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DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

Summary
This report examined the individual and organizational determinants of workplace deviant behaviors in the organizational workgroup setting. It also focused on Organizational citizenship (OCB) and the role of OCB to define the job responsibilities of an employee. The nature of the report is descriptive and this report is evaluated through Bi-variate analysis. The cross tabulation table is for identifying which category (01 and 02) practice work place deviant behaviors more than other category of a single variable and the chi-square table signifies whether a particular variable has a direct relationship with work place deviant behaviors or not. This report is also analyzed how to reduce or eliminate workplace deviance to enhance the organizational security and also shows the relationship between OCB and other variables.

Importance
The Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a discretionary behavior that is not a part of an employee's formal job requirements but that nonetheless supports the effective functioning of the organization. This discretionary effort could include, volunteering for extra work or directly helping others or the team with their assigned job duties. OCB is an important factor that can contribute to the survival of an organization. Within an organization, employee satisfaction depends on organizational commitment, organizational justice, career development, personality, motivation and leadership which ultimately made impact and affect on the OCB. Through OCB, we can identify employee behavior in terms of in-role and extra-role behavior. OCB is the function of how broadly employees define their job responsibilities (Morrion and Zaleth, 1994). OCB is important in employees contribution because OCB may improve organizational effectiveness (Padsakoff and Mackenzie, 1997). These behaviors normally exceed the minimum requirements of the job, they are not easily

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

enforceable and performing them is usually at the discretion of the individual (Organ, 1997). Therefore, when an individual spends time on these voluntary and support activities, they are considered as "good citizens" (Bateman and Organ, 1983). OCB have not included in advanced for a given job, so OCB are regarded as an extra role. While employees get proper motivation and job satisfaction, it leads them to participate in OCB more than the employees who are dissatisfied. In the workplace, many people come together and express different behaviors. Each of these behaviors has different consequences to the individual working in the whole organization. The consequences of deviant workplace behavior are critical because they can affect all levels of the organization including decision making, productivity and financial costs. Nonetheless, OCB makes huge contribution to the working environment of an organization.

Literature Review
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is behavior that extends beyond that required by an organization in a formal job description. Some of the researchers emphasized on the classification of context relevant attitudes motives or characteristics. The context relevant attitudes include job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job characteristics. The researchers have also said that the performance of organizational citizenship behavior is reactive (Organ and Ryan, 1995) and also examined the motives of an individual for performing organizational citizenship behavior. While performing the research work, the researchers took some factors under considerations. Those factors are given below: 1. Self monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior: Self monitoring is a personality trait and it is the ability of an individual to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors. Self monitoring does have a strong relationship with organizational citizenship behavior. If we look specifically

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

then we can say that self monitoring is more strongly related with the interpersonal dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. If a person is highly selfmonitored, then he or she will be skilled in communication and for this specific reason they can interact with others in a clear way and this quality help an individual to engage him or herself in voluntary behavior. High self monitoring can engage themselves in pre-social values like being friendly, polite, being concerned about others feeling etc.
2. Employees mood and organizational citizenship behavior:

Mood within organizational structure influence both what and how an employee think (Forgos and George,). Mood is really important because it affects how an employee deal with his or her task, it influence information recall and thereby influence organizational judgment and behavior. It means that when an employee is in a good mood then he or she will perform his or her task properly and on the other hand they will be much more willing to help their subordinates.
3. Perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior:

Moorman (1991) and researchers have emphasized on fairness and found out a correlation between fairness and organizational citizenship behavior. If an employee is fairly treated, then they will hold positive attitudes towards their work, outcomes and supervisors. Organs and Konovsky (1989) reported that organizational citizenship behavior is related with the perception of fairness and the subjective appraisal of job outcomes, rather than on their mood. According to Slot (1999), employees attempt to maintain a balance between their effort and expected return. Slot (1999) has also said that if any employee feels that they are unfairly treated, then they will reduce their organizational citizenship behavior otherwise vice versa.

