves around sun) • c) Impact -Spread Greek culture throughout his empire -Greek classical ideas spread through expansion and absorption by the Roman Empire ANCIENT ROME GEOGRAPHY: • Peninsula • Less rugged mountains than Greece • Fertile farm land • Developed around the Tiber River) • Irregular coastline-(good natural harbors) • Grew wheat. Romulus began to build a wall for his city. The two brothers quarreled.

(450 BCE) • “Equality under the law” • “Innocent till proven guilty” c) ENGINEERING.roads (some still used today). • at 1st only Patricians or aristocrats(wealthy landowners) had right to run for gov't • 287 BCE. the dome.written down on Bronze tablets. Assembly and consuls (kings). mythology-minor role (most of the mythology came from Greeks) 4. fortune telling through animal sacrifice a. make weapons and tools out of bronze Influence from the Greeks: 1. architecture.arose from need to maintain order in Roman society -Citizenship was offered to defeated groups by the Romans as a way to win loyalty of the people they conquered.placed in public so all people could see and know what the laws were. Hermes→ • Concrete. examine the liver b. religious practices and concepts 1. aqueducts.used for roads and buildings • Colosseum and The Pantheon-two great Roman architectural buildings . b) ROMAN LAW. etc.12 Tables (Tablets).designed to protect lives and well being of citizens • Codified. Practical developments. Aphrodite→Venus.) 2. a) GOVERNMENT-In 509 BC.carried water to cities through pipes for many miles • public baths. done until Christianity becomes the official religion of Rome 3. drainage system • aqueduct. the arch.Plebeians (non aristocrats.18 2. the Romans overthrew the monarchy and set up a republic-a form of indirect democracy in which people elect representatives to run government for them. use of an alphabet 4. mythology-gods (Zeus→Jupiter. art work 3.use of the arch 5. common people) won full rights as citizens • The Romans divided their government up into a Senate.

and natural freedoms. –kind of “Golden Age of Rome” when many architectural projects were undertaken. 3. the army was reformed and the empire made more secure. 2. but they couldn’t killed Caesarism!” Augustus Caesar-Augustus brought a long period peace to Rome known as the Pax Romana. Was killed by people in the Senate when he wanted to be declared emperor of all Rome. Political Weakness-Many later emperors were corrupt and ineffective leaders. TWO IMPORTANT ROMAN LEADERS-Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar Julius Caesar-a popular general and conqueror of Spain and Gaul (present-day France). ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 1. He used his military fame and his political skills to win the love of the soldiers and masses. such as the Goths and Huns. Military Decline-Many of the soldiers recruited to serve in the Roman army in the late empire were outsiders and were less loyal to Roman citizens. conditions for the poor were improved. After Julius Caesar the Roman Republic ended FOREVER! “The Senate killed Caesar. Government-established a republic which promoted democratic ideas 2. 4. the empire expanded. Once killed a civil war broke out and Augustus Caesar took over as emperor. . Law(Twelve Tables)-written forms of laws based on “innocent until proven guilty” and “equality before the law” promoted justice. Economic Problems-The costs of defending and administering the empire Invasions-Rome was under continual attack by fierce tribes from Northern Europe and Central Asia. He ended the Roman republic in 46 BC when he forced the Senate to declare him dictator (one who rules all) for life.d) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTS borrowed and adapted from Greek thought and applied it to their practical needs -. REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 1. equality.Blend of ideas lead to Greco-Roman Civilization 19 IMPACT OF ROME: Roman contributions in law and engineering spreads throughout Europe during the Empire and later to be preserved by the Byzantine Civilization throughout the Middle Ages.

Wealthiest of Ancient world civilizations 3. took census (count of people). CAUSES OF DECLINE -emperors could no longer control powerful warlords in the provinces . FACTORS LEADING TO GROWTH -strengthening of the central government and the economy -improved canals and roads . B.Barbarian attacks -roads and canals were in disrepair -heavy taxespeasants revolted -220 CE warlords overthrew the emperor and the dynasty fell. The Han Empire (206 BCE-220 CE) 1. Engineering-The Romans built aqueducts.imposed a monopoly on salt and iron to ensure an income other than taxes -trade on the Silk Road increased -civil service exams required (rich or poor could take it) -focus on education -influence of Buddhism and Confucianism begins to unite Chinese people 2. established a stable currency. Rise of Christianity-Although the Romans persecuted both 4. . Jewish and Christian religions. EXPANSION -borders grew beyond the great wall -Chinese armies conquered areas in Manchuria. and divided empire into provinces. Korea. Tibet. northern Vietnam. Organization-Rome built roads. and Central Asia. FACTORS LEADING TO GROWTH -expansion cultural diffusion -rights of citizens protected by code of laws-Twelve Tables . all things that contributed to the success of the largest empires in the world. Christianity kept spreading even being adapted later as the official religion of the Roman Empire itself.20 3. Roman Empire 1. made use of arches and domes and created magnificent structures like the Colosseum and the Pantheon. 5. used concrete.-Constantine The Rise and Fall of Great Empires: The Chinese Han Empire and Roman Empire: A.

mercy and sympathy for the poor and helpless h) in equality of all before God. to love God. 3. through expansion. middle of the Mediterranean . to accept Christ’s death as atonement (forgiveness of sins) f) in salvation (to be saved) and eternal life g) in forgiveness of sin. high unemployment and decline in trade and manufacturing -lack of patriotism had to rely on mercenaries to protect the empire -selfish attitude of the people. became too large to control 3.they put their needs above the empire -Rome open to invasion by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns-Rome fell in 476 AD 21 Christianity (Middle East) -started by a Jewish prophet named Jesus 1. -good geographical line of succession . Christianity spread quickly through the Roman Empire and eventually the Roman Catholic Church became the most powerful institution in Europe. Christians believe: a) Jesus Christ is the Messiah (savior) b) Jesus Christ is the Son of God c) the New Testament is the basis for their beliefs d) the Old Testament. CAUSES OF DECLINE -EMPIRE JUST BECAME TOO BIG TO CONTROL -government was weak and corrupt. is the foundation for their ethical and religious beliefs e) they must practice Jesus’ teachings. as do Muslims 2. Eventually these differences led to an official division of the Christian church in 1054 CE into the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the Greek Orthodox Church in Constantinople . including the Ten Commandments.-system of roads.the Roman empire. Modern Christianity a) Great Schism-different views on religious authority and teachings developed between the church in Rome (headed by the pope) and the church in Constantinople-Byzantium (headed by the Patriarch).heavy taxes. to acknowledge divine judgment of one’s actions on earth.

