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Look at the pictures. In pairs. ask and answer the following questions.
• What is the connection between the pictures?
• Would you like to be a judge? Why/Why not?
• What do you know about the prison system in your count ry?
DEVELOP YOUR WRITING SKILLS
What's the purpose?
Here are some sentences from a discursive composition about capital punishment.
What is the purpose of each sentence? Write a letter from the box next t o each sentence.
A int roducing the t op ic
B giving opi nion
C givi ng an example
o presenting an advant age
E presenti ng a d isadvantage
F presenting two opposing points of view
G presenting a conclusion
1 For instance. the majority of people executed for murder in the
United States are black.
2 To sum up. there is little evidence that capital punishment acts as a
3 I would argue that there is no place for capital punishment in a
humane, civilized society.
4 Capital punishment is an ext remely cont roversial issue.
S Secondly, when a murderer is execut ed, t he family of the
vict im often fee l that justice has been done.
6 Finally, there have been many occasions throughout history
when innocent people have been executed.
7 First ly, it is said that capital punishment sends a message to
society that murder will not be tolerated. but it also clearly sends
the message that killing is acceptable in certain circumstances.
Your discursive compositions will usually have four paragraphs.
Which paragraphs would the sentences in A probably go in?
Write the number of each sentence next to its appropriate paragraph.
Paragraph 1 introduction
Paragraph 2 advantages of capital punishment
Paragraph 3 disadvantages of capital punishment
Paragraph 4 conclusion
Do you agree on what the sentences are doing?
Do you agree which paragraph they wou ld probably be found in?
Put in the correct order
Here's the third paragraph from the composition about capital punishment .
The sentences are in the wrong order. Rewrite the paragraph in your not ebook.
putti ng the sentences into t he correct order.
This is a dangerous message. Finally. there have been many occasions throughout hi.. rory
wh en innocent people have been executed. However. there arc manv a r g l l l l l e l 1 t ~ against
capital punishment. Secondly; the evidence suggests that most peopl e pun ished by deat h
arc the weakest member.. of socie ty, Firstly, it is said that capital punishment sends a
message (0 society that mu rder will not be tolerated. but it also clearly sends the mes..age
that killing is acceptable in certain ci rcumstances. For instance. till' maj ority of people
execut ed fix murder i ll the Un ited States are black.
Complete the table
You are expected to use some discursive words and phrases when you write a
discursive composit ion. These make your argument clearer.
Look at the words and phrases in t he table over t he page, and write a letter from
t he list of purposes below in each purpose box.
A expressing contrast
8 introducing a further point in a list of points
C expressing results
D present ing t wo opposing points of view
E introducing a final point in a list of points
F expressingsomeone else's opinion
G introduci ng t he first point in a list of point s
H introducing a conclusion
I expressing your opinion
J giving examples
K presenting two (dis)advant ages together
Wr it ng Skills I Unit IS
U n t
DEVELOP YOUR WRITING SKILLS
Purpose Discursive words and phrases
First, Firstl y, First 01 all,
To sta rt with. To begin wit h,
Second(ly), Third(ly), Moreover,
Furt hermore. In addition. What is mor e,
Apart from t hat. also
not only ... but also
on the one hand ,_. on t he other hand
For t hi s reason, Because of th is, As a result,
however but alt hough
t hough even though in spite of
for example for inst ance such as
in my opi ni on as I see it to my mind
I believe (t hat)
Some people believe (that) According to
It is said (that)
To conclude. In conclusion, To sum up.
Study the model
Look at model composit ion 15on page 108.
Underline all the discursive words and phrases.
Rewrite the sentences
These sentences have all been ta ken from discursive compositi ons. They are too informal.
Rewrite them in a more appr opriate style. Use some of the discursive words and phrases
from t he table above.
1 To end, then, I t hink t hat fining cr iminals is oft en better than send ing
them t o prison.
2 And another t hing - being a cop is really toug h t hese days.
3 People like rapists and murderers should be locked up for ever.
4 No one's proved, t hough, that kill ing murderers doe s any good.
5 And we've got t o ask why some people pinch thi ngs from shops.
COMPOSITION DEVELOPMENT ~
Read t his composition questio n and do t he exercises that follow.
You have been doing a class project on crime. Your t eacher has asked you t o write a
composition about the following st atement :
Anyone found guilty of committing a crime should be sent to prison.
You should state whether you agree or disagree with this statement , explaining your
reasons cl early.
Write your composition.
Answer t he following questions giving your own opinions.
