Expert Reference Series of White Papers

Hyper-V Server 2008 R2
Free Virtualization without a Server Operating System


configuration optimization. However. All rights reserved. (This “hardware assist” dramatically improves the performance of virtual machines running in the Hyper-V environment. and that’s it.Hyper-V Server 2008 R2: Free Virtualization without a Server Operating System Glenn Weadock. and technologies is into the dozens. and at no cost! The similarly-named “Hyper-V Server 2008 R2” lets you deploy virtual machines in situations where you really don’t need a full-fledged underlying server operating system. A+ Introduction Virtualization has become such a hot topic that the number of virtualization techniques. easier reallocation of resources such as memory. MCSE. Windows Server 2008 • Requirements • Initial setup • Device drivers • Installing Hyper-V Server 2008 • Hyper-V Manager on Different Platforms • Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines • Conclusion Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. 2 . The topics in this white paper are as follows: • Comparison vs. role separation. Some of the benefits of virtualization include hardware cost savings (initial and ongoing). minus most of the services. Hyper-V. MCT. and providing a convenient test platform. roles. and it comes with no device drivers. Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 has a similar feel to it.e.) Hyper-V Server 2008 is basically the hypervisor without the surrounding server. Global Knowledge Instructor and Course Developer. and that’s just from Microsoft. many people are surprised to learn that you can get Hyper-V without Server 2008. tools. You get a command-line interface and a few command files to help you perform the initial setup. although it does support the Windows Server driver model for compatibility with a wide range of hardware. with friendlier tools. in Windows 7’s “Windows XP Mode”). the GUI-less version of Server 2008. MCITP. less disruption when one specialized VM goes down. Microsoft’s high-end virtualization platform. The hypervisor sits on top of the hardware in a very thin layer and talks to the virtualization-specific processes running on compatible processors. and has since been available as part of that server operating system. If you’re familiar with Server Core. supporting legacy applications (-i. such as Intel-VT and AMD-V. debuted shortly after Windows Server 2008. The idea is that you will spend as little time as possible getting Hyper-V Server 2008 up and running. after which you will manage it remotely.. and features you get with Server Core.

g. Both support standard Windows drivers and high-performance I/O for “enlightened” virtual machines (more on that in a minute).. certain versions of Linux) • Up to 64GB guest operating system memory • Up to 1 TB total memory (this is up from 32 GB in the original Windows Server 2008 version of Hyper-V) • Up to 4 processor cores emulated for guest operating systems • Up to 64 logical processor cores on the host • Support for clustering across multiple guest VMs • Support for Network Load Balancing across clusters • bility to migrate one VM between cluster nodes with no perceived downtime (“Live Migration. USB. Windows Server 2008 R2 provides T the Hyper-V Manager MMC console. dynamic virtual hard drives. Firewire) and storage area networks (iSCSI and Fiber Channel). and Datacenter Edition includes unlimited rights. • here’s no local GUI for administration with Hyper-V Server 2008 R2. PATA. just like Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise Edition. Windows Server 2008 H R2 Enterprise Edition includes license rights for up to 4 VMs. Both support directattached storage (SATA. eSATA. failover clustering. and virtual machine snapshots. In another bit of good news. and differencing disks. there are a few other differences. virtual hard drives (VHD files) are completely compatible and portable between the two environments. • yper-V Server 2008 R2 conveys no rights for Windows Server virtual machines. too. And both are faster than the original version of Hyper-V. but rather a stand-alone virtual machine platform.” also A new since Windows Server 2008) The big difference is that Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 is not an operating system. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC.Comparison vs. SCSI. H but Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter Edition lets you go up to 64 sockets. Both support up to 384 virtual machines (in case the original Hyper-V’s limit of 192 was a problem for you!). particularly in the areas of TCP offload. Additional similarities include the following: • Support for both 64-bit and 32-bit guest operating systems • Support for non-Windows guest operating systems (e. All rights reserved. However. • yper-V Server 2008 R2 supports up to 8 sockets. Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 and the version that comes with the full Windows Server 2008 R2 product are very similar in the feature set. 3 .