sculpture. -Merchants in Mecca (important town on the Arabian peninsula) were jealous of Mohammed’s growing influence.kicked out H. but his teachings were recorded in the Koran or Qu’ran. Mohammed gathered an army to retake Mecca in a jihad or “holy war.with help of printing press (J.” (A jihad does not have to be violent it can be used to struggle within one’s own self or a peaceful struggle against an unjust cause. Mohammed died. Not any Moslem can just called for a jihad-must be a sacred and important undertaking) -In 632.22 4. -In Medina. Gutenberg) d) People are encouraged to read the Bible-education increases e) End of religious unity in Western Europe as many other Christian religions are formed f) Increase in the growth of secular (outside the church) independent thought g) Luther will be excommunicated. c) Luther translates the Bible into German. Islam’s holiest book. Fearing for his life. two years after recapturing Mecca. THE RISE OF ISLAM -BACKGROUND: -Islam founded by the prophet Mohammed. 1517 CE a) Started by Martin Luther (German Catholic Monk) b) Luther saw abuses by the church (sale of indulgences and church offices. Mohammed fled from Mecca to the city of Medina in 622 known as the Hegira (AD 622 marks year ONE for many Moslems). -Mohammed preached Allah was God and for Arabs to stop worshipping idols and all other depict religious themes. because of the abuses 2) Expression of faith through the arts -artists used different means. painting. Renaissance: Encouraged the Protestant Reformation 1) People began to QUESTION Church authority. Protestant Reformation-protesting the Catholic Church and breaking away from it. . people and Bible stories. money lending) and let others know about them by posting these abuses (95 theses) on the church door in Wittenberg.

Charity to the Poor 4. Guidelines for men and women. 2. -The followers of Islam are called Moslems. Forbids the eating of pork. • The Shiite’s believed that the descendants of the Prophet were divinely inspired. Islam is a way of Life The holy book of the Moslems is the Koran. The Koran tells Moslems how they should lead their daily lives. Husbands must support their wives financially. should be a descendent of Mohammed’s son-in-law Ali. 23 -THE 5 PILLARS OF ISLAM (rules for everyday life for Moslems) 1. The Shiites came to admire martyrdom as a demonstration of their faith Sunni. Sunnis believe that inspiration came from the example of Muhammad.-The followers of Mohammed saw him as the last of the great prophets that included Abraham and Moses (Judaism). D.believed their religious leader (caliph) should be chosen from their community-but he was not a religious authority. Ali and many of his own descendants were killed fighting the Sunni’s.believed their leader and religious authority. -After Mohammed’s death Abu Bakr became the first caliph-religious leader of a Moslem state. b) THE GROWTH OF ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND ASIA -The Islamic religion began to dominate the Arabian Peninsula around 7th Century A. Make one pilgrimage (trip) to Mecca once in their lifetime. 2. Moslems must not make or worship idols or images. 3. drinking of alcohol and gambling (ideally!). . Two different sects within Islam a) Shiite. Fasting during the Holy Month of Ramadan. Wives traditionally MUST always listen to their husbands. 5. That there is only ONE God-Allah. Pray 5 times a day facing East towards Mecca 3. and Jesus (Christianity). -REMEMBER: Islam is the religion. -Islam united Arabs with a common language and religion. Moslems are people who believe in Islam. 1.

but his empire fell apart after his death. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1055 A. 4. The Dark Ages. EUROPEAN FEUDALISM__________________________________ Feudalism. -“Golden Age of Islamic Culture”: 1. Mathematics-Arabic numerals developed. Arts and Crafts flourished (mosaics. . 5. and The Age of Faith** -What happened to Europe after the collapse of Roman Empire? 1. The serfs or peasants would work and serve the lord in exchange for economic.) -After Mohammed died there was a split between Moslems. and social system based on the control of land. and controlled their armies made up of knights. They performed surgery. -The Shiite Moslems believed that ONLY direct descendants of Mohammed could rule a Moslem state. and Europe. Wrote literary works and founded great universities. Medicine-Arab doctors discovered that blood moves to and from the heart. Made advances in algebra and geometry.Islamic Empires 24 1. political. 2. D. THE MIDDLE AGES (500 AD-1300AD) **Also known as The Medieval Period. Decline in formal learning 4. geometric designs) 3. borrowed concept of zero from India. A Germanic king Charlemagne (AD771-814) established a great empire. Africa. Decline in trade 3. like measles and smallpox. spread Christianity. There was no more strong central government 2. 2. -The Sunni Moslems believed other Moslems besides DIRECT descendants from Mohammed could rule a Moslem state (caliphs). textiles. military. 6. These nobles or lords or vassals ruled their own lands. Economic System -Kings granted land (fiefs) to their nobles for their pledge of military support.) -The greatest expansion of Islam took place during this time -The Islamic empire became a crossroads of trade between three continents-Asia. Preserved Greek and Roman culture. Architecture-Moslem rulers built beautiful palaces and mosques. They learned to diagnose many diseases. D. made their own laws. Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 A.

monks scribing versions of the Holy Bible. CAUSES OF THE CRUSADES . It was the dominant religious institution in Western Europe [REMEMBER-The Eastern Orthodox Church under the Byzantine Empire dominates the EAST!] 3. the leading nobles controlled political life. During the Middle Ages many people wanting to be good “Christians” would take a pilgrimage to where Jesus was born. Social System -Feudalism divided society into classes of lords.made laws concerning births. Served as a substitute for local government. marriage. 4. peasants or serfs. Through warfare. and increased their wealth. and burial rights. THE CRUSADES (1095-1291AD) **The Crusades were attempts by the Christians of Western Europe to regain control of Jerusalem (modern day Israel) and other parts of the Holy Land (primarily the Middle East) from Muslims by force** BACKGROUND -A crusade is a campaign against any injustice (The comic book hero Batman is often called the “Cape Crusader”) -A pilgrimage is a journey to a sacred place. -Class was determined by birth and there was little social mobility. seized new territories.-The control of the land-NOT trade was the basic economic unit. knights. 25 -Sometimes this self sufficient system was called manoralism. and they often fought among themselves or challenged the king’s authority. [related to Hindu caste system. people divided by occupation] Political System -Under the feudal system. Arab Muslims were very tolerant of Christians. feudal lords defended their estates. lived. but the Seljuk(SEL-jook) Turks or Muslim Turks were seemingly more hostile to the Christians. Center of Learning-encouraging people to read holy books. since the manor which consisted of the lord’s house and the land around it was a town. The Role of the Roman Catholic Church Gave peasants hope-provided a place of refuge. hope for a better life 2. The king relied on them for his armies. and preached-the Holy Land. Pilgrims returning to Europe spread the word that Christians were being killed and persecuted in the Holy Land. 1.

