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AimTo study the rhombic antenna and study its radiation pattern.

RHOMBIC ANTENNA
It is based on the principle of travelling wave radiator. It has wide band of frequency.

Rhombic antennaRadiation pattern A rhombus is an equilateral parallelogram, generally with 2 oppositeacute angles. It is suited for radio communication facilities. It has a large structure and needs more space. 4 straight wires are arranged in the form of a rhombus or diamond suspended horizontally above the earths surface.

It can be viewed as two V antennas connected in series. It is also called diamond antenna( due to shape)or travelling wave antenna(due to principle). It is ideally suitable for HIGH FREQUENCY transmission& reception(3-30 MHz). Rhombic antennas are also used in point to point communication. For transmission, the input is fed through a balanced line & the terminating non-inductive resistor is adjusted travelling waves are set up in the four legs of the rhombus. Maximum gain is obtained in the direction of main axis(feed to termination). Horizontal polarization is obtained.

Disadvantage:Side lobes in both vertical & horizontal direction. For strong concentration of radiation along the main axis the legs one terminated using characteristics impedance of the system. The back radiation is observed by terminating with600ohm line low standing wave ratio.

Design consideration:1. Tilt angle & height above the ground(h). 2. If h is less than needed, alignment may be obtained by increasing length(L). 3. If h is maintained $ L is reduced, alignment may be obtained by changing . 4. If h & L both are reduced may be obtained by changing .

ADVANTAGES:1. Simple & cheap. 2. Zi = 2{ Z single side radiation.} 3. Vertical angle of radiation is low & hence these are suitable for long distance F layer propagation.

4. Highly directional broad band antenna. 5. Long distance short wave reception of horizontally polarized wave MUSA( multiple unit steerable antenna) by end to end receiving array of rhombic antennas. 6. Zi& radiation pattern do not change rapidly with frequency( rhombic replaced board side arrays).

HELICAL ANTENNA
Provides circularly polarized waves. Extra-terrestrial communications. D - Diameter of a turn on the helix antenna.

C - Circumference of a turn on the helix antenna (C=pi*D).

S - Vertical separation between turns for helical antenna.

- pitch angle, which controls how far the helix antenna grows in the z-direction per turn, and is given by

N - Number of turns on the helix antenna. H - Total height of helix antenna, H=NS.

2 modes of radiation ( normal& axial) depends upon D & S Turn length L= = ( )

pitch angle =

Normal mode:1. Radiating at 90 degrees from the axis of the helix 2. This mode is obtained if the dimensions of the helix is small compare with wavelength. However radiation efficiency & BW is very low.

3.

BW & radiation efficiency increase by increase size of helix & current being in please along the helix axis. loop antenna linear antenna

If If

Here

Narrow Band width & radiation efficiency small practically hardly used. AXIAL mode:1. Radiation max. in end fire direction i.e. along helix axis. 2. Helix circumference & spacing are appreciable of the order of one wavelength. 3. Produces fairly directional board beam in the axial direction & minor lobes at oblique angles. 4. Most of practical application

Uses:-

Receive or transmit VHF signal through ionosphere. Wide Band Width, simple, high directivity, circular polarization (antenna is capable of receiving signals of arbitrary polarization). Telemetry link.

Folded dipole antenna

AB= minimum current pt. C= max. current pt. Voltage point

Two wire folded dipole