Table of Contents

About the Data ............................................................................................................................................................. 2
Frequency Distribution ................................................................................................................................................. 4
Histogram ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Frequency Polygon ....................................................................................................................................................... 7
OGIVE(LESS THAN)........................................................................................................................................................ 8
OGIVE (MORE THAN) .................................................................................................................................................... 9
Pareto Charts .............................................................................................................................................................. 10
Pie Charts.................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Stem and Leaf Charts and Mode ................................................................................................................................ 12
Scatter Plots ............................................................................................................................................................... 13
Geometric Mean ........................................................................................................................................................ 15
Arithmetic Mean ........................................................................................................................................................ 17
Weighted Arithmetic Mean........................................................................................................................................ 19
Median ....................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Quartiles ..................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Range .......................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Mean Absolute Deviation ........................................................................................................................................... 25
Variance ...................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Standard Deviation ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
Coefficient of Variation .............................................................................................................................................. 26
Skewness .................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Kurtosis ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Percentile ................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Decile .......................................................................................................................................................................... 30

Page | 1

About the Data

Year
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95

TAX REVENUE OF CENTRE AND THE STATES: 1950-51 to 2009-10 (Rs. Crore)
Total Tax Revenue(A+C)
Central Taxes Gross(A)
States' own Taxes( C)
Direct Indirect Total
Direct Indirect Total Direct Indirect Total
231
396
627
176
229
405
55
167
222
244
495
739
190
322
512
54
173
227
252
426
678
186
259
445
66
167
233
242
430
672
166
254
420
76
176
252
240
480
720
161
294
455
79
186
265
259
509
768
171
314
485
88
195
283
288
602
890
194
376
570
94
226
320
327
718
1045
230
462
692
97
256
353
344
745
1089
238
463
701
106
282
388
378
838
1216
269
525
794
109
313
422
402
948
1350
292
603
895
110
345
455
449
1094
1543
337
717
1054
112
377
489
560
1305
1865
423
862
1285
137
443
580
693
1632
2325
550
1084
1634
143
548
691
743
1856
2599
600
1221
1821
143
635
778
734
2188
2922
598
1463
2061
136
725
861
767
2494
3261
657
1650
2307
110
844
954
780
2676
3456
655
1698
2353
125
978
1103
840
2919
3759
698
1812
2510
142
1107
1249
963
3237
4200
826
1996
2822
137
1241
1378
1009
3743
4752
869
2337
3206
140
1406
1546
1171
4404
5575
1047
2826
3873
124
1578
1702
1346
5090
6436
1233
3272
4505
113
1818
1931
1552
5837
7389
1375
3695
5070
177
2142
2319
1834
7389
9223
1650
4672
6322
184
2717
2901
2493
8689
11182
2205
5404
7609
288
3285
3573
2585
9747
12332
2328
5943
8271
257
3804
4061
2680
10557
13237
2405
6453
8858
275
4104
4379
2851
12677
15528
2528
7997
10525
323
4680
5003
3096
14587
17683
2818
9156
11974
278
5431
5709
3268
16576
19844
2997
10182
13179
271
6394
6665
4133
20009
24142
3786
12061
15847
347
7948
8295
4492
22750
27242
4139
13557
17696
353
9193
9546
4907
26618
31525
4498
16223
20721
409
10395
10804
5330
30484
35814
4798
18673
23471
532
11811
12343
6252
37015
43267
5620
23050
28670
632
13965
14597
6889
42650
49539
6236
26602
32838
653
16048
16701
7483
49493
56976
6752
30913
37665
731
18580
19311
9758
57168
66926
8830
35644
44474
928
21524
22452
11165
66528
77693
10003
41633
51636 1162
24895
26057
12260
75462
87722
11030
46547
57577 1230
28915
30145
16657
86541 103198 15353
52008
67361 1304
34533
35837
19387
94779 114166 18140
56496
74636 1247
38283
39530
21713 100248 121961 20299
55443
75742 1414
44805
46219
28878 118971 147849 26973
65324
92297 1905
53647
55552
Page | 2

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09(R.E.)
2009-10(B.E.)

