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Research group Electa Department of electrical engineering (ESAT) K.U.Leuven, Belgium

Power ow calculations

1 / 33

Introduction

Outline

1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

Power ow calculations

2 / 33

Introduction

What are power ow calculations

Calculating the power ow (active and reactive) through all the lines in the power system Calculating the voltages (amplitudes and angles) at every node (substation) Determination of the static state of a given system Knowing only:

Grid conguration and parameters (R and X ) Power outputs of generator units Loads (active and reactive) Some voltages

Power ow calculations

3 / 33

Introduction

Assessing if the power system is:

Within operational limits Safe (N-1)

Basis for other (e.g. dynamic) calculations Checking whether future situations are valid

Power ow calculations

3 / 33

Introduction

When is it used?

System planning System operations State estimation Dynamic simulations (basis, rst calculation) ...

Power ow calculations

3 / 33

Introduction

230 E . Greenwich

240

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320

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Power ow calculations

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Introduction

Example

Example

File: case6 wh.m, from the book computational methods for electric power systems, M. Crow. Bus data

bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 type 3 2 2 1 1 1 Pd 25 15 27.5 0 15 25 Qd 10 5 11 0 9 15 Vm 1.05 1.05 1 1 1 1 Va 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vmax 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 Vmin 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

3

G 1 #1 4 #6

Branch data

#3

line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from 1 1 2 2 4 3 5 to 4 6 3 5 6 4 6 R 0.020 0.031 0.006 0.071 0.024 0.075 0.025 X 0.185 0.259 0.025 0.320 0.204 0.067 0.150 B 0.009 0.010 0.000 0.015 0.010 0.000 0.017

#2 #5 #7 6 5 #4 2

Power ow calculations

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Introduction

Example

Example

File: case6 wh.m, from the book computational methods for electric power systems, M. Crow. Bus data

bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 type 3 2 2 1 1 1 Pd 25 15 27.5 0 15 25 Qd 10 5 11 0 9 15 Vm 1.05 1.05 1 1 1 1 Va 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vmax 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 Vmin 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

3

G 1 #1 4 #6

Branch data

#3

line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from 1 1 2 2 4 3 5 to 4 6 3 5 6 4 6 R 0.020 0.031 0.006 0.071 0.024 0.075 0.025 X 0.185 0.259 0.025 0.320 0.204 0.067 0.150 B 0.009 0.010 0.000 0.015 0.010 0.000 0.017

#2 #5 #7 6 5 #4 2

Power ow calculations

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System representation

Outline

1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

Power ow calculations

5 / 33

System representation

System representation

Most power systems are three phase AC Normal power ow uses one phase equivalents We only focus on this one today One phase power ow only valid for balanced systems Systems are usually given in per unit values Lines can be represented by a -equivalent

Power ow calculations

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System representation

Per-unit calculations

Normalized representation of the four basic properties: voltage, current, impedance and complex power Of these, two can be chosen independently Normally rated phase voltage and one phase rated power are taken as basis

Upu =

U Ubase

and Spu =

S Sbase

Ibase = Zbase =

or Zbase =

2 Ubase Sbase

Logical values: for a 11.8 kV , 60 MVA machine, Ubasis = 11.8 kV and Sbasis = 60 MVA 3 3 For a 400 kV line, with 100 MVA: Ubase = 400/ 3, Sbase = 100/3 Rbase =

400 3 2

3 100

= 1600

Power ow calculations

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System representation

Per-unit calculations

Normalized representation of the four basic properties: voltage, current, impedance and complex power Of these, two can be chosen independently Normally rated phase voltage and one phase rated power are taken as basis

Upu =

U Ubase

and Spu =

S Sbase

Ibase = Zbase =

or Zbase =

2 Ubase Sbase

Logical values: for a 11.8 kV , 60 MVA machine, Ubasis = 11.8 kV and Sbasis = 60 MVA 3 3 For a 400 kV line, with 100 MVA: Ubase = 400/ 3, Sbase = 100/3 Rbase =