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

4. Gender and organizational citizenship behavior:

There is a evidence that men has always performed higher in their performance whereas women are highly involved in organizational citizenship behavior. Women are good in organizational citizenship behavior because they are sensitive, loving, helpful and kind. So it proves that a female employee is highly involved in organizational citizenship behavior. OCB and Deviant workplace behavior: Organizational citizenship behavior is a voluntary behavior done by an employee for the benefit of an organization whereas deviant workplace behavior hampers the working environment of an organization as the employees who practice deviant behaviors violates the norms and rules of a particular organization. This clearly shows that OCB do have an inverse relationship with deviant workplace behavior. In the above discussion self monitoring was compared with organizational citizenship behavior where we found that if an employee has self monitoring power, then he or she can avoid external situational factors and can perform his or her task well. Now if we compare the organizational citizenship behavior with deviant workplace behavior then we can see that if an employee does not have the self monitoring power, then he or she may face frustration or dissatisfaction towards his or her workplace which will eventually lead that employee to deviant behaviors. If we compare with employees mood and perceived fairness with deviant workplace behavior, then we will also see that this also have inverse relationship with each other. If an employee is in a good mood then he or she will be willing to help other within the organization otherwise an employee may engage him or herself in deviant workplace behavior.

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

Methodology
1. Nature of the Study:

Our nature of the study was descriptive study which means a statistical study to identify patterns or trends in a situation but not the causal linkages among its different elements. Descriptive studies (such as a cross-sectional study) help in generating hypothesis on which further research may be based. 2. Questionnaire Design: In total, there were 71 variables and we designed a close questionnaire which means there were some fixed questions and the respondent had to answer form those questions rather than adding any other ideas from him or herself. There was a scale of 1 to 5 which is called the likert scale to answer the question of our questionnaire. There were some categorical information such as level of study, current CGPA etc. and there were some negative questions to test the validity of a particular questionnaire which was removed from the questionnaire while creating the final analysis. Sample: We have collected 732 samples and for collecting these samples we have applied convenience sampling method which means a sampling method (a way of gathering participants for a study) used where you select a naturally-occurring group of people within the population you want to study.

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR Analysis:

Basically we have done a Bi-variate analysis which means a simultaneous analysis of two variables or attributes. We have done a cluster analysis and by doing it we have combined all the work place deviant behaviors into a new variable and these variable has two categories, category one (01) which signifies the lower practice of deviant behaviors and category two (02) which signifies the higher practice of deviant behaviors. In the analysis, we have tried to test the relationship between these two categories (01 and 02) and with the demographic variables (such as age, public university, private university etc.).

Analysis
In our analysis, there are two tables in our analysis; first table is the cross tabulation table from which we can identify which category practice work place deviant behaviors more than other category of a single variable. The second table is the chi-square table from which we can identify whether a particular variable has a direct relationship with work place deviant behaviors or not. So, in the Chi-square test, the variables that contain the value of .000 can be called as highly correlated, variables that have the value of less than .05 but greater than .000 (such as .097) can be called as marginally correlated and the variables that contain the value of more than .05 (such as .590) have no correlation.
Crosstab Count Cluster Number of Case pub_private Total level 1st year 2nd year 3rd year public private 1 231 188 419 64 172 90 2 141 172 313 41 124 89 Total 372 360 732 105 296 179

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR


4th year masters Total gender Total medium Total fin_Support Total Research_Part Total Promotion_See n no tv Newspaper magazine radio billboard leaflet others Total ExtraCurricular Total no yes no yes no yes bangla english female male 72 21 419 139 280 419 327 92 419 326 93 419 306 113 419 210 53 129 8 0 9 7 3 419 145 274 419 52 7 313 82 231 313 239 74 313 245 68 313 236 77 313 142 43 110 8 3 3 2 1 312 121 192 313

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124 28 732 221 511 732 566 166 732 571 161 732 542 190 732 352 96 239 16 3 12 9 4 731 266 466 732

