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Strategy 5(1):1-5(April 2011)
CONNIVING, MECHANIZED AND SCHEMING OF A PICK & PLACE AUTOMATON HAVING BEST CONDITION
M.T. HAQUE1, A.A. ANAM2, M.K.A. HASAN3, M.A. SUFIYAN4 AND N. AFROZ5
1 Production and development of the jute based blended fabrics in cotton processing system for textile uses. Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI); 2Daudkandi Picking Power Plant, Bangladesh Power Development Board (PDB); 3Quality, Bangladesh Diesel Plant (BDP) Ltd.; 4Operation &Maintenance (O&M), Business Management Unit (BMU). Energypac Confidence Power Venture Ltd., Hobigonj; 5 Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University, Dhaka.
Corresponding author & address: M.T. Haque, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Accepted for publication on 28 March 2011 ABSTRACT Haque MT, Anam AA, Hasan MKA, Sufiyan MA, Afroz N (2011) Conniving, mechanized and scheming of a pick & place automaton having best condition. J. Innov. Dev. Strategy 5(1), 1-5. The Integration of Electronic engineering, Computer technology and Control engineering with Mechanical engineering is increasingly forming a crucial part in the design, manufacture and maintenance of a wide range of engineering products and processes. Here in this paper we take an opportunity to research concerning the different parts of sophisticated computer controlled device Robot specially in the area of Infrastructure, Control system (electrical & mechanical) and Gripper system. Unquestioningly, the design of robots is highly specialized and has its particulars, not only in determining optimum specifications or representative loading conditions but also in the selection of an appropriate configurations, component and material or analysis technique. The objective of this work is to present a transparent comparison of different types of mechanical and electrical components used in this robot. At the same time reasons have been mentioned why various components are used for the construction of this Robot. The different arms of this Robot are manufactured from plastic & solenoid operated horizontal gripper is developed. The gripper has object sensing activity with the help of sensor, by which it can grip only when the object will present between the fingers. If there is no object it will discontinue its activity. This prevents the unnecessary movements. For actuation of the movement of waist, first arm, second arm and gripper three stepper motor, one solenoid and some mechanical mechanisms are used. Instead of using four separate driving circuits (three for stepper motor & one for solenoid) for each driving system, we have use only one circuit, which simultaneously do the job of driving and multiplexing. This robot is controlled according to the signal and data, which is sent to it from PC through Interface from end to end LPT port and use C language for programming. The multipart control circuit formulated by us made the programming very easy and small in size. While operating the robot, user can alter manual, automatic and variable speed operations. The performance parameter and the accuracy test of the robot were carried out and the range of loads carrying by the robotic arms was determined. This manufacturing process will help for studying basic structure and the functions of a pick and place robot which has the great potential of endless uses in a developing country like Bangladesh.
Key words: manufacturing process, gripper, Multiplexing and Driving (MD) circuit, computer interfacing
INTRODUCTION The term “Robot” has its origins in a Czech word ‘robotnik’ meaning worker or serf. The playwright Karel Capek in a 1920 play first introduce it. Isaac Asimov popularized the robot theme in science fiction in the late 1940`s and the early 1950`s, and subsequently by Hollywood movies. Although Capek introduced the word “robot” to the world Isaac Asimov coined the term “robotics” in his short story “Runaround,” first published in 1942. This work is also notable because the so called “Three rules (or laws) of Robotics” are presented for the first time: First, A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow one to come to harm. Secondly, A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the first law. Thirdly, A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with First or Second laws (Ayres and Miller, 1981). Encyclopedia Britanica gives the following definition: “A Robot device is an instrumented mechanism used in science or industry to take the place of a human being. It may or may not physically resemble a human or perform its task in a human way, and the line separating robot devices from merely automated machinery is not always easy to define. In general, the more sophisticated and individualized the machine, the more likely it is to be classed as a Robot device.” The Robotics Institute of America defines a Robot as follows: “A Robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.” Robot: A mechanical device, which can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. Industrial Robot: A programmable, multi-function manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
Copyright© 2011 Green Global Foundation
J. Innov. Dev. Strategy 5(1): April 2011
Plates of the plastics were jointed with a special type of plastic dusts mixing with chloroform. The motor is directly coupled with a pinion having 20 teeth. Hence the speed of the motor decreased by around 13 times and the torque is increased by the same ratio. One of these shafts is fixed with the first arm. Dev. So the first arm can rotate by the rotation of the one part of the combined shaft (Roy 2001). The mechanical component of the design of robotic systems constitutes the main focus of our consideration (Karel 1923). esthetics and environmental considerations are also involved. Innov. These two shafts are connected through ball bearings so that one can remain stationary while the other one rotates. The driving force is important matter for the robot. which was 4mm thick. which transfers items from place to place by means of point-to-point moves. Plastic body makes the robot light and aesthetic looking. Some holes were drilled on the robotic arm body to make it comparatively lighter so that power required to moves arms become less. The worm reducer will transmit the power to one part of the combined shaft. Strategy 5(1): April 2011 . 2 J. including functional and manufacturing demands.5mm at the end of arm (fully extended) Axis Capabilities: Mechanical Assembly Maximum Angle(º) Waist 360º First Arm 270º Second Arm 90º Speed (Degree/sec) 0-27º 0-10º 0-10º Materials for the Robot Structure: The material used for the manufacturing of the robot is plastic. Little or no trajectory control is available. Often referred to as ‘bang bang’ Robot. Figure 1.Haque et al. The combined shaft is a combination of two different but concentric. They can be titled like • Waist Movement • First Arm Movement • Second Arm Movement Waist Movement: The waist of the robot is controlled by the Spur Gear mechanism which is placed in the base of the pick and place robot. The pinion is mashed with a gear having 258 teeth. The Gear holds the total assembly on it so that the assembly can rotate according to the requirement (Mark 1981). First Arm Movement: Another motor is coupled with a worm reducer. Obviously. often with only two or three degrees of freedom. Pick and Place Robot: A simple robot. Hence the weight should be taken care. which belong to the family of bang-bang robots. which has a reduction ratio of 40:1. The Pick and Place Robot Structure Different movements We have employed mainly three different movements in our pick and place robot. The subject of our discussion will be limited mainly to industrial robots including those. We will not discuss here the problem of the possibility (or impossibility) of actually creating such a robot with a “human soul”. The application of these robots in the modern world must meet the requirements of industry. DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OUTLINE OF THE ROBOT Robot specifications Degree of freedom: 4 Capacity: 500g (at any point within working envelop) Repeatability: ±0.
