Contention three is solvency

Dredging is the safest method for excavation – their authors are misinformed Jones, GPAA Editor/Content Director, 2012 (Brad, ,The science — and politics — of dredging‖, 7-28 http://www.goldprospectors.org/Communication/ArticlesandInformation/tabid/153 /EntryId/537/Dredging-doesn-t-harm-fish-experts-say.aspx, DOA: 7-13-12) Greene was environmentally conscious back then and still is today. He remembers being especially concerned about high levels of phosphorous in laundry detergent that were causing large algae blooms and turning some affected rivers ―pea soup green.‖ He even belonged to the Sierra Club. ―I was a good environmentalist,‖ he said. When he first heard claims that suction dredging was harmful to fish, he was disappointed, realizing that to stay in good conscience he may be faced with giving up his gold prospecting hobby. To be sure, he began to study the facts about suction dredging’s effects on the environment and eventually found the activist’s claims to be unsubstantiated. Even though he had bought into the environmentalist school of thought, he began to question the science. The more he learned about activists and their agenda, the more he began backing away from them. ―There are a lot of people who actually believe that mankind does not belong out in nature; that it’s only for the wildlife. There is some blend of all this weirdness. And, the worst part is we have millions of good-hearted, honest, concerned citizens who — I don’t want to call them lazy — but who are misinformed ... They are trusting these environmental organizations and they are being bamboozled by a bunch of thieves,‖ Greene said. If the conclusion of his study had found that suction dredging was harmful, which it didn’t, he said he would not have continued dredging. ―In my own case, I wouldn’t be a miner,‖ he said. Since then, he has tried to convince others in the scientific community that much of the so-called science behind some of the activists’ claims is flawed or simply doesn’t exist. But, Greene said most scientists are apathetic to his concerns. ―I have all sorts of friends who are scientists and they don’t care; If you hired them as a consultant they would,‖ Greene said. ―Suction dredge mining in waters is the most environmentally safe, best method of mining. The most common myth is that suction dredging harms the environment. Even some miners don’t believe that suction dredging benefits fish. They are just as brainwashed. I’ve heard miners say it. It’s frustrating to me. The old saying about a lie told often enough becomes the truth is exactly what’s been happening to us in small-scale mining,‖ he said.

. agency participation. Finally.Together. Seaports Magazine. Summer) Like many nations. Collaboration is key to accomplish this goal – collaboration to modernize our harbors and bring them up to 21st century needs. There are opportunities to change the way we do business. local governments and the nongovernment sector communicate the state of the nation’s infrastructure to the Congress. http://www. states. save valuable resources and improve our performance.com/pdf_issues/AAPASeaports_Summer2008. design and authorization process to the extent possible. • Work toward consensus between government agencies at all levels and with stakeholders on how to move forward on critical authorized or ongoing channel improvements. and • Explore opportunities for short-sea shipping to minimize the overland move and reduce highway and rail congestion.To reach this goal. • Streamline the project study.pdf. “Dredging key to keeping nation’s economy afloat”. but in order to handle them we need to: • Provide a reliable funding stream to complete ongoing channel construction projects on optimal schedules.aapaseaports. and to work alongside other water interests. Chairman – Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses.we could see a renewed emphasis. the United States will be challenged over the next decade to be able to accommodate the projected rapid increases in trade at its harbors. we will do our part to keep America’s economy strong for generations to come. • Work with state and local port authorities to move quickly to add additional landside cargo-handling facilities and to improve intermodal connections. If the Army Corps of Engineers.Federal leadership is key to project success. to deliver environmentally sustainable solutions. including government and nongovernment organizations. other federal agencies. In so doing. we should consider establishing multiyear funding streams and project authorizations determined at least three to five years out to enable all stakeholders to plan and react accordingly. we need a visionary leadership process to balance all multiple demands on use of water. and faster infrastructure development Woodley 08 (John Paul Woodley. I submit that the United States needs to be working toward a national commitment to create and maintain a network of harbors equal to or better than any other nation’s.we can ensure our water transportation systems continue to be our trade window to the world. The United States is moving toward an adequate channel infrastructure to handle the larger containerships now being introduced into the world fleet.

S. March 2011. president and chief executive officer of the American Association of Port Authorities. Government’s Historic Role in Developing and Maintaining Landside and Waterside Connections to Seaports”.files.U. Letter to the Federal Maritime Commission. firms and individuals with an interest in seaports.files.pdf) The second troubling trend that impacts our ability to be ready for the challenges of AND waterside port infrastructure so that we can meet the challenges of today and tomorrow Federal action key to expediting Leone 11– Port Director of the Massachusetts Port Authority (Michael.cms-plus. seaports have served as a vital economic lifeline for America by bringing goods and services to people. railways and highways benefited from federal oversight and support.cms-plus. Army Corps of Engineers –Assistant Secretary.Only federal action is constitutional – it also creates a healthy multiplier effect AAPA 11 (American Association of Port Authorities represents 160 of the leading seaport authorities in the United States.gov/assets/1/Documents/11-19comments%20of%20Massachusetts%20Port%20Authority%20(MassPort). government to play a significant role in our nation’s transportation and infrastructure system. creating economic activity and enhancing the overall quality of life. http://aapa.pdf) Over time these constitutional responsibilities have been further defined and our Constitution has formed the basis for the U. “The U. beginning with the founding of the Jamestown colony. Canada. In fact. waterways. Maintaining our national infrastructure that supports foreign and interstate commerce is not only a federal responsibility but is in the national interest as established by our forefathers. Fed key – review process Nagle 12 (Kurt Nagle. dating to the early missions assigned the Continental Army by then General George Washington.fmc. Latin America and the Caribbean and more than 300 sustaining and associate members.com/PDFs/EWTestimony%20Mar2012%20Final.S. For four centuries. 12/21.S. 3/7/2012. improving waterways and coastal ports for navigation and national security is the most federal of infrastructure responsibilities. over the years the leaders of our country saw that it was in the national interest to ensure that our ports.pdf) . ―Budget Hearing . As established in the timeline on page 2. http://aapa. Chief of Engineers‖.com/PDFs/Transportation%20and%20the%20Constitution1. Seaports continue to be the critical link for access to the global marketplace here in the United States handling more than 99 percent of cargoes. http://www.