Manufacturers and traders needed people who could read. BUT it essentially began the END of the Medieval Period in Europe opening trade routes once gain between Europe and Asia** 1. and literature. The Holy Land was not recaptured by the Christians. in the end the MOSLEMS REGAINED CONTROL-led by such charismatic Moslem leaders as Saladin and other Molsem sultans. Manufacturing began to grow from the result of supplying weapons and supplies to keep up fighting. THE REVIVAL OF TRADE! Trading cities like Venice and Genoa Italy grew rich because of the increase in trade between Asia and Europe. Also rediscovered Greco-Roman writings. Because of the brutalities of these Crusades by Europeans and Muslim Turks. Some people wanted the glory and adventure (remember the code of chivalry of many knights)[chivalry-code of bravery and courtesy of a knight] 3. science. 6. 4.26 1. Many nobles died in the Crusades resulting in many Kings gaining more power (beginning of Absolute rule). and glass mirrors-goods that came in demand in Europe by the middle class. Growth of towns-people moving from rural areas for opportunities . 3. Developments of the Golden Age of Islam brought a renewed interest in learningmathematics. riches. carpets. WHY DID PEOPLE TAKE UP ARMS TO CRUSADE? 1. 5. 2. OTHER FACTORS THAT LED TO THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES 1. The Seljuk Turks were also threatening the takeover of the Byzantine capital of Constantine-the eastern capital of the Christian Empire. write. Some people were truly religious 2. art. 2. _ Although Christians armies like the one led by Richard II of England (Richard “the Lionhearted”) did win back control of Jerusalem and other parts of the Holy Land. not just one that lasted until about 1291. it created LASTING resentment between the two groups. perfumes. 3. and do arithmetic. 4. and power. RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES **The Crusades was a series of religious wars. Christian pilgrims were being persecuted in the Holy Land. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a holy war to retake the Holy Land and preserve the Byzantine Empire. 7. Europeans began to take interest in other parts of the world particularly Asia (beginning of the Age of Exploration). Crusaders brought back spices. Many nobles took part to gain land. Many common people or serfs took up arms to better their life and maybe even have a greater life in heaven if they proved themselves in the crusades.

and tsunami (large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes) afflict the islands of Japan. 5. Rise of nation-states. -Because the land of Japan is mostly rugged and mountainous. landslides. 4. RESULT-Japan developed a sense of cultural unity and a major distrust of foreigners -Earthquakes. 27 EARLY JAPANESE HISTORY Japan’s Geography -Japan is an archipelago made up of 4 main islands and over 3000 smaller islands -Japan’s island location helped isolate it from the Asian continent and protect it from outside invasion. Uses trade in modern times to its advantage. Japan had to rely on the surrounding seas for food. Japan lacks an abundance of natural resources-which heavily affects Japan in the later 1800s and in the 20th century RESULT. Growth of middle class or business class that promoted trade and commerce. Will colonize and takeover other territories for raw materials and natural resources 3. Accumulate wealth through money NOT JUST PROPERTY.1. 3. form of nature worship-animism . knights in armor became obsolete Renewed interest in learning about other people and the world around them Rise of nationalism-loyalty and devotion to own country and land.2. Shinto-“way of the gods”. Increased use of gunpowder. 2. volcanic eruptions. much of Japan’s land is NOT arable (suitable for farming) -In addition.loyalty now to the monarch and the country. EARLY TRADITIONS Two major early religions1.

belief in Kami-spirits or gods found in natural things like 28 winds. *Japanese society as well as Chinese society traditionally and today practice a combination of the above religions and philosophy. -Classes included the Shogun. the emperor unlike in China usually had no real power.g. sand trees. trees. JAPANESE FEUDAL SOCIETY -Early Japanese government was ruled by families. Samurai. (E. Merchants . Zen Buddhism-most Japanese people practice this form of Buddhism that emphasizes meditation and self-discipline to achieve enlightenment. flowers. Peasants and Artisans. This feudalism was primarily based on land holding. POWER WAS IN THE HAND OF FAMILIES like the Fujiwara. ponds and running water) Kami can also include worshipping the souls of ancestors. rivers. Shinto also dictates order and unity which sometimes leads to blind loyalty to the emperor or higher leaders Japanese people believe that torii gates serve as entrances into the spirit world. class distinctions. and ridding of material things. Buddhism-*Early Japanese culture was heavily influenced by China* Buddhism believes in leading a simple life. meditation. Daimyo. great heroes. and emperors. The practice of zazen meditation is to clear the mind of any thoughts and desires. Torii gates are al laround sacred Japanese sites. etc. spiritual enlightenment-Nirvana. 2. rocks. Ikebani flower arrangements. THE EMPEROR’S ROLE WAS PRIMARILY CEREMONIAL AND RELIGIOUS! -In 11th and 12th centuries-Japanese feudalism became the dominant political structure. sculpted gardens that includes pebbles and rock arrangements. Bonsai tree growing. and personal loyalties.

Japanese feudalism would be way of life until the mid 1800s. Chinese civilization began in the Huang He (Yellow River) Valley. Along with the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Samurai-TWO KINDS. ceremonial. 2. 3. Merchants-even though this class may have been wealthier than others. and strict obedience to lord. 2.the military governor or general who served as the actual ruler over the noble class of landowners. 6. divine (holy-god like) rule or authority. (1) most samurai swore allegiance to a daimyo or to the shogun. Emperor-no real power. and in return received land and states (2) Ronin-samurai soldiers with no lords. honor. generations of families or dynasties have ruled China. 5.29 1. could be hired or serve own needs. Daimyo-(vassals or lords) great landholders who swore allegiance to the shogun-very powerful lords in their own right. From early times until 1911.similar to European serfs worked the land in return for protection. 4. Samurai defeated those enemy soldiers who reached Japan. courage. but unfavorable winds (kamikaze) destroyed the ships. . All samurai observed a code of conduct called bushido that stresses simplicity. river valleys as elsewhere in early civilizations fostered growth. Shogun. Peasants and Artisans. Bringing dishonor to samurai class could result in ritual suicide called seppeku or hari kari. ANCIENT CHINA TO THE RULE OF THE MONGOLS BRIEF REVIEW OF ANCIENT CHINA (2000 BC TO 1279 AD) -There are three important facts to keep in mind about Chinese history: 1. Kublai Khan tried to invade Japan with a massive fleet. they still held the lowest social order-similar to European Gypsies! In 1274.

