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# Basic Electrical Design

Linear Forward Voltage Modeling Series and Parallel Drive Circuits PWM and Dimming

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## LZ Series Typical VF Characteristics

1500
Typical AlInGaP VF Curve Typical InGaN VF Curve

## 1250 IF - Forward Current (mA) 1000

RD = VF / IF ( (Red 0.6) ) RD = VF / IF ( (Blue 0.5) )

## InGaN Cutin Voltage

dVf/dTj = 24mV/C
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## Derivation of Linear Model

Equation VF = VO + RS IF Procedure Measure VF versus IF Graph data on a linear scale Draw straight line tangent to actual data through points (VF1, IF1) and (VF2, IF2) Intercept on X axis (IF = 0) is VO
VO = =

(VF 1 I F 2 (I F 2 (VF 2 (I F 2

VF 2 I F 1 ) I F1 )

RS

VF 1 ) I F1 )

## Note: Model works over a limited range of forward current

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400

## Forward Current (mA) C

Tj = 25C 25 Vf = V0 + Rs * If Rs = dVf/dIf V0 = Threshold Voltage Rs typ = dVf / dIf Rs may vary from p y y part to p part

350
Vf-typ for Vf bin a)

## Rs=dV V/dI=0.3V/0.25A A=1.2

300
Vf-typ Vf typ for Vf bin b)

## 250 200 150 50 100 50 0

Tj > 25C: 25 Vf = V0 + (Rs * If)+ (dVf/dTj * (Tj - 25C)) (R (dVf/dT (T 25 Example for Red and Amber (AlInGaP): (AlInGaP):

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Forward Voltage (V)

## Vf=2.58V+(1.2*0 35A)+(-2mV/C*(120C-25C)) Vf=2.58V+(1.2 *0.35A)+(Vf=2 58V+(1 2*0.35A)+( 2mV/C*(120 25 =2 2 Vf=2.58V+0.42VVf=2.58V+0.42V-0.19V=2.81V

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## Pros and Cons of Linear Model

Pros E Equation can be solved for ti b l df IF = f(VF) Can be substituted into linear equations of complex li ti f l circuits Easy to visualize effects of VO and RS d Can be used to model forward voltage over temperature t t Cons Li it d dynamic range Limited d i (<4:1) Mediocre accuracy Model quickly loses accuracy if IF < IF1 or IF > IF2

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Paralleled LEDs

IF +

VF

IF1

LED1

IF2

LED2 VF

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## Expected Vf Matching for LZ-Series Products LZ Series

3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6

IF Ratio

0.15

0.30

0.35

## Design Current (Amps)

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## Improving Matching of Paralleled LEDs using B l i Balancing R i t i Resistors

+ IF
R R

VF

IF1

LED1

IF2

+ LED2 VF

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## Effect of Balancing Resistor

Expected matching for paralleled 1%-tile and 99%-tile white Luxeo with 0.75 ohm external series resistor for each LED
3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 26 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 10

IF ratio

0 15

0 20

## 0 25 LED drive current

0 30

0 35

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## Series String Drive Circuits

Resistor R = Current Limiting Device
IF R + VS R R R

+ V

## 5 LED Seri es Stri ng

VS nVF R= IF

VS nVF IF = R

More sensitive to varying Vs; Higher system efficiency y g ; g y y Less sensitive to varying Vs; Lower system efficiency

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## Typical Circuit Configurations

X strings X strings

+ R VIN

+ R
Y LED lamps per string

R
Y LED lamps per string

VIN

+ VIN

## Cross-connected Cross connected paralleled strings Configuration C

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Recommended

Z LED lamps per rung. Y LED Note z = 1,2y , y lamps per (z = 1 is illustrated) string

## Dimming Using Pulse Width Modulation

Duty Factor (%) = ton/(ton+toff)*100

If
1 2 3 4 5

DF=10%

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms)

If
1 2 3 4 5

DF=50%

ton

toff

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms)

If
DF=100%
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Dimming Operation
Disadvantages of DC drive Light output matching is worse at low currents Low current operation of paralleled strings of LED lamps causes large forward current variations Benefits of PWM operation D i LED l Drive lamps at same peak current b t at l t k t but t low duty cycle Eliminates matching p g problems caused by driving y g at low currents

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## Electrical Design Summary

Key Points Forward characteristics of LEDs can be modeled. LEDs can be driven with either a current source or with a voltage source if a resistor is connected in series with the LED. LEDs should NOT be driven directly from a voltage source. LEDs can be connected in parallel, only if the LEDs are from the same VF Bin and driven at currents near the binning test current (nominal binning current).

