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DYEING

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Why Textiles are Coloured ??


Objectives

Make textiles attractive for aesthetic appeal Functional application


Camouflage fabrics for military Fluorescent jackets for road repairing personals

Life would be dull without colour


Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Defining a Colour
Three terms are generally used to define a colour
Hue
Value Chroma

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Hue This is the term to define the colour

Example: Pink, Red, Blue etc.


Value This is the term used to define the lightness, darkness, tone or shades of the colour Example: If a colour have a low value that means the colour is light and vice versa

Chroma
This term is used to indicate the depth (i.e. the brightness/dullness, intensity) of the

colour
A colour of high chroma value will be very bright

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Relationship between Hue, Value and Chroma

Weaker

Brighter

Value
Hue

Duller

Stronger
Chroma

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Colouring Material
Dyestuffs
Pigments

Synthetic Dyes

Natural Dyes

Ingrain Dyes

Water Soluble

Water Insoluble Dyes

Azo Dye

Direct Dyes Basic Dyes Acid Dyes

Oxidation Colours Vat Dye


Disperse Dye Mineral

Sulphur Dye

Reactive Dyes
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

SUBSTANCES USED FOR COLOURING


Dye Water soluble
Certain dyes are attracted to certain fibre types Pigments Not water soluble Have no affection for any type of fibre Used mainly for printing or mass-colouration of synthetic fibers

The constituents of dye


Dye particles contains two portion Chromophores or colour bearing group Auxochrome or colour helping group The chromophores decides the hue or colour of a dye molecule The auxochrome intensify the hue of the colour, makes the dye

molecule water soluble, improves its fastness properties etc.

DYE AUXILIARIES

Dyeing assistants or auxiliaries are the chemicals that facilitates the

production of required shades of dyeing


Water
Acid/ Alkali Carrier Water Softening Agent Exhausting Agent Dispersing Agent Levelling Agent Retarding Agent

MECHANISM OF DYEING

Mechanism of Dyeing
Adsorption of dyestuff on fibre surface

Diffusion of the dyestuff through the internal structure of the fibre


Fixation of dye molecule

Adsorption
Dye molecules move towards the fiber Get adsorbed on the fibre surface

Penetration
Adsorbed dye molecule enter the fibre structure Gradually penetrate or diffuse in the structure Rate of penetration depends upon the molecular structure of the

dye and dyeing condition Greater the penetration of dye in the fibre, better and brighter is the dyeing

Cross section of fibre with poor dyeing penetration

Cross section of fibre with good penetration

FIXATION
The final step where the dye molecules find suitable locations,

where they get fixed or anchored

Stages of Dyeing

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Stages of Dyeing
Fibre Stage Yarn Stage
Fabric Stage

Product Stage / Garment Stage

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

FIBRE STAGE
Fibres are dyed before yarn spinning. Stock dyeing is adding colour loose fibres before yarn spinning Top dyeing is dyeing of wool fibres in between spinning process.

Tops, the loose ropes of wool from combing, are wound into balls, are placed on a perforated spindles, and is enclosed in a tank. The dye is then pmped back and forth through the wool.
Coloured are also added to the spinning solution before the fibre

formation. This is known as mass colouration or dope dyeing or solution dyeing


Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

YARN STAGE
Yarns can be dyed in the following forms
Skein or hank Known as skein dyeing or hank dyeing Package or cone Known as package dyeing or cone dyeing

Yarn dyeing is less costly than fibre dyeing but more

costly than fabric or product dyeing

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

FABRIC STAGE
Fabrics are dyed. Also known as piece dyeing. Piece dyeing normally produce solid colour fabric. Multiple

colour patterns are also possible


Cross Dyeing

Union Dyeing

Cost is comparatively less. Also colour decission can be

delayed so that quick adjustment to the fashion trends are


possible.
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

FABRIC STAGE
Cross Dyeing
Cross dyeing is a fabric made from different generic groups are

dyed with different dyes.


An example is a fabric made of wool warp and cotton filling

dyed with red acid dye and blue direct dye respectively. In this
example the warp would be red and the filling blue.

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

FABRIC STAGE
Union Dyeing
Union dyeing is a type of piece dyeing of fabrics made with

fibres from different groups. Unlike cross dyeing, union dyeing

produces a finished fabric in a solid colour

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

PRODUCT / GARMENT STAGE


Final product or garment is dyed Great care must be taken in handling the materials and in dyeing to

produce a level, uniform colour throughout the product.


Product dyeing is important in the apparel and furnishing industries

when quick response to retail and consumer demands

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

METHODS OF DYEING

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Methods of Dyeing
Method entirely depends on type of material (fibre, yarn

skein or cone, fabric woven, knitted), fibre content, dyeing time etc.
Generally three basic methods are used
Textile is circulated in a dye bath Dye bath is circulated around the textile

Both textile and dye bath are circulated together


Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Batch Dyeing
Also known as exhaust method

The textile is circulated through the dye bath Used for any type of textile (fibre, yarn, fabric)
Mainly used for small lots Types
Jet Dyeing Jig Dyeing

Beam Dyeing
Winch Dyeing
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

JIG Dyeing
Fabric is dyed in open width form under

tension
Batchwise process of dyeing fabric

The fabric is circulated through the dye bath


Fabric is fed to the dye bath from a fabric roll

and is rolled back to the other roll. Both the rolls are placed above the dye bath
Fabric that may crease in rope form are dyed
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

WINCH Dyeing
Batchwise process of dyeing fabric Fabric is dyed in rope form with minimum

tension
Applicable

for delicate fabrics (lightweight

fabrics, knitted fabrics etc.)


Fabric is circulated through the dye liquor The fabric in a loose rope sewn together at the

ends, is lifted in and out of the dye bath by a reel / winch.


Causes creasing and distortion of some fabric

during dyeing in rope form


Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

JET Dyeing
Batchwise process of dyeing fabric Fabric is dyed in rope form with less

tension
Involves vigorous agitation of the dye bath

and the textile


Because of its rapid speed, fabric wrinkling

is minimum

Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

CONTINIOUS DYEING
Continuous machines, called ranges, are used for large fabric lots

Ranges include compartments for wetting out, dyeing, after treatment,

washing and rinsing


Both yarns and fabrics can be dyed using continuous ranges Yarns are dyed in yarn sheet form (Ex: Warp sheet dyeing for denims)

Dye Liquor
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

Pad Dyeing
Mainly used for continuous process of

dyeing
Fabric is run through the dye bath in open

width form between squeeze or nip rollers


that force the dye into the fabric with pressure
Subsequent Drying and Steaming helps the

dye to fix with the fibres


Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad

PACKAGE Dyeing
Both yarn and fabric can be dyed in a package form

The dye bath is forced through the textile


Yarn package dyeing
Yarn is wound on a perforated core of stainless steel or plastic in a pressurized machine.

The dyes are pressurized inwards and outwards through the package. Liquor ratios are high
to ensure uniform dyeing
Fabric package dyeing
Also known as beam dyeing The fabric is wound on perforated beam in a pressurized machine. The dye liquor is

pressurized inwards and outwards through the package. Liquor ratios are high to ensure uniform dyeing
Prithwiraj Mal, Assistant Professor, NIFT Hyderabad