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Power ow calculations

Dirk Van Hertem Hakan Ergun Priyanko Guha Thakurta


Research group Electa Department of electrical engineering (ESAT) K.U.Leuven, Belgium

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Power ow calculations

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Introduction

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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Introduction

Introduction: load or power ow


What are power ow calculations
Calculating the power ow (active and reactive) through all the lines in the power system Calculating the voltages (amplitudes and angles) at every node (substation) Determination of the static state of a given system Knowing only:
Grid conguration and parameters (R and X ) Power outputs of generator units Loads (active and reactive) Some voltages

Load ow and power ow are synonyms

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Power ow calculations

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Introduction

Introduction: load or power ow

Why is load ow important?


Assessing if the power system is:
Within operational limits Safe (N-1)

Basis for other (e.g. dynamic) calculations Checking whether future situations are valid

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Introduction

Introduction: load or power ow

When is it used?
System planning System operations State estimation Dynamic simulations (basis, rst calculation) ...

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Power ow calculations

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Introduction

Introduction: load or power ow


230 E . Greenwich

240

250

300

310

320

330

340

350

400

410

420

430

440

450

500

510

520

530

540

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600

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620

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640

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700 BERNEAU 5130

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Tension nominale

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50) 70(1

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150+70

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1:500000
LANDRES
240 E . Greenwich 250 300 310 320 330 340 350 400 410 420 430 440 450 500 510 520 530 540 550

VIGY
Institut Gographique National Nationaal Geografisch Instituut

600

610

620

630

640

650

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Introduction

Example

Example
File: case6 wh.m, from the book computational methods for electric power systems, M. Crow. Bus data
bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 type 3 2 2 1 1 1 Pd 25 15 27.5 0 15 25 Qd 10 5 11 0 9 15 Vm 1.05 1.05 1 1 1 1 Va 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vmax 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 Vmin 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

Generator data Gen Pg Pq 1 0 0 2 50 0


3

Pmax 200 150

G 1 #1 4 #6

Branch data
#3
line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from 1 1 2 2 4 3 5 to 4 6 3 5 6 4 6 R 0.020 0.031 0.006 0.071 0.024 0.075 0.025 X 0.185 0.259 0.025 0.320 0.204 0.067 0.150 B 0.009 0.010 0.000 0.015 0.010 0.000 0.017

#2 #5 #7 6 5 #4 2

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Introduction

Example

Example
File: case6 wh.m, from the book computational methods for electric power systems, M. Crow. Bus data
bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 type 3 2 2 1 1 1 Pd 25 15 27.5 0 15 25 Qd 10 5 11 0 9 15 Vm 1.05 1.05 1 1 1 1 Va 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vmax 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 Vmin 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95

Generator data Gen Pg Pq 1 0 0 2 50 0


3

Pmax 200 150

G 1 #1 4 #6

Branch data
#3
line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 from 1 1 2 2 4 3 5 to 4 6 3 5 6 4 6 R 0.020 0.031 0.006 0.071 0.024 0.075 0.025 X 0.185 0.259 0.025 0.320 0.204 0.067 0.150 B 0.009 0.010 0.000 0.015 0.010 0.000 0.017

#2 #5 #7 6 5 #4 2

How would you solve this simple example by hand?

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System representation

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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System representation

System representation

Most power systems are three phase AC Normal power ow uses one phase equivalents We only focus on this one today One phase power ow only valid for balanced systems Systems are usually given in per unit values Lines can be represented by a -equivalent

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System representation

Per-unit calculations
Normalized representation of the four basic properties: voltage, current, impedance and complex power Of these, two can be chosen independently Normally rated phase voltage and one phase rated power are taken as basis
Upu =
U Ubase

and Spu =

S Sbase

Ibase = Zbase =

Sbase Ubase Ubase Ibase

or Zbase =

2 Ubase Sbase

Logical values: for a 11.8 kV , 60 MVA machine, Ubasis = 11.8 kV and Sbasis = 60 MVA 3 3 For a 400 kV line, with 100 MVA: Ubase = 400/ 3, Sbase = 100/3 Rbase =
400 3 2

3 100

= 1600

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System representation

Per-unit calculations
Normalized representation of the four basic properties: voltage, current, impedance and complex power Of these, two can be chosen independently Normally rated phase voltage and one phase rated power are taken as basis
Upu =
U Ubase

and Spu =

S Sbase

Ibase = Zbase =

Sbase Ubase Ubase Ibase

or Zbase =

2 Ubase Sbase

Logical values: for a 11.8 kV , 60 MVA machine, Ubasis = 11.8 kV and Sbasis = 60 MVA 3 3 For a 400 kV line, with 100 MVA: Ubase = 400/ 3, Sbase = 100/3 Rbase =
400 3 2

3 100

= 1600

Why are voltage and complex power chosen as xed values?