1 Which of these compositions will be easiest to argue and writ e?
a a composition arguing that all crimes should be punished by imprisonment
b a composit ion arguing t hat only cert ain crimes should be punished by imprisonment
c a compositio n arguing that no crimes should be punished by imprisonment
2 What do you think would happen if all
criminals were sent to prison?
3 What do you think would happen if no
criminals were sent to prison?
4 Are some crimes more serious than others?
very serious crime: _
less serious crime: _
S Give t hree exampl es of crimes which should
be punished by imprisonment.
6 Why is imprisonment an effect ive punishment
for these cr imes? Give two reasons.
7 Can you t hink of t hree punishment s which are
alternatives to imprisonment?
8 Which crimes, if any, could t hese punishments
be effective for? Why?
9 Can you sum up your opinion in one sentence?
Think about your first sentence
Which of these sentences might be a good first sent ence for your int roductory paragraph?
Tick (.I) the appropriat e ones and cross (1) the inappropriate ones.
1 We would all like t o live in a crime-free and safe society.
2 I have never committed a crime.
3 Last week, our class visit ed a prison.
4 If people commit crimes t hen they have to be punished in some way.
S Soc iety cannot allow criminals t o get away wit h t heir crimes
6 Too many criminals get away wit h their crimes these days.
7 Every civilized society needs a legal system.
S We have just done a project on crime at our school.
Now write your own int roduct ory sentence, based on t he appropriate sent ences above.
W r i t i n g Sk i l ls I U n i t 1 5 91
Plan your paragraphs
Complete the following paragraph plan
for your composit ion, making notes on
what you are going to include in each
Home wo rk
Now write your composition.
Read thi s checklist. When you have
wr itten your composit ion. ti ck the boxes.
• I have written a formal
• I have written four paragraphs.
• My argument is clear. C
• I have given some examples.
• I have expressed my opi nion. =:J
• I have used some di scursi ve words
and phra ses. 0
• I have cheeked my composition
carefully for mistakes.
Read t hese sentences and then use the words in
bold to complete the sentences below.
• Capital punishment is punishment by deat h.
Techniques include th e electr ic chair, the gas
chamber, hanging and lethal injection.
• Some people believe t hat capital punishment
acts as a deterrent. This means they think it
stops people committ ing murder.
• The serial kill er was sentenced to life
• The police thi nk I committed the burglary! I'm
going to have to get a lawyer/solicitor.
• She was arrested on suspicion of fraud, and later
was officially charged with the crime.
• The court case lasted for three months before
the jury found himguilty.
• Judge: Howdo you plead?
The accused: Guilty, your Honour.
• The jury found him not guilty , but nobody
really th inks he's innocent.
• There's lots of evidence t hat he did it - his
fingerpr ints were all over t he gun, for example.
• Having served fifteen years in prison, Mason is
to be released next week.
1 My lawyer's advised me to _
guilty, but I'mnot going to. I'm innocent!
2 People imprisoned for life are usually
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ after about twenty years.
3 My has inst ructed me not
to discuss this case with reporters.
4 The suspect was released without being charged
due to lack of _
5 No European count ry supports
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Most Europeans think that
6 Losing your dr iving licence would be a good
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ against drinking and driving.
7 I'm buying a new suit. My at
the County Court starts on Monday.
8 I can't believe t he police have
_______ _ Jane with embezzlement .
They must have made a mistake.
9 Can you imagine being sentenced to
________ and knowing you have to
spend the rest of your life behind bars?
10 The foreman of the jury read out t he verdict.
______ : he said.
EXAM PRACTICE - D ISCURSIVE COMPOSITION
• You are expected to use discursive words and
phrases in a composition.
• Remember that a composition is usually more
forma l than an article. The emphasis is more
on presenting an argument, giving opinions
and supporting them clearl y, than on
interesting the reader.
Each of these compositions shoul d be written in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.
1 The following comment was printed recently in a local newspaper:
The crime rate in our area is far too high and extreme measures need to be taken to
Now your teacher has asked you to write a composition on t his subject, stating
whether you agree or disagree wit h t he comment and expressing your own opinions.
Write your composition.
2 Your class has been doing a project on crime. Your teacher has asked you to write a
compositi on giving your opinions in answer to the following quest ion:
Why do some people break the law?
Write your composition.
The burglar ran fast but he was caught by the police.
Although / Even though / Though the burglarran fast. he was caught by the police.
In spite of the fact that / Despite the foct that the burglar ran fast, he was caught by the police.
In spite of / Despite running fast, the burglar was caught by the police.
The burglarran fast. However, he was caught by the police.
Rewrite these sentences using the word given.