‖ The Journal of Commerce. . 2k– principal investigator for Planning and Management Consultants– study authorized by Section 401 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1999.iwr. Government can take to improve the AND to handle the larger ships that are now operating in all trade lanes. http://static.S. 2012. Our model of debate is best – the simulation of a governmental discussion of port dredging allows us to fairly evaluate competing lines of action in order to design an ideal thought experiment – best for decision-making Hanghoj 8 (Thorkild Hanghøj. ports in fiscal 2013 would get $1 billion for maintenance AND authorized. PhD.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hu m/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.org/Issues/content. Proquest) U. ―The National Dredging Needs Study of Ports and Harbors Implications to Cost-Sharing of Federal Deep Draft Navigation Projects Due to Changes in the Maritime Industry‖.S.usace.cfm?ItemNumber=1007) Since 1789.There are several actions the U. All their disads are non-unique – recent $1 billion investment should’ve been enough to trigger the link but wasn’t enough to successfully dredge ports Szakonyi 12 (Mark Szakonyi. Copenhagen. Federal action is key to resource allocation and trade Kiefer et al.army.‖ 2008. Associate editor at the Journal of Commerce. and required. ―PLAYFUL KNOWLEDGE An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming. dimensions.‖ 2009. ―The Role of the Federal Government in Maintaining Federal Channels.sdu. May 2000.pdf) The cost-sharing threshold for deep draft navigation projects greater than 45 feet. http://www. report to the US Army Corps of Engineers (Jack. http://www. ―US Ports Could Get $1 Billion in Federal Dredging Aid. AND share for channels dredged deeper than 45 feet should be considered for elimination. Congress has authorized and funded activities to ensure free and open access AND 13 and 15 ports to handle 95 percent of its imports and exports. Federal action key to private investment AAPA 9– American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA." said President and CEO Kurt Nagle. April 4.pdf Joas’ re-interpretation of Dewey’s pragmatism as a ―theory of situated creativity AND ―possible competing lines of action‖ are resolved through a thought experiment.mil/docs/iwrreports/00-R-8. author affiliated with Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials. Planning and Management Consultants.aapaports.

pdf) Over time these constitutional responsibilities have been further defined. author affiliated with Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials. but also in becoming articulate and responsive citizens in a democratic society.pdf) Thus.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afha ndlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.files..S.And. Federal leadership’s key to expediting new projects and coordinating federal agencies – it creates faster infrastructure development . debate games require teachers to balance the centripetal/centrifugal forces of AND . 2011. 11.. Latin America and the Caribbean and more than 300 sustaining and associate members.sdu. March 2011. jobs. Government’s Historic Role in Developing and Maintaining Landside and Waterside Connections to Seaports.com/PDFs/Transportation%20and%20the%20Constitution1. “PLAYFUL KNOWLEDGE An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming.transportation.. Paul.. http://static. our framework specifically activates agency Hanghoj 8 (Thorkild Hanghøj.AAPA represents 160 of the leading seaport authorities in the United States. http://aapa. to double exports in the next 5 years USA Today 11– news agency (Larry Copeland. 2011. “testimony of A. http://republicans. “Getting Back to Basics: The U. October 3.cmsplus. Canada. Copenhagen. “A goal to be port of call for all.house. October 26. U. that directly impact America’s economic vitality.cms-plus. Lexis) It's just before noon on a recent weekday. The federal government is key – port infrastructure is under federal jurisdiction and federal action is vital to leadership AAPA. be recognized and prioritized. 11 (American Association of Port Authorities.com/PDFs/Transportation%20and%20the%20Constitution1. funding critical infrastructure projects is fundamentally broken. SOLVENCY Federal regulations prevent other actors from solving – only sustained federal action to streamline the process and increase funding solves Anderson.” http://aapa. and the nation's fastest-growing.S.gov/Media/file/TestimonyWater/2011-10-26%20Anderson." 1AC – Solvency The federal government’s key – port infrastructure’s under federal jurisdiction and federal action’s key to leadership AAPA. 11 – Chief Executive Officer of the Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT) (A. firms and individuals with an interest in seaports (American Association of Port Authorities. be recognized and prioritized.S. The plan will allow the U. sites digging in to accommodate big ships.” USA Today.” 2008.pdf) Over time these constitutional responsibilities have…global competitiveness.files. This will keep us very competitive.. it is now more.pdf) With increasingly larger ships calling the East Coast.. Government’s Historic Role in Developing and Maintaining Landside and Waterside Connections to Seaports”. “The U. and global competitiveness. Paul Anderson Chief Executive Officer of the Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT) for the Record of the united States House of Representatives Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Subcommittee on Water Resources and the Environment Hearing: “The Economic Importance of Seaports: Is the United States Prepared for 21st Century Trade Realities?””.S. March 2011. PhD.

08 – Former United States Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works) (John Paul.aapaseaports. Summer 2008. .” Seaports Magazine. Vol.pdf) Like many nations. http://www..Woodley. 13. “Dredging key to keeping nation’s economy afloat. Jr.com/pdf_issues/AAPASeaports_Summer2008. the United States…economy strong for generations to come.

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