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System representation

Example per-unit

Generator example of before


Ubasis =
11.8 3

kV and Sbasis =
Sbase Ubase

60 3

MVA
60 3 11.83

Basis for current: Ibase =

= 2.9357 kA
11.8 3 60 3 2

Basis for impedance: Zbase =

2 Ubase Sbase

= 2.3207

Line connecting load: 0, 5 + 1 = 0.21546 + 0.43091 pu Afterwards, calculate using per-unit instead of original values

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System representation

Per-unit and transformers


1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z1

n1 : n2
11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z2

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication

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System representation

Per-unit and transformers


1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z1

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Z2

n1 : n2
11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U1

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication U2 n2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2
2 2

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System representation

Per-unit and transformers


1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Zp

n1 : n2
11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication n2 U2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2
2 2

Zp = Z1 + Z2

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System representation

Per-unit and transformers


n1 : n2
11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000

Zs

U1

U2

Voltage at both sides of the transformer is dierent dierent basis One of the major advantages of per-unit calculations because of simplication n2 U2 Z2 = Z2 n1 = Z2 U1 2 2
2 2

Zp = Z1 + Z2

Z Zs = Zp U2 and Zs (pu) = Zbase s(sec) 2 1 The per-unit impedance is the same on both sides of the transformer can be replaced by one series impedance!
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U2

System representation

Representation of a transmission line


1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000
B 2 G 2

B 2

G 2

-equivalent
Valid for lines up to 240 km All values are normally small Other equivalents exist and are sometimes used in practice Normally, G can be neglected With overhead lines, B can be neglected as well, for cables this is not the case (see chapters on lines and cables)

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The load ow problem

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line # 1 -1 nodes 1 0 0

# lines (branches) # nodes

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line # 1 line # 2 -1 -1 nodes 1 0 0 0 1 0

# lines (branches) # nodes

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line # 1 line # 2 line # 3 -1 -1 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 0 0 0

# lines (branches) # nodes

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line line line line # # # # 1 2 3 4 -1 -1 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 0 0 1

# lines (branches) # nodes

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Power ow calculations

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line line line line line # # # # # 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -1 0 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 1

# lines (branches) # nodes

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Power ow calculations

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The load ow problem

A bit of algebra: incidence matrix


Directed Graph

Incidence matrix (A0 )


line line line line line # # # # # 1 2 3 4 5 -1 -1 0 0 0 nodes 1 0 0 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 1

# lines (branches) # nodes the columns are dependent

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The load ow problem

Incidence matrix
Incidence matrix is written as A0

Some symbols Meaning of the incidence matrix


Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 U2 U1 U 1 0 1 U3 U1 U2 1 0 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U4 U1 0 1 U4 0 1 U4 U2
Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Incidence matrix
Incidence matrix is written as A0

Meaning of the incidence matrix


Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 U2 U1 U 1 0 1 U3 U1 U2 1 0 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U4 U1 0 1 U4 0 1 U4 U2

Some symbols
Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

Setting U4 = 0 Resulting matrix is the incidence matrix: A

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

13 / 33

The load ow problem

Incidence matrix
Incidence matrix is written as A0

Meaning of the incidence matrix


Describes the directed graph Produces dierences 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 U2 U1 U 0 1 1 U3 U1 U2 1 1 = U3 U2 (1) U3 U1 0 0 1 0 U2

Some symbols
Ii : Current injected at node i Iij : Current from node i to node j Ui : Potential of node i Eij : Potential dierence (voltage) between nodes i and j Cij : Conductance of the line between nodes i and j

