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Hangzhou Bay Bridge, China
Submitted By: Himanshu Dhoot 11BSP0282 DIVISION B
south channel bridge. and sea erosive conditions which provided impetus to the innovation of bridge technology and design in many regards. crosses Hangzhou Bay and ends at ShuiLu Bay of Ningbo city (Below). new equipment. 3.PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Hangzhou Bay Sea-crossing Bridge is the world’s longest bridge over ocean waters. north approach viaduct. new materials. The overall width of the bridge is 33m. The bridge has a height of 62m. south approach viaduct. These factors made construction feasibility a major concern for the project and the plan was only finalised after nine years of consultation and over 120 technical studies with the help of more than 700 experts from throughout the world. The bridge structure has also been designed to seismic criteria and will retain integrity in earthquake conditions up to seven on the Richter scale. Designed for 100 years of service life. safety. enabling fourth and fifth generation container ships to pass through in all conditions. geological. This provided a solid foundation for the successful implementation of the project. the Qiantang River Tide.75m lanes. A great number of new techniques. 18 link roads. the bridge has speed limits of 100km/h for the main spans and 120km/h for land approaches. The 36km length has highway-class road with six. The cable-stayed bridge design was selected for the project as it can withstand the adverse conditions. Its total length is 36 km in total length. 3 loop highways and 3 road corridors” before 2010 in Zhejiang province. The total length of cable used in the project is 32. of which 35. .7 km is bridge. meteorological. The project starts from ZhengJiaDai of JiaXing city. and new theories were adopted in the overall design of Hangzhou Bay Sea-crossing Bridge due to the large scale of the project. and durability of the structure. The bridge is also an important component of highway network proposal of “2 transverse and longitudinal trunk lines separately. The Hangzhou Bay Sea-crossing Bridge is a component of the national trunk line in the highway network of China’s “Five and Seven arteries in south-north and eastwest directions”. middle approach viaduct. It consists of a north link road. and south link road. offshore platform.2km. design and structure The Hangzhou Bay is a gulf in the East China Sea where one of China's natural wonders. multi-directional currents. and geologic conditions at the site. north channel bridge. three in each direction. construction plan. as well as complex hydrological. The area is also a typhoon prone zone. high waves. creates fast water and large waves. Architecture. It provides the most convenient way across the Hangzhou Bay on the highway from Shenyang to Haikou. and thus will effectively connect the southeast cities of Ningbo and ZhouShan of Zhejiang province with Shanghai to reduce driving time to under two hours. The roadway grade at cross-slope is 2% and a maximum 4% at longitudinal slope. More than 70 special studies were carried out to provide scientific validation in preliminary design stage for the final plan of the bridge with regard to construction conditions.
2 million).5% of the country's revenues and 28. Technical arrangement Of the total project cost of CNY11.5% of the country's import and export volume. (Jiangsu had planned a long bridge linking its city of Nantong to Shanghai for a long time). Around 35% of this amount was raised from private companies in Ningbo.42bn). The officials expect to recover the capital costs of the project in 15 years. Wuxi (GDP $19. Ben C Gerwick provided ship impact protection systems for the bridge. Among the key cities of the southern part of Jiangsu province are Suzhou (GDP $25. the southern part of Jiangsu Province and the northern part of Zhejiang Province . and it is expected to boost economic development in the Yangtze River Delta.4 million).3% of the basic capital. Although the area has only 10. China Railway Bridge Bureau Group Co. . Construction of the sea-crossing bridge is an indication of China’s increasing economic power. 59% was provided as loans from China’s central and regional banks. The Songcheng Group is the biggest non-governmental shareholder in the project with its investment accounting for 17. urbanization and internationalization. the Yangtze Delta Economic Circle at the mouth of the Yangtze River -covering Shanghai. 24. 59% was provided as loans from China’s central and regional banks. Construction of the sea-crossing bridge is an indication of China’s increasing economic power. LLP. approximately CNY149m ($18m) was contributed by 17 non-governmental enterprises in the province.8bn ($1.42bn). it accounted for 22. and it is expected to boost economic development in the Yangtze River Delta.Project Cost Of the total project cost of CNY11. The Songcheng Group is the biggest non-governmental shareholder in the project with its investment accounting for 17. Jiangsu has deepened its river lane to accommodate larger container lines and freighters.1% of the country's GDP last year. The officials expect to recover the capital costs of the project in 15 years.4% of China's population. Market Analysis As one of the areas leading China's industrialization.7 billion). Ty Lin International was the designer of the bridge. also called the Golden Industrial Triangle. and Nanjing (GDP $15. Around 35% of this amount was raised from private companies in Ningbo. approximately CNY149m ($18m) was contributed by 17 non-governmental enterprises in the province. ICE participated in the project by the use of three ICE V360 tandem vibratory pile drivers to produce the foundations for the bridge in the middle of Hangzhou Bay.has played an important role in China's economic resurgence. also called the Golden Industrial Triangle.3% of the basic capital.8bn ($1. The contract for consulting and engineering services was awarded to Hardesty & Hanover. Southern Jiangsu: Situated on both the north and south banks of the mighty Yanze River. Ltd. was the main contractor for the project.