time. This means at least 1 P GB. Installing Hyper-V Server 2008 The initial installation of Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 is quite easy. • You must have a 64-bit (x64) environment. although the actual amount you will need will Y depend on the VMs you plan to host. known as HAV (Hardware-Assisted Virtualization). 4 . • You must have hardware-enforced Data Execution Prevention (DEP).5 GB in size) • Burn a DVD from the ISO with your favorite tool (personally. nor can you go in the reverse direction. I like “ImgBurn”) • et up your Hyper-V server machine’s BIOS to enable Hardware-Assisted Virtualization and Data ExecuS tion Prevention • Boot the DVD on your designated Hyper-V server machine • Choose language.4 GHz or faster.” Intel calls their HAV implementation “Intel VT” and AMD calls theirs “AMD-V.Requirements Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 requirements don’t differ much from the requirements for Hyper-V in Windows Server 2008 R2. • ou must use explicit virtualization support. Oh. the actual amount you need will depend on how many VMs you plan to host and how much memory they need to work well. All rights reserved.” You will usually find this setting in the BIOS. by the way: you can’t “upgrade” to Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 from Windows Server 2008 R2. although Microsoft recommends 2 GB or more. • Create a password for the local administrator account (you’ll be prompted for this) Note that you can also use the Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 DVD as a recovery tool in much the same way as the Windows Server 2008 R2 installation DVD. There’s no support for Itanium systems. choose Repair your computer. • Your CPU speed must be 1. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. Instead of choosing Install Now. and format disk partitions S here) • Get a cup of coffee. To find Y out whether a given system supports HAV. or two or three. Microsoft offers a free downloadable “Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool. • Download the ISO file from Microsoft (it’s about 1. • ou must have at least 8 GB of available disk space. create. and currency formats. and keyboard layout • Click Install Now and agree to the license agreement • pecify where you want the product to be installed (you can delete. The maximum amount of physical memory you can use is 1 TB. which is usually set in the BIOS. • hysical memory needs to be adequate for the environment(s) to be virtualized. Here are the main steps.

then when you log in as the local administrator.Initial Setup Finishing the Hyper-V Server 2008 installation is a little anticlimactic. a domain account) to the local administrators group • Set up remote management . All rights reserved. Figure 1: The Server Configuration Tool You can return to this script anytime by typing SCONFIG.Allow management by the Hyper-V MMC .Allow management by PowerShell .CMD. restart. this is basically the same tool you get with Server Core 2008 R2.. but if you did it correctly (and it’s hard to mess it up).Show Windows Firewall settings • Set up Windows Update • Download and install Windows Update patches • Permit Remote Desktop sessions • Set up TCP/IP • Set the clock and calendar • Enable or disable failover clustering • Log off.g. you should see the text-mode Server Configuration Tool. 5 . shut down Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. (By the way.Allow management by Server Manager .) Here are the steps you will normally perform here. shown in Figure 1. • Join a domain • Assign a computer name • Add an account (e.

it can be a lot more complex to configure. and find yourself staring at a lovely but blank teal display. just press Ctrl-Alt-Del to start Task Manager and click the New Task button. but the Server Configuration Tool is handy in that it reduces the number of command-line programs you need to where you can click Configuring a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 with Sconfig. or Virtual Machine Bus. if you happen to accidentally close both the Server Configuration tool and the command prompt window.You can do just about all of the above tasks with other tools. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. The parent partition contains where communications occurs between the different virtual machines and with the parent partition. Note that it is possible to set up your Hyper-V Server 2008 host so that it’s not actually a member of your Active Directory domain. Figure 2. However. then type CMD. although technically there are ways to manage HVS2008 when the host machine and/or remote machines are not domain members. but the best source that I’ve found is at http://go. There’s not a lot of documentation for this tool. All rights reserved. but the virtual machines that it hosts are members of the domain. Just above the hypervisor is the VMBus. the device driver model is basically the same as in the Windows Server 2008 R2 version of Hyper-V (see Figure 2). Device Drivers When it comes to configuring your hardware. My general recommendation is to make the host and the VMs members of the domain unless you have a specific reason to do otherwise. even though it doesn’t contain an operating system. By the way. but no operating system. The parent partition is where the device driver support lives. 6 .

All rights reserved. Hyper-V) running in child partitions use the device drivers provided by the parent partition with low overhead.So-called “enlightened” clients (ones such as Windows Server 2008 R2. Figure 3. • n Windows Server 2008 R2. but you’ll have to download the Remote Server O Administration Tools. It’s part of the Remote Server Administration Tools feature. You can add drivers that work with Windows Server 2008 R2. O which is an MMC snap-in. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. you can install the administrative console via Server Manager. • n Windows 7. but the specific tools you’ll need to install or download depend on the operating system you use. 7 . If necessary. If the Hyper-V role has not been enabled on the server. The parent partition is in charge of all the hardware for the physical box. either x86 or x64 versions. that know about. you’ll have to download the Hyper-V Console for Vista (see Microsoft O Knowledge Base article KB952627). and take advantage of. you can also use Hyper-V Manager. you can use Hyper-V Manager (see Figure 4). • n Windows Vista SP1 and newer. you can add device drivers to this partition by opening a command-line session from the Server Configuration Tool and running the PNPUTIL program (see Figure 3). Hyper-V Manager on Different Platforms You can manage your Hyper-V systems remotely.