400 3 2

3 100

= 1600

Power ow calculations

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System representation

Example per-unit

Ubasis =

11.8 3

kV and Sbasis =

Sbase Ubase

60 3

MVA

60 3 11.83

= 2.9357 kA

11.8 3 60 3 2

2 Ubase Sbase

= 2.3207

Line connecting load: 0, 5 + 1 = 0.21546 + 0.43091 pu Afterwards, calculate using per-unit instead of original values

Power ow calculations

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System representation

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z1

n1 : n2

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z2

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication

Power ow calculations

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System representation

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z1

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z2

n1 : n2

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U1

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication U2 n2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2

2 2

Power ow calculations

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System representation

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Zp

n1 : n2

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication n2 U2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2

2 2

Zp = Z1 + Z2

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System representation

n1 : n2

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Zs

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication n2 U2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2

2 2

Zp = Z1 + Z2

Z Zs = Zp U2 and Zs (pu) = Zbase s(sec) 2 1 The per-unit impedance is the same on both sides of the transformer can be replaced by one series impedance!

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 9 / 33

U2

System representation

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

B 2 G 2

B 2

G 2

-equivalent

Valid for lines up to 240 km All values are normally small Other equivalents exist and are sometimes used in practice Normally, G can be neglected With overhead lines, B can be neglected as well, for cables this is not the case (see chapters on lines and cables)

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Outline

1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line # 1 -1 nodes 1 0 0

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line # 1 line # 2 -1 -1 nodes 1 0 0 0 1 0

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line # 1 line # 2 line # 3 -1 -1 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 0 0 0

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line line line line # # # # 1 2 3 4 -1 -1 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line line line line line # # # # # 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -1 0 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 1

Power ow calculations

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Directed Graph

line line line line line # # # # # 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -1 0 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 1

Power ow calculations

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Incidence matrix

Incidence matrix is written as A0

Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 U2 U1 U 1 0 1 U3 U1 U2 1 0 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U4 U1 0 1 U4 0 1 U4 U2

Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

Power ow calculations

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Incidence matrix

Incidence matrix is written as A0

Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 U2 U1 U 1 0 1 U3 U1 U2 1 0 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U4 U1 0 1 U4 0 1 U4 U2

Some symbols

Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

Power ow calculations

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Incidence matrix

Incidence matrix is written as A0

Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 U2 U1 U 0 1 1 U3 U1 U2 1 1 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U1 0 0 1 0 U2

Some symbols

Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

Power ow calculations

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1 2

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow T 1 1 0 I12 1 0 I1 1 I13 I2 = 0 1 1 I23 0 1 0 I24 I3 0 0 1 I34 Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) Link on youtube

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1 2 3

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij E12 1 1 0 E13 1 0 1 U1 E23 = 0 1 1 U2 E24 0 1 0 U3 E34 0 0 1 The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) Link on youtube

Power ow calculations

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1 2 3

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) I12 C12 0 0 0 0 E12 I13 0 C13 0 0 0 E13 I23 = 0 0 C23 0 0 E23 I24 0 0 0 C24 0 E24 I34 0 0 0 0 C34 E34 Link on youtube

Power ow calculations

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Putting it together

AT C A U = I Ybus U = I Ybus is the bus admittance matrix Representation of the entire network by an admittance matrix, a vector of nodal voltages and a vector of nodal current injections Yij = yij (admittance between node i and j) Yii = j yij (sum of the rest of the row + yii , the impedance to the reference)

n

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Generators: delivering P and Q Loads: consuming P and Q Lines or branches: connecting generation and load Nodes or busbars: connections points in the power system

Power ow calculations

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Generators: delivering P and Q Loads: consuming P and Q Lines or branches: connecting generation and load

Wanted: Power ow of P and Q through these lines

Wanted: Voltage amplitude (U) and voltage angle () at each node

Power ow calculations

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Ia a Iac c Ic Ibc yac ybc Iab yab b Ib