The worm reducer has a high transmission ratio as compare to the other transmission elements. Figure 2. A Postmortem View of the Pick and Place Robot Basis behind to decide on the system • • • • • Toothed belt gives constant speed ratio with accuracy. Through the toothed belt (timing belt). Weight 4. 1.5cm : 5. Due to 4mm thick plastic material its weight has been decreased (Leinecker and Archer. which transmits motion to the second part of the combined shaft. it transmits movement to another shaft placed between the first arm and second arm. Innov. Figure 2 illustrates the postmortem view of the pick and place robot. This shaft is fixed with the second arm and hence it can transmit power to the arm. Total Width 6.5cm : 1. Designing of Gripper There are a variety of techniques for designing a gripper suitable for the pick and place robot. 2003). Specifications: The end effectors or gripper for our robot was made of plastics. mechanized and scheming of a pick & place automaton having best condition Second Arm Movement: A third motor is coupled with another worm reducer. Degree of Freedom 3. Finger Length 7. Maximum Width of the object to Grip 8. The worm reducer takes smaller place as compare to the other conventional transmission elements. So there are a number of alternatives among those we select Solenoid operated gripper. We can make use of different kinematics device for the actuation of the finger movement of gripper. The timing belt and pulley make it possible to position accurately. Available in the market. Strategy 5(1): April 2011 .5cm Gripper finger Tension wire Solenoid Figure 3. This shaft is free with the first arm and has a toothed pulley in it. Assembly Drawing of the Gripper ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Electrical system includes mainly the followings: Stepper Motor Solenoid Power Supply Control Circuit Sensor Circuit 3 J. Total length : Plastic :2 : 200g : 5.Conniving.5cm 5. There is no slippage or creep. Dev. Minimum width of the object to Grip : 10cm : 8. Material 2.
Motive for go for the stepper motor: • • • • • • • • They are compatible with digital systems and not require digital to analog conversion at the input. Thus if a certain angular distance is specified. definitely you will find separate driving circuit for each driving system. 1010 to be actuated. The triggering of the Relay sends pulse to the motor. its output goes to Relay to trigger it. and the mechanical elements coupled to the shaft will move the required distance. 74LS373 (Latch) is used which takes input from the LPT port and sends its output to Optocoupler (4N25) to initiate. in the range of 1.1 which is actually one forth (1/4) of the whole circuit. As soon as the Opto-coupler is initiated. The motor exhibits high torque at small angular velocities. of course. Rotary motion occurs in a stepwise manner from one of these equilibrium positions to the next. concluding all to a single multiplexing circuit. For our case the stroke is about 4mm.5V 17V Control Circuit Multiplexing and driving circuit and its operational principle: If you observe control circuits for any mobile machine or manipulator using 2.1 illustrates whole circuit. Figure 3. a transmission wire is used which is very much effective. The shaft will then give axial stroke. Dev. It is possible to construct a motor in which the rotor is able to assume only discrete stationary angular positions. where the Opto-coupler takes the input from any of the three latches (74LS373). The device can be operated in an openloop manner with a positioning accuracy of 1 step (assuming that the rotor angular velocity is low enough so that no steps are lost during a move). There are several general characteristics of a stepper motor that have made it the actuator of choice in such a large number of applications. Low speeds are possible without reduction gear.8º/Step Motor Specifications: Volt Solenoid Solenoid is very simple in principle. A stepper circuit requires four signals or pulse like 0011. which is enough for the actuation of the gripper fingers. which drives the base and arms. and as a consequence such a device is called a stepper motor. Multiple stepper motor driven from the same source can maintain perfect synchronization. Stepper Motor Stepper motors can be regarded as the main electrical component. It has only two parts: a Coil and a Shaft. it can also be used in closed loop position and speed control system with either analog or digital system. Strategy 5(1): April 2011 . 4 J. This is. A straight forward outline is presented below that shows the different power ratings for different components. Innov. A schematic diagram of the circuit is illustrated In figure 3. In the Multiplexing and Driving (MD) Circuit. : 5V Current : 1. For the actuation of the solenoid. which simultaneously do the job of driving and multiplexing. 3 or more motors. Power supply The different components used in the pick and place robot has dissimilar power ratings according to their specifications.4A Step : 1. For the transmission of power from solenoid shaft to gripper. the motor can be commanded to rotate all appropriate number of steps. So four Opto-couplers is used to trigger four Relays and finally four Relays send four pulses. it is magnetized. which is enough for the actuation of one motor. A wide range of step angle is available off the shelf from most manufactures. useful in accelerating a payload up to speed (Rosenblatt 1982). Moment of inertia is usually low. We have used only one circuit. But dissimilarity will be observed in our case. which is manufactured for our pick and place robot. 0101. Component Stepper Motor Solenoid IC (Latch) 74LS373 Opto-Coupler (4N25) Power Supply 5V 24V 7. gives a transparent conception about the MD circuit. Bi-directional control is available. When current flows through the coil. one Opto-coupler and one Relay is engaged. While simple open loop control is good enough for the control of position and speed. Even the solenoid also runs by the circuit. Maximum torque occurs at low plus rates.Haque et al.8º to 90º.