1368 Yuan (Wan) Dynasty-the Mongol Dynasty BACKGROUND HISTORY OF THE MONGOLS -The Mongol people ruled Mongolia in central Asia. Mongols use of bows and horses were unmatched!) and he and the Mongols conquered much of China. the Romans. worship of ancestors 1123 BC-256 BC Chou Dynasty-ruled over feudal society. AD 1279. India.-Yuan Dynasty The Mongols’ Way of Ruling China . China was united. the Middle East and Central Asia grew. poets. built canals. Persia.AD 1279 Sung Dynasty-magnetic. Confucianism became official governmental policy. block printing invented. compass. -The 30 Significant Chinese dynasties REVIEW! 2000 BC-1122 BC Hsia and Shang Dynasties-early Chinese writing. and scholars flourished. or the Moslems. AD 960. paper was invented. paper money. trade with Japan. Persians. use of iron. reservoirs. and irrigation systems. history of China written. and southern Russia. Great Wall began to be built to keep out Huns 202 BC. set a uniform system of weights and measures. Confucius lived during Chou dynasty 551-470 BC-mandate of heaven 221 BC-206 BC Ch’in Dynasty-word China comes from this dynasty. There was always a cultural exchange between the Chinese and outside invaders (like the Mongols) and conquerors. the grandson of Genghis Khan took control of China. pottery and bronze in use. was overthrown. Buddhist religion spread from India to China. AD 618-AD 906 T’ang Dynasty-second “Golden Age” of China. Kublai Khan. artists. AD 589-AD 618 Sui Dynasty-Grand Canal built-connecting the Huang Ho River to southern China. art and literature became important. Their leader was Genghis Khan (known to be a ruthless leader-reputation for killing and plundering villages and towns-no different than Alexander. Weak military-suffered northern invasions from the Mongols.AD 222 Han Dynasty-first “Golden Age of China”-trade increased. In reality very smart leader. ruthless emperor Shi Huang Di –standardized weights and measures.3. Chinese had to take Civil Service exams to get government jobs.

They just took over the Chinese government 4. but the country was also divided into provinces. They absorbed the Chinese language 5. ebony 2. goods-jewels. goods-jewels. 2. playing cards. paper money. ideas-gunpowder. wine from grapes. Opened China to foreign contacts 4. The most famous Marco Polo published book in 1299 that encouraged more European interest in the Far East. ideas-Christianity. adopted many Chinese ideas and customs). medicines 2. Encouraged art. furs. 31 -Europeans learned about the Mongols and Kublai Khan from Marco Polo. spaghetti From the West: 1. silk. Marco worked for Kublai Khan. They started to dress like the Chinese -The Mongol dynasty had a central government. *IMPORTANT. Created capital at Beijing 3. and plays in China How did the Mongol Empire Open up the East to the West? -Mongols removed Turkish rulers in central Asian region (who had prohibited travel by European traders to China) -promoted economic activity and prosperity -improved land and water communications -encouraged contact and trade for about 100 years (around 1250-1350) -European traders and missionaries were able to visit the East in person -Visit by the Venetian family the Polos. spices. They had the Chinese people help run the government 3. They didn’t force their own religion on the Chinese 2. First foreigners to rule all of China (didn’t change China dramatically. These provinces were ruled by one of the emperor’s men. printing.A book by Marco Polo about his trip to China encouraged an interest in trade with China and the rest of Asia.-The Mongol rulers did not try to change China too much 1. How the Opening of Trade Affected both the East and West: From the East: 1. architecture. sorghum. art of refining and sugar .* Achievements of the Mongol (Yuan Dynasty) 1. literature. carpets.

AD 1644 -former Buddhist monk overthrew Mongol dynasty -new Ming rulers wanted to throw away Mongolian influences and revitalize Chinese traditions and customs RESULT: Chinese trade flourished for a while. Established only loose control of Russia 2. ethnocentrism (a feeling that your country or culture is superior to all others) was the prevailing thought in the Chinese culture once again. 2. 4. He destroyed many Hindu Temples RUSSIA 1. Helped to keep Russia in the Middle Ages!!!! The Ming Dynasty AD 1368. 2. Overthrown by Ivan the Great in 15 century 4. THIS ATTITUDE AND MISTRUST OF FOREIGNERS WILL KEEP CHINA . then under later Ming leadership DECLINED dramatically to virtual isolation of China. Tolerated Hindus (remember he was a Moslem) Divided his empire into provinces-more efficient way of ruling Brought overall peace and prosperity to India Promoted artistic expression-music. Tried to force them to convert to Islam 2.EFFECT OF MONGOL RULE IN OTHER AREAS: INDIA 1. dance. education was limited. Aurangzeb (1658-1707)-TREATED HINDUS BADLY! 1. ISOLATED Russia from Western Europe and Byzantium th 3. Taxed non-Muslims 3. and work of artists Sha Jahan (1628-1658) Built Taj Mahal for his dead wife ruled with less sympathy for the Hindus. 3. 32 Mughal or Mogul dynasty ruled India until mid 18th century Mughals or Moguls were Asian Mongols who were MoslemsRULERS: Babur grandson→ Akbar “the Great” Akbar’s accomplishments(1555-1605) 1.

but desertification (spreading of the desert) has expanded the Sahara to such an extent it is a great barrier to trade.7 million square miles.Sahara-largest desert in the world (3.5 million square miles). Niger in the west. coarse grassland areas 2. 5.FROM ADVANCING INTO AN INDUSTRIAL POWER LIKE JAPAN OR BRITAIN IN THE 1800s! ACHIEVEMENTS1. PROBLEM: Large rivers. plateaus-90 percent of Africa’s land is higher than 500 feet above sea level and a substantial portion is not arable (suitable for farming). supports sparse vegetation. the dense forest. 3. the Congo or Zaire river in central Africa. Trade grew initially between Europe and India. Europe. and Asia as trade increased during the end of the Middle Ages. making navigation difficult-another BARRIER to trade and development. 2. the Zambezi river in southern Africa. and prosperity. *People to the South of the desert were isolated for the most part from N.huge. Developed valuable pottery and vases (Ming vases valuable today!). Africa. 6. rainforests-although it is a relative small portion of Africa’s geography. rivers-Nile river in the northeast. 33 AFRICA Geography -Africa is the second largest continent after Asia -With more than 11. isolates as well.000 years ago. savannas. 4. Sahel-southern coastline of the Sahara desert-fragile. farming. wet and humid conditions have created a barrier to trade and has isolated certain African people. Deserts. BUT they are interrupted by waterfalls. . 3. Architecture developed. was smaller over 5. the continent of Africa is THREE times larger than the size of the United States Geographic features of Africa(great geographical diversity-mostly savanna) 1.

