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The Capitol Complex is located at the „head' of the city against the backdrop of the Shiwalik Hills. Comprising the Capitol group of buildings, flanked by the „Rajendra Park' and the „Sukhna Lake' on each end, it stretches across the entire width of the city. Symbolizing celebration of democracy in a newly-independent nation-state, the Capitol group of buildings was built to a monumental scale. The group represents Le Corbusier's largest and most significant constructed architectural creation where the architect put in his heart and soul for over 13 years, painstakingly designing and monitoring the realization of its ingenious layout, its major „edifices', its „monuments' as well as pieces of furniture, lighting fixtures and works of art, including the famed enamel door for the Legislative Assembly, monumental tapestries and low-relief sculptures cast in concrete. Le Corbusier's Capitol for Chandigarh comprises four „Edifices' - the High Court, the Legislative Assembly, the Secretariat and the Museum of Knowledge - and six „Monuments', all arranged within a profusely landscaped park-like environment.
and dug out where necessary. the unique expression that was achieved in this modern . Though the form and design of each „Edifice' is distinctive. All vehicular circulation was arranged. A vast concrete esplanade between the High Court and the Assembly thus became the central design feature. is the facilitation of uninterrupted pedestrian linkages throughout the complex. while the two smaller. All designs exhibit the multifarious possibilities of deploying reinforced concrete and. and the Secretariat . however. each of these is a masterpiece in itself. but later replaced by the futuristic „Museum of Knowledge'. along which were arrayed the six „Monuments' and various pools of water. The large quantities of earth thus obtained were used to create „artificial hills'. climate and technology. at 5m below the esplanade. use of 20th century materials. is yet to be realized. the Legislative Assembly. Harmonious relationship between various structures is further established though the consistent use of exposed reinforced concrete. 400m-side squares determine relative placing of the four „Edifices' and proportions of the spaces in between. representing the adaptation of European Modernism. their commonalities reinforce their collective role as a group. enabling partial enclosure of the Capitol group and emphasizing its careful orientation towards the magnificent view of the hills beyond. their corners and intersection-points marked by „Obelisks'. THE BUILT EDIFICES: The built „Edifices' . The northern and western edges of the larger 800m-side square define the boundaries of the Capitol. Considered as Le Corbusier's most mature plastic creations. The layout is based around an invisible geometry of three interlocking squares.the High Court.represent the three major functions of democracy. The fourth „edifice'. The most significant aspect of the layout. originally the Governor's Palace. and his personal directive principles to local conditions of cost.
In the plan the building took the form of abbreviated L – shaped with long façade facing the capitol plaza to contain court rooms. and 9 large tapestries. The entire structure has resulted in the use of double roof. The building rises directly from the earth.material through application of indigenous techniques and respect for local constraints. Also . The space between the two roofs is left open to enable currents of air to move between the flat roof of the office block and the underside of the parasol roof which slopes towards center in the form of rows of arches. Completed by 1955 the building is significant as the first demonstration and a major vehicle for acceptance of exposed reinforced concrete surfaces and modern aesthetics even for buildings of power and prestige in India. the High Court housed 9 law courts and their attendant spaces. the careful design of the brise-soleil as well as intricate systems devised for trans-aeration. In time. Le Corbusier's design included furniture.in response to the client's brief . THE HIGH COURT: The first of the buildings. light fittings. The upper roof cantilevered out of the office block in the manner of parasol shading the lower roof. a low -rise „Extension' in exposed brickwork was also added to the east. one for each court. This is evident in the orientation of the buildings.all buildings share a concern for controlling climate without aid of mechanical devices. The main façade is defined by a full height concrete brise soleil . The nine court rooms are identically expressed on the main façade and separated from the larger high court by a monumental columned entrance rising to the height of the building.
The arch form is restricted to the underside of the parasol roof It is the visual drama of the piers rising sixty feet from the ground to meet the heavy outward thrust of the roof which creates the focal emphasis of the present plan. was seen as a solution to „problems of modern offices' such as adequate lighting. The design which was accepted established the building form as a long . The building was completed in 1958 . THE SECRETARIAT: The 240m long. economy and efficiency. along with the elaborately worked out Modulor-based façade. It is the concrete screen which gives the main façade its over all unity. 24m deep and 50 m high Secretariat. ventilation. horizontal concrete slab. These bold vertical elements. The plan incorporated two ramps for vertical pedestrian movement. and the terrace garden are the key design features. multi-level interior spaces. The first design for the secretariat presents the building as a tall thin slab carrying a surface brise soleil divided by a central horizontal band.
