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- Solutions Circuit Theory
- Samsung Plasma TV Type PN60E8000GFXZA - Fast Track Troubleshooting Guide_Service Manual
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Linear Forward Voltage Modeling Series and Parallel Drive Circuits PWM and Dimming

LedEngin, Inc.

LedEngin Confidential

1500

Typical AlInGaP VF Curve Typical InGaN VF Curve

RD = VF / IF ( (Red 0.6) ) RD = VF / IF ( (Blue 0.5) )

dVf/dTj = 24mV/C

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Equation VF = VO + RS IF Procedure Measure VF versus IF Graph data on a linear scale Draw straight line tangent to actual data through points (VF1, IF1) and (VF2, IF2) Intercept on X axis (IF = 0) is VO

VO = =

(VF 1 I F 2 (I F 2 (VF 2 (I F 2

VF 2 I F 1 ) I F1 )

RS

VF 1 ) I F1 )

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400

Tj = 25C 25 Vf = V0 + Rs * If Rs = dVf/dIf V0 = Threshold Voltage Rs typ = dVf / dIf Rs may vary from p y y part to p part

350

Vf-typ for Vf bin a)

300

Vf-typ Vf typ for Vf bin b)

Tj > 25C: 25 Vf = V0 + (Rs * If)+ (dVf/dTj * (Tj - 25C)) (R (dVf/dT (T 25 Example for Red and Amber (AlInGaP): (AlInGaP):

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Forward Voltage (V)

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Pros E Equation can be solved for ti b l df IF = f(VF) Can be substituted into linear equations of complex li ti f l circuits Easy to visualize effects of VO and RS d Can be used to model forward voltage over temperature t t Cons Li it d dynamic range Limited d i (<4:1) Mediocre accuracy Model quickly loses accuracy if IF < IF1 or IF > IF2

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Paralleled LEDs

IF +

VF

IF1

LED1

IF2

LED2 VF

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3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6

IF Ratio

0.15

0.30

0.35

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+ IF

R R

VF

IF1

LED1

IF2

+ LED2 VF

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Expected matching for paralleled 1%-tile and 99%-tile white Luxeo with 0.75 ohm external series resistor for each LED

3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 26 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 10

IF ratio

0 15

0 20

0 30

0 35

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Resistor R = Current Limiting Device

IF R + VS R R R

+ V

VS nVF R= IF

VS nVF IF = R

More sensitive to varying Vs; Higher system efficiency y g ; g y y Less sensitive to varying Vs; Lower system efficiency

LedEngin, Inc.

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X strings X strings

+ R VIN

+ R

Y LED lamps per string

R

Y LED lamps per string

VIN

+ VIN

LedEngin Confidential

LedEngin, Inc.

Recommended

Z LED lamps per rung. Y LED Note z = 1,2y , y lamps per (z = 1 is illustrated) string

Duty Factor (%) = ton/(ton+toff)*100

If

1 2 3 4 5

DF=10%

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms)

If

1 2 3 4 5

DF=50%

ton

toff

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms)

If

DF=100%

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Dimming Operation

Disadvantages of DC drive Light output matching is worse at low currents Low current operation of paralleled strings of LED lamps causes large forward current variations Benefits of PWM operation D i LED l Drive lamps at same peak current b t at l t k t but t low duty cycle Eliminates matching p g problems caused by driving y g at low currents

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Key Points Forward characteristics of LEDs can be modeled. LEDs can be driven with either a current source or with a voltage source if a resistor is connected in series with the LED. LEDs should NOT be driven directly from a voltage source. LEDs can be connected in parallel, only if the LEDs are from the same VF Bin and driven at currents near the binning test current (nominal binning current).

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LedEngin Confidential

Content

DC/DC Circuit Approaches

LedEngin, Inc.

LedEngin Confidential

Resistor

R

Fixed voltage

R

Current Source

Fixed current Current source

Voltage regulator

dc source (variable)

dc source (variable)

dc d source (variable)

V VF IF = IN R

IF =

VREG VF R

IF constant

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Example for VF = 12V, IF = 1000mA, R j-air = 50C/W, VF/T = -3mV/C

+ VIN

dc input voltage

R

Vf Bin F G F G F

Bin Range [V] 3.2 3.44 3.68 3.92 4.16 3.44 3.68 3.92 4.16 4.4

R (5% tol) P_resistor [] [W] 9.1 9.1 8.2 8.2 7.5 9.1 9.1 8.2 8.2 7.5

VS nVF R= IF

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LedEngin, Inc.

Pros Least expensive circuit L t i i it Electrical transients generally do not damage circuit b t may h i it but harm LED LEDs Cons R Requires resistor selection i i t l ti for each LED VF category Forward current through LEDs t LED not regulated well f l t d ll for changing input voltage Power inefficient

LedEngin, Inc.

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Pros Regulates forward g current through LEDs due to input voltage variations More power efficient than resistor alone at high input voltages Cons More expensive than resistor Requires resistor selection for each LED VF category May be susceptible to electrical y p transients/ reverse voltages Forward current will vary over temperature due to VF/T of LEDs p Requires higher minimum input voltage than resistor due to minimum voltage drop across regulator p g

LedEngin, Inc.

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Pros R Regulates f l t forward current d t through LEDs due to both input voltage variations as well as LED VF variations Forward current is unaffected by LED VF categories as well as VF/T of LEDs Roughly same power efficiency as voltage regulator plus resistor circuit at high input voltages Cons R Roughly same cost as hl t voltage regulator plus resistor circuit. M be susceptible t May b tibl to electrical transients/ reverse voltages M have hi h minimum May h higher i i input voltage requirement than voltage regulator plus resistor due to voltage drop across sense resistor

LedEngin, Inc.

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+

dc input voltage

VREF

+ -

RSENSE

Note: VBE varies by ~ -2mV/C, so current will change over temperature, unless temperature compensation is added to VREF. Note: Minimum input voltage is approximately VREF + nVF.

LedEngin, Inc.

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Most useful topologies for LED drivers are Boost, Buck, BuckBuckBoost, Boost and Charge-Pumps Charge-Pumps. Some topologies can generate a regulated output voltage greater than input voltage. Cost d C t and complexity much higher than other designs. l it h hi h th th d i Generally offer power efficiencies from 60 to 90%. May generate electrical transients that could damage LEDs May generate electrical noise that could interfere with other electronics.

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Switch closed +

VIN

LOAD

Switch open +

VIN

LOAD

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VOUT VBATT

Control

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Switch closed +

VIN

LOAD

Switch open +

VIN I

LOAD

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VOUT VBATT

Control

LedEngin, Inc.

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Cascaded Buck Boost DC/DC Converter

VBATT

Buck

Boost

VOUT

VBATT

Boost

Buck

VOUT

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VBATT + CIN Cs VOUT COUT

Note: This circuit called a 1X, 2X converter because output capacitor charged to 2X VBATT

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VBATT CS1

Note: 1X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are both charged to VBATT, then connected to COUT 1.5X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are connected in series, so they each charge to VBATT, then added to VBATT when connected to COUT 2X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are both charged to VBATT, then added to VBATT when connected to COUT LedEngin, Inc.

LedEngin Confidential

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