Uc c

Ub b Neutral

Ua a

Power ow calculations

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Voltage of node i to neutral is Ui i Admittance between i and j is yij Current from i to j is Iij The injected current at i is Ii

Ub b Neutral Ua a

Uc c

Ia = Iab + Iac Ia = (Ua Ub ) yab + (Ua Uc ) yac Ia = Ua (yab + yac ) Ub yab Uc yac

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Last equation repeated: Ia = Ua (yab + yac ) Ub yab Uc yac n We take Yaa = yab + yac = yaa + i=a yai yaa = ya0 = the parallel branches to node a (in this example, yaa = 0) We take Yai = yai as with Ybus , the bus admittance matrix Which results in: Ia = Yaa Ua + Yab Ub + Yac Uc Or for the entire system: Ia Yaa Yab Yac Ua Ib = Yba Ybb Ybc Ub Ic Yca Ycb Ycc Uc or and I = Ybus U Yij = Yji in symmetrical systems (e.g. not with phase shifting transformers)

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 17 / 33

(2)

(3) (4)

Resulting equations for a general system with n nodes

n

Ii =

j=1

Yij Uj

i N n

(5) (6)

Si = Ui Ii Above equations form the basis of power ow There are 4 basic quantities for each node in power ow calculations:

Voltage amplitude |U| Voltage angle between the voltage vector and the voltage reference Active power injection, withdrawal at a node Reactive power injection, withdrawal at a node

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Where do shunt elements t?

Ia Yaa Ib = Yba Ic Yca

n

(7)

Yii =

j=1 n

j=1 j=i

(8)

(9)

yii is the term to the node that has been grounded In practice: shunt elements

Power ow calculations

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Types of nodes

Three distinct types of nodes (important)

PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

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Types of nodes

Three distinct types of nodes (important)

PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 18 / 33

Types of nodes

Three distinct types of nodes (important)

PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

Ii =

n j=1

Yij Uj

i N n and i = nslack

Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 18 / 33

Outline

1

Power ow calculations

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The problem

Known data:

Active power injections in my system at generator nodes Voltages at generator nodes Active and reactive withdrawals (load) at PQ nodes Slack node voltage and angle Impedances (Ybus )

Unknowns:

Rest of P (slack), Q (slack and PV), voltage amplitude (PQ nodes) and voltage angle (all but slack)

Equations

I =Y U S = U I S = U Y U P Q = U Y U

n

September 19, 2011 20 / 33

Pi Qi = Ui

j=1

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA)

Yij Uj

Power ow calculations

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Algorithm

Ii =

n j=1

j=i

(15)

This is solved bus by bus, and solutions of previous calculations are lled in directly i n 1 Si (i+1) (i+1) (i) Ui = Yij Uj Yij Uj (16) (i) Yii U i j=1 j=i+1

j=i j=i

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Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

1

n j=1 j=2

S2 U2

Y2j Uj

Subtract solution 2 from solution 1 and divide the result by Y22 to obtain a new value for U2 For busbar 3, calculate I3 =

S3 U3

n j=1 j=3

Y3j Uj

Subtract solution 5 from solution 4 and divide the result by Y33 to obtain a new value for U3 Repeat for all busses Compare latest set of voltages with previous and check tolerance: U(i+1) U(i) < ? If not, go to step 1.

7 8

1 when

Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 21 / 33

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

The Gauss-Seidel method converges linearly (slow) with system size Each iteration itself requires limited processing power Often, the method is corrected with an acceleration factor (new ) (new ) (old) Ui(acc) = Ui ( 1) Ui = Ui =

(new )

Ui

(old)

+ Ui

(old)

(old) Ui

(new ) (Ui

(old) Ui )

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Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel properties

A starting vector must be chosen

Often, the starting voltages are set to 10 pu called Flat start

If the voltages are calculated in block (and not replaced after one has calculated the former one), we call the method the Jacobi method.