Block 3. The top of the building is developed as a roof garden containing the service blocks and cafeteria for employees. and lower portion of these blocks are left open to a height of two storeys. Approach to the building is through roadways below ground level to a large parking area in front of the central block. The rough concrete again interposes in the fenestration of the two main facades. and a floor is left open at this level to form an entrance hall.4 and part of 5 face on the excavated area of the parking lot and have the lower storey open between pilotis. The central pavilion. contains the offices of the ministers. . block 4. For the rest part of block 5 and whole of 6 the level goes till plaza height. more than 2000 units of unique design. The building is composed of six eight storey blocks separated by expansion joints. Block 1 and 2 rises directly from the ground.
The small council chambers are in rectilinear frame.THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY: The most elaborate structure of the group is the Legislative Assembly. and the thin hyperboloid shell of the immense. column-free. It is square in plan with a monumental portico facing the main plaza. the sickle-shaped Portico. is a landmark achievement that displays the immense plastic and structural potential of concrete. . circular Assembly Hall. The design of its top-lit Forum. The assembly was conceived as a rectilinear structure. On the lateral facades both the portico and the office block would be defined by solid end walls. The large chamber is in hyperbolic form of the cooling tower with an average thickness of 15 cm.
Plans for realization of this edifice are underway. ventilation and proper acoustics . Separate circulation accommodation of all groups is provided. . the Museum of Knowledge was to serve a dual function as a place for state receptions as well as a research and data centre using the-then futuristic electronic devices. An assembly chamber is 128 ft in diameter at its base and rises to 124 ft at its highest point . Le Corbusier's creative genius is also apparent in his use of light and colour in the interior spaces. the tapestries as also the ceremonial Enamel Door. This tower was designed to insure the natural light. Of all buildings of the capitol complex . lifts and ramp a complete segregation of members is provided. Employing a system of individual entrances. albeit with a changed function. The upper portion of the tower is extending above the roof line. There are two separate galleries for men and women in council chamber. the assembly is the most intricate in plan. „at the summit of V2 Capitol'. stairways. Crowning the group.
holds it 27. designed to turn gently with wind.. A metal structure. The Martyrs' Memorial honours all who had laid down their lives in India's long-drawn freedom struggle.a 5m „martyr'. Le Corbusier's "Monuments" are sculptural elements symbolic of his strongest design preoccupations as well as the pride and the spirit of the new republic.3m high cube containing an iron „Modulor.86m Hand. The Open Hand stands as the material symbol of the city's ideology. The monument was designed as a 5..80m above the "Trench of Consideration" at its base. a „broken column' symbolizing fall of the British ... The Modulor represents the all-pervasive visual order of Chandigarh.open to receive the created riches .THE MONUMENTS: Set up around the central axis of the esplanade.”.open to distribute them to its people. The structure comprises a ramp and a group of sculptures .. partially enclosed by concrete walls with bas-reliefs showing principles of Le Corbusier's „harmonic measure to the human scale'. The 12.“. is sculpted out of beaten iron sheets.50m wide and 8..
Empire. and mythological figures a „lion' and a „serpent' symbolizing the rebirth of the spirit of Indian people. The „Course of the Sun'. the preliminary design sketches for which indicate two tall parabolic arches of steel standing in a pool of water.5m. was to depict the deviation between the summer and winter solstice. The 24 Solar Hours. grouped closely. The „Tower of Shadows' occupies a square of 15. underscore Le Corbusier's pre-occupation with the sun's influence on man's daily life and the architectural challenges presented by the complex climate of Chandigarh. Tower of shadows . the Tower of Shadows as well as the Course of the Sun. The „24Solar Hours' was to be inscribed on the 45m wide inclined face of the „Geometric Hill'.Its facades give varying sun-control solutions for the four cardinal directions.
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