Pharmaceutics Topics

Introduction to Physical pharmacy; Matter, Properties of Matter: State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimationcritical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism. Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle sizeoptical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; nonNewtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers Dispersion Systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating Importance of Microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy: Actinomycetes , bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses; Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation;

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960. cellular/humoral immunity. paints sprays tablet triturates. alkaloids. streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12. pastes. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules. alligation. powders. Design of fermentation process. lotions. AICTE Act 1987. adults and elderly patients. Medical/Surgical accessories. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. pyrazolone derivatives. . Patents Act 1970. Drugs Price Control Order. fermenter. Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics : Pharmaceutical Legislations .A brief review. emulsions. lozenges. active and passive immunization. appliances available in the market. suppositories. Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology. antigens and heptans. quaternary ammonium compounds. immune system. carbohydrates. pastilles. alkalis. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics. HB etc. States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules. Pharmaceutical Education . Purine bases. disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation Sterilization: different methods. Pharmacy Act 1948. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins. etc. amino acids. its design. creams. acids. jellies. Insecticides Act 1968. Prescription: Handling of prescription. Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Principles. glycosides. Factories Act 1948. isotonic solutions.A brief review. ointments. conjugation. factors influencing disinfectants. Minimum Wages Act 1948. pills. alcohol dilution. dynamics of disinfection. diagnostic aids. validation of sterilization methods & equipments. Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions. Microbial assays of antibiotics. antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Isolation of mutants. source of errors in prescription. standardization and storage. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of : Typical prescriptions like mixtures.A brief review. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945. proof spirit. control of different parameters. inhalations. inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts. Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. calculation of doses for infants. solutions. displacement value etc. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase. Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy. Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955. anesthetics.Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods Disinfection. Humatrope. Humulin. factors influencing rate of mutation. care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments: Poisons Act 1919. Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. vitamins & amino acids. transduction. Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry . organic incompatibilities. Vaccines and sera: their preparation. Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954. immunological tolerance. A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. dyes. liniments. non-metals. capsules. Hypersensitivity. Genetic Recombination: Transformation. Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities. ophthalmic. An elaborate study of the followings: Pharmaceutical Ethics.

correction of incompatibilities. methods adopted. sterilization equipments. maintenance of records of retail and wholesale. advantages & disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies. legal requirements for establishment. Stoichiometry: Unit processes material and energy balances. Types of drug distribution systems. radiation. method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies.g. flow meters. heat interchangers. preparation and revision of hospital formulary. drug profile. Therapeutic incompatibilities. Dispensing of controlled drugs. purchase procedures. storage conditions. Budget preparation and Implementation. Importance of unit operations in manufacturing. Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable items. patient counseling. Master formula Card. primary and secondary quantities. basic equations of fluid flow. mole fraction. Concept of boundary layer. different methods of pharmacoeconomics. Medication error. steady and unsteady states. mathematical problems. equilibrium state. labeling. production control. nutrition. Heat transfer: Concept of heat flow. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Hospital Formulary: Contents. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control: Organization of drug store. applications of Fourier’s law. Drug Information Services: Sources' of Information on drugs. Computerized services (e. Types of materials stocked. Charging policy. dimensionless equations. Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoepidemiology: Definition and scope. application of pharmacoeconomics. Purchase and Inventory Control principles. forced and natural convection. Pharmacy and therapeutic committee. role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid. surface coefficients. Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for sterilization. Procurement and stocking.surface active agents. Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals: Out-patient dispensing. Reynold's number. correction and reporting. condensing vapors. Manufacturing records. procurement of information. radioisotope committee. treatment schedules. maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products. Packing of materials prior to sterilization. rate process. cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions. Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist. heat exchangers. Kirchoff’s law. demand and costing. Viscosity. communicable diseases. Fluid Flow: Types of flow. manufacturing practice. Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design. Evaporation: . Supply of sterile materials. patient medication profile. family planning). personnel requirements. gas laws. boiling liquids. manometers and measurement of flow and pressure. idiosyncratic cases. Nuclear Pharmacy: Methods of handling radioisotopes..types of medication errors. disease. tie substance. dimensionless groups. black body. Purchase order. valves. mole volume. MEDLINE). molecular units. Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy. dimensionless formulae. Stefan Boltzmann equation. different types of graphic representation. Records and Reports: Prescription filling. Dispensing of ancillary supplies. Retrieval of information.

Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions. Plant location: Layout. preservatives. Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass. suspending agents. Hygrometric chart and measurement of humidity. Solubility curves and calculation of yields. fluid energy mill. Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Basic concepts and definition. solubilizers. objectives of size reduction. phase diagrams. mechanisms of size reduction. industrial filters including filter press. Single vacuum. emulsifying agents. flow. principles of rectification. Filtration and Centrifugation: Theory of filtration. resistance.Basic concept of phase equilibria. sieves. circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer. sedimentation tank. corrosion. evaluation of clear liquids. Principles of centrifugation. types of additives used in formulations. fire and dust hazards. application of humidity measurement in pharmacy. Azeotropic and extractive distillation. Distillation: Roult's law. Caking of crystals and its prevention. pressure. Corrosion: Classification. geometry. elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Electrical. edge filter. Chemical. crystal growth. forms size and factors affecting them. film evaporators. sieve shakers. Material Handling Systems: Liquid handling . Drying: Moisture content and mechanism of drying. size. single effect and multiple effect evaporators. Gas handling-Various types of fans. Solid handling-Bins. labeling. vehicles. etc. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like-purity. . blowers and compressors. Conveyers. and centrifugal sedimenters. optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Automated Process Control Systems: Process variables. colors. Nucleation mechanisms. industrial centrifugal filters.Different types of pumps. simple steam and flash distillations. tanks. mechanism of corrosion. bag fillers etc. factor affecting evaporation. rate of drying and time of drying calculations. Study of various types of Crystallizers. elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control systems. shape. level and vacuum and their measurements. flavors and others. utilities and services. Swenson Walker. solid-solid. filter media. Supersaturation. Industrial dermatitis. filtration. Accident records etc. continuous and batch filters. evaporators. McCabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates. filter aids. volatility. factors affecting. manufacturing packaging. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning. dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods. theory and its limitations. Liquid Dosages Forms: Introduction. agitated batch. stabilizers. wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. prevention and control. equipments for dehumidificat4ion operations. Size separation: Different techniques of size separation. laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill. habit. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions: Mechanical. Mathematical problems on evaporation. Size Reduction: Definition. temperature. rotary filter. suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia. Material of Construction : General study of composition. Factors affecting filtration. solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments. Air transport. factors affecting size reduction. Numerical problems on yields. hammer mill. classification and types of dryers. Mixing: Theory of mixing. Bunkers. cyclone separators.

mechanisms of drug penetration. different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed. water for injection. eye lashes. Extraction and Galenical Products: Principle and method of extraction. size of capsules. structure and functions of skin and hair. non aqueous vehicles. Suppositories: Ideal requirements. importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy. and sterile water for injection.Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions. Ophthalmic Preparations: Requirements. Formulation of different types of tablets. film forming materials. granulation. preparation of infusion. coating process. containers. evaluation. packaging and evaluation. concentrated human RBCs. labeling. bandages. surgical cotton. adhesive tape.P. manufacturing' and packaging methods. evaluation and packaging. absorbable and non-absorbable sutures. Stability kinetics and quality assurance. official dressings. Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. dried human plasma. legal and official requirements for . stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms. evaluation of tablets. types. Packaging equipments. processing and storage of whole human blood. Capsules: Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form. baby care products etc. tinctures. equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products. absorbents. coacervation. surgical gauzes etc. manufacturing procedure. pharmaceutical applications. displacement value.. bases. lyophilization & preparation of sterile powders. for control of blood pressure as per I. Lipsticks. human fibrinogen. preparation of solution and suspensions. human normal immunoglobulin. spray drying. Parenteral Products: Pre-formulation factors.. ligatures and catguts. Design of aseptic area. washing of containers and closures. capsule shell and capsule content. formulation of coating solution. types. formulation. human fibrin. Micro-encapsulation: Types of microcapsules. method of capsule filling. quality control. Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes: Collection. Formulation details. isotonicity and methods of its adjustment. vials. -ideal requirements. foam plasma substitutes. spray congealing. dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish. routes of administration. polymerization complex emulsion. Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition. microencapsulation by phase separation. general formulation. Pre-filling treatment. hair. evaluation of coated tablets. nail polish remover. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals. technology on large-scale by various techniques. dextran etc. importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules. formulation. protective cellulosic hemostastics. semisolid bases and their selection. multi-orifice. equipments for coating. human thrombin. propellants. infusion fluids. specifications and methods of evaluation. stability aspects of packaging. Tablets: Advantages and disadvantages of tablets. methods of preparation. factors influence choice of containers. evaluation of micro capsules. Coating of Tablets: Types of coating. primary wound dressing. Surgical products: Definition. Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products: Packaging components. Formulation. factors influencing penetration. Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations: Fundamentals of cosmetic science. Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention. Containers and closures and selection. filling and closing of ampoules. air suspension technique. pyrogenicity. PVP. dry and soft liquid extracts. soft gelatin. coating pan and other techniques. clear gels manufacturing procedure. material for production of hard gelatin capsules. preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin. General formulation of semisolids. labeling. Application of different types of tablets.

Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. hepatic clearance. physiological and pharmaceutical. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Pharmacokinetics: Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. clearance ratio. bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. Solubility. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy. Clinical Pharmacokinetics: Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure. Design. package testing. Quality audit. density. facilitated diffusion. biliary excretion. polymerization etc. stability and bioavailability.. mechanism of renal clearance. Factors influencing absorption. Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. physico-chemical. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption . Design. Clearance concept. drug administration. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs. Performance evaluation methods: In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods. interpretation of dissolution data. determination of renal clearance. GMP and quality assurance. active transport. Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC).biological. In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. Compartment model. . extra-hepatic circulation. particle size. shape. Compartment kineticsOne compartment and two compartment models. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis. dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation. suspensions. Designing of dosage forms. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations. Cmax.Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using WagnerNelson and residual methods. plasma protein binding. oxidation. development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets. wetting. Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I. Drug distribution in the body.V. Pre-formulation studies: Study of physical properties of drug like physical form. Bioavailability and bioequivalence: Measures of bioavailability. racemization. Biopharmaceutics: Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion. reduction. tmax. dielectric constant. production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations. development. Extraction ratio.containers.Definition and Scope. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. ion-pair formation and pinocytosis). and their influence on formulation and stability of products.

Iron and haematinics. Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects. arsenic. chloride. Preservatives. An outline of methods of preparation. Dental Products: Dentifrices. Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy. Inorganic poisons and antidotes. Suspending agents. heavy metals. Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry: Anti-oxidants. including limit tests for iron. Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants. Expectorants. tests for purity and identity. mineral supplements. uses. Cathartics. of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia: Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying agents. Adsorbents. Acids. Colorants. Diluents. . Filter aids. Emetics. Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance. lead. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy. Topical Agents: Protectives.PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY Topics Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine. buffers in pharmaceutical systems. sulphate and special tests if any. sources of impurities. Protectives and Adsorbents. acid-base balance and combination therapy. Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general. Anti-caries agents. Antacids. Miscellaneous Agents: Sclerosing agents. Major Intra. Excipients. Astringents and Anti-infectives. Gases and Vapors: Oxygen.and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions.