The Egyptians went to Kush and took gold. but before 1000AD. AD 200)[c. Travel was difficult due to geographic landscape 2. the Kush became independent. The Kushites used Egyptian hieroglyphics to create their own alphabet. Christianity. The soil is fertile and rich in minerals and metals. 752 BC conquered Egypt. BUT it is difficult to build roads and railroads because of the steep cliffs. They mined gold and copper. ebony. and copper. and slaves back to Egypt. ivory. -Africa has rich mineral resources-diamonds.34 *People North of the Sahara became part of the Mediterranean/Middle Eastern culture. BUT the Assyrians really used iron weapons to their advantage!). Meroe became one of the biggest iron making cities in the ancient world (One text claims that Meroe was so rich that its . **Geographic barriers made Africa mostly a place of mystery (the “Dark Continent”) for thousands of years** 1. Exchange of ideas with outside world limited until Age of Exploration & Discovery 3. break or fault in the Earth’s crust that has formed valleys and mountains. They were farmers and cattle raisers. The Kushites were conquered and ruled by the Egyptians for thousands of years. wood. When the Egyptian empire weakened c. **REMEMBER. built up their armies and c. then Islam spread across this area. Kush (Nubia). cattle. cobalt. it hardly influenced sub-Saharan Africa. smaller (100. the Kushites moved their capital to Meroe (MEHR uh wee). After their defeat.000 sq. animal skins. Great Rift Valley-located in eastern Africa. The people of Meroe began to use iron. and North Africa interacted with the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean civilizations and institutions. 1100 BC. 1700 BC to c. and deep valleys.AFRICA HAS BEEN A VERY DIVERSE CONTINENT SINCE THE NEOLITHIC ERA!** Africa before the Middle Ages -First human beings lived in Africa around 2 million years ago. Egypt. They realized they had lost to the Assyrians because they had iron weapons (remember it was the Hittites who developed iron first. gold. -Historically. Many different ethnic and cultural groups developed because of the natural isolation. Kalihara-less harsh than the Sahara. Kingdom of Kush-Nubia (c. means circa or around] The Kushites lived along the Nile River. miles)located in southern Africa 7. high mountains. The Kushites ruled Egypt for nearly a 100 years before the Assyrians conquered them. Many Egyptians came to live in Kush and the Kush began to worship the same gods-cultural assimilation and diffusion.

. *Ghana became wealthy by controlling the roads and charging taxes for trade between the Wangara people of the Senegal River and the Berber (Arab) traders of the desert. GHANA GREW RICH BY CONTROLLING THE TRADE OF GOLD AND SALT! *Their development of iron weapons helped to maintain a powerful army. *The Wangara people of the south east would trade their gold for SALT (keeps food from spoiling & keeps people healthy) and the Berber traders of the north and west would trade their merchandise for gold. Around 700 AD Axum’s trading diminished. The Kushites were defeated by the king and army of Axum about AD 350. GHANA (c. 3 Great Western African Empires I. and Rome 3. China. 35 Kingdom of Axum (c. They established important trade routes 2. and remarkable architecture. written script. After this. creating a wealthy nation. AD 1300) Located in east Africa around modern Ethiopia. 1200 AD) -The FIRST great empire in West Africa. Kush slowly assimilated to into other cultures and societies. The rich trade that flourished between Egypt. Today much of the Axum culture survives integrated with influences from Islamic culture. In 330 AD Axum became one of the first ancient kingdoms to accept Christianity as its national religion. A written language developed 2. 500 BC to c. Axum or Askum developed a very distinctive civilization with its own language. They controlled roads and charged taxes for passage. Accoplishments of the Ghanians 1. Being one of the oldest Christian Kingdoms in the world. 400 AD to c. It was from Kush that the knowledge of iron making spread south and west of Africa. -The people of Ghana lived along an important trade route. (The Egyptians instead continued to use bronze instead of iron for tools and weapons). Axum’s advanced culture is known for: 1. the Middle East. To the north was the Sahara Desert. To the south of Ghana was a large forest.prisoners were held in gold chains!). Engineering (paved roads) and architecture (great obelisks) 4. (Some Ethiopian religious leaders claim the famous Arc of the Covenant is located in Ethiopia) During the eight century Axum was being dominated by Muslims from the East. which isolated much of its Christian culture from the rest of the world. India. They controlled the gold and salt trade 3.

the arts. Timbuktu became a center of learning. 1450 AD) -Mali succeeded Ghana as the major kingdom in western Sudan. architecture. SONGHAI Empire (c. Neither mortar nor square corners were used. He also promoted the principles of Islam. Zimbabwe became wealthy from its gold and ivory trade by the Bantu people. III. Mansu Musa promoted trade and commerce. He spread his wealth throughout the cities he passed. He divided his empire into provinces and placed governors in control.The city of Timbuktu a trading center on the Niger River became a center of learning under Mansa Musa’s rule. *Sunni Ali was a fierce leader. ZIMBABWE (c. which means emperor or sultan *Mansa Musa was the most famous ruler in the history of the Mali empire. They promoted learning and education. 2. 1400 AD to c. *After his death Askia Muhammad helped Songhai to reach its peak. 1500 AD)-located in South-central Africa -Zimbabwe means “great stone house” -Located in southern Africa between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. *Mali became a dominant Islamic empire in West Africa *Their rulers were called mansa. paintings. Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca. 1200 AD to c. 3. the Holy City of Islam. They built a great stone city ruled by kings. and literature. 1300 AD to c. Such a pilgrimage is called a hajj. He followed the teachings of Islam. Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage was one of the grandest of all times. (Some archaeologists have speculated the legendary King Solomon’s mines are located here) . He became famous and many people traveled to his kingdom. MALI (c. Accomplishments of the Malians 1. yet the stones fit together perfectly. He also encouraged Islamic teachers and writers to settle in Timbuktu. *The builders of Zimbabwe were very skillful. but organized his government well. Mansa Musa’s hadj promoted the wealth and power of Mali. After Mansa Musa’s death.36 II. They established trade and commerce throughout their empire. conquering Timbuktu and most of the Mali empire. The empire of Mali contained the former Ghana as well as much more territory. The structures they built were sturdier and higher than other kingdoms. the Mali kingdom declined to an unimportant state. and is part of the Five Pillars of Islam. 1600 AD) -The Songhai leader Sunni Ali Ber came to the throne in 1464.

with many sandbars making navigation difficult. Rain forests. 2.Most of this region is made up of plateaus (high. and civil wars. they were very different. particularly when new weapons were introduced. peninsula-land surrounded by water on three sides 2. flat land) and hills. *Africa is a very diverse continent. Plateaus. Desert-The Atacama desert located in Northern Chile. Competition for trade led to shifting alliances. CENTRAL AMERICA. 3. Loyalties shifted. Patagonia-dry plateau area located in the south receives little precipitationscrubby grasses and shrubs can only grow there Grasslands-These lands are fertile. 1. SOUTH AMERICA -The Atlantic Ocean is on the eastern side of Latin America and the Pacific Ocean is on the western side of Latin America. One of the driest places in the world receiving an average rainfall of zero. Some of the empires were just conquered and assimilated into by other African kingdoms or conquerors from the Middle East and Europe. 5. GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN MEXICO. 2. Most of the kingdoms were loosely organized and not unified. Abundant vegetation and wildlife. 3. isolation created many different ethnic groups. The “backbone” of South America. Mountains-The Andes mountain range extends from the north and south of the continent of South America along the western coast. grassy plains called the pampas in the south and the llanos in the north. EFFECT: hindered trade and travel. strait-small body of water that connects two larger bodies of water . *Geographical terms: 1.isolated people. civil strife increased. 6. EFFECT: causes isolation and diversity.located near the equator where it is wet and humid. The influences of Christianity and Islam disrupted most traditional animistic (pagan) beliefs. The Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico located west and east of Mexico. very fast river. personal ambitions. Even though geographically they lived close. Rivers-Amazon River-second longest river in the world stretching from the Andes mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. 4.37 Reasons for the fall of the great African Empires 1. 4.