Setting U4 = 0 Resulting matrix is the incidence matrix: A

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The load ow problem

Meaning of the incidence matrix


1 2

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow T 1 1 0 I12 1 0 I1 1 I13 I2 = 0 1 1 I23 0 1 0 I24 I3 0 0 1 I34 Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) Link on youtube

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Meaning of the incidence matrix


1 2 3

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij E12 1 1 0 E13 1 0 1 U1 E23 = 0 1 1 U2 E24 0 1 0 U3 E34 0 0 1 The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) Link on youtube

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Meaning of the incidence matrix


1 2 3

Incidence matrix is A0 with one node removed (grounded, reference) Ii is a nodal current injection, Iij is a branch ow Ui is a nodal voltage/potential, Eij represents a potential drop over line ij The relation between the voltage dierence (e) and line ows (f): Ohms law (take Cij the conductance of i to j) I12 C12 0 0 0 0 E12 I13 0 C13 0 0 0 E13 I23 = 0 0 C23 0 0 E23 I24 0 0 0 C24 0 E24 I34 0 0 0 0 C34 E34 Link on youtube

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Power ow calculations

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The load ow problem

Putting it together
AT C A U = I Ybus U = I Ybus is the bus admittance matrix Representation of the entire network by an admittance matrix, a vector of nodal voltages and a vector of nodal current injections Yij = yij (admittance between node i and j) Yii = j yij (sum of the rest of the row + yii , the impedance to the reference)
n

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

15 / 33

The load ow problem

The power system represented

The power system consists of:


Generators: delivering P and Q Loads: consuming P and Q Lines or branches: connecting generation and load Nodes or busbars: connections points in the power system

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

16 / 33

The load ow problem

The power system represented

The power system consists of:


Generators: delivering P and Q Loads: consuming P and Q Lines or branches: connecting generation and load
Wanted: Power ow of P and Q through these lines

Nodes or busbars: connections points in the power system


Wanted: Voltage amplitude (U) and voltage angle () at each node

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Mathematical statement of the problem


Ia a Iac c Ic Ibc yac ybc Iab yab b Ib

Uc c

Ub b Neutral

Ua a

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Mathematical statement of the problem

Ia a Iac c Ic Ibc yac ybc Iab yab b Ib

Voltage of node i to neutral is Ui i Admittance between i and j is yij Current from i to j is Iij The injected current at i is Ii
Ub b Neutral Ua a

Uc c

Ia = Iab + Iac Ia = (Ua Ub ) yab + (Ua Uc ) yac Ia = Ua (yab + yac ) Ub yab Uc yac

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Mathematical statement of the problem


Last equation repeated: Ia = Ua (yab + yac ) Ub yab Uc yac n We take Yaa = yab + yac = yaa + i=a yai yaa = ya0 = the parallel branches to node a (in this example, yaa = 0) We take Yai = yai as with Ybus , the bus admittance matrix Which results in: Ia = Yaa Ua + Yab Ub + Yac Uc Or for the entire system: Ia Yaa Yab Yac Ua Ib = Yba Ybb Ybc Ub Ic Yca Ycb Ycc Uc or and I = Ybus U Yij = Yji in symmetrical systems (e.g. not with phase shifting transformers)
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(2)

(3) (4)

The load ow problem

Mathematical statement of the problem


Resulting equations for a general system with n nodes
n

Ii =
j=1

Yij Uj

i N n

(5) (6)

Si = Ui Ii Above equations form the basis of power ow There are 4 basic quantities for each node in power ow calculations:
Voltage amplitude |U| Voltage angle between the voltage vector and the voltage reference Active power injection, withdrawal at a node Reactive power injection, withdrawal at a node

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Power ow calculations

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The load ow problem

Mathematical statement of the problem


Where do shunt elements t?
Ia Yaa Ib = Yba Ic Yca
n

Yab Ybb Ycb

Yac Ua Ybc Ub Ycc Uc

(7)

Yii =
j=1 n

yij Yij + yii


j=1 j=i

(8)

(9)

yii is the term to the node that has been grounded In practice: shunt elements

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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The load ow problem

Types of nodes
Three distinct types of nodes (important)
PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

18 / 33

The load ow problem

Types of nodes
Three distinct types of nodes (important)
PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

What is the mathematical meaning of the slack bus?


DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 18 / 33

The load ow problem

Types of nodes
Three distinct types of nodes (important)
PV bus: A generating source is connected to the bus; the nodal voltage is controlled at a certain magnitude U by injecting or absorbing reactive energy. The generated power PG is set at a specied value. and QG are computed. Constant voltage operation is only possible when the generator is within its reactive energy generation limits. PQ bus: P and Q are the control variables. This is the case when there is only a load connected to the bus or the generator is outside its reactive power limits. Slack (swing) bus: one of the generator busses is chosen to be the slack bus where the nodal voltage magnitude, Uslack , and phase angle slack are specied. This bus is needed to provide a compensation for the electrical losses that are not known in advance. The bus forms a reference for the voltage angle.

Ii =

n j=1

Yij Uj

i N n and i = nslack
Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 18 / 33

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Solving the problem

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

The problem
Known data:
Active power injections in my system at generator nodes Voltages at generator nodes Active and reactive withdrawals (load) at PQ nodes Slack node voltage and angle Impedances (Ybus )

Unknowns:
Rest of P (slack), Q (slack and PV), voltage amplitude (PQ nodes) and voltage angle (all but slack)

Equations
I =Y U S = U I S = U Y U P Q = U Y U
n

(10) (11) (12) (13) (14)


September 19, 2011 20 / 33

Pi Qi = Ui
j=1
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Yij Uj

Power ow calculations

Solving the problem

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel
Algorithm
Ii =
n j=1

Yij Uj and Si = Ui Ii give: n 1 Si Ui = Yij Uj Yii Ui j=1


j=i

(15)

This is solved bus by bus, and solutions of previous calculations are lled in directly i n 1 Si (i+1) (i+1) (i) Ui = Yij Uj Yij Uj (16) (i) Yii U i j=1 j=i+1
j=i j=i

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Solving the problem

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel
1

For busbar 21 , calculate I2 = Calculate


n j=1 j=2

S2 U2

Y2j Uj

Subtract solution 2 from solution 1 and divide the result by Y22 to obtain a new value for U2 For busbar 3, calculate I3 =
S3 U3

Using the new value of U2 of step 3, calculate

n j=1 j=3

Y3j Uj

Subtract solution 5 from solution 4 and divide the result by Y33 to obtain a new value for U3 Repeat for all busses Compare latest set of voltages with previous and check tolerance: U(i+1) U(i) < ? If not, go to step 1.

7 8

1 when

1 is the reference bus


Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 21 / 33

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Solving the problem

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Convergence and acceleration


The Gauss-Seidel method converges linearly (slow) with system size Each iteration itself requires limited processing power Often, the method is corrected with an acceleration factor (new ) (new ) (old) Ui(acc) = Ui ( 1) Ui = Ui =
(new )

(17) (18) (19)

Ui

(old)

+ Ui

(old)

(old) Ui

(new ) (Ui

(old) Ui )

1<<2 For large systems, often a value of 1.6 is chosen

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel properties
A starting vector must be chosen
Often, the starting voltages are set to 10 pu called Flat start

If the voltages are calculated in block (and not replaced after one has calculated the former one), we call the method the Jacobi method.
The Jacobi method has a slower convergence

The Gauss-Seidel method is not often used anymore

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

21 / 33

Solving the problem

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel

Gauss-Seidel properties
A starting vector must be chosen
Often, the starting voltages are set to 10 pu called Flat start

If the voltages are calculated in block (and not replaced after one has calculated the former one), we call the method the Jacobi method.
The Jacobi method has a slower convergence

The Gauss-Seidel method is not often used anymore

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

21 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

Solution of equation y = f (x)


Taylor series expansion: df dx d2 f dx 2

y = f [x(0)]+

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]+

x=x(0)

2!

[x x(0)]2 +. . . (20)

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

Solution of equation y = f (x)


Taylor series expansion: df dx d2 f dx 2

y = f [x(0)]+

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]+

x=x(0)

2!

[x x(0)]2 +. . . (20)

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

Solution of equation y = f (x)


Taylor series expansion: df dx

y = f [x(0)] + Solving this for x: x = x(0) +

x=x(0)

1!