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Content
DC/DC Circuit Approaches

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Resistor
R

## Voltage Regulator + Resistor

Fixed voltage
R

Current Source
Fixed current Current source

Voltage regulator
dc source (variable)

dc source (variable)

dc d source (variable)

V VF IF = IN R

IF =

VREG VF R

IF constant

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## Resistor Circuit Design Example

Example for VF = 12V, IF = 1000mA, R j-air = 50C/W, VF/T = -3mV/C

+ VIN
dc input voltage
R

Vf Bin F G F G F

Bin Range [V] 3.2 3.44 3.68 3.92 4.16 3.44 3.68 3.92 4.16 4.4

## Resistor [] 8.80 8.56 8.32 8.08 7.84

R (5% tol) P_resistor [] [W] 9.1 9.1 8.2 8.2 7.5 9.1 9.1 8.2 8.2 7.5

VS nVF R= IF
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## Pros/Cons of Resistor Circuit

Pros Least expensive circuit L t i i it Electrical transients generally do not damage circuit b t may h i it but harm LED LEDs Cons R Requires resistor selection i i t l ti for each LED VF category Forward current through LEDs t LED not regulated well f l t d ll for changing input voltage Power inefficient

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## Pros/Cons Voltage Regulator/Resistor Circuit

Pros Regulates forward g current through LEDs due to input voltage variations More power efficient than resistor alone at high input voltages Cons More expensive than resistor Requires resistor selection for each LED VF category May be susceptible to electrical y p transients/ reverse voltages Forward current will vary over temperature due to VF/T of LEDs p Requires higher minimum input voltage than resistor due to minimum voltage drop across regulator p g

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## Pros/Cons of Current Source Circuit

Pros R Regulates f l t forward current d t through LEDs due to both input voltage variations as well as LED VF variations Forward current is unaffected by LED VF categories as well as VF/T of LEDs Roughly same power efficiency as voltage regulator plus resistor circuit at high input voltages Cons R Roughly same cost as hl t voltage regulator plus resistor circuit. M be susceptible t May b tibl to electrical transients/ reverse voltages M have hi h minimum May h higher i i input voltage requirement than voltage regulator plus resistor due to voltage drop across sense resistor

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+

dc input voltage

VREF

+ -

RSENSE

## (VREF VBE )() IF = R SENSE ( + 1)

Note: VBE varies by ~ -2mV/C, so current will change over temperature, unless temperature compensation is added to VREF. Note: Minimum input voltage is approximately VREF + nVF.
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## DC/DC Converter Circuits

Most useful topologies for LED drivers are Boost, Buck, BuckBuckBoost, Boost and Charge-Pumps Charge-Pumps. Some topologies can generate a regulated output voltage greater than input voltage. Cost d C t and complexity much higher than other designs. l it h hi h th th d i Generally offer power efficiencies from 60 to 90%. May generate electrical transients that could damage LEDs May generate electrical noise that could interfere with other electronics.

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## Boost Topology DC/DC Converter

Switch closed +
VIN

Switch open +
VIN

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VOUT VBATT

Control

## Note: VOUT > VBATT

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## Buck Topology DC/DC Converter

Switch closed +
VIN

Switch open +
VIN I

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VOUT VBATT

Control

## Note: VOUT < VBATT

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VBATT

Buck

Boost

VOUT

## Cascaded Boost Buck DC/DC Converter

VBATT

Boost

Buck

VOUT

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## Charge-Pump DC/DC converters

VBATT + CIN Cs VOUT COUT

Note: This circuit called a 1X, 2X converter because output capacitor charged to 2X VBATT

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VBATT CS1

## VOUT COUT CS2

Note: 1X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are both charged to VBATT, then connected to COUT 1.5X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are connected in series, so they each charge to VBATT, then added to VBATT when connected to COUT 2X Mode, CS1 and CS2 are both charged to VBATT, then added to VBATT when connected to COUT LedEngin, Inc.
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