35777
41061
50538
49119
60864
71762
73109
87365
109546
137093
167635
231376
318839
346390
372061

139482
159995
170121
183898
213719
233558
241426
268912
304538
357277
420053
505331
551490
601270
624823

175259
201056
220659
233017
274583
305322
314535
356277
414084
494370
587688
736708
870329
947660
996885

33564
38898
48282
46601
57960
68305
69198
83363
105091
132183
162337
225045
312220
338906
363956

77660
90864
90938
97196
113792
120298
117862
132542
149257
172774
203814
248467
280927
289043
277123

111224
129762
139220
143797
171752
188605
187060
215905
254348
304957
366151
473513
593147
627949
641080

2213
2163
2256
2518
2904
3457
3911
4002
4455
4910
5298
6331
6619
7484
8105

61822
69131
79183
86702
99927
113260
123564
136370
155281
184503
216239
256864
270563
312227
347700

64035
71294
81439
89220
102831
116717
127475
140372
159736
189413
221537
263195
277182
319711
355805

Data collected from:http://www.finmin.nic.in/reports/IPFStat200910.pdf
Importance of data:The table shows the income of India of last sixty years and its pattern of
growth.
Type of data: Continuous numerical type data
Rs. Crore

Raw data in arranged array
627
672
678
720
739
768
890
1045
1089
1216
1350
1543
1865
2325
2599
2922
3261
3456
3759
4200
4752
5575
6436
7389
9223
Contd……..

Page | 3

Crore Raw data in arranged array 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 103198 114166 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 Frequency Distribution Max No Min No Range No of Classes taken Class interval 996885 627 996258 10 100000(approx99625) Page | 4 .Rs.

3333333 60 2 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 Cumulative Cumulative Frequency(<) Frequency(>) 41 60 Here we can see that in class interval (0 to 100000) we maximum no of frequency.3333333 55 7 550000 1 1.3333333 46 19 250000 4 6.33 % data fall in this class interval.Class boundary Class Mid-point Frequency 100000 0-100000 100001200000 200001300000 300001400000 400001500000 500001600000 600001700000 700001800000 800001900000 9000011000000 50000 41 Relative Freq(%) 68.333333 150000 5 8.6666667 50 14 350000 3 5 53 10 450000 2 3. Page | 5 . almost 68.6666667 58 3 950000 2 3.6666667 57 4 850000 1 1.6666667 56 5 650000 0 0 56 4 750000 1 1.

Bars of the appropriate heights are used to represent the number of observations within each class. Findings and Interpretation of results:In class interval (0 to 100000) has maximum no of frequency. Crore from 1950-51 to 2009-10 Formula and calculation steps: A graph of the data in a frequency distribution is called a histogram. The class boundaries (or class midpoints) are shown on the horizontal axis. Crore Page | 6 700001-800000 . The vertical axis is either frequency.Histogram Type of Data: Interval Concept Name:Histogram Selection of variable:Tax Revenue collection in Rs. Histogram Frequency Distriution 50 0-100000 40 100001-200000 30 200001-300000 20 300001-400000 400001-500000 10 500001-600000 0 600001-700000 Tax Revenue Collection in Rs. or percentage. relative frequency.

Crore Page | 7 . Crore) Formula and calculation steps: Midpoints of the interval of corresponding rectangle in a histogram are joined together by straight lines.e.Frequency Polygon Type of Data: Interval Concept Name: Frequency Polygon Selection of variable:Data taken fromTAX REVENUE OF CENTRE AND THE STATES: 1950-51 to 2009-10 (Rs. a figure with many angles Findings and Interpretation of results:It shows the class interval where maximum no of data fall Mid point 0 50000 150000 250000 350000 450000 550000 650000 750000 850000 950000 1050000 Frequency 0 41 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 2 0 Frequency Frequency Polygon 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Tax Revenue Collection in Rs. It gives a polygon i.