Advanced civilizations before European encounter 6. All believed in some type of human sacrifice to please their gods 4. and cotton. Incas had a hereditary dynasty 8. All of them had theocracies-governments that is ruled and run on religious principles. All three civilizations did not develop along river valleys 7. . They were farmers and lived in thatched huts. IMPORTANT SIMILARITIES BETWEEN AZTECS. people moved to the countryside. warfare began to decimate the city-states.1200 AD) -built one of the most highly developed civilizations in Mesoamerica. The Incas had an empire. squash. built stone pavements. -empire made up of city-states Chinchen Itza-major capital on Yucatan Peninsula Tikal –another great Mayan city located in present day Guatemala -the Maya were ruled by a noble class and priests were held in high regard because every part of Mayan life had some kind of religious connection. AND INCAS: 1. traded in raw materials such as jade 3. Organization and Contributions 1. created great carved heads of stone. They built at least 80 cities for trade. Polytheistic civilization ruled by priests. -they began to decline several hundreds years before the arrival of Europeans. may have been due to restructuring of government-no longer did the kings have all the power. All of them were polytheistic 3. The MAYAN EMPIRE (1000 BC. thought to be Olmec rulers. Most of the Maya were farmers who grew corn. formed the FIRST truly complex Mesoamerican culture 2. None of the civilizations used the wheel like the Europeans or had horses! 5. MAYAS. Aztecs and Mayas were composed of city-states. drainage systems. 4. great temples and monuments. All of them worshipped some kind of Sun God 2.EARLY CIVILIZATIONS 38 The Olmec Empire (1200 BC-400 BC) -Lived along Mexico’s Gulf Coast in the area called Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central American cultural areas).

produced a complex astronomical calendar 2. invented a math system that included zero 3. Forced neighbors to worship their sun and war god-Huitzilopochtli-(wee-tseel-opotch-tlee) 3. established religious rituals which included human sacrifice. carefully adjusted to the land with crop rotation and extensive aqueduct and irrigation systems. and ancestor worship 5.CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. or glyphs-very complex *THE MAYANS WERE VERY SKILLED IN MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY!!! 39 THE AZTEC EMPIRE (1300-1535 AD)-Central Mexico ORGANIZATION: Founded island capital Tenochtitlan (Present Day Mexico City) Created a highly specialized. NOT FOR TERRITORY! 2. . Formed a powerful priestly hierarchy to administer government 6. Elected by the nobility (aristocracy). strictly hierarchical (social classes) society 1. They built chinampas-artificial “floating” gardens made of earth piled on reed mats that were anchored to the shallow lake bed 2. the ruler/emperor had near god status and supreme authority 5. Drafted conquered neighbors for battles and wars 4. Developed a sophisticated agricultural economy. Conquered and dominated neighbors for tribute (protection payments). mythology. Great architectural buildings. built flat top pyramids as temples and rulers’ tomb 4. A massive pyramid-temple mayor at the center of Tenochtitlan was topped with shrines to the gods and an altar for human sacrifice. developed a writing system of symbols. Produced a severe legal code of laws with judgments based on generally accepted ideas of reasonable behavior CONTRIBUTIONS: 1.

000-mile road system. Spanish muskets and cannons were effective in breaking the front lines of the Aztecs. the Inca Empire controlled 12 million people.1535 AD) ANDES MOUNTAINS (Peru. That the Spanish conquerors were bringing about the determined end of their society and their world. To unite their empire. As tens of thousands died some Aztecs saw this as a sign that their gods were less powerful than the god of the Spanish. Ecuador) ORGANIZATION: 1.for traveling messengers and services for traveling bureaucratic officials. They were willingly to help Cortes defeat their enemy. 4. At its height. These were the Indians conquered by the Aztecs. the Incas imposed their own language –Quechua (KECH wuh).FALL OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE 40 Conquistador. Believed emperors descended from the Sun god and worshipped them as divine beings. Hereditary dynasty-rulers inherited their right to rule like kings or queens CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. 4. Metal helmets and armor protected the Spanish soldiers. Acceptance of religious fate. THE INCA EMPIRE (1200 AD. Horses made maneuvering easy and the animal frightened some of the Aztecs. and religion on the people. Kill from a distance with these weapons. and slash and stabbed effectively. swift. 3. Established largest empire of Latin America. The Spanish gained some Indian allies. 2. 3. The Incas ran an efficient government with a chain of command reaching into every village. Steel swords were strong. A destiny that was unavoidable and had to be accepted. Formed a strong monarchy ruled from Cuzco by using strategic resettlement of rebels or conquered people. 2. Superior military technology.Spanish conquerors of Latin America *Hernan Cortes made alliances with rival Indian groups to overthrow Montezuma II. Disease brought by the Europeans weakened the Aztecs and Incas. Adapted an intricate 12. over 100 cultures with 20 different languages. REASONS FOR VICTORY BY Cortes and Spaniards: 1. .

Beginnings in Italy-rich traders promoted arts and education. They cleaned the operating room thoroughly and even performed surgery on the skull. inventor. 3. Venice. or were not bound by the land anymore. Urbanization-people moving from rural areas to cities. and Paris-all important Renaissance cities. sculptor. Decline of knights. Built elaborate cities such as the religious city Machu Picchu built high in the Andes Mountains using no cement or mortar!. (secularism) 3. sculpture of David. Nationalism-loyalty and devotion to monarch and country. silver. 2. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE RENAISSANCE ART: 1. The emergence of powerful kings-loyalty to king only instead of divided loyalty to lord. 4. Many serfs went to work on their own. Professional armies used instead. FALL OF THE INCA EMPIRE *Conquistador Francisco Pizarro and a small force of 180 Spanish troops had Emperor Athualpa executed and in the next 50 years the Inca Empire collapsed. 5. Renewed interest in secular-non-religious matters. Leonardo Da Vinci-(1452-1519)painter. or priests. 2. THE RENAISSANCE: (1350-1650) -MEANS “REBIRTH”-(Europe coming out of the medieval or dark ages) 1. and gold. 3. 2. A rediscovery of classical Rome and Greece 2. THE RENAISSANCE-THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES DECLINE OF FEUDALISM: Labor shortage caused by the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague. Emphasis on the individual and relationship around him –humanism. Adapted crops to different climates. Became skilled in the use of copper. different variety of potatoes for different climates 4. London. 6. Use of drugs (like modern day antiseptics) to make a patient unconscious before surgery. 1. 4. . painted the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa Michelangelo-(1475-1564)painter.Created agricultural terracing-farming in hills and mountains and irrigation 41 systems. baron. Instituted quipu (knotted cords) record keeping system. 7. 5. painted the ceiling of Sistine Chapel with scenes from the Bible.

