BIOMEMBRANES Cells communicate with their environment by cell membranes. Biomembranes (= cell membranes = Biological membranes) are quasifluid film - like portions about 75Å thickness. They occur around the protoplast and eukaryotic cell organelles (mitochondria) as well as inside some organelles. Cell membrane when used alone refer to Plasmalemma of a cell only. Cell membranes refer to Biomembranes of all cells. Cell membrane is thin film-like, outermost, elastic, selectively Permeable , living, quasifluid, asymmetric, sheet like, trilaminar, repairable, lipoproteinaceous, hydrophilic layer. Cell membrane is also called as Plasma membrane, plasma lemma or Biomembrane The term cell membrane was introduced by Nageli and Cramer (1885) for outer membrane covering of the Protoplast. It was replaced by plasmalemma or plasma membrane by Plowe (1931). Plasmamembrane occurs in Nucleus, mitochondria as Double membrane Lysosome , Golgi apparatus, microbodies and, Vacuoles as Single membrane. Cell Membranes are not visible under optical microscope it is visible under Transmission electron microscope (TEM) as Trilaminar i.e. Three layered with middle electron transparent layer and narrow electron layers on either sides. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELL MEMBRANE Chemically it consists of proteins (50 - 70%) lipids (20 - 50%) and carbohydrates (1- 5%) Nucleic acids like DNA RNA are absent. Proteins are globular belong to different types like structural, enzymatic, carrier, Permeases and receptor. Thousands of different types of proteins can occur in cell membranes. (a) Carriers for transporting specific molecules into or out of the cell (b) Receptors. For immediate flow of informations into the cells Lipids form the main bulk and exist in the form of phospholipids. Lipids and integral proteins are amphipathic in nature (i.e. have both polar hydrophilic and nonpolar hydrophobic) ends. The Hydrophobic ends are situated inside the bilayer while the Hydrophilic groups are directed outwards. Thus, the membrane is held together primarily by hydrophobic attraction. However, the lipids have links in their fatty acid tails these links prevent close packing of molecules and make the membrane structure more fluid. The fluidity increases with decreasing length of fatty acids. In Recognition mechanism the sugar portions of glycolipids and glycoproteins are involved. (a) Sugar - recognition sites two neighbouring cells may bind with each other causing cell - to cell adhesion. This enables cells to orientate themselves and to form tissues

(b) Glycoproteins provide basis of immune response and various control systems, where they act as antigens. (c) Glycoproteins are important in the body's defence against foreign bodies phagocytes seem to distinguish foreign bodies (nonself) form the animal's own cells (self) in a similar manner. Carbohydrates occur only at the outer surface of the membrane Carbohydrates are mainly as branched or unbranched Oligosaccharides Eg :-Hexoamine, Sialic acid They are attached to external surface of phospholipids and Proteins forming glycolipids and glycoproteins which form cell coat called as Glycocalyx. The ratio of lipids to proteins is O.8 to 4.1 In Human RBC 40 : 52 Cell membrane 40 : 58 Muscles 35 : 65 Molecular organisation:- Important models are lamellar and mosaic (a) Lipid Model - (Overton 1900) - Proposed cell membranes be formed of a layer of lipids. Gorter & Grendel supported it. (b) Lattice Model - (by wolpers - 1941) - According to him lipids were thought to be distributed in the meshes of protein frame work. (c) Lamellar or Sandwitch model- Danielli (1935) and Davson, 1935 proposed a "trilaminar Model' According to this, the plasma membrane is formed of a bimolecular layer of Phospholipids (35Å thick) sand- witched between two layers of Proteins (each 20 Å thick). Thus the total thickness of plasma membrane, should be 20Å + 35Å + 20Å = 75Å (i.e. 75Å) Robertson's Model - J. D. Robertson (1959) Proposed unit membrane concept" According to this all biological membranes have the same basic structure (a) 75Å in thickness. (b) A characteristic trilaminar appearance when viewed with electron microscope (c) The three layers are a result of the same arrangement of Proteins and lipids as in sandwitch model. Greater membrane model of Lehninger (1968) : According to him, The inner surface of the membrane is covered by unconjugated proteins and outer surface by glycoproteins to which oligosaccharide side chains are attached. (d) Fluid Mosaic model (protein Mosaic Model):-By Singer and Nicolson (1972)It is the latest and most widely accepted model. According this the cell membrane consists of a highly viscous fluid matrix of two layers of phospholipid molecules. These molecules act as a relatively impermeable barrier to the passage of most water soluble molecules. Protein molecules or their complexes occur in the membrane, but not in continuous layer; instead, these occur as separate particles asymmetrically arranged in mosaic pattern. These Proteins are of two types (a) Peripheral or extrinsic proteins are loosely bound at the polar surfaces of lipid layers. (b) Integral or intrinsic proteins are deeply penetrate into the lipid layer Some of the integral proteins penetrate through the phospholipid layers and project on both the surfaces, These are called Trans membranes or Tunnel proteins. ORIGIN OF CELL MEMBRANE - arises as an independent structure during cell growth by self assembly of its components. ER forms membrances of organelles.