Bond dissociation energy. absolute temperature scale. Reactive intermediates. Quantum efficiency. Second and Third laws. Concept of free energy. Carboxylic acids. deviation from ideal behavior and explanation. the Schrodinger wave equation Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger). Structure and physical properties. Atomic orbitals. operators in quantum mechanics. stability. Alkenes. Molecular orbitals. Ethers. clinical applications. Chemical Kinetics: Zero. measurements of tonicity. a. Hoffman. partition coefficient. Phase rule. Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids. Alkyl halides. calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity. Thermochemical equations. Cyclic analogs. Phenols. hazards and precautions. Jabolenski diagram. Structure. Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Reactivity and orientation. viscosity. theories of reaction kinetics. colligative properties. optical activity. isomerism. characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Photochemistry: Consequences of light absorption. half-life. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy. Preparation and Reactions of: Alkanes. Hybrid orbitals. Benzene. acid base and enzyme catalysis.carbocations. Dienes. First and Second order reactions. Polarity of bonds. radioisotopes. Water. parachor. chirality. The Liquid State: Physical properties (surface tension. Debye Huckel theory. Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals: Nuclear reaction. Reactions involving stereoisomers. Thermodynamics: First. Quantum Mechanics : Postulates of quantum mechanics. Aldehydes and ketones. measurement of activity. Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules: . conformations. radiopharmaceuticals. Alkynes. carbanions. Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals. conductance and its measurement. complex reactions. Covalent bond. Elimination reactions. conformational and configurational isomerism. buffered isotonic solutions. specification of configuration. Intramolecular forces. isotherms. enthalpy and entropy. Rearrangements (Beckman. Molecular orbital theory. Intermolecular forces. Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity. Amines. dipole moment). carbenes and nitrenes. Polynuclear aromatic compounds. Alcohols. Arenes. Solutions: Ideal and real solutions. Benzilic acid. dosage. Zeroth law. Structure and Properties: Atomic structure. Acids and bases. Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions.ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Stereochemistry: Nomenclature. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions. refractive index. solutions of gases in liquids. Epoxides.preparation. Adsorption: Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption. wave equation. stereoisomerism. Behaviour of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases. Polarity of molecules. Langmuir’s theory of adsorption.

properties and reactions of 3. Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids. Biosynthesis of RNA. and Pentose phosphate pathway. mechanism of inhibition. Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis. Urea. cycle. Biological Oxidation: Redox-potential. enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control. bioenergetics. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Lipids Metabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids. The respiratory chain. DNA repair mechanism. Pyrimidine biosynthesis: and formation of deoxyribounucleotides. energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Carbohydrates and Proteins. fermentation and their regulation. androgens. Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis. S. Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences. 4. thromboxanes and leukotrienes). Purine biosynthesis: Purine nucleotide inter-conversions. biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization. Metals as cofactors and their significance. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome. geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and . 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with one or two heteroatoms like 0. 5. N. metabolic disorders of urea cycle. preparation. Amphibolic role of the cycle. Conversion of amino acids to specialized products. Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature. phospholipids. Neighboring group effects. Mutation: Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions. Chemistry of lipids. and Glyoxalic acid cycle. Co-enzymes: Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Assimilation of ammonia. its role in energy capture and its control. Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis: Genetic code. Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers: Nitrogen balance. The concept of free energy: Determination of change in free energy . progesterone. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate. Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins. ß-oxidation & energetics. Biosynthesis of eicosanoids. Biosynthesis of amino acids. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis. Control of lipid metabolism. alteration and rearrangements of genetic material. Enzymes: Nomenclature. The Citric Acid Cycle: Significance.from equilibrium constant and reduction potential. enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action.Electrocyclic. and sphingolipids. reactions and energetics of the cycle. estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids. cholesterol. Catalysis by transition metal complexes. Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia. Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications. Catabolism of amino acids. Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical. production of ATP and its biological significance. Glycolysis.

aminoglycosides. tetracyclines. Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling. polypeptide antibiotics. Mode of Action. Anxiolytics). Applications of quantum mechanics. Neuromuscular blocking agents. selection of organisms. Synthetic Procedures. Autacoids: Antihistamines. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs. Analgesic-antipyretics. Steroidal Drugs: Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry. factors affecting enzyme kinetics. . protozoal. Local Anesthetics. biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids. Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants. Cardiovascular drugs: Anti-hypertensives. QSAR approaches. Diagnostic agents. Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs: Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics. anti-anginal agents. Oral contraceptives. Uses. Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV). Anticonvulsants. parasitic and other infections. Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms. Anti-neoplastic agents. Anti-arrythmic agents. Anti-tussives. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase. penicillinase. Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs. anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors. Diuretics. types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms. Antibiotics: ß-Lactam. Microbial Transformations: Introduction. Bioisosterism. Pharmaceutical Aids. Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics. Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects): Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches. Estrogens and Progestational agents. Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents. Androgens and anabolic agents. Eicosanoids.biological action. amylases and proteases. Drugs acting on the central nervous system: General Anesthetics. Anti-depressants. fluoroquinolones. Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial. Adrenocorticoids. Opioid analgesics. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. macrolides. viral. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs. CNS stimulants. Enzyme Immobilization: Techniques of immobilization. design of biotransformation processes. Antihyperlipedemic agents. Anti-metabolites (including sulfonamides). Adrenergic drugs. Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells. Cardiotonics. Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs. fungal. streptokinase.

Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate.6dichlorophenolindophenol. Specific examples like barium sulphate. Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation. Selection of sample. Cell representations. Ignition. Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current. Complexometric titrations. Standard and indicating electrodes. Supersaturation. Masking and demasking. potassium iodate. Mean deviation. Gasometry. Diffision/migration/migration current. Choice of indicators. Redox reactions. Precipitation Titrations: Precipitation reactions. Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate. Nernst equation. Rules for retaining significant digits. titanous chloride. Postprecipitation. Relative strengths of acids and bases. Amino acid titrations. Ionic product of water. Half-cell potential. mercuric nitrate. Oxidation-reduction curves. Filter papers and crucibles. stannous chloride and Sodium 2. Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Oxidation Reduction Titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction. Standard deviation. Mixed indicators. Measurement of electrode potential. temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. Indicators. Hydrolysis of salts. Coulometry: Coulomb’s law. aluminium as aluminium oxide. Complexing agents used as titrants. potassium permanganate. Polarography: Decomposition potential. Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method. potentiometric titrations. Mohr’s method. Solvents used. Law of mass action. Theory of indicators. Co-precipitation. Indicators. calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate. Solubility product. Thermogravimetric curves. The colloidal state.Pharmaceutical Analysis Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis. Digestion. conductometric titrations. Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients. Non-aqueous titrations: Acidic and basic drugs. Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis: Diazotization titrations. Theory of redox titrations. Organic precipitants. Role of solvents. Filtration. Conductometry: Specific and equivalent conductance. Common ion effect. primary and secondary standards: Acid Base Titrations: Acid base concepts. Buffer solutions. Types of errors. Neutralization curves. Acid-base indicators. potassium bromate. Statistical treatment of small data sets. Karl-Fischer aquametry. Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques. Preliminaries and definitions: Significant figures. indicators. Potentiometry: Standard redox potential. pH. Redox indicators. Precision and accuracy. Polyprotic systems. Ionization. and barium sulphate. Iodimetry and Iodometry. Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents.Half-wave potential. Oxygen flask combustion method. Polyamine and amino acid systems. Ilkovic . Effect of acids. Fundamentals of volumetric analysis: methods of expressing concentration. washing of the precipitate. Volhard's method and Fajan's method).

Elements of Interpretation of Spectra. ISO 9000. Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography. Radioimmunoassay. van Deemter equation. Amperometry: Rotating platinum electrode. Organic polarography. Regulatory control. Chromatography: Theory of chromatography.equation. HPLC. Fluorimetry. and Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques: Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry. The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial products: TLC. Quality assurance: GLP. Graphite electrode. Basic Instrumentation. Flame Photometry. . Validation. GLC. Dropping mercury electrode. validation of analytical procedures. TQM. HPTLC. Cathodic/anodic polarography. Quality Review and Quality documentation. The Theoretical Aspects. regulatory drug analysis. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Factors affecting resolution. plate theory. quality audit: quality of equipment. Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only). Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. X-ray Diffraction Analysis. Infrared spectrophotometry. validation of equipment. interpretation of analytical data. Amperometric titrations.

Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents. Distribution. congestive heart failure. AIDS. thromboxanes and leukotrienes. morphology of cell injury. myocardial infarction. Antidepressants. pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. brief outline of the process of repair. Sympathomimetics. Hypnotics. Blood and plasma volume expanders. Anti-Parkinsonian drugs. Neuromuscular blocking Agents. Anti-arrhythmic drugs. adaptations and cell death. peptic ulcer. Parasympatholytics. immune tolerance. urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. hypertension.N. Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System: Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure. absorption. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists. chemical mediators of inflammation. including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists. depression. tuberculosis. Sedatives. Immunopathophysiology: T and B cells. General Anesthetics. Autacoids: Histamine. acute and chronic renal failure. pathogenesis. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases: Asthma. epilepsy. angina. atherosclerosis. Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse. congestive heart failure. hepatic disorders. factors modifying drug action. Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics). Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.S. Drugs acting on urinary system: Fluid and electrolyte balance. Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents. Anti-epileptics drugs. Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System: Hematinics. Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators. 5-HT. Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic). Pharmacology of Central Nervous System: Neurohumoral transmission in the C. Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants. pathogenesis of chronic inflammation.. gout. Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs. mechanism of action. tolerance and dependence. autoimmune diseases. rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin K and hemostatic agents. Alcohols and disulfiram.N. Drugs used in the therapy of shock. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents. Parasympathomimetics. Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs. Pharmacogenetics.its agonists and antagonists. Angiotensin. psychosis. Antipyretics. C. Prostaglandins.Pharmacology Pathophysiology of common diseases. MHC proteins. Fundamentals of general pharmacology: Dosage forms and routes of administration. Local anesthetic Agents. Antianginal and Vasodilator drugs. Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics. antigen presenting cells. Antihistaminic drugs. Anticoagulants. Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides. mania. diabetes. Analgesics. anemias. Metabolism and Excretion of drugs. ulcerative colitis. anti-maniacs and hallucinogens. Discovery and development of new drugs. Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies.S. Antihypertensive drugs. Respiratory . Adverse Drug Reactions. combined effect of drugs. Amyloidosis. Anti-tussives and expectorants. Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair: Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation. Diuretics. stimulants. Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization. Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations: Causes of Cellular injury. neoplasia.

calcitonin and Vitamin D. Joint and Connective tissue disordersRheumatic diseases. Cirrhosis. Macrolides. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis. Infectious DiseasesTuberculosis. Upper respiratory infections. Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole. adsorbents. Schizophrenia. Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Antacids. Quinolones. progesterone and oral contraceptives.stimulants. Miscellaneous: Carminatives. Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants. glucagons. Principles of Toxicology: Definition of poison. Neoplastic DiseasesAcute Leukaemias. Parkinsonism. Insulin. HIV and AIDS. Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy: Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy. Gout and Hyperuricemia. Bacterial resistance. Chemotherapy: General Principles of Chemotherapy. Urinary tract infections. Tetracyclines. Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs. digestants. Hematopoietic Disorders. Pharmacology of Endocrine System: Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. opioids. organophosphorous and atropine poisoning. enzymes and mucolytics. Drugs used during pregnancy. oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs. malaria. demulcents. Hodgkin's disease. Drugs acting on the uterus.Penicillins. Important Disorders of Organs. Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation. parathormone. Enteric infections. Endocrine DisordersDiabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders. fungal diseases. Systems and their Management: Cardio-vascular disorders. Gastrointestinal DisordersPeptic ulcer. Chloramphenicol.Anemias. Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs. amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. protectives. urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents. Aminoglycosides. Hepatitis. general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates. CNS Disorders: Epilepsy. fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics. Angina. leprosy. astringents. Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs. . Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use. Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations. Antibiotics. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. General principles of clinical toxicology. Androgens and anabolic steroids. Depression Respiratory diseaseAsthma. Drug induced diseases. Congestive heart failure. Cardiac arrhythmias. viral diseases. The basics of drug interactions. incretins. Acute myocardial infarction. Cephalosporins. Emetics and anti-emetics. Estrogens. Ulcerative colitis. ACTH and corticosteroids. Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics).Hypertension.