The Jacobi method has a slower convergence

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Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel properties

A starting vector must be chosen

Often, the starting voltages are set to 10 pu called Flat start

If the voltages are calculated in block (and not replaced after one has calculated the former one), we call the method the Jacobi method.

The Jacobi method has a slower convergence

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Taylor series expansion: df dx d2 f dx 2

y = f [x(0)]+

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]+

x=x(0)

2!

[x x(0)]2 +. . . (20)

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Taylor series expansion: df dx d2 f dx 2

y = f [x(0)]+

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]+

x=x(0)

2!

[x x(0)]2 +. . . (20)

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Taylor series expansion: df dx

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]

(20)

1 df dx

x=x(0)

[y f (x(0))]

(21)

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Newton-Raphson power ow

f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

Power ow calculations

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Newton-Raphson power ow

f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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Newton-Raphson power ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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Newton-Raphson power ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, )1

(U, ) (U, )0

f (U, )1

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Newton-Raphson power ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

f (U, )1

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Newton-Raphson power ow

y1 = f1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) y2 = f2 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) . . . y3 = fn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Solution for multivariable nonlinear equations

y1 y2 . . . yn f1 (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) f2 (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) . . . fn (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) f1 f1 f1 x1 x2 xn x1 x1 (0) f2 f2 f2 x2 x2 (0) x1 x2 xn . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . xn xn (0) fn fn fn x1 x2 xn

= +

(22)

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Summarized, we can write the following: y = f [x(0)] + J(0) [x x(0)] or solving for x: x = x(0) + J(0)1 [y f (x(0))] or in its recursive form: xi+1 = xi + J1 [y f (xi )] i (25) (24) (23)

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Remember

Ii = Si =

n j=1 Yij Ui Ii

Uj

Equivalents

Si = f (Ui ) is equivalent to y = f (x) Ui+1 = Ui + Ji [S f (Ui )] S is here the specied complex power at any busbar f (Ui ) is here the specied complex power at any busbar Si = Ji Ui+1 (27) (26)

You normally know the active and reactive power injections in each node (load and generation) You want to know the complex voltages at the nodes

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

Si = Ui

n j=1

Yij Uj

and

i = 1, . . . , n

n

Pi = Ui Qi = Ui

j=1 n

(28)

j=1

(29)

n

Pi = Ui

j=1

Uj Yij cos(i j ij )

n

(30)

Qi = Ui

j=1

Uj Yij sin(i j ij )

(31)

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

scheduled

scheduled scheduled

Pi, Qi,

calc calc

PQ and PV PQ

(32) (33)

and Qi,

scheduled

Pi, calc and Qi, calc are obtained from the calculation in rectangular or polar coordinates

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Putting it in one equation

Writing the power ow equations (both rectangular and polar) in the form of equation (25): (i) P P U (i) (i) U P = (34) U Q Q Q U U U

J((U,)(i1) )

N L

(i)

U U

(i)

(35)

J((U,)(i1) )

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Equation explained

i = i

(i+1)

(i) (i)

Ui = Ui

(i+1)

Ui

Voltages and angles (i + 1) are updated after each iteration and used for the following step J is the Jacobian, and forms the derivative (tangent, gradient) of the power ow equations P Q U and U simplify the equations and results in fewer U U computations There are n 1 equations for P There are n #pv 1 equations for Q The Jacobian is a square matrix (2 n #pv 2) (2 n #pv 2) The Jacobian is a sparse matrix (Special techniques can be used when numerical calculations are performed)

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

Equation explained

i = i

(i+1)

(i) (i)

Ui = Ui

(i+1)

Ui

Voltages and angles (i + 1) are updated after each iteration and used for the following step J is the Jacobian, and forms the derivative (tangent, gradient) of the power ow equations P Q U and U simplify the equations and results in fewer U U computations There are n 1 equations for P Why? There are n #pv 1 equations for Q Why? The Jacobian is a square matrix (2 n #pv 2) (2 n #pv 2) The Jacobian is a sparse matrix (Special techniques can be used when numerical calculations are performed)