Fluidity of membranes It was proved by Frye and Edidin (1970). They are quasifluid because their ability for instant repair and fusion and lateral movement of proteins. Fluidity decreases with lowering of Temperature and increases with rise in temperature Infoldings of plasmamembrane Three types of infoldings are there (a) out pushings (Evaginations) like microvilli, flagellary or ciliary sheaths, stereocilia Microvilli- numerous (upto 3000), fine plasmalemma evaginations found in intestinal epithelial cells as striated or brush border epithelium, increases area of absorption Flagellary sheaths- True Cilia and flagella are covered by plasmamembrane sheath Stereocilia- Non motile elongated evaginations of plasma membrane, Secretory or Sensory Eg:- Macula, crista, Epididymus. (b) Inpushings (Invaginations) like Pores. Pores- At places plasmamembrane is connected with ER forming pores leading to channels of ER Mesosomes (Fitz Jammes, 1960) - present in Gram (+) ve bacteria, Infoldings of cells membrane, help in respiration septum formation, seperation of replicated DNA and Synthesis of materials for extracellular transport (c) Junctional complexes (= Intracellular junctions = cell Junctions ) - These are modifications of cell membranes. Characteristic of animal cells helps to connect cells to a tissue together. Cell Junction Strip around the cells called Zonula (plural Zonulae) As spot called Macula (Plural Maculae) Fusions as Occludens (Plural occludentes) Cementing material as adherens (Plural adherentes)

Some Cell Junctions
Desmosomes- Common in stratified squamous Epithelium, consists of intercellular cementing material, intercellular thickened areas, linkers and fine tonofibrils to glue adhere cells together at places like spot welding. Hemidesmosomes Intercellular thickening is present on one side and replaced by collagen fibrils. Tight Junctions- Common in Epithelial cells of capillaries and brain cells, membranes of two cells appear to fuse in this region. Gap junctions - have hydrophilic intercellular channels for allowing movement of substances have protein cylinders called connexons common in cells of heart wall. Terminal Bars or Belt desmosomes - These are desmosomes without tonofibrils and discoid thickenings Interdigitations- formed by infoldings of two adjacent membranes at place of contact common in epithelial cells. Septate desmosomes- Here tonofibrils and intercellular cement both are absent. Instead a number of transverse septa are found Eg: - Invertebrates.

Membrane Transport Passage of Metabolites , Bye-Products and Biochemicals across biomembrane is called membrane Transport. Size of particle passing through plasmalemma is 1 – 15Å Membrane Transport occurs through Four methods. (a) Passive Transport (b) Facilitated, (c) Active (d) Bulk Passive Transport - Energy is not utilised. Occurs through diffusion and osmosis. Diffusion - The movements of particles from the region of their higher concentration or electrochemical potential to the region of their lower concentration. Osmosis - discovered by Abbe Nollet (1748) Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane that occurs under the influence of an osmotically active solution Osmotic Pressure(O.P) is the maximum pressure developed in osmotically active solution due to entry of water into it across a semipermeable membrane. Osmometer is useful for measuring O.P Direction of osmosis is governed by tonocity of external solution and DPD of cell. Tonocity is the tension developed by a system when it is placed in a solution. It is of three types. (a) Hypotonic - Less osmotic concentration or O. P as compared to another. (b) Isotonic - Same osmotic concentration or O.P Isotonic solution do not show osmotic movement. 0.9% NaCl and 0.1 Glucose solution are Isotonic to RBC. (c) Hypertonic - More osmotic concentration Endosmosis and Exosmosis are determined by Tonocity. If a cell kept in hypertonic solution, exosmosis occurs. Exosmosis is osmotic loss of water from a cell or system when the latter is placed in hypertonic solution. Eg:- Drops of water are seen oozing out of sliced. Cucumber if the same is sprinkled with salt. Continuous exosmosis due to outer concentrated hypertonic solution causes crenation in animal cells. Endosmosis is osmotic entry of water in an osmotic system or cell. Endosmosis causes plant cells to become turgid but animal cells burst in water/ hypotonic solution. Passive Transport Mechanism - Passive Transport can continue to occur if the absorbed solute is immobilised. Two methods are there. (a) Hydrophilic Membrane channels are Narrow channels formed in the membrane by tunnel Proteins water, CO2, O2 diffuse through these channels. Small ions and small water soluble solutes (b) Lipid Matrix permeability - Lipid soluble substances pass through the cell membrane according to their solubility and Concentration gradient. Eg: Triethyl citrate, Ethyl alcohol, Methane. (c) Facilitated Diffusion or Facilitated Transport is passage of substances along the concentration gradient without expenditure of energy and with the help of permeases.

Permeases are the special Permeating substances.They form path ways for movement of certain substances. This transport occurs in case of some aminoacids, nucleotides and Sugars. (c) Active Transport is the transport of materials across the membrane by utilising energy. Large sized molecules and particles move against concentration gradient through this transport. This transport is mediated by carriers and gated channels. Carriers are movable intrinsic proteins which have affinity for specific solute particle. Carrier combines with solute particle and forms carrier- solute complex. ATP is required for moving this carrier. Gated channels are opened by either in electrical potential or specific substances, Eg :- Calcium channels Pumps- Active transport systems are also called pumps E.g :- Na+ - K+ pump, K+ Pump, H+ Pump. Na+ – K+ Pump operates across many animal membranes. Three Na+ ions are passed out while two K+ ions are pumped in for every hydrolysis of ATP. E.g :-Sea gulls and Penguins Operate Na+ – K+ Pump for excreting NaCl through their Nasal glands. Secondary Active Transport is the active transport by permeation of other substances. It is of 2 types (a) Counter- transport -- Ca2+ and H+ movement outwardly as excess Na+ Passes inwardly. (b) Co transport- Transport of Glucose and some aminoacids along with inward pushing of excess Na+. Bulk Transport is Active Transport through Vesicles common in Secretory and Excretory cells macromolecules, liquid droplets, bacteria, large sized foreign particles are transported in Bulk by Vesicles. Vesicles are formed by infolding / unfolding of cell membranes using ATP. It is of 2 types Exocytosis (cell vomiting) - is bulk exit of materials from inside to the outside of the cells with the help of vesicles. It is also called as Ephagy, reverse pinocytosis or Emeiocytosis. E. g :- Secretion, Excretion and removal of undigestible food, release of neurotransmitter by nerve cell etc. (a) Endocytosis (cell ingestion) is bulk active intake of extra cellular useful material from outside to inside of cell by carriers Endocytosis, based on the nature of substance involved in transport it is of 2 types (b) Pinocytosis (cell drinking) is bulk intake of extracellular fluid with the help of Vesicle called Pinosome Digestion of food in Pinosome does not occur No lysosomal activity and exocytosis occur. (c) Phagocytosis (cell eating) is bulk intake (ingest) or engulfing of solid material with the help of vesicles called phagosome or food Vacuole. Undigested food is thrown out by ephagy (exocytosis) E. g:- Monocytes, Neutrophils (WBCs), Macrophages, Kuffer cells in liver, Reticular cells in spleen, histocytes in connective tissue. Pinocytosis reported by Lewis (1937) Phagocytosis reported by MetchniKoff (1883) Ingestion of minute colloidal particles by WBC or Macrophage is called ultraphagocytosis .

Role of membranes in cellular movements by two methods, Psuedopodia and undulations. (a) Undulations are regular waves of membrane protrusions or rufflings which occur in the forward region of the cells. (b) Pseudopodia are temporary out growths of the cell which are used for locomotion. e.g. :- WBC, Macrophages. STRUCTURE OF CELL The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. The study of cell is called as cytology or cell Biology. Term cell (L. Cella = hollow space), coined by Robert Hooke (1665) is misnomer as cell is not a hollow structure. Robert Hooke (1665) discovered cells in a section of bottle cork (Quercus suber = oak plant). His observations were published in his book, Micrographia. Free living cells (Bacteria, Protozoa) were discovered by - Leewenhoek (1674) Dutrochet (1824) Suggested that all plants and animals are made of cells. Father of cytology - Robert Hooke. Father of Modern cytology - C. P. Swanson. Term cytology was coined by Hertwig (1893) who wrote a book entitled "cells & Tissues" Malphigi, the father of microscopic anatomy (1661), called cells as Saccules (Utricles). Cell theory is not applicable to viruses Since they are acellular. Prokaryotes - The organisms which lack true nucleus are called prokaryotes. Eukaryotes - The organism with true Nucleus. PROTOPLAST Unit mass of Protoplasm contained in a cell, term coined by Hanstein. Protoplast has four important components - Plasmalemma + cytoplasm + Nucleus + Vacuoles. PLASMA MEMBRANE The outer living limit of the cell is plasma membrane. Plasma membrane is also called as - Plasmalemma, cytoplasmic membrane, cell membrane, Ectoplasm. Thickness of Plasma membrane is 75 Å. It is made up of Phospholipids, Proteins & carbohydrates. Trilamellar model/sandwitch model of plasma membrane was proposed by - Danielli & Davson (1935) In Sandwitch model of Plasmamembrane the bimolecular lipid Zone (35Å thick ) is sandwiched, between two protein layers (20Å thick each). Unit membrane concept states that all the membranes in the cell have same trilamellar structure. Fluid mosaic model is the widely accepted model of plasma membrane proposed by "Singer and Nicolson (1972)". Plasma membrane is dynamic and Semipermeable. It regulates Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Eydocytosis - Entry of materials into the cell.

Exocytosis - Exit of materials out of the cell. Phagocytosis - Engulfing of solids through plasmamembrane. Pinocytosis or cell drinking - Ingestion of liquids through Plasmamembrane Cell vomiting or Ameocytosis - expulsion of liquids through plasma membrane Desmosomes - Localized thickenings in the Plasmamembrane. Functions of plasma membrane - Osmosis, Passive and Active absorption. Plasma lemma - Nageli and cramer (1855) gave the name cellmembrane to the outer boundary of protoplasm. Overton (1899) proved its existence. J. Q - Plowe (1931) later on called it plasmalemma.

PROTOPLASM The viscous fluid in a living cell is Protoplasm. Dujardin coined the term 'Sarcode' for Protoplasm. The term protoplasm was coined by J.E. Punkinje "Protoplasm Theory of Inheritance" was proposed by Max Schultze Huxley stated that 'The physical basis of life is Protoplasm' Book written by Huxley about protoplasm is "The physical basis of life Protoplasm is a polyphasic colloid. It exists in the form of sol- gel complex Sol - Quasi - fluid state of a colloidal system. Gel - Quasi - Solid state of a colloidal system. Protoplasm is divided into Nucleoplasm (Nuclear protoplasm) and cytoplasm (extranuclear protoplasm). PH of protoplasm around 6.8. Protoplasm contains 85 - 90% water and constitutes 95% weight of an organism. The main constituents of Protoplasm are oxygen (62%) carbon (20%), hydrogen (10%) and nitrogen (3%) Besides, It also contains Ca, P, Cl, S, K, Na, Mg, I and Fe. Major component in Protoplasm is water, main organic component is protein ( 7 - 10%), main element is oxygen. The Specific gravity of protoplasm - Slightly greater than one. Protoplasm Coagulates and dies on heating above 60°C. Protoplasm exhibits Brownian movement and Tyndall effect (These properties indicate colloidal nature of protoplasm.) Important theories on the organization of protoplasm are Reticular Hypothesis - Heitzmann, Fibrillar Hypothesis - Flemming Granular Hypothesis - Altmann The Most accepted Theory is colloidal Hypothesis proposed by Wilson (1925). Colloidal particles in the protoplasm also shows solution, gelation, Imbibition and possess electric charge proteins can be separated from crystalloid by dialysis. Protoplasm, a living substance shows properties like Nutrition, Metabolism and Irritability.

CYTOPLASM Cytoplasm extends from plasmamembrane to Nuclear membrane. The extra nuclear portion of Protoplasm is called cytoplasm. It is composed by cytoplasmic matrix and cytoplasmic structures. Cytoplasmic matrix is an amorphous/transclucent homogenous colloidal liquid called Hyaloplasm or cytosol It consists of various inorganic molecules like water, Salts of Na and other metals and various organic compounds like carbohydrates lipids, proteins, Nucleoproteins, Nucleic acids (RNA, DNA) and a variety of enzymes. In the cytoplasmic matrix certain living and non- living structures are found. The Non living structures are paraplasm, deutoplasm or inclusions while the living structures are membrane bound, are called as cell organelles. The major cytoplasmic cellorganelles are - ER, Golgi complex , Mitochondria, Ribosomes. The Minor or micro cell organelles or micro bodies are - Lysosomes, Glyoxysomes, etc. The fabric of microtubules and microfilaments present in the cytosol is called - cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm exhibits constant streaming movements called cyclosis CELL ORGANELLES (ORGANOIDS) These are of four types on the basis of membranes (a) Organelle bounded by Single unit membrane Eg :- ER, golgi bodies, Microbodies (Peroxisomes, lysosomes) (b) Organelle bounded by double membrane Eg :- Mitochondria, and Nucleus. (c) Organelle bounded by Triple membrane Eg :- Transosomes. (d) Organelle without any membrane Eg :- Ribosomes, centriole, spindle, Microfilaments and Microtubules, Nucleolus, ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM ER is noticeable only in Electron Microscope. ER is a major component in the Endomembrane system. ER is Extensive membrane bound network of channels which acts as intracellular transport system. Garnier for the first time had described them as filamentous structure, ergastoplasm. They were first discovered by Porter (1945),Claude and Fullman. Endoplasmic reticulum name was coined by porter (1953). ER extends from outer nuclear membrane upto plasma membrane. ER is found in all Eukaryotic cells except mature erythrocytes. It is abundant in liver, Pancreas and other actively synthesizing cells. ER is absent in RBC, ova, Embryonic cells and prokaryotes. In muscles, It is called Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, in eyes called Myeloid bodies and in Nerves as Nissilgranules. Important components of ER are (1) Cisternae (2) Tubules (3) Vesicles. Cisternae are parallel inter connected flattened sacs of 40 – 50 nm thickness). Tubules are often branched, network, 50 – 100 nm in diameter Vesicles are round or oval, 25 – 500 nm in diameter

ER contains two surfaces cytoplasmic surface and luminar surface. Enzymes occur both on the cytoplasmic surface (Eg: - P - 450, Cyt b5, some Reductases, Nucleotidase) and luminar surface (Eg :- Glucose 6- phosphatase, peptidases, β- glucoronidase). ER Originates from the ground substance (hyaloplasm) or infoldings of plasma membrane or evaginations of Nuclear membrane. However, exact nature of Origin is unknown. ER is of two types - Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) RER- ER studded with Ribosomes also called as Granular ER (GER) It is mainly made up of cisternae. Well developed in Cells actively engaged in Protein synthesis like Plasma cells and Goblet cells Functions or RER - (1) Protein Synthesis (2) Reorganisation of Nuclear Envelope SER - Ribosome Free part of ER is called SER or Agranular(Ag. ER). It consists of Tubules only. Abundant in the cells engaged in Glycogen and lipid metabolism. Functions of SER - (1) Detoxification in liver (2) Synthesis of Vitamins, carbohydrates fats and sterols. (3) Glycogenolysis (4) Origin of Golgi complex Common features of ER - (1) Intra cellular transport (2) Mechanical support (3) Increases the surface area for metabolism. Microsomes (Claude - 1941) are the fragments of ER containing Ribosomes. They contain large amount of RNA and phospholipids. Structure not found in Intact cells - Microsomes Transitional ER is E.R without Ribosomes Annulated ER - ER having pores (Mecullo, 1972) ER acts as a circulatory or Transporting system. The transport of various secretory products of granular ER may be as follows Granular ER → Agranular ER → Golgimembrane → Lysosomes or Secretory granules. GOLGI COMPLEX An Italian physician Camillo Golgi (1898) first recognized this structure in nerve cells of barn owl by Silver metallic Impregnation Technique. Also called as Golgi bodies, Golgi apparatus, Golgisome, lipochondria, Dalton complex, Idiosome, Baker's body or middle man of cell. Golgi complex is found in all the eukaryotic cells except Red Blood cells. Units of Golgicomplex are called - Dictyosomes The Components of Dictyosomes - (a) Cisternae (3 - 7) (b) Vacuoles (3) vesicles. A dictyosome has a stack of Usually 3 - 12 cisternae with swollen ends tubules and vesicles Golgi complex shows Polarity. Having two faces (a) Maturing face (m) or Trans face or Distal face or Concave face - Near cell membrane (b) Forming face (F) or Cis or convex face or proximal face- towards Nuclear membrane From 'm' face lysosomes and Secretory vesicles are formed. Golgi complex is abundant in glandular cells. The main function of Golgi complex – Secretion

FUNCTIONS OF GOLGI COMPLEX (a) Seat of origin of Primary lysosomes (b) Seat of Formation of glycolipids & Glycoproteins (c) It Packs and transports certain materials like proteins and polysaccharides out of the cell. (d) Secretion of Hormones such as Insulin. (f) It helps in storage of Secretory products (g) It forms acrosome in sperms, Golgi complex also forms yolk and cortical granules in Eggs, lactoprotein in mammary glands, Golgi complex regulate fluid balance of cell. All secretory cells are rich in Golgi bodies. Origin - Elements of Golgi complex may arise from (a) ER (b) Nuclear Envelope (c) Pre-existing Golgi complex. MYTOCHONDRIA Cell organelle concerned with aerobic respiration - Mitochondrion They were first described by Kolliker (1880) in the muscle cells. (1882) He called them as Sarcosomes. Fleming called them as Fila. Altmann in 1894 described them as 'Bioplasts' The term 'mitochondria' was coined by Benda in 1897 Synonyms for Mitochondria are - Bioplasts, Chondriosomes, chondriomites, plastochondria, Plastosomes, fila vermicules, cellular furnaces, Fuchsinophilic granules etc. Mitochondria are seat for cellular Respiration - Kingsbury. Vital Stain for Mitochondria Janus green B or gentian violet. In a normal liver cell, 1000 to 1600 mitochondria per cell. Shapes of mitochondria are generally rod-shaped (filamentous), Thread, Spherical (yeast), oval Size of mitochondrion - 1 - 10μm × 0.2μ. STRUCTURE OF A MITOCHONDRIA Mitochondria is surrounded by two membranes called outer and inner membrane which are lipoproteinaceous ( lipids 25 - 35%) , Proteins 60 - 70%) The fluid filled space between membranes of the envelope - Perimitochondrial space or outer space. The inner compartment , also called mitochondrial chamber, is bound by the inner membrane. The mitochondrial chamber filled with dense proteinaceous material called matrix contains most of the enzymes of Kreb's cycle. Mitochondrion without outer membrane - Mitoplast Matrix contains Enzymes, Circular DNA, RNA, 70s Ribosomes etc. The inner membrane is convoluted to form finger like or plate like infoldings called cristae or Mitochondrial crests.

The inner membrane is having electron carriers, stalked particles, Enzymes. Particles are of 8.5 nm in size called elementary or F1 particles or oxysomes or Respiratory assemblies or Fernandez - Moran particles Oxysomes were discovered by Fernandez -moran (1962) They contain a special ATPase Enzyme involved in Oxidative phosphorylation in oxysome head region. Main Function of oxysome- generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondria produce energy in form of ATP also called as cellular currency also called 'power houses of the cell (by Seekevitz) The mitochondrial System of cell is called as chondriome. Matrix face of Mitochondria is called m - face Cytoplasmic face of Mitochondria is called C - face Each oxysome having a base piece (F0 particle) is 110Å in diameter the stalk (F5 - F6 particle) is 50Å and head (F1 particle) is 80 – 100Å in diameter. The F1 particle is made up of 5 types of subunits and capped by ATPase inhibitor protein. The mitochondrial DNA (M - DNA) has a melting temperature (Tm) different from between nuclear DNA. Molecular weight between 9 - 11 million, This DNA is 1% of total DNA of cell discovered by Nasbs (1966). Mitochondrial RNA (M - RNA) is resistant to the action of ribonuclease. Several Enzymes of krebs cycle are found in the hyaloplasm (outside the mitochondria) as well but there are two Enzymes α-ketoglutaricidehydrogenase and Succinic dehydrogenase which occurs inside the mitochondria only. Oxysomes were earlier termed as electron transport particles (ETP). The base (F0 particle) contains the proton channel. Origin of Mitochondrian. There are several views regarding the origin of mitochondrion. (a) They are formed by autoreplication. (b) They originate from tiny particles called promitochondria. (c) They arise by division or budding from the existing mitochondria. (d) Some believe that they originate from nuclear envelope through the process of evagination. Molecules that come out frequently from mitochondrion – ATP. 70% of cellular enzymes are found in mitochondria. Electron transport occurs on inner Mitochondrial Membrane. Life Span of Mitochondria 5 - 10 days. Best method of biochemical analysis of mitochondria - cell fractionation. Semiautonomous cell organelles – Mitochondria. Cell within a cell – Mitochondria. Cell organelles concerned with energy transformation reactions – Mitochondria. Mitochondria convert potential energy into Biochemical energy.

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