OGIVE(LESS THAN) Type of Data: Interval Concept Name:Ogive (LessThan) Selection of variable:Cumulative Frequency Less than Vs Tax Revenue collection Formula and calculation steps:taking class boundary at X axis and cumulative frequencies in Y axis Cumulative Frequency less than Findings and Interpretation of results:It shows no of data fall in bellow that class boundary. Crore Page | 8 1000000 1200000 . Ogive(Less Than) 80 60 40 20 0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 Tax Revenue Collection in Rs.

Ogive(More Than) 80 60 40 20 0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 Tax Revenue Collection in Rs.OGIVE (MORE THAN) Type of Data: Interval Concept Name:Ogive (More Than) Selection of variable:Cumulative Frequency Less than Vs Tax Revenue collection Formula and calculation steps: taking class boundary at X axis and cumulative frequencies in Y axis Cumulative Frequency more than Findings and Interpretation of results: It shows no of data fall in beyond that class boundary. Crore Page | 9 1000000 1200000 .

63 93.00 10.00 60.00 Cumulative Relative Frequency 20.00 50.00 10.00 40.68 4.00 70.82 85.00 Pareto Chart 25.19 16. Diarrhoeal diseases. Lung Disease and Stroke.00 Page | 10 Relative Frequency % Cumulative Relative Frequency .00 20. Findings and Interpretation of results:The chart shows that 80% deaths in India are caused by following diseases Coronary Heart Disease.00 20.58 13.00 80. Type of Data:Numerical Concept Name:Pareto Charts Selection of variable: Top ten causes of death in India according to WHO Formula and calculation steps:Calculated the relative frequency % of each cause and the cumulative relative frequency and plotted it.59 3.23 4.12 3.30 100. So the Initial focus of Government should be taking requisite steps to reduce the deaths due to these diseases Cause of Death No.00 100.93 39.Pareto Charts Source:http://www.00 0.00 90.12 55.93 18.00 0.who.50 89.00 5.70 100.22 96.49 3.89 11. of Deaths in '000 Relative Frequency (%) ((2) ÷ 6767)*100 Coronary Heart Disease Diarrhoeal diseases Lung Disease Stroke Influenza & Pneumonia Tuberculosis Low Birth Weight Suicide Liver diseases Road Traffic Accidents Total 1416 1231 1122 940 760 317 279 243 236 223 6767 20.70 69.00 15.int/ retrieved on 24-07-2011.59 80.00 30.

Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: Pie Chart Selection of variable: Central Plan Outlay (Budget Estimate) by Sectors for financial year 2011-12 Formula and calculation steps: Calculated the budget allocated to each sector as percentage of total outlay. Converted these percentages to degrees and plotted the pie chart Findings and Interpretation of results: The data represents the government planned expenditure for financial year 2011-12 in different sectors Total Central Plan Outlay (Budget Estimate) 2011-12 (In crore of Rupees) Agriculture and Allied Activities 14744 Rural Development 55853 Energy 155495 Industry and Minerals 45214 Transport 116861 Communications 20256 Science Technology & Environment 16186 General Economic Services 15802 Social Services 144816 General Services 7230 Grand Total 592457 Total Central Plan Outlay (Budget Estimate) 201112 Agriculture and Allied Activities 1% 3% Rural Development 9% 24% Energy 26% 3% 3% 3% Industry and Minerals Transport 20% 8% Communications Page | 11 .Pie Charts Source: http://indiabudget.nic.asp retrieved on 23-07-2011.in//budget.