Papaveraceae. Graminae. Valerian. mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.saponins. Kokum butter. Isabagol. Lard. capsicum. Rubiaceae. Dill. Sandal wood. Cassia. tannins and polyphenols. VOLATILE OILS: General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants. Linseed oil. Cruciferae. glass-wool. physical. Lemon grass. Solanaceae. Umbelliferae. Fennel. taxonomical. Chenopodium. substitutes. Labiatae. balsam of Tolu. silk. Starch. Lipids: Bees wax. Liliaceae. Nutmeg. Citronella. ginger. flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins. Study of the biological sources. Quality Control of Crude Drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic. asafoetida. Eucalyptus. microscopic. Caraway. guar gum acacia. TANNINS: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugslike Gambier. Cultivation. Classification of Drugs: Morphological. Screening of alkaloids. uses. Rice. chemical constituents. diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs: GLYCOSIDE CONTAINING DRUGS: Saponins : . Spearmint. classification and properties. cynogenetic glycosides. Phytochemical Screening: Preparation of extracts. Pest management and natural pest control agents. myrrh. FIBERS: Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton. benzoin. Plant hormones and their applications. Study of volatile oils of Mentha. nylon. pectin.Pharmacognosy Sources of Drugs: Biological. cardenolides and bufadienolides. Shark liver oil and Wool fat. Clove. RESINS: Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony. commercial varieties. Cocoa butter. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. amino acids in plant extracts. chemical and biological methods and properties. gall and myrobalan. cultivation. cannabis. Coriander. Collection. Rutacease. Hydnocarpus oil. Lemon peel. Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs: Their isolation. podophyllum. anthraquinones. Cardamom. Musk. mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs. Cinnamon. Palmarosa. Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs: Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Bran oil. chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs. Castor oil. black catechu. wool. balsam of Peru. polyester and asbestos. jalap. Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings: CARBOHYDRATES and derived products: agar. Codliver oil. Orange peel. sterculia and Tragacanth. Gaultheria. adulterants. turmeric. Leguminosae. marine. Polyploidy. collection. Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Apocynacae. Honey.

diterpenes. Tropane: Belladonna. Lahsun. diosgenin and sarasapogenin. Guggal. sennosides. Quinine. Reserpine. Steroidal: Veratrum and kurchi. gentian. calcium sennosides. Gymnema. pancreatin.Liquorice. Carotenoids: a-carotenoids. ipecac. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. dioscorea. Gutikas. categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla. Quinoline and Isoquinoline: Cinchona. hecogenin. podophyllotoxin. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis. and tropane alkaloids. and triterpenoids. Anthraquinone cathartics: Aloe. diosgenin. opium. trypsin. Imidazole: Pilocarpus. and senega. vitamin A. ginseng. Shankhapushpi. Alkaloidal Amine: Ephedra and colchicum. Alkaloids: Atropine and related compounds. Tailas. Rasna. botanical sources. rauwolfia. datura. preparation. Morphine. pharmacology. Tylophora. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Arishtas. duboisia. Asvas. Lignans. nux-vomica and physostigma. Brahmi. areca and lobelia. identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase. hyoscyamus. Studies of Traditional Drugs: Common vernacular names. tea and cola. Chitrack. General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies and Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis: Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. sarsaparilla. Nagarmotha and Neem. Terpenes: monoterpenes. saffron. ALKALOID CONTAINING DRUGS: Pyridine-piperidine: Tobacco. Shilajit. Biological sources. Role of plant-based drugs on National economy: A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India. digoxin. Palash. squill. strophanthus and thevetia. Satavari. Apamarg. Others: Psoralea. solasodine. Lehyas and Bhasmas. ß-carotenes. morphology. Ephedrine. Kalijiri. Chumas. Ashoka. Ergot and Vinca alkaloids. Utilization and production of phyto-constituents such as quinine. Indole: Ergot. Gokhru. quassia. chemical nature of chief constituents. Kantkari. senna. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum. Ammi majus. Adusa. pepsin. sesquiterpenes. papain. rhubarb and cascara. Atjuna. Bhilawa. quassanoids and flavonoids. Xanthophylls of medicinal importance. Methi. chirata. Punamava. Ammi visnaga. coca and withania. Glycosides: Digitoxin. catharanthus. Bach. Papaverine. Purines: Coffee. Utilization .

World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to diosgenin (disocorea). tropane alkaloid containing plants. lemon grass oil. cinchona. Liquorice. growth and their maintenance. Herbal cosmetics. Herbs as health foods. geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. WHO guidelines for the standardization of herbal drugs. Natural allergens and photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins. Ipecac. Plant bitters and sweeteners.of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil. Rauwolfia and plants containing laxatives. mentha oil. vetiver oil. Papain. Marine pharmacognosy: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources. nutritional requirements. Ginseng. . Standardization and quality control of herbal drugs. taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis. types of cultures. Valerian. Aloe. Plant Tissue Culture: Historical development of plant tissue culture.

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