[x x(0)]

(20)

1 df dx
x=x(0)

[y f (x(0))]

(21)

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, )1

(U, ) (U, )0

f (U, )1

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

f (U, )2 (U, )1 (U, ) (U, )2 (U, )0

f (U, )1

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

Solution for multivariable nonlinear equations


y1 = f1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) y2 = f2 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) . . . y3 = fn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory


Solution for multivariable nonlinear equations
y1 y2 . . . yn f1 (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) f2 (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) . . . fn (x1 (0), x2 (0), . . . , xn (0)) f1 f1 f1 x1 x2 xn x1 x1 (0) f2 f2 f2 x2 x2 (0) x1 x2 xn . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . xn xn (0) fn fn fn x1 x2 xn

= +

(22)

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson method: theory

Solution for multivariable nonlinear equations


Summarized, we can write the following: y = f [x(0)] + J(0) [x x(0)] or solving for x: x = x(0) + J(0)1 [y f (x(0))] or in its recursive form: xi+1 = xi + J1 [y f (xi )] i (25) (24) (23)

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September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Remember
Ii = Si =
n j=1 Yij Ui Ii

Uj

Equivalents
Si = f (Ui ) is equivalent to y = f (x) Ui+1 = Ui + Ji [S f (Ui )] S is here the specied complex power at any busbar f (Ui ) is here the specied complex power at any busbar Si = Ji Ui+1 (27) (26)

You normally know the active and reactive power injections in each node (load and generation) You want to know the complex voltages at the nodes
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Si = Ui
n j=1

Yij Uj

and

i = 1, . . . , n

Newton-Raphson in rectangular coordinates


n

Pi = Ui Qi = Ui

Uj (Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j ))


j=1 n

(28)

Uj (Gij sin(i j ) Bij cos(i j ))


j=1

(29)

Newton-Raphson in polar coordinates


n

Pi = Ui
j=1

Uj Yij cos(i j ij )
n

(30)

Qi = Ui
j=1

Uj Yij sin(i j ij )

(31)

note: Yij = Gij + Bij = |Yij |ij


DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow

Pi = Pi, Qi = Qi, Pi,


scheduled

scheduled scheduled

Pi, Qi,

calc calc

PQ and PV PQ

(32) (33)

and Qi,

scheduled

are known from the input data

Pi, calc and Qi, calc are obtained from the calculation in rectangular or polar coordinates

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Putting it in one equation
Writing the power ow equations (both rectangular and polar) in the form of equation (25): (i) P P U (i) (i) U P = (34) U Q Q Q U U U
J((U,)(i1) )

Or written in a simplied form: (i) P H = Q M

N L

(i)

U U

(i)

(35)

J((U,)(i1) )

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Power ow calculations

September 19, 2011

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Equation explained
i = i
(i+1)

(i) (i)

Ui = Ui

(i+1)

Ui

Voltages and angles (i + 1) are updated after each iteration and used for the following step J is the Jacobian, and forms the derivative (tangent, gradient) of the power ow equations P Q U and U simplify the equations and results in fewer U U computations There are n 1 equations for P There are n #pv 1 equations for Q The Jacobian is a square matrix (2 n #pv 2) (2 n #pv 2) The Jacobian is a sparse matrix (Special techniques can be used when numerical calculations are performed)
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Equation explained
i = i
(i+1)

(i) (i)

Ui = Ui

(i+1)

Ui

Voltages and angles (i + 1) are updated after each iteration and used for the following step J is the Jacobian, and forms the derivative (tangent, gradient) of the power ow equations P Q U and U simplify the equations and results in fewer U U computations There are n 1 equations for P Why? There are n #pv 1 equations for Q Why? The Jacobian is a square matrix (2 n #pv 2) (2 n #pv 2) The Jacobian is a sparse matrix (Special techniques can be used when numerical calculations are performed)
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow

Full equations (polar form): o-diagonal


Pi = Hij j Pi Uj = Nij Uj Qi = Mij j Qi Uj = Lij Uj = Uj Ui Yij sin(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij cos(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij cos(i j ij ) = Uj Ui Yij sin(i j ij )

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Full equations (polar form): diagonal n
Pi = Hii = Ui i Uj Yij sin(i j ij ) + Ui2 Yii sin(ij )
j=1 n