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

Pi = Hij j Pi Uj = Nij Uj Qi = Mij j Qi Uj = Lij Uj = Uj Ui Yij sin(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij cos(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij cos(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij sin(i j ij )

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Newton-Raphson power ow

Full equations (polar form): diagonal n

Pi = Hii = Ui i Uj Yij sin(i j ij ) + Ui2 Yii sin(ij )

j=1 n

Pi Ui = Nii = Ui Ui

j=1 n

Qi = Mii = Ui i Qi Ui = Lii = Ui Ui

j=1 n

j=1

Notice the symmetry Notice that the o-diagonal elements are also in the diagonal elements M = N for o-diagonal elements

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

Numerical aspects

Iterative process until mismatch is below threshold (max(P(i) ; Q(i) ) = < limit ) Quadratic convergence Major computational eort is calculating the inverse of the Jacobian The Jacobian is sparse, so special techniques can be used (less storage) Ordering schemes can increase speed Convergence is not guaranteed A good starting point is needed

Flat start? Previous outcome DC load ow as starting point

Simplications exist

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Newton-Raphson power ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

Power ow calculations

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Newton-Raphson power ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

Power ow calculations

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Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow

In a power system with mostly inductive lines, the power ow equations can be decoupled. (ij 90 )

Active power is related to the angle between nodes Reactive power is related to the voltage

P Q

(i)

H M

N L

(i)

U U

(i)

(36)

J((U,)(i1) )

+ Two small inverses instead of one big + Faster as only 2 n3 calculations are needed, and not (2 n)3 = 8 n3 - The two subsystems may converge dierently - Convergence rate is slightly reduced - Not often used nowadays

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 24 / 33

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow

In a power system with mostly inductive lines, the power ow equations can be decoupled. (ij 90 )

Active power is related to the angle between nodes Reactive power is related to the voltage

P Q

(i)

H 0 0 L

(i)

U U

(i)

(37)

J((U,)(i1) )

+ Two small inverses instead of one big + Faster as only 2 n3 calculations are needed, and not (2 n)3 = 8 n3 - The two subsystems may converge dierently - Convergence rate is slightly reduced - Not often used nowadays

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 24 / 33

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

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Simplied Newton-Raphson

In decoupled load ow, a new reduced Jacobian is determined during each iteration Of each new Jacobian, the inverse needs to be calculated Fast decoupled does not calculate a new Jacobian for each iteration P(i) = [B ] (i+1) Q U

(i)

(38) (39)

= [B ] Ui+1

B and B are real, sparse and constant matrices Only series elements are involved (no shunts) If the system has high R/X -ratio, large voltage angle deviations or voltages which seriously dier from 1 pu, convergence problems can arise Slower convergence (more iterations) but each iteration is much faster

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 25 / 33

Simplied Newton-Raphson

derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

Power ow calculations

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Simplied Newton-Raphson

DC load ow

If we consider the system to be lossless (Y = B) And voltages to be around 1.0 pu (U = 0) Voltage angles between busses are small (sin(i j ) (i j ) and cos(i j ) 1) One equation of Newton-Raphson:

n

P = Ui

j=1

(40) (41)

B is real Linear system One calculation, no iterations Easy for optimizations Not correct (approximation)

DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 26 / 33

Software

Outline

1

Power ow calculations

27 / 33

Software

Power ow software

Demos + try at home

Free available (open source)

Matpower (matlab based): http://www.pserc.cornell.edu/matpower/ PSAT (matlab based): http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/~fmilano/psat.htm InterPSS (Java based): http://www.interpss.org/

Professional software

PSS/E Eurostag DigSilent Powerworld (demo at http://www.powerworld.com/downloads.asp)

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State estimation

Outline

1

Power ow calculations

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State estimation

State estimation

Known and unknown variables in the real power system

Lines, cables, transformers, location of generation and load all known and constant in time Voltages, currents, actual generation and load (at that moment), position of power switches, tap-changer settings,. . . mostly unknown or variable Measurements:

P, Q: Generation and load, some lines Voltage: |U| every substation. only with PMU (phasor measurement unit) Tap-changer settings Incomplete Measurement errors

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State estimation

State estimation

Monitoring or supplementing data for load ow Many measurements in the system Determining measurement errors, estimate and (statistically) analyze If needed, certain measurements should be rejected Least Squares approach Another Youtube video: least squares Has to be solved iteratively for power systems

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State estimation

State estimation

Weighted least-square method

(measurements z, with errors e, h(x) is the true model of the state x) z1 h1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) e1 z h (x , x , . . . , xn ) e2 z= 2 = 2 1 2 z3 h3 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + e3 = h(x) + e (42) z4 h4 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) e4 With errors having a zero average, and each independent we get a covariance matrix R: 2 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 R= . (43) . . .. . . . . . . . 2 0 0 n R is the inverse of what we could call the weighting matrix R = inv (W)

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State estimation

State estimation

Solving the state estimation

The expected values are: 1 x1 x2 T = x = H W H HT W z = G1 HT W z ... G xn (44) = G1 HT W (H x + e) x =G x

1

(45) H We

T

(H W H) x + G

G

(46) (47)

= H z x

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State estimation

Power ow calculations

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State estimation

We want to know x1 and x2 , which are voltages U1 and U2 Two amp`remeters measuring z1 = 9.01 A and z2 = 3.02 A e

U1 = 16.0233 V and U2 = 8.0367 V

U1 = 15.93 V and U2 = 8.05 V

measurements

= = = =

x1 1 x1 8 3 8 x1 1 8 x1

5 8

+ + +

1 8 5 8 1 8 3 8

x2 x2 x2 x2

+ + + +

e1 e2 e3 e4

errors

(48)

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State estimation

We want to know x1 and x2 , which are voltages U1 and U2 Two amp`remeters measuring z1 = 9.01 A and z2 = 3.02 A e

U1 = 16.0233 V and U2 = 8.0367 V U1 = 15.93 V and U2 = 8.05 V Conict Conict

1 8 5 8 1 8 3 8

Two voltmeters measuring z3 = 6.98 V and z4 = 5.01 V The system equations can be written as: z1 z2 z3 z4

measurements

= = = =

x1 1 x1 8 3 8 x1 1 8 x1

5 8

+ + +

x2 x2 x2 x2

+ + + +

e1 e2 e3 e4

errors

(48)

Power ow calculations

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State estimation

We take the following weighting matrix (1/sigma): W = diag([100, 100, 50, 50]) The most probable values for U1 and U2 are 16.00719 and 8.02614 resp. 0.00877 0.00456 The expected error will be: = e 0.02596 0.00070

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State estimation

Measurement 4 changes

z4 = 4.4 instead of z4 = 5.01 The best estimate for the voltages: U1 = 15.86807 and U2 = 7.75860 0.06228 0.15438 In that case, the expected error will be: = e 0.05964 0.49298

When the expected error is too high, measurements can/should be disregarded Statistical test are needed to determine when errors are high

Power ow calculations

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State estimation

Measurement 4 changes

z4 = 4.4 instead of z4 = 5.01 The best estimate for the voltages: U1 = 15.86807 and U2 = 7.75860 0.06228 0.15438 In that case, the expected error will be: = e 0.05964 0.49298

When the expected error is too high, measurements can/should be disregarded Statistical test are needed to determine when errors are high The weight matrix also has a serious inuence on the results

Power ow calculations

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State estimation

State estimator calculates voltage magnitudes and relative phase angles of the system buses Redundancy in input data With errors on all measurement data Non-DC circuit non-linear equations: h = h(x) Iterative solutions (as in the Newton-Raphson method) are needed The principle is the same

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State estimation

References

Power System Analysis; Grainger, John J. and Stevenson, William D., Jr. Computational Mehods for Electric Power Systems; Crow, Mariesa Power System Load Flow Analysis; Powell, Lynn

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