however.the highest in the country and more than 80 % higher than Beijing or Guangzhou (which ranked second and third). because the city of Shanghai would not permit it to land in its territory. Shanghai: Shanghai's estimated year 2002 GDP was $65. Zhejiang has a disproportionate number of businesspeople and entrepreneurs. . with the highest per capita volume of housing purchases in China. and Taizhou.42 bn). Total investment. a Zhejiang city just south of Shanghai city's administrative zone. all from enterprises in Zhejiang. in most cases including head administrative offices and financial management centres. One reason that this huge project is completely financed by Zhejiang enterprises might also be the fact that there has been a great deal of competition between Shanghai and other cities. where five cities accounted for over $10 billion in GDP in 2002: Hangzhou. More than half of China's leading brands of shirts. the production facilities belonging to those Shanghai regional headquarters spread from Shanghai to Southern Jiangsu and Northern Zhejiang and into the very heartland of China. Beilun) to Jiaxing. It is true that there have been efforts to coordinate and cooperate. Wenzhou. Zhejiang leads all Chinese provinces in the production of motorcycles and washing machines. Shanghai hosts the regional headquarters of more than 300 Fortune 500 firms. there has been a great deal of mutual exclusivity. Shaoxing. human resources.25% coming from private business.5 billion . Many prominent and successful businessmen in Hong Kong and Shanghai trace their roots to Ningbo.8 bn (US$ 1. It is very remarkable that the giant bridge would be the grandest infrastructure construction so far undertaken in China based on huge investment from the non-governmental sector. Ningbo. is estimated at more than RMB 11. and administrative services systems into one huge Delta Region. secretary of the Zhejiang provincial Party committee. which is now an economic leader. as for example in projects trying to link transportation. However. men and ladies' apparels are made in Zhejiang. "This signals that the grand construction projects which used to be monopolized by State investment are from now on going to be wide open to non-governmental capital. The expensive detour from Beilun to Southern Jiangsu and Shanghai along the coast of Hangzhou Bay has been an obstacle for economic development in the region. often referred to as the "Five Little Dragons" of Zhejiang. On the northern coast of the Hangzhou Bay it has to be Jiaxing. with 50. Ultimately. Just consider that the Hangzhou Bay Bridge connects Cixi." said Xi Jinping.Northern Zhejiang: Economic growth is also apparent in Zhejiang province. Ningbo (with its deep sea port.
000 vehicles per day. Construction work began in June 2003 and was completed in June 2007 and an opening ceremony was held on 26 June. project officials anticipate.Expected Traffic and Revenue As designed. gas stations and a look-out for enjoying a view of the tides. restaurants.000 by 2027. Current status Preparatory work started on the bridge as far back as 1994. By then. The figure is expected to increase to 80. as will the bridge's toll fees. Several tests and evaluations were conducted for about one year before official opening. The bridge was opened to the public in May 2008 and carried about 50.000 vehicles per day in its first year of operation.000 sqm platform in Cixi (currently the project's construction base) will provide hotels. Apart from facilitating transportation. the bridge will be completed in five years and open for traffic in 2009. the bridge will also become a tourist attraction. daily traffic volume on the bridge is estimated to reach about 52. .03 to 10.000 by 2015. and 96.2-year period. Those attractions will provide investor return. A 10.1% rate of return over a 14. Investors will realize an 8.