1 She had a very good lawyer but she was still found guilty. DESPITE
2 There isnt any evidence. However, there is a st rong motive. ALTHOUGH
3 In spite of his having a criminal record. he was only given a warning. BUT
4 Although people feel less safe, the crime rate is act ually dropping. FACT
5 Despite being a suspect. Mason was never ar rested . HOWEVER
Wr it ng s » lis / Uni t 15 93
Writing Skills I Tea cher 's B o o k
mWhat 's the purpose?
Aim: to develop understanding of sentence
function in presenting an argument
IC 2G 3B 4 A SD 6E 7F
ED Which paragraph?
Aim: to develop understanding of argument
Paragraph 1: 4
Paragraph 2: 5
Paragraph 3: 1. 6. 7
Paragraph 4: 2, 3
B Discu ss
ID put in the correct order
Aim: to develop understanding of argument
However. there are many arguments against
capital punishment. Firstl y. it is said that capital
punishment sends a message to society that
murder will not be tolerated. but it also clearly
sends the message that kill ing is acceptable in
certain circumstances. This is a dangerous
message. Secondly. the evidence suggests that
most people punished by death are the weakest
members of societ y. For inst ance. the majority
of people executed for murder in the United
States are black. Finally. there have been many
occasions throughout history when innocent
people have been executed.
II Co mplet e the table
Aim: to develop understanding of discourse
markers in presenting an argument
G, B, E, K, D, C, A, J, I, F, H
II St udy the model
Aim: to consolidate student awareness of
Students should underline the following words
There is no doubt that ... / For example, /
Nevertheless, ... / Firstly, ... / As a result /
Secondl y, / Finally. ... / In conclusion /
m Re writ e the sentences
Aim: to practise the formal presentation of an
Wri ting Skills / Te acher 's Book
EXAM PRACTICE -
Aim: t o provide students with key exam skills
Aim: t o develop key Fe vocabulary
El Ho mework
9 life Imprisonment
10 Not guilty
3 lawyer/solicit or
5 capit al punishment
li P/an y our paragrap hs
Paragraph 1: introduction, mentioning the
problems caused by sending all criminals to
Paragraph 2: the crimes for which prison is
appropriate (murder, rape, burglary) and why
Paragraph 3: the crimes (shoplifting. minor theft)
for which other punishments (fines, community
service) are appropriate and why
Paragraph 4: conclusion, summary of my opi nion
Aim: t o guide students t hrough t he process of
composit ion production
!i3 Brainst orm ing
Aim: t o produce ideas and clarify aims
The following are suggested answers.
2 prison overcrowdi ng
3 increase in crime
4 very serious crime: rape / less serious crime:
shopli ft ing
Smurder, rape, burglary
6 prot ect s t he public / acts as a det errent
7 fines / community service / elect ronic tagging
8 minor crimes , so t hat prison can be used for
91n summary, 1believe that prison should be
used to punish only those criminals who
commit serious crimes.
l in conclusion, I believe that fining criminals is
often better than sending them t o prison.
2 Furt hermore, the job of a policeman in t oday's
world is extremely difficult.
3 Criminals such as rapists and murderers should
be given life imprisonment.
4 However, there is no evidence that executing
murderers has any positive effects.
S In addition, we should consider the quest ion
of why some people steal from shops.
ID Thi nk about your first
sen t ence
Aim: t o provide model opening sentences
1.1 2 x 3x 4 .1 5 .1 6 ..... 7 ..... 8 x
MODEL COMPOSITION 15: DISCURSIVE COMPOSITION
You have been doing a class project on the environment. Your teacher has asked you to write
a composition about the following statement:
Everybody can he lp to prot ect t he environment .
You should state whether you agree or disagree with this statement. explaining your reasons clearly.
Writ e your composit ion.
There is no doubt t hat the environment is in dange r. Mankind has caused t he world's
environmental problems, and only man can solve them. But can we. as individuals, do
anyt hing to help?
There are many environmental problems t hat only government s and businesses can solve.
For example. one of the causes of global warming is pollution from fact or ies and cars.
Government s must persuade factor ies t o take responsibility for reducing their pollut ion,
and car manufact urers to produce cars which do not give out damaging exhaust fumes.
Nevertheless, t here are things t hat individuals can do. Fi rstly. we can recycle our used
plastic, glass and pape r. If we do t his, factories will not have to produce so much. As a result.
t here will be less pollution. Secondly. we can use our cars as little as possible. This will
also reduce pollution. Finally. we can raise awareness about environmenta l issues, and put
pressure on governments and businesses to act responsibly.
In concl usion. one individual has little effect on protect ing the environment. However,
if we work together. we can all make t he world a cleaner place.