2. used the scientific method-which emphasized observation. Galileo Galilei-law of falling bodies. 2. The church had become too rich. powerful.. EFFECTS OF THE REFORMATION: 1. William Shakespeare-English poet/playwright/writer who wrote plays and dramas like Romeo and Juliet. and Macbeth. Miguel de Cervantes. (REMEMBER: The printing press gave more access to common people to read the Bible in their own languages) Martin Luther-In 1517. NO MORE ONE CATHOLIC CHURCH-UNITY OF CHRISTIANS SPLIT CATHOLICS (pope head of church) PROTESTANTS (BAPTISTS. 42 Raphael-(1483-1520)painter of classical forms-The School of Athens Donatello –(1386-1466)Statue of David-thought to be the first freestanding sculpture made since ancient times. QUAKERS.3. Johann Gutenberg-invented printing from movable type in Europe.(classical. inertia. Niccolo Machiavelli –Italian writer who wrote The Prince stating that rulers could do anything necessary to maintain and increase their power. reach salvation by yourself-don’t need supreme church authority-bishop or pope. “The end justifies the means. Hamlet. Luther called for reforms within the Catholic Church. He especially challenged the Pope’s right to sell indulgences-pardons for punishments for committing a sin. TECHNOLOGY: 1. measurement. Hypothesis→Experiment→Conclusions 3. and experimentation. 5. including force and deceit. Help to expand learning and communication.” 3. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: 1. pope not head of church) . 4. allowing a buyer into heaven.Spanish writer wrote the satire Don Quixote poking fun at romances and chivalry. realistic) Botticelli-(1445-1510)Primavera and Birth of Venus LITERATURE: 1. Isaac Newton-3 laws of gravity (i) a body at rest remains at rest (ii) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (iii) force = mass x acceleration [f=ma] THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION: Brought on by ideas of the Renaissance-EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL. Martin Luther posted 95 theses (statements) on a church door in Germany. and corrupt. confirmed theories of Copernicus. Nicholas Copernicus-stating that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun. ETC.

THE AGE OF DISCOVERY: The spirit of inquiry of the Renaissance led Europeans to explore the world. Ottoman Turks who were Moslem disrupted overland trade through the Middle East. . grapes. GOLD. for money. Persecution of non-Catholics or non-Protestants. Heresyopinion or beliefs that goes against church teachings. abuses. movable rudder.43 2. etc. wheels. mice. the power of European Kings began to grow. REASONS FOR EXPLORATION: 1. King Henry VIII broke with the Pope and became head of the Church of England in 1534 3. his crew circumnavigates (circles) the world confirming that the world was round. and trade. medicine. (rats. • Vasco Da Gama (1497)-sails around southern tip of Africa encouraging trading by water to obtain Asian goods. and ending the sell of indulgences. astrolabe. etc. GOD. and cats also were imported that had a negative impact). 3. The Inquisition-used by Church officials to end heresy by force. Torture was often used in the trial of heretics.. sheep. NEGATIVE-Europeans brought diseases such as smallpox. To spread Christianity. THE CATHOLIC COUNTER REFORMATION: MAIN PURPOSE: To reform Catholic church limiting corruption. converts. POSITIVE-new technologies-guns. SEARCH FOR AN ALL WATER ROUTE TO EAST ASIA. killings. 2. TECHNOLOGY-better instruments. EFFECTS OF THE ENCOUNTER: (cultural diffusion increased!) ON NATIVE AMERICAS: 1. and promote missionary work (the Jesuits) to spread the faith by working directly with the poor. 2. cattle. 3 EARLY EXPLORERS: • Christopher Columbus (1492)-lands in the Caribbean marking a “discovery” of the Americas-new sources of wealth. and slaves. Growth of Royal Power-without a powerful central Church. onions. goats. & GLORY. influenza that decimated the native population. riches. wheat. and better navigation skills allowed Europeans (SPAIN AND PORTUGAL LEAD THE WAY) to sail farther than ever before. for the fame and power. In England. compass. • Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1520)-though Magellan is killed. oranges. Starvation.

The Spanish conquerors and Spanish plantation owners were granted the right to use Native Americans for forced labor. England. and the TOTAL decimation of some cultures and native groups 44 ON EUROPEANS: 1. Gold and Silver in particular made Spain into a rich and powerful country. and competition between countries leading to warfare. Portugal. importation of African slaves. beans. NEGATIVE-moral dilemma of treatment of Native Americans. -The Encomienda System. *Many Native Americans died from starvation. tomatoes. and from the brutal oppression and conditions made for them by the Spanish. forced labor. disease.based on trade. TOBACCO. France. -Although the exchange of goods between Europe and the Americas was beneficial to the Native people to Latin America. and mercantilismcolonies make “mother countries wealthy. The NativeAmerican work force declined and many ran away or fought their oppressors. RESULT: Many landowners turned to African slaves for farming and mining Influence of spanish Catholicism on Latin America -Catholic Priests and Missionaries worked hard to convert many Native people to Christianity -They often had much power and some worked for the rights of Native people and defended them as well. Iberian refers to the Iberian peninsula (Portugal & Spain) . The Spanish monarchs appointed them. and obedience to the Spanish crown. The Colonial Experience in Latin America-Colonialism -Royal governors called viceroys ruled the colonies of Latin America. POSITIVE-Europeans and their countries (Spain. the lower classes were the pure blood Africans and Native Americans! Peninsulares were European born nobles from Spain and Portugal sent to govern colonies in the New World. CHOCOLATE. corn. Importation of POTATOES. 2. while others saw them ONLY as inferior pagan beings to be civilized through conversion. COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION. ETC. capitalism-free enterprise and private ownership of businesses.enslavement. *Catholicism remains the LARGEST Christian religious denomination in Latin America Social Classes in colonial Latin America REMEMBER: The higher classes of people were the PURE Europeans. and Holland) were becoming rich from the wealth of the Americas.

45 The European Slave Trade (mid 1400s-1800s) BACKGROUND: -Slavery has existed since the beginning of civilization -At first slaves were captives from wars.). and laborers . [Circular continuous trade!] WHY AFRICAN-BLACK SLAVERY? 1. etc. criminals. The Europeans wanted cheap labor to work the large plantations of sugar. First slaves from Africa were traded to the colonies for raw materials (like cotton). etc. India. 3. They became an important trade item to obtain goods and manufactured products to make a profit. tobacco. guns. coffee. artisans. or people in debt -In East Africa. 2. Arabs captured slaves and sold them in Egypt. TRIANGULAR TRADE -▲ 1. Second these raw materials were traded in Europe for manufactured goods (clothes. 2. Africans did not know terrain like Native Americans-less likely to succeed in escaping 3. and other parts of Asia *The European slave trade developed slavery on an even more massive and inhumane scale. Third these manufactured goods were traded in Africa for slaves. Many Africans were already skilled farmers. Black Africans were looked upon as strangers-easier to justify enslavement 2. WHY SLAVERY? 1.