Pi Ui = Nii = Ui Ui

Uj Yij cos(i j ij ) Ui2 Yii cos(ij )


j=1 n

Qi = Mii = Ui i Qi Ui = Lii = Ui Ui

Uj Yij cos(i j ij ) + Ui2 Yii cos(ij )


j=1 n

Uj Yij sin(i j ij ) + Ui2 Yii sin(ij )


j=1

Notice the symmetry Notice that the o-diagonal elements are also in the diagonal elements M = N for o-diagonal elements
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow

Figure: Sparsity of the Jacobian matrix shown


DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


Numerical aspects
Iterative process until mismatch is below threshold (max(P(i) ; Q(i) ) = < limit ) Quadratic convergence Major computational eort is calculating the inverse of the Jacobian The Jacobian is sparse, so special techniques can be used (less storage) Ordering schemes can increase speed Convergence is not guaranteed A good starting point is needed
Flat start? Previous outcome DC load ow as starting point

Simplications exist
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 23 / 33

Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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Power ow calculations

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Solving the problem

Newton-Raphson power ow

Newton-Raphson and load ow


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0

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Power ow calculations

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Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow
In a power system with mostly inductive lines, the power ow equations can be decoupled. (ij 90 )
Active power is related to the angle between nodes Reactive power is related to the voltage

P Q

(i)

H M

N L

(i)

U U

(i)

(36)

J((U,)(i1) )

Advantages and disadvantages


+ Two small inverses instead of one big + Faster as only 2 n3 calculations are needed, and not (2 n)3 = 8 n3 - The two subsystems may converge dierently - Convergence rate is slightly reduced - Not often used nowadays
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 24 / 33

Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow
In a power system with mostly inductive lines, the power ow equations can be decoupled. (ij 90 )
Active power is related to the angle between nodes Reactive power is related to the voltage

P Q

(i)

H 0 0 L

(i)

U U

(i)

(37)

J((U,)(i1) )

Advantages and disadvantages


+ Two small inverses instead of one big + Faster as only 2 n3 calculations are needed, and not (2 n)3 = 8 n3 - The two subsystems may converge dierently - Convergence rate is slightly reduced - Not often used nowadays
DVH, HE, PGT (KUL/ESAT/ELECTA) Power ow calculations September 19, 2011 24 / 33

Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Decoupled load ow
derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0 Approximation

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Power ow calculations

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Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Fast decoupled load ow


In decoupled load ow, a new reduced Jacobian is determined during each iteration Of each new Jacobian, the inverse needs to be calculated Fast decoupled does not calculate a new Jacobian for each iteration P(i) = [B ] (i+1) Q U
(i)

(38) (39)

= [B ] Ui+1

B and B are real, sparse and constant matrices Only series elements are involved (no shunts) If the system has high R/X -ratio, large voltage angle deviations or voltages which seriously dier from 1 pu, convergence problems can arise Slower convergence (more iterations) but each iteration is much faster
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Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

Fast decoupled load ow


derivative f (U, )0 f (U, )

(U, ) (U, )0 Approximation

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Solving the problem

Simplied Newton-Raphson

DC load ow
If we consider the system to be lossless (Y = B) And voltages to be around 1.0 pu (U = 0) Voltage angles between busses are small (sin(i j ) (i j ) and cos(i j ) 1) One equation of Newton-Raphson:
n

P = Ui
j=1

Uj (Gij cos(i j ) + Bij sin(i j )) [P] = [B ] []

(40) (41)

B is real Linear system One calculation, no iterations Easy for optimizations Not correct (approximation)
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Software

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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Software

Power ow software
Demos + try at home
Free available (open source)
Matpower (matlab based): http://www.pserc.cornell.edu/matpower/ PSAT (matlab based): http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/~fmilano/psat.htm InterPSS (Java based): http://www.interpss.org/

Professional software
PSS/E Eurostag DigSilent Powerworld (demo at http://www.powerworld.com/downloads.asp)

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State estimation

Outline
1

Introduction Example System representation The load ow problem Solving the problem Gauss-Seidel Newton-Raphson power ow Simplied Newton-Raphson Software State estimation

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State estimation

State estimation
Known and unknown variables in the real power system
Lines, cables, transformers, location of generation and load all known and constant in time Voltages, currents, actual generation and load (at that moment), position of power switches, tap-changer settings,. . . mostly unknown or variable Measurements:
P, Q: Generation and load, some lines Voltage: |U| every substation. only with PMU (phasor measurement unit) Tap-changer settings Incomplete Measurement errors

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State estimation

State estimation

State estimation: what?


