Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology corporation headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland. Its principal products are mobile telephones and portable IT devices. It also offers Internet services including applications, games, music, media and messaging through its Ovi platform, and free-of-charge digital map information and navigation services through its wholly owned subsidiary Navteq. Nokia has a joint venture with Siemens, Nokia Siemens Networks, which provides telecommunications network equipment and services. Nokia has around 105,000 employees across 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and annual revenues of around €38 billion. As of 2012 it is the world's second-largest mobile phone maker by unit sales, with a global market share of 22.5% in the first quarter. Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange .It is the world's 143rd-largest company measured by 2011 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500.

Finnish Rubber Works acquired the business of the insolvent company. thus realizing his vision. telegraph and electrical cables and the foundation of Nokia's cable and electronics businesses. In 1871. Mechelin's wishes to expand into the electricity business were at first thwarted by Idestam's opposition. in southwestern Finland in the Russian Empire and started manufacturing paper. fifteen kilometres west of Tampere by the Nokianvirta river. Nokia's history started in 1865 when mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a groundwood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere. Idestam. In 1912.HISTORY . However. renamed and transformed his firm into a share company. In 1902. producer of telephone. which later became Nokia's rubber business. Idestam's retirement from the management of the company in 1896 allowed Mechelin to become the company's chairman (from 1898 until 1914) and sell most shareholders on his plans. In 1898. the Nokia Company was nearing bankruptcy. Nokia added electricity generation to its business activities. Toward the end of the 19th century. which had better resources for hydropower production. with the help of his close friend statesman Leo Mechelin. To ensure the continuation of electricity supply from Nokia's generators. Eduard Polón founded Finnish Rubber Works. Finnish Rubber Works established its factories near the town of Nokia and they began using Nokia as its product brand. manufacturer of galoshes and other rubber products. In 1868. shortly after World War I. the name it is still known by today. Arvid Wickström founded Finnish Cable Works. At the end of the 1910s. Idestam built a second mill near the town of Nokia. Finnish Rubber Works acquired Finnish Cable . In 1922. thereby founding the Nokia Company. At the beginning of the 20th century.

In the 1967 fusion. The new company was involved in many industries. The DX 200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. plastics. footwear (including rubber boots). televisions and other consumer electronics. Its modular and . Nokia divested itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses. became president of Finnish Cable Works. This gave the company a good foothold for later trade. a digital switch for telephone exchanges. manufacturer of tires. communications cables. that section was separated into its own division. Nokia Corporation in 1967 and paved the way for Nokia's future as a global corporation. who founded the electronics department and let it run at a loss for 15 years. he had been responsible for setting up the company's first electronics department in 1960. As the president of the Finnish Cable Works. producing at one time or another paper products. electricity generation machinery. Each business unit had its own director who reported to the first Nokia Corporation President. the company decided to leave consumer electronics behind in the 1990s and focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications. personal computers. manufacturer of rubber boots. Verner Weckman. sowing the seeds of Nokia's future in telecommunications. were merged to form a new industrial conglomerate. capacitors.Works. car and bicycle tires. During the rest of the 1990s. The three companies. In the 1970s. Björn Westerlund. a sport wrestler and Finland's first Olympic Gold medalist. military communications and equipment (such as the SANLA M/90device and the M61 gas mask for the Finnish Army). Finnish Cable Works supplied cables to the Soviet Union as part of Finland's war reparations. In 1937. The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section of the cable division in 1960 and the production of its first electronic device in 1962: a pulse analyzer designed for use in nuclear power plants. Nokian Tyres. and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment. A key CEO and subsequent Chairman of the Board was vuorineuvos Björn "Nalle" Westerlund (1912–2009). After World War II. robotics. Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the Nokia DX 200. Eventually. was founded. after 16 years as its technical director. which had been jointly owned since 1922. split from Nokia Corporation to form its own company in 1988 and two years later Nokian Footwear. aluminium and chemicals.

flexible architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products. offered a better signal. In 1979. For a while in the 1970s. portable and encrypted text-based communications device for the Finnish Defence Forces. changed the company's telecommunications branch name to Nokia Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman. compared to NMT-450. the Mobira Cityman weighed only 800 g (28 oz) with the battery and had a price tag of 24. Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system"). the first phones were almost . In 1982. Despite the high price. yet a shorter roam). Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones. development of a version of the exchange for the Nordic Mobile Telephony network was started. While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed 9.8 kg (22 lb) and the Talkman just under 5 kg (11 lb). In 1984.560). although this part of the company was sold some time before the later company rationalization. Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company.000Finnish marks (approximately €4. In 1987. a digital. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978. Nokia and Salora started developing the ARP standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin. a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. The technologies that preceded modern cellular mobile telephony systems were the various "0G" pre-cellular mobile radio telephony standards. was one of the world's first transportable phones. Nokia had developed VHF radio simultaneously with Salora Oy. In 1966. Nokia's network equipment production was separated into Telefenno. the first-generation. Nokia had been producing commercial and some military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s. the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications. launched in 1984. first fully automatic cellular phone system that went online in 1981. the Mobira Senator for NMT-450 networks. the merger of Nokia and Salora resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Since 1964. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony) network standard. a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. In the 1970s and 1980s. In 1987. Mobira introduced its first car phone. the Mobira Cityman 900 for NMT-900 networks (which. or car radio phone in English).

snatched from the sales assistants' hands. the mobile phone was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol. In 1988. This led to the phone's nickname of the "Gorba". resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit. Initially. Benefon Oy (since renamed to GeoSentric). Jorma Nieminen. Nokia-Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones. Nokia's mobile phones got a big publicity boost in 1987. along with two other employees from the unit. started a notable mobile phone company of their own. One year later. when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was pictured using a Mobira Cityman to make a call from Helsinkito his communications minister in Moscow. .

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