. Great mosques.4. social upheaval. Disrupted African culture-skilled artisans. -Suleiman ruled as a powerful sultan (king) Suleiman accomplished the following: 1. 2. (Not as strict in following Koran) -The Ottomans were Sunni Moslems from Central Asia that came to power around 1453 taking over from the Seljuk Turks as the most dominate Moslem group in the Middle East. and stereotypes ( a belief about a person or group of people that is not in reality true) The Legacy of the Slave Trade to Africa and North and South America NEGATIVE: 1. and a lasting bitterness and resentment towards Western Europe and the United States. skin 46 color. Increased cultural diffusion-the exchange of ideas and goods increased 2. Created a legacy of violence. REMEMBER: The Seljuk Turks were Moslems that fought the Christian Crusaders. The Sunni Moslems were willing to follow other Islamic leaders. He let Christians and Jews for the most part govern themselves (worshipped the same god) 3. -By the 1500s under the leadership of Suleiman the Magnificent. to trade for guns and other goods. and monuments were built during his reign. Saladin was their most famous leader. and medical advancements that Europeans introduced to some African civilizations. The empire and military expanded to its greatest heights. schools.the Ottoman Empire was the largest in the world. and intellectuals were lost 3. RACIST ATTITUDES. leaders. Encouraged warfare-encouraged tribes to war with each other to obtain slaves. 4. Disrupted and ruined the traditional economies in Africa POSITIVE: 1. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1453-1918) BACKGROUND: There are two major branches of Islam 1. (Strict followers of the Koran) 2. 2. bridges.justify blacks as savages by nature of looks. Technological. scientific. The Shi’ite Moslems believe that only direct descendants from Muhammad should rule Moslem people anywhere. Encouraged and promoted the growth of the arts and sciences 4.

Wars with Austria. and weapons. Russia. THEY LOST!-AND THEY LOST MOST OF THEIR CONTROL OF OTHER MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES! -In 1923 the Ottoman Empire became a republic-the new country was called Turkey under the leadership of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk who westernized or modernized the country EVOLUTION OF THE COUNTRY OF TURKEY Byzantine Empire (Eastern Orthodox Christian)→Ottoman (Islam)→Turkey (Islam) THE RISE OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY: Definitions Divine Right Theory-the belief that a monarch’s power comes from God.. and England in World War I. science. and neighboring countries 4. Russia. Failed to modernize and keep up with growth of industry. punished critics and Protestants England France . *In 1914 the Ottomans fought WITH Germany and Austria-Hungary against the U. achieved world power by defeating Spanish Armada (navy) in 1588 Known as the “Sun King” represented a model for absolute monarchs.47 1800s-The Ottoman Empire Declines. His or her commands expresses God’s wishes. Too many groups of people to control 3. learning. S. 1. trade. the “sickman of Europe”-WHY? Corrupt and ineffective sultans 2. Absolute Monarch Henry VIII RULED-1509-1547 “Limited monarch” Elizabeth I 1558-1603 “Limited monarch” Louis XIV 1643-1715 Country England Significance Defied the Pope divorced his wife and became head of Church of England Preserved Protestant religion in England. technology. France. built extravagant court. Absolute Monarchy-monarch rules absolutely with unlimited power.

S. This guaranteed that Englishmen could not be fined or imprisoned except according to the laws of the land. BUT King James II came back in power in 1660. exerted limited power and control-“enlightened despot” 48 Frederick the Great 1740-1786 Prussia (Germany) LIMITING THE MONARCHY IN ENGLAND: Magna Carta –in 1215 English nobles forced King John to sign the “Great Charter” or Magna Carta. culture and technology. Despite some reforms-she kept absolute power. Expanded the territory of Russia and the army. Continued expansion and westernization of Russia. Congress to manage taxes-began to limit King’s power in England The Puritan Revolution-Parliament shows power – has King Charles I executed. like U. King James II is .Ferdinand & Isabella 1479-1516 Phillip II 1556-1598 Peter the Great 1682-1725 Catherine the Great 1762-1796 Spain Spain Russia Russia Made Spain a world power by sponsoring explorers like Columbus to conquer new lands Strict Catholic monarch that was defeated in a major naval battle with England in 1588 Introduced Western (modern) ideas. Enlightened despot? Added Poland to his kingdom. Rise of Parliament-formed around in 1295.

THOUGH ENGLISH KINGS WILL HAVE POWER TO RUN THE COUNTRY UNTIL THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY-ENGLAND LEADS THE WAY IN LIMITED THEIR POWER! .replaced (too Catholic) in a peaceful turn over called The Glorious Revolution 49 English Bill of Rights: English monarchs could not collect new taxes or raise army without Parliament’s consent. No excessive fines.

By applying reason and scientific laws. 2.50 THE ENLIGHTENMENT (“THE AGE OF REASON”): -MOVEMENT IN Europe in the 18th century that brought together the ideas of the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution.Hypothesis: Gov't is contract between people & rulers. Name From Wrote Two Treatises on Gov't Main Ideas -Observation: gov't exists to "preserve life." -Hypothesis: Absolute gov't needed to control evil behavior (not divine right) -Observation: "When the legislature & executive are united in the same person." . The Enlightenment thinkers believed that: 1. Their thinking could improve society by questioning the divine right of kings and the power of the Church. " Locke . Gov't must be what people want. & property" -Hypothesis: people should be sovereign (rule) -Hypothesis: monarchs not chosen by God -Observation: Life without gov't is "solitary.3 branches -Observation: "man is born free. poor. but I will defend to the death your right to say it. brutish. separation of church & state -"I disapprove of what you say. -Observation: Life is better with liberty -Hypothesis: Freedom of speech & religion. but everywhere he is in chains. & short. there is no liberty (freedom)" -Hypothesis: Gov't must have "Separation of Powers" -. nasty. liberty. people could better understand both nature and society.

AGE OF FAITH. DARK AGES) 500-1300AD England THE RENAISSANCE THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION THE AGE OF DISCOVERY COUNTER REFORMATION COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION England Leviathan Hobbes France Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws ABSOLUTE MONARCHY THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION France Rousseau The Social Contract THE ENLIGHTENMENT (AGE OF REASON) 1700s France Voltaire Limited Monarchy in England 1776 The American Revolution in The French Revolution in 1789 Independence movements in Latin America in the 1800s .51 FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 476 AD THE MIDDLE AGES (MEDIEVAL.

France and Latin American countries have setbacks with the rise of Napoleon and Latin American dictators! 52 .*Democracy and more individual rights survive best in the United States and England.

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