No. Name of State/Union Territory 1 2 Andhra Pradesh 3 Andaman and Nicobar Islands No.e. maximum no.nic. Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name:Stem and Leaf Charts and Mode Selection of variable: No. of Member of Parliament for Lok Sabha 42 1 Arunachal Pradesh 2 4 Assam 14 5 Bihar 40 6 Chandigarh 1 7 Chhattisgarh 11 8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 9 Daman and Diu 1 10 Delhi 7 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Goa Gujarat Haryana 2 26 10 4 6 14 28 20 1 29 48 2 2 1 1 21 1 13 25 1 39 2 80 5 42 Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Puducherry Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Page | 12 Stem 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Leaf 111111111222224567 01344 0156777777779 9 02277777777 Mode 1 0 .in/ retrieved on 23-07-2011. States and Union Territories have only single representation Sl.Stem and Leaf Charts and Mode Source: http://loksabha. of Members of Parliament of LokSabha from each State and Union Territory Formula and calculation steps: Stems are taken as the digits in Tens place and leaf is unit place Findings and Interpretation of results: We can see from the Stem and leaf plot that maximum number of State's and Union territories have less than 10 members of Parliament also the Mode for the given data set is '1' i.

in/reports/IPFStat200910. Crore Indirect Total 396 495 426 430 480 509 602 718 745 838 948 1094 1305 1632 1856 2188 2494 2676 2919 3237 3743 4404 5090 5837 7389 8689 9747 10557 12677 14587 16576 20009 22750 26618 30484 37015 42650 49493 57168 66528 75462 86541 94779 Page | 13 627 739 678 672 720 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 103198 114166 .nic. Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: Scatter Plot Selection of variable: Tax Revenue Collected of Centre and the States: 1950-51 to 2009-10 for both Direct and indirect Tax Formula and calculation steps: For Scatter Plot we have taken direct and indirect tax collection over the period for seeing the correlation between them Findings and Interpretation of results: From the plot we can see that there is a strong correlation between the two variables Year Direct 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 231 244 252 242 240 259 288 327 344 378 402 449 560 693 743 734 767 780 840 963 1009 1171 1346 1552 1834 2493 2585 2680 2851 3096 3268 4133 4492 4907 5330 6252 6889 7483 9758 11165 12260 16657 19387 Total Tax Revenue(All India) in Rs.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.finmin.Scatter Plots Source: http://www.

E.E.Total Tax Revenue(All India) in Rs.) 2009-10(B.) 21713 28878 35777 41061 50538 49119 60864 71762 73109 87365 109546 137093 167635 231376 318839 346390 372061 100248 118971 139482 159995 170121 183898 213719 233558 241426 268912 304538 357277 420053 505331 551490 601270 624823 Total 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 Scatter Plot 700000 Indirect Tax Revenue 600000 500000 400000 300000 Direct Tax Vs Indirect Tax Revenue 200000 100000 0 0 100000 200000 300000 Direct Tax Revenue Page | 14 400000 . Crore Direct Indirect Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09(R.

60 5. Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: Geometric Mean Selection of variable: Total Tax Revenue Collected of Centre and the States: 1950-51 to 2009-10 Formula and calculation steps: Calculated the Growth of revenue over the previous year and the corresponding growth factor and then multiplying and taking nth root to find geometric mean Findings and Interpretation of results: The Average growth factor comes out to 1.042 1.247 1.157 1.117 1.145 1.217 1.88 7.43 11.88 12.991 1.34 17.131 1.060 1.64 10.103 1.118 1.128 1.122 1.25 -0.28 7.159 1.89 17.106 Page | 15 .136 1.917 0.30% Year 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 Total Tax Revenue(All India) Rs.124 1.44 14.173 1.21 11.50 15.110 1.31 13.78 12.67 15.139 1.91 17. Crore 627 739 678 672 720 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 103198 114166 Growth over the previous year % (g) Growth Factor (x) (g÷100)+1 17.208 1.30 20.86 -8.13308 so our annual rate of increase in tax revenue collection is 13.87 24.129 1.150 1.22 21.174 1.66 12.24 10.66 11.088 1.72 13.Geometric Mean Source: http://www.02 14.116 1.nic.212 1.32 15.154 1.63 1.77 11.067 1.14 17.161 1.61 20.98 8.81 14.01 17.14 6.42 4.073 1.finmin.82 21.179 0.81 24.09 12.117 1.66 11.148 1.175 1.143 1.73 13.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.173 1.209 1.in/reports/IPFStat200910.248 1.84 15.46 16.176 1.071 1.

