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Sustainable Energy Technology Susta ab e e gy ec o ogy

By:   Zelfikar Jemal (MSc. In Sustainable Energy Engineering)
Bahir Dar / Ethiopia p 2005 E.C. 

Chapter One Introduction to Sustainability

Outline:
Brief History of Energy Usage and development Present Energy Utilization in the World Source of Energy and Sustainability

What is Energy ???

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How much energy is 1 TWh?

q g 1 TWh is equivalent to having one (1) 60 W light bulb running pp y for approximately two million years! Do not turn off until year 2 002 005 E.C. !

Brief History of Energy Usage and development ” Gatherers - Early Humans: Gatherers” Provided by food they could gather Energy Usage: 2000 kCal/person and day = Basal Metabolism: Energy intake to keep alive. 2000 kCal = 8.2 MJ

Brief History of Energy Usage and development

Hunters Gatherers” ”Hunters - Gatherers  
(about 1 million years ago) Controlled use of fire Developed h i D l d hunting methods h d Colonisation of less hospitable regions Energy Usage: 4000 kCal/person and day gy g p y 4000 kCal = 16.4 MJ

Brief History of Energy Usage and development Settlers ”Settlers” (about 4000 BC in Middle east) Need more material for building houses and running farms Energy Usage: 50 MJ/person and day ** There are people today that live at this level!

Brief History of Energy Usage and development y gy g p p ”More Developed Societies” (about 1500 AD) More specialised trades, Service sector Use of metals and glass (energy consuming to produce!) Energy Usage: 90 MJ/person and day

Brief History of Energy Usage and development Industrialisation ”Industrialisation” (1700-1850) Steam engines Factories Energy Usage: 380 MJ/ person and day

Brief History of Energy Usage and development Modern Societies” ”Modern Societies

Energy Usage: ? MJ/person and day

EXERCISE: In Sweden the energy usage for year 1999 was 615 TWh, what is the per capita energy use per day in MJ if the population in Sweden is 9 million? Hint: 1 Wh = 3600 J 1 TWh =1∙1012 Wh 1 10

Solution
Energy usage per year= 615∙ 1012 [Wh/year] ∙ 3600 [J/Wh] year 615 10

= 2.214 ∙ 1018 [J/year] = 2.214 ∙ 1012 [MJ/year]
Energy usage per day = 2.214∙1012 [MJ/year]/365 [days/year] = 6.066 ∙ 109 [MJ/day] [ y] Energy usage per capita and day = 6.066∙109 [MJ/day]/9∙106 [persons] = 674 [MJ/capita/day]

By sector: Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. i ) b % f h l TW Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; p Residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; Commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to % f the total. t 5% of th t t l The other 27% of the world's energy is lost in energy g g transmission and generation.

Ethiopia Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 1.3% ; hydro: 97.6% ; nuclear: 0% ; other: 1.2% (2001)

Source of Energy and Sustainable Energy Utilization

Renewable against Non- Renewable and with regard to Sustainability?

Sources of Energy
C ti l Energy S Conventional E Sources Fossil Fuel ( petroleum, Coal, Natural Gas Nuclear Fuel Non-Conventional Energy Sources Bio-Fuels Biomass Bi F l / Bi Hydro Power Solar Energy Wind Power Wi d P Geothermal Power Ocean (Tidal, Wave, Thermal
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Approx. total worldwide energy consumption is  474 Exajoules (474×1018 J     132 000 TWh)   J  =  132,000 TWh). 

The potential for renewable energy is:  Solar energy 1600 EJ   (444,000 TWh), Wind power 600 EJ   (167,000 TWh), 
Geothermal energy 500 EJ (139,000 TWh), G h l   EJ (  TWh)

Biomass Hydropower

250 EJ     (70,000 TWh),  5 J (7 , ), 50 EJ    (14,000 TWh) 

and  Ocean energy 1 EJ   (280 TWh).

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WHY THE WORLD NEEDS A 100% RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURE ?? Switching to renewable energy isn’t j just the best choice. It’s our only option. y The way the world produces and uses energy today is not Sustainable.

What do we mean with the term “Sustainable” in the context of Energy Utilization?

According to UN Development sustainable is: “if it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
ASHRAE defines sustainability as “providing f “ idi for the needs of the present without h d f h ih detracting from the ability to fulfill the needs of the future. future ”

The principles of sustainability integrate three y closely intertwined elements: the environment, the economy and economy, the social system Note the commonality of them, T f N h li f h To form a healthy state system indefinitely. Sustainability is a state or process that can be maintained indefinitely.