Table: Cross tabulation


Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2sided) .007 Exact Sig. (2sided) Exact Sig. (1sided)

Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare

Value 7.288a

df 1

7.869a

.097

4.137a

.042

.290a

.590

.023a

.879

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR


Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare Pearson ChiSquare .523a 1 .470

10.019a

.188

3.962a

.555

Table: Chi-Square tests Here, we have divided our analysis into eight parts as our variables are eight. The discussion of this parts and their relationship rate with deviant workplace behaviors is given below with logics: Part: 01 In the first row of our cross tabulation table, we can see the number of students involved in deviant workplace behavior in public and private universities. Here, we can see that the private university students practice work place deviant behavior more than the public university students as 172 out of 360 people practice work place deviant behaviors in private universities where 141 out of 372 people practice work place deviant behaviors in the public universities. We can also see in the Chi-square test that more or less there is a high relationship (.007) between these demographic variable with the work place deviant behaviors. The reason of this relationship could be administrative and educational pressure. In the daily life of the university students, they face a lot of educational pressure such as assignments, quizzes, presentations etc. as well as follow many administrative rules and regulations to stay in the university campus which makes the students frustrated and they fell encouraged to practice work place deviant behaviors. Part: 02 In the second row of the cross tabulation signifies the level of studies and also shows the number of students practice deviant behaviors in a particular study level. The numerical

DETERMINANTS OF DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

figure shows us that the deviant workplace behavior increases with the increase in level of study. The significant value of the chi square test is .097 which shows that this variable do have a marginal relationship with the variables of deviant workplace behavior. The reason behind this raise of deviant behavior could be friendly environment. When students enter in a university as freshers, they do not have the nerve to get involved in deviant behaviors but after passing a certain level when those students get used to with the environment, they usually begin by ignoring some rules and regulations in the university and afterwards involve themselves into some serious deviant behaviors. Part: 03 The third row in cross tabulation shows the number of male and female students involved in deviant workplace behavior. If we see the numerical figures, 82 out 221 female students practice deviant behaviors and 231 out of 511 male students practice a deviant behavior which clearly shows that male students practice deviant behaviors more than female students. In the Chi-square test we can also see that there is a marginal relationship of .042 between this variable and the workplace deviant behavior. The reason of this relationship could be variation of personality. Male are usually forceful and tough in nature which makes their odds easier to involve in deviant behaviors where female students are usually obedient, sensitive, peace loving and studious which makes their probability low in involving themselves in deviant behaviors. Part: 04 The next row in the cross tabulation table shows us the number of Bangla and English medium students involved in deviant behaviors. We can see that 239 out of 566 Bangla medium students are involved in deviant behaviors whereas 74 out of 166 English medium students are involved in deviant behaviors. So, it shows that the Bangla medium students are

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involved more in deviant behaviors than English medium students. According to the Chisquare test, there is no significant relationship between these variable and deviant workplace behavior as the significant value is .590 which greater than .05. The reason behind their lack of relationship can be personal or family preference. When a student goes for primary or secondary education, it is their or their familys choice whether they will go for Bangla medium or English medium. Even if that student remains dissatisfied afterwards, there is less possibility to be involved in deviant behaviors. Part: 05 In the following row, we can see in the cross tabulation table about the number of students who are receiving or not receiving any financial support, getting involved in the deviant workplace behaviors. According to our survey, 245 out of 571 students are involved in the deviant behaviors who are not receiving any financial support and on the other hand, 68 out of 161 students are involved in the deviant behaviors who are receiving financial supports form their institution which shows that students who are not receiving any financial support are getting involved more than the students who are getting financial support. In the Chi-square test, the significant value of this variable and the deviant workplace behavior is . 879 which means there is no relationship among them. The reason can be the quality of the student. If a particular student has the capability or grades to receive any financial support, he or she knows that he or she will automatically get the support but the student who does not have the grades will not even think for any financial support. So in both scenarios, a student can judge their qualities and there is no space for any deviant behavior. Part: 06 In the sixth row of the cross tabulation, it shows the number of students who participates or avoids research activities perform deviant behaviors. If we see the numerical