B-14.` Business Week. Miller SM (1981) The Impact of Robotics on the Workforce and Workplace. Page and Company. Merriam C (1974) Webster`s New Collegiate Dictionary. pp. which is connected with the microprocessor through its interfacing circuit. In that case if the object to be picked is finished. and precession control system. The parallel port is such a port and its interfacing circuit is already built in the motherboard. CONCLUSION Robot technology is extremely sophisticated and in fact it is only inborn condition in the country like Bangladesh. Publishers International Resource Development. 1974).. We set up the interface through LPT port and make use of C language for programming that is extensively bring into play for many such cases. pp-52-60. The original IBM-PC`s parallel printer port has a total of 12 digital outputs and 5 digital input. Mass G. • Variable Speed. which is sent to it from PC through Interface. • 8 output pins via the DATA port • 5 input pins (one inverted) accessed via the STATUS port • 4 output pins (three inverted) accessed via the CONTROL port. Pc Controls The Pick And Place Robot: Our pick and place robot is controlled according the signal and data. Inc.. • Automatically Operation (cycle).Conniving. 60-66. computer Science. Strategy 5(1): April 2011 . Rosenblatt R (1982) “The Robot Revolution. Connaught Place. This prevents unnecessary movements.10-21. • Manually operation.`The push for Dominance in Robotics Gains Momentum. industrial engineering. pp. Norwalk. it is expected that in the longer term. manufacturing automation. programming and application industrial robotics in arena of transportation system. A computer port is a collection of registers. more flexible form of automation the robot. It will detect any object between the fingers.A. Roy PK (2001) Microprocessor Data Hand Book. pp. New Delhi110001. However. unfortunately displaced by these machines. who. 5 J. which may cause replacing of human workers with a robot. accessed via 3 consecutive 8 bits ports in the Processor’s 1/0 space. Australia pp 60-66. To be sure there will be an impact on some workers. The multipart control circuit formulated by us made the programming very easy and small in size (Mass and Merriam. Mark T (1981) The Robot Market Explosion. INTERFACE The computer treats all its peripherals in identical way. John Wiley & Sons Inc. In the vast area of robotics we attempted to develop a robot having basic characteristics with optimum specification having the limited source locally available resources. It assigns an address to each of its peripherals and transfers data to or from the peripheral by referring it with this address of the peripheral. New York: Doubleday. it performs the jobs endlessly in a cycle. The purpose this work is to explore and examine these areas. REFERENCES Ayres RU. electrical engineering. which we named `Object Sensor Circuit`. Dev. U. emergency disaster recovery. If there is no object between the fingers it will discontinue its activity. Options: While operating the robot the user may be desired to operate it in different line of attack and speed. Playfaff. • The remaining 8 pins are grounded. pp-101-120. mechanized and scheming of a pick & place automaton having best condition Sensor Circuit: When the robot is under automatic operation. Getting from the present to the future will require much work in mechanical engineering. Application of robotics in those fields may cause another industrial revolution.” Editorial Research Reports. The users have the following opportunities while operating the robot.. more jobs will be created as new and expanded industries are developed as a direct consequence of this new. 108-109. Archer (2003) “Visual c++ Programming”. material technology & manufacturing system engineering.Carnegie Mellon University Report. Leinecker RC. which constitute the technology. Karel C (1923) Rossum`s Universal Robot. Conn. Selver and N. pp. We have preserved some options for the user. Innov. English version by P. BPB Publications. then what the robot will do? Will it stop or continuously doing its job except picking and placing any object? To solve this problem we introduce a very small and effective circuit. which he can alter according to his requirement. 347364. Section 8.S. Springfield.