drives. or SCVMM for short. if you’re a System Center customer.Figure 4: Hyper-V Manager running on Windows Vista You can also use Microsoft’s System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2. some Microsoft employees have prepared a “PowerShell Management Library for Hyper-V” (see http://pshyperv. 8 . In that will allow you to perform the following activities remotely. • Find a VM • Connect to a VM • Discover and manipulate VM states • Back up. and take snapshots of VMs • Add and remove VMs • Manipulate disk controllers.codeplex. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. export. All rights reserved. you can use that remotely as well as locally. and disk images • Manipulate Network Interface Cards • Work with VHD files Various independent developers have also produced PowerShell modules for use with Hyper-V. If you prefer using PowerShell.

Using the Hyper-V Manager. you can perform some of these tasks locally via PowerShell. you can talk to Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 via WMI calls. there’s no GUI to do any of this at the actual Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 machine itself. Figure 5: Remotely Creating a New VM with the Wizard You can later modify any of the virtual machines using the console’s Settings link in the Action pane (see Figure 6). although if you enable PowerShell support. Again. Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines Creation. All rights reserved. if you’re already proficient with WMI (Windows Management Instrumentation). The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) website includes details.Finally. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. 9 . configuration. you can easily create a new VM from scratch by right-clicking the server in the navigation pane and choosing New and Virtual Machine to launch the New Virtual Machine wizard (see Figure 5). and management of virtual machines are performed remotely from the machine running Hyper-V Server 2008 R2. Note that you can use any combination of the above utilities and tools.

install the Failover Cluster Manager console (it’s part of the Remote Server Administration Tools). An “external” virtual network creates a virtual switch and binds it to the TCP/IP stack of the host machine’s network interface. as follows. 10 . is done with the Hyper-V Manager. and possibly more. so you can move running virtual machines from one node of a failover cluster to another node (up to a maximum of 16 nodes).Figure 6: Configuring VM settings remotely If you plan to create multiple virtual machines on your Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 box. Note that you will probably need at least one additional network interface. on a remote computer. if you want to set up Live Migration. That.CMD to enable this capability on your Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 machine. • One for remote administration of the Hyper-V server • One for Live Migration traffic • One for storage traffic with Cluster Shared Volumes • One for VM network connectivity Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. you’re probably going to want to create a virtual network. You can also configure failover clustering. Then. Microsoft suggests that you have four dedicated network interfaces. too. Use SCONFIG. and use it to configure your cluster. All rights reserved. For example.

Use the OCSETUP command to install the BitLocker feature. or cost of a full-blown operating system. and is the author of 18 computer books. Choose from our more than 1. Copyright ©2011 Global Knowledge Training LLC. I use a Hyper-V Server setup in my own office as a nice alternative to having eight physical computers running the different operating systems I need to experiment with for my teaching and consulting work. visit www. However. provides expert-witness services. e-Learning.200 courses. and Maintaining Server 2008 R2 (M6419) Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization (M10215) For more information or to register. Inc. to meet your IT and business training needs. Learn More Learn more about how you can improve productivity. Glenn also consults through his Colorado-based company Independent Software. Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 has a relatively small footprint and is readily managed remotely after the initial setup. About the Author Glenn Weadock is a longtime instructor for Global Knowledge and has co-developed with Mark Wilkins two Microsoft Official Curriculum courses on Server 2008 Active Directory and Server 2008 network infrastructure. use BitLocker drive encryption on the parent partition of your Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 box. and On-site sessions. Our expert instructors draw upon their experiences to help you understand key concepts and how to apply them to your specific work situation. For example. Our courses and enhanced.. hands-on labs and exercises offer practical skills and tips that you can immediately put to use. or call 1-800-COURSES to speak with a sales representative. if you like. delivered through Classrooms. 11 . Managing. Check out the following Global Knowledge courses: Configuring. Conclusion Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 is a good solution for situations where you need a virtualization platform but not the overhead.globalknowledge. and sharpen your competitive edge. because it doesn’t have an operating system! You can. I offer kudos to Microsoft for making a useful product available at no charge. also remember that the Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 parent partition does not need antivirus or antimalware protection. enhance efficiency. and then use the MANAGE-BDE command-line tool to configure BitLocker to your specifications.Remember that all the operating systems in your virtual machines need to be licensed and need proper antivirus and antimalware protection. All rights reserved.

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