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figures, 236 out of 532 students are involved in deviant behaviors who avoids the research activities and on the other hand, 77 out of 190 students take part in deviant behaviors who participates in the research activities which clearly shows that the students who are not participating in the research activities are involved more in the deviant activities. In the Chisquare test, the significant value is .470 which means there is no relationship between these variable and deviant workplace behavior. One of the reasons of this lack of relation can be lack of scope and interest. If a particular educational institution does not offer any research work or if a particular student does not have the interest in research works, he or she will not pay any attention to it and as a result there will not be any deviant behaviors. Part: 07 In the next part of the cross tabulation shows the number of students who sees or not sees the promotion of their university involved in the workplace deviant behaviors. So from our survey, we can see that the students who have not seen any promotion of their university (142 out of 352 students) are mostly involved in the workplace deviant behaviors. We can also see from the Chi-square test that this variable does not have any significant relationship (.188) with workplace deviant behaviors. The reason of this lack of relationship could be no personal benefit. The deviant workplace behaviors are those behaviors that violate the rules and regulations of a particular institution and without any dissatisfaction or personal benefit. In this case, the students do not have any significant benefit as the promotion of their institution does not satisfy or dissatisfy them. So, there is no reason to be involved in deviant behaviors. Part: 08 The last part of our cross tabulation table shows the number of students who are involved or not involved with extracurricular activities perform deviant behaviors. We can

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see in the cross tabulation that 121 out of 266 students who are not involve with extracurricular activities and 192 out of 466 students who are involved with extracurricular activities perform deviant workplace behaviors. So, it clearly shows that the students who are involved with extracurricular activities perform deviant behaviors more than others but in the Chi-square test, there is no significant relationship (.555) between extracurricular activities and deviant workplace behaviors. The reason behind this need of relationship could be no academic benefit. As we do extracurricular activities for our personal learning's and relaxation, there is not academic benefit involved where a student can fell satisfied or dissatisfied. So, there is no room for any deviant behaviors.

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Conclusion
This study examined the individual and organizational determinants of workplace deviant behaviors in the organizational workgroup setting. In order to prevent deviant workplace behavior we have to consider both individual characteristics and workplace situations. Through our survey and analysis we found out that there are different categories of students as most of the students responded differently by agreeing or disagreeing or by being neutral. As we have seen that most of the students who are getting involved in deviant behaviors, they practice it because of administrative or educational pressure or new entrance or variation of personality. Now in order to reduce or eliminate workplace deviance to enhance organization security, administrators need to consider the students reactions to organizational policies and practice, as well as their views and what attract them most to the organization. If it is necessary to reduce the administrative pressure towards the students for the betterment of the organization, then administrators should consider this because if the students reaction to organizational practices is positive, they will be likely attracted by the pleasant relationships maintained in the workgroup. Therefore, students may engage in deviant behavior as a way to air out their dissatisfaction with the organization or simply to react upon their peers. In order to avoid this situation, administrators need to build a trusting environment. When students show high positive reactions to their organizations they tend to perform their studies better with little or no supervision.

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References
Blakely G. L.; Andrews M. C. & Fuller J. (2003). ARE CHAMELEONS GOOD CITIZENS? A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELFMONITORING AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR. Journal of Business and Psychology , 18.

Lovell S. E. et al. (1999). Does gender affect the link between organizational citizenship behavior and performance evaluation. Sex Roles , 41.

Zhang Y.; Liao J. & Zhao J. (n.d.). Research on the organizational citizenship behavior continuum and its consequences. 364-379.

Muafi. (2011). Causes and Consequences Deviant Workplace Behavior. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology , 2.

Bivariate Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved August 9, 2012, from utoronto: http://chemeng.utoronto.ca/~datamining/dmc/bivariate_analysis.htm

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