189 1.178 1.056 1.88 25.23 19.60 17.) Rs.Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09(R.72 9. In above case n= 59 and xiare the growth factor values for different years Therefore Geometric Mean (G) 1. The geometric mean of growth over periods yields the equivalent constant growth rate that would yield the same final amount.185 1.E.19 3.112 1.E.068 1.212 1.39 18.) 2009-10(B.030 1.54 14.84 11.162 1.089 1. Crore 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 Growth over the previous year % 6.83 21. both exponential growth (constant proportional growth) and varying growth.254 1.133 1.23 18.181 1.147 1.02 13.14 8. Page | 16 .89 5.098 1.36 18. in business the geometric mean of growth rates is known as the compound annual growth rate (CAGR).19 Growth Factor (x) 1.194 1.27 16.13308 The geometric mean is more appropriate than the arithmetic mean for describing proportional growth.75 5.052 The Geometric Mean is given by Where xiare the variables for which mean is required and n is the number of the variables.

pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.288 Year 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64 1964-65 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 Total Tax Revenue(All India) Rs. Crore 627 739 678 672 720 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 103198 114166 Page | 17 . Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: Arithmetic Mean Selection of variable: Total Tax Revenue Collected of Centre and the States: 1950-51 to 2009-10 Formula and calculation steps: Calculated the total revenue collected over the years and divided it with number of years to get the arithmetic mean Findings and Interpretation of results: TheAverage Revenue collected from 1950 to 2009 is Rs.in/reports/IPFStat200910.finmin.nic. 140260.Arithmetic Mean Source: http://www.

) 2009-10(B. 140260.E.Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09(R.288 Page | 18 .E. Crore 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 8275357 The Arithmetic Mean is given by Where xiare the variables for which mean is required and n is the number of the variables.) Total Rs. Here n = 60 ∑ x = 8275357 Therefore Arithmetic Mean= = = Rs.

Crore) 0-100000 100001-200000 200001-300000 300001-400000 400001-500000 500001-600000 600001-700000 700001-800000 800001-900000 900001-1000000 Mid-point (x) 50000 150000 250000 350000 450000 550000 650000 750000 850000 950000 Total Frequency (f) 41 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 2 60 f*x 2050000 750000 1000000 1050000 900000 550000 0 750000 850000 1900000 9800000 Here ∑f = n = 60 ∑ (f*x) = 9800000 Therefore Weighted Arithmetic Mean of Grouped data = = Page | 19 = Rs.33 .33 Class (Rs. 163333. Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: WeightedArithmetic Mean Selection of variable: Total Tax Revenue Collected of Centre and the States: 1950-51 to 2009-10 Formula and calculation steps: Calculated the sum of product of frequency and midpoint of each class and then divide it by the total frequency. 163333.finmin.Weighted Arithmetic Mean Source: http://www.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011. Here frequency are taken as weights Findings and Interpretation of results: Theweighted average Revenue collected from 1950 to 2009 is Rs.nic.in/reports/IPFStat200910.

Total Revenue Collected Raw Data 627 739 678 672 720 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 Total Revenue Collected Raw data in Arranged Array 627 672 678 720 739 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 Page | 20 30th item 31st item .finmin.in/reports/IPFStat200910. 18763. and the other half lie below it.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.Median Source: http://www. Type of Data: Numerical Concept Name: Median Selection of variable: Total Tax Revenue Collected of Centre and the States: 1950-51 to 2009-10 Formula and calculation steps: Arranged the data in ascending order and found the mean of 30th and 31st item to find the median Findings and Interpretation of results: TheMedian of the collected data is Rs.nic.50 which means half of the items lie above this point.

30. In our case 30th item is 17683 and 31st item is 19844 Therefore Median = = 18763.Total Revenue Collected Raw Data Total Revenue Collected Raw data in Arranged Array 103198 114166 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 103198 114166 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 The Median is given by Median = ( th item in the arranged data array In our case n= 60 therefore the Median is the (60+1)/2th item i.e.5 item or we can take the mean of the 30th item and the 31st item when the data is arranged in ascending or descending order.50 Page | 21 .

and items from the data set. as 75% of the data lie below Q3 which is 168406.Quartiles Source:http://www.5.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.finmin. Crore 627 672 678 720 739 768 890 1045 1089 1216 1350 1543 1865 2325 2599 15th item 2922 3261 3456 3759 4200 4752 5575 6436 7389 9223 11182 12332 13237 15528 17683 19844 24142 27242 31525 35814 16th item Page | 22 .5 which is the third quartile.nic.in/reports/IPFStat200910. Findings and Interpretation of results:From the values of the quartiles we can find that one-fourth of the data lie below Rs 2679. Also.75which is the first quartile and one fourth of the data lie above 168406. it shows that data is more evenly distributed below Q3. Total Tax Revenue in Rs. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Quartiles Selection of variable: Total tax revenue collected of Centre and States Formula and calculation:Calculate the ( ) .

25th item = 15th item + (1/4) (16th item – 15th item) = 2679. First QuartileQ1 = 15. Here it is the 15.5 Page | 23 . Crore 43267 49539 56976 66926 77693 87722 103198 114166 121961 147849 175259 201056 220659 233017 274583 305322 314535 356277 414084 494370 587688 736708 870329 947660 996885 The first quartile is calculated as ( ) item.25th item.75 Similarly values for other quartiles can be found out as.75 18763. we calculate it as. Quartile Q1 Q2 Q3 Value 2679.5 168406. To find that.Total Tax Revenue in Rs.

5 .75(Q1) and 168406. Page | 24 . we get a very high dispersion.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011. Interquartile range = Q3 – Q1 = 168406.finmin. We infer that 50% of the values lie between 2679. the range is 996258 Minimum Maximum Range 627 996885 996258 Interquartile range Source: http://www.in/reports/IPFStat200910. the increase in tax collected in one year over the previous year has increased every year and in the last twenty years. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Range Variable selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: Range of a data set is calculated as the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value.75 = 165726. The very fact that from 168406. But on closer look at the data.5(Q3). it has sometimes doubled itself. whereas the quartiles and interquartile range are more fair representations of the dispersion.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.nic.5(Q3) and also that 75% lie below 168406.nic.Range Source: http://www.5(Q3) to the maximum value just 25% of the data are present shows the inaccuracy of the range value in determining the spread. So the range value does not perfectly represent the spread of the data set. Findings and Interpretation of results: For the above data set. Type of data:Numerical Concept Name:Interquartile range Variable Selected:Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation:Interquartile range is the difference in value of the third quartile and the first quartile.finmin.75 Findings and Interpretation:From the range value.in/reports/IPFStat200910.2679.

Mean Absolute Deviation Source: http://www. Variance Source: http://www.finmin.Variance is found to be58848680358.9711 Findings and Interpretation: In the above data set. Type of Data:Numerical Concept Name:Mean Absolute Deviation Variable Selected:Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: For the above data set.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.4099.nic.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011. Type of data:Numerical Concept Name:Variance Variable Selected:Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: For the above data set.6167. we can see that in the above data set.nic. Page | 25 . the Mean Absolute Deviation is found as Rs 168983.in/reports/IPFStat200910.9711 from the average tax collected of Rs 137922. Findings and Interpretation: Since variance is a measure of by how much the values in the data set are likely to differ from the mean of the values. the income tax collected over all the years has a dispersion of Rs 168983.finmin. the data are very widely dispersed from the mean.in/reports/IPFStat200910.

nic. we can infer that the dispersion is more or less the same. Standard Deviation is242587.finmin.in/reports/IPFStat200910. Rs.6167 and the tax collected for all the years are at a standard deviation of Rs 242587. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Coefficient of Variation Variable Selected: Central Taxes Gross and State’s own taxes Formula and Calculation: Findings and Interpretation: From the coefficient of variation of the two data sets.finmin. Coefficient of Variation Source: http://www.nic. Crore State’s Taxes Centre’s Taxes 222 405 227 512 233 445 252 420 265 455 283 485 320 570 353 692 388 701 422 794 Page | 26 . Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Standard Deviation Variable Selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: For the given data set.in/reports/IPFStat200910.4695 away from the mean.4695 Findings and Interpretations: The average tax collected is Rs 137922.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.Standard Deviation Source: http://www.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.

Crore State’s Taxes Centre’s Taxes 455 489 580 691 778 861 954 1103 1249 1378 1546 1702 1931 2319 2901 3573 4061 4379 5003 5709 6665 8295 9546 10804 12343 14597 16701 19311 22452 26057 30145 35837 39530 46219 55552 64035 71294 81439 89220 102831 116717 127475 140372 159736 189413 221537 263195 277182 319711 355805 895 1054 1285 1634 1821 2061 2307 2353 2510 2822 3206 3873 4505 5070 6322 7609 8271 8858 10525 11974 13179 15847 17696 20721 23471 28670 32838 37665 44474 51636 57577 67361 74636 75742 92297 111224 129762 139220 143797 171752 188605 187060 215905 254348 304957 366151 473513 593147 627949 641080 For the data set on the left.e. (i.Rs.05 85675.55 172.5797 Page | 27 . State’s taxes) Mean S.D CV % 49644.

pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.nic. Page | 28 . the skewness is 2.55 / 49644.5797 For the data set on the right. Findings and Interpretations: It is positive which indicates that more values are present to the left side( or below) the mean value and the distribution will be skewed to the left. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Kurtosis Variable Selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: For the data set.finmin. Therefore.79782333743203.05 = 172. Thus this also supports what we have inferred from quartiles and interquartile range that 75% of values lay below Q3.1602 Skewness Source: http://www. the kurtosis value is 4.2 178.in/reports/IPFStat200910.finmin.nic. (i. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Skewness Variable Selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: For the above data set.CV = 85675. Kurtosis Source: http://www.1602 CV = 157277.2/ 88278.30112980468625.57 157277.e.57 = 178.in/reports/IPFStat200910.pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011. Centre’s taxes) Mean S.D CV % 88278. tax collected by the government is mostly below the mean value.

pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011.nic. So for a tax revenue of Rs 43267 in the year 1985-86 the percentile value is found out as: L = number of items less than 19844 = 35 N = 60 P = (35/60) * 100 = 58. our data set has a higher value. Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Percentile Variable Selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: L/N(100) = P where L is the number of items less than a value.finmin. This can be seen from the histogram that there is a sharp peak near the mean value of 137922.33 Findings and Interpretation: Therefore a value of 43267 is at a percentile of 58.33 which means it is greater than approximately 58% of the items in the data set. Kurtosis values indicate a sharp peak near the mean.Findings and Interpretation: Kurtosis is a measure of the peakedness of the distribution curve.616666667 and then a long tail. Taking into account that the kurtosis for a standard normal distribution is 3. Page | 29 . N is the total number of items (here 60) and P is the percentile. Percentile Source: http://www. From this we can conclude that our data if organized in a distribution will be more peaked than a standard normal distribution as the kurtosis value is higher.in/reports/IPFStat200910.

Type of data: Numerical Concept Name: Decile Variable Selected: Total Tax revenues of Centre and State Formula and Calculation: Deciles are the points in a data set which divide the set into 10 equal parts. For the above data set.in/reports/IPFStat200910.nic.Decile Source: http://www.finmin. Page | 30 .pdf retrieved on 23-07-2011. the deciles are: Decile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Value 768 1543 3456 7389 17683 43267 103198 220659 414084 Findings and Interpretation: The decile values divide the data into 10 equal parts and a value of Rs 672 is in the first one-tenth of the data set and less than the first decile.

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