Monitoring or supplementing data for load ow Many measurements in the system Determining measurement errors, estimate and (statistically) analyze If needed, certain measurements should be rejected Least Squares approach Another Youtube video: least squares Has to be solved iteratively for power systems

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State estimation

State estimation
Weighted least-square method
(measurements z, with errors e, h(x) is the true model of the state x) z1 h1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) e1 z h (x , x , . . . , xn ) e2 z= 2 = 2 1 2 z3 h3 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + e3 = h(x) + e (42) z4 h4 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) e4 With errors having a zero average, and each independent we get a covariance matrix R: 2 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 R= . (43) . . .. . . . . . . . 2 0 0 n R is the inverse of what we could call the weighting matrix R = inv (W)

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State estimation

State estimation
Solving the state estimation
The expected values are: 1 x1 x2 T = x = H W H HT W z = G1 HT W z ... G xn (44) = G1 HT W (H x + e) x =G x
1

(45) H We
T

(H W H) x + G
G

(46) (47)

= H z x

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example

Figure: Example network

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example


We want to know x1 and x2 , which are voltages U1 and U2 Two amp`remeters measuring z1 = 9.01 A and z2 = 3.02 A e
U1 = 16.0233 V and U2 = 8.0367 V

Two voltmeters measuring z3 = 6.98 V and z4 = 5.01 V


U1 = 15.93 V and U2 = 8.05 V

The system equations can be written as: z1 z2 z3 z4


measurements

= = = =

x1 1 x1 8 3 8 x1 1 8 x1

5 8

+ + +

1 8 5 8 1 8 3 8

x2 x2 x2 x2

+ + + +

e1 e2 e3 e4
errors

(48)

true values from model

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example


We want to know x1 and x2 , which are voltages U1 and U2 Two amp`remeters measuring z1 = 9.01 A and z2 = 3.02 A e
U1 = 16.0233 V and U2 = 8.0367 V U1 = 15.93 V and U2 = 8.05 V Conict Conict
1 8 5 8 1 8 3 8

Two voltmeters measuring z3 = 6.98 V and z4 = 5.01 V The system equations can be written as: z1 z2 z3 z4
measurements

= = = =

x1 1 x1 8 3 8 x1 1 8 x1

5 8

+ + +

x2 x2 x2 x2

+ + + +

e1 e2 e3 e4
errors

(48)

true values from model

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example

Calculating the expected values x


We take the following weighting matrix (1/sigma): W = diag([100, 100, 50, 50]) The most probable values for U1 and U2 are 16.00719 and 8.02614 resp. 0.00877 0.00456 The expected error will be: = e 0.02596 0.00070

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example


Measurement 4 changes
z4 = 4.4 instead of z4 = 5.01 The best estimate for the voltages: U1 = 15.86807 and U2 = 7.75860 0.06228 0.15438 In that case, the expected error will be: = e 0.05964 0.49298

When the expected error is too high, measurements can/should be disregarded Statistical test are needed to determine when errors are high

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State estimation

State estimation: simple example


Measurement 4 changes
z4 = 4.4 instead of z4 = 5.01 The best estimate for the voltages: U1 = 15.86807 and U2 = 7.75860 0.06228 0.15438 In that case, the expected error will be: = e 0.05964 0.49298

When the expected error is too high, measurements can/should be disregarded Statistical test are needed to determine when errors are high The weight matrix also has a serious inuence on the results

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State estimation

State estimation for power ow calculations

State estimator calculates voltage magnitudes and relative phase angles of the system buses Redundancy in input data With errors on all measurement data Non-DC circuit non-linear equations: h = h(x) Iterative solutions (as in the Newton-Raphson method) are needed The principle is the same

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State estimation

References

Power System Analysis; Grainger, John J. and Stevenson, William D., Jr. Computational Mehods for Electric Power Systems; Crow, Mariesa Power System Load Flow Analysis; Powell, Lynn

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