2012 JOT
www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
13
Analytical Analysis of ray characteristics
inside the optical fiber
*Chakresh Kumar,**Girish Narah and **Aroop Sharma
AbstractIn this paper we obtain solution of the ray equations in a parabolic and elliptical refractive index profile. We studied the various
conditions for the suitable propagation of ray inside the fiber. A comparison is also made between the ray propagating in elliptical and
parabolic refractive index profile.
Keywords : Graded index fibre, Ray theory concept, refractive index profile
INTRODUCTION:
We consider a medium of varying refractive
index n=n(x). According to snells law
n1sin1=n2sin2=constant ,1, 2, are the angle of
incidence at various interfaces If 1, 2, ........are the
corresponding angles that the ray makes with z axis
Then n1cos1=n2cos2=n3cos3=constant () (a)
When the refractive index variation is continuous, the
thickness of each layer becomes infinitesimally small
and it form a continuous curve as shown in above
figure and it is taken form reference [1]
n(x)cos(x)=(invariant of ray path)
1 ) ( ) (
(dz) + (dx) = (ds)
2 2
2 2 2
+ = dz dx dz ds
or
Cos = (
ds
dz
)
1
=
dz
ds
We obtain
(
ds
dz
)=
1
cos x
=
nx
[from eq
n
(a)]
Substituting
ds
dz
in eq
n
(b)
(
dx
dz
)
2
= 1
) (
2
2

x n
(c)
Differentiating eq
n
(c) with respect to z
dz
dx
dx
(x) dn 1
=
dz
x d
dz
dx
2
2
2 2
2

dx
x dn
dz
x d ) (
2
1
2
2 2
2

=
(1)
The above equation is another form of ray equation
Ray Path In Parabolic Refractive Index
The parabolic refractive index is characterised by the
following refractive index distribution
] ) ( 2 1 [ ) (
2 2
1
2
a
x
n x n A = When  x< a (core)
=
2
2
2
1
] 2 1 [ n n = A when x>a (cladding) (2)
Applying equation (2) in equation (1), we get
] ) ( 2 1 [
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
2
a
x
n
dx
d
dz
x d
A =

= )} ( {
2
2 2
2
1
z x
a
n
A

 *Assistant Professor Electronics and communication
department Tezpur (central) University,Tezpur,Assam
India
 ** UG studentsElectronics and communication department
Tezpur (central) University,Tezpur,Assam India
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 18, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013
2012 JOT
www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
14
) (
2
2
2
z x
dz
x d
I = , Where
1
2
n
a 
A
= I
) (
2
2
2
z x
dz
x d
I + =0
Therefore the general solution is given by
x(z)=Asinz + Bcosz (3)
and similarly we can find
y(z)=Csinz + Dcos z (4)
Where A, B,C & D are the Constants which can be
determined by the initial launching condition of the
ray.Now, let us consider that an extreme form of
skew rays is launched on the xaxis(at x= a
) in the yz
plane(making angle
=>B=a
And
z=0=0 =>A=0
Putting the value of A and B in equation (3), we get :
Thus x(z)=acosz (5)
And
Yz=0=0 =>D=0
And
z=0= tan
=>C=
=>C=
A 2
' tan a
1
n
u 
If at the launching point n=n
then =ncos
, so
C=
A 2
' sin '
1
n
an u
Putting the value of C and D in equation (4)
z
n
an
z y I
A
= sin
2
' sin '
) (
1
u
Now if
an
n a A
=
2 '
' sin
1
u , then
z a z y I = sin ' ) ( (6)
Suppose a=50m, a=20m,=0.04, =15 the
propagation of the ray is shown in fig (1)
Fig (1)
Keeping the other factor fixed and varying such as
=45 and =90, we observe the propagation in fig
(2) and fig(3) respectively
Fig (2)
Fig (3)
0
500
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0
10
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20
10
0
10
20
z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
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Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
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Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 18, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013
2012 JOT
www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
15
The number of helical turns increases as the angle is
varied from 0 to 90 that means the ray paths get
denser as the angle is increased.
Suppose a=10m, a=20m, =0.04, =60 the
propagation of the ray is shown in fig (4)
Fig (4)
Now keeping the other terms constant and varying
core radius a such that a=20m and a=60m, the
propagation is shown in fig(5) and fig(6)
Fig (5)
Fig (6)
The number of helical turns decreases as the core
radius is increased as observed from the graphs in fig
(4),(5),(6)
Now in fig (4), if we change the value of such that
=0.03 and =0.07, the propagation will be shown in
fig (7) and fig (8)
Fig (7)
Fig (8)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
20
10
0
10
20
20
10
0
10
20
z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
x
i
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m
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r
o
m
e
t
e
r
s
0
500
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1500
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0
10
20
20
10
0
10
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z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
x
i
n
m
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r
o
m
e
t
e
r
s
0
500
1000
1500
2000
20
10
0
10
20
20
10
0
10
20
z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
x
i
n
m
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c
r
o
m
e
t
e
r
s
0
500
1000
1500
2000
20
10
0
10
20
20
10
0
10
20
z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
x
i
n
m
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c
r
o
m
e
t
e
r
s
0
500
1000
1500
2000
20
10
0
10
20
20
10
0
10
20
z in micrometers
Helical ray propagation
y in micrometers
x
i
n
m
i
c
r
o
m
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t
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s
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 18, ISSUE 1, JANUARY 2013
2012 JOT
www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
16
The number of helical turns increases as the value of
is increased as observed from fig (4),(7),(8)Suppose
a=50m, a=5m, =0.04, =60 the propagation will
be as shown in fig (9)
Fig (9)
Keeping the other terms constant and changing a
such that a
=10m and a
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