Kory Floyd, P. M. (2010). State and Trait Affectionate Communication Buffer Adults' Stree Reactions. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 77, 618-636.

Review of Literature The success of physical health is aggravated by stress. Social scientists have studied the effects and relationship between mental health and physical well-being. Affectionate communication is correlated with the safety of endocrine health. Also a lack of this communication has been traced to increased probabilities for psychosomatic illness (Komisaruk & Whipple, 1998), psychological and physical distress (Schwartz & Russek, 1998).The benefits of affection exchange has shown to accelerate endocrine recovery. Research conducted in this article is parted in two ways. Firstly, ability of affectionate reactions in state and trait forms. Secondly, theories involved with predictions about stress- buffering outcomes of affectionate communication in personal relationships (K. Floyd, 2010). Stress and the Stress Response Stress is anything that threatens a person’s physical, biological, emotional or financial success. Researchers have noticed the human body responds physiologically to any perceived threat to its safety. The target of this present study is the role of the oxytocinergic system in stress in stress reactions. Oxytocin plays an important role in the reproductive process, initiating uterine contractions and stimulating the milk let-down reflex (See Uvnas-Moberg, 2003). Both males and females also sense increases in circulating oxytocin at sexual orgasm. The main aim of the present study is the function of oxytocinergic system in stress reactivity. Floyd has found that both sexes also experience increase in circulating oxytocin at sexual organism in response to physical exchange of affection. Evidence regarding this has proven inconsistent from 2 major experiments the author conducted. The results concluded that increased levels of oxytocin buffer the body’s stress response. (Kory Floyd, 2010) Theoretic Commitments There are three theories outlined in this study below; Stress- Buffering hypothesis states that relational partner minimizes reactions to acute stressors (Cohen &Wills, 1985). It indicates that the buffering effects of received emotional or tangible support are particularly essential when the results of multiple stressors accumulate. This theory proposed deleterious effects on total health including increased risk for heart disease and immune dysregulation. Affection Exchange Theory states the ability to effectively communicate affectionate feelings or behavior between individuals. This study says it increases the probability of survival and contract to potential mating partners

Tend-and- befriend Theory TBT proposes that females’ primary concern is to ensure the safety their offspring (Taylor at al., 2000). Befriend behaviors examines how females to associate with social networks in response to relationships and correlates with stress levels. Affectionate Communication and Stress Response Physiological effects of stress are erased by affectionate messages. Affectionate communication is a stress absorber. Floyd conducted a research and found affectionate communication was negatively associated with the magnitude of cortisol change. Hypotheses and Research Question Both AET and TBT make predictions about the role of oxytocin in behavior: AET predicts that the release of oxytocin is associated with the expression of affection (as part of the body’s physiological reward system). TBT estimates that oxytocin increases in response to stressful event (to induce calm and promote tending and befriending behavior). (Kory Floyd, 2010) H1: Trait affectionate communication directly predicts oxytocinergic reactivity to stressors. H2: State affectionate communication directly predicts oxytocinergic reactivity to stressors. RQ 1: State affectionate communication directly predicts oxytocinergic reactivity to stressors Method Samples of 100 adults of both sexes were used in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 55years. 26 percent of them were Asian/pacific Islander, 8 percent were Hispanic, and 3 percent were African American and 3 percent from other ethnic groups. The procedure included recruitment and prescreening with a total of 281 prospective participants. Both genders were represented among the participants and completed a questionnaire to be qualified for the study. There were nine criteria the participant had to fulfill to qualify. 18 years and older, no medical history no current use of alpha or beta blockers, steroids or anticoagulants, also no current breast feeding or pregnant women etc. Other steps of the procedure include; laboratory procedures and instrumentation, Stress induction, Cold pressor test, Stroop color-word test, Mental arithmetic challenge, Videos of marital conflict and Biochemical collection. Results Floyd conducted manipulation checks which concluded that stress inductions led to a significant decrease in positive affect and significant increases in negative affect, self-reported stress, and salivary cortisol.

Hypotheses and Research Question H1 is supports RQ1which concludes affectionate communication is not moderated by sex. H2 was tested using hierarchical regression analysis like H1 except that predictor in the second step was the diary of measure of affectionate communication. H2 is supported in RQ; the effect of state affectionate communication on oxytocinergic reactivity was not moderated by sex. Discussion Floyd research implies that communication theorists should endeavor to understand more how fragments of communication relate to individual health and adaptive quality. Floyd study may also contribute to the improvement of behavior interventions for people suffering from high levels of stress. Strengths, Limitations and Future Directions An asset from this research is the use of objective physiological markers of the stress response. Inclusion of both state and trait measures of affectionate communication. Finally, there was a not a large range of sample size in comparison to the typical interpersonal communication research. The limitation was a lack of causal relationships showing demonstrating affection, oxytocin and stress. Unfortunately, affectionate communication was not manipulated, nevertheless, it is undefined if affectionate communication directly caused the hormonal response. As a final note, there are physiological benefits to this study. Therefore, communication researchers should be more knowledgeable in their objectivity to various individual s